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Review of the 2015 SPM Biology Papers PAPER 1

1 A rough endoplasmic reticulum synthesizes and transports proteins made by the
ribosome. Answer : B
2 The plasma membrane controls the exchange of molecules between the cell and its
external environment. Answer: B
3 Among the four different types of cell, only the pancreatic cell produces and
secretes hormones. Hence they require higher densities of Golgi apparatus and
rough endoplasmic reticulum, besides the mitochondrion to perform this specific
function well . Answer: D
4 Collagen is a primary component of the connective tissue located in the dermis.
Answer: D
5 Osmosis took place with the diffusion of water from the red blood cells (low salt
concentration, high water concentration) to the 1.5% sodium chloride solution (high
solute concentration, low water concentration) through the cell membrane.
Answer: B
6 During crenation, red blood cells placed in a hypertonic solution shrink and acquire
a spiky and scalloped surface. Answer: A
7 Active transport is the movement of molecules/ions across a cell membrane by
carrier proteins which use energy (ATP). The direction of the movement is against
the concentration gradient of the molecules/ions and this may either result in the
accumulation or elimination of molecules/ions in or out of a cell respectively.
Answer: 7C
8 At 60 o C, the tertiary structure of the protein is denatured.
Answer: B
9 Saturated fats have no double carbon-carbon covalent bonds (C=C). Therefore
saturated fats do not reacted with additional hydrogen atoms. Unsaturated fats
have one or more double carbon-carbon covalent bonds. Therefore the C=C bonds
in unsaturated fats can react with additional hydrogen atoms. Answer: A
10 In the ‘lock and key’ theory of enzyme action, the substrate fits into the enzyme’s
active site. Answer: B
11 Papain, an enzyme found in papaya leaves, is used to tenderize meat. Answer: B
12 Gametogenesis involves meiosis, and cell multiplication involves mitosis. Answer: C
13 Daughter cells produced by mitotic divisions are all diploid (2n). Answer: B
14 The diagram shows cytokinesis occurring in plant cells. Answer: D
15 In the duodenum, trypsin digests proteins and pancreatic amylase digests the
carbohydrates. Answer: C
16 The absorption surface of the ileum is enhanced by the numerus villi, which are the
finger like projections covering the surface of the internal wall. Answer: C
17 The liver converts excess glucose to glycogen for storage and excess amino acids to
urea (process called deamination) for excretion in urine. Answer: B
18 Photosynthesis takes place in the granum of chloroplasts. Answer: D

19 Symptoms of Scurvy, which is caused by vitamin C deficiency, are swollen and
bleeding gums and a loss of teeth. Answer: C
20 Lactic acid is toxic and causes muscular fatigue, pain and cramps. Answer: A
21 After strenuous exercises, the heart beat and breathing rates of a person increase to
reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. Answer: D
22 In human muscle cells, aerobic respiration uses oxygen and glucose to release
carbon dioxide, water and energy. During anaerobic respiration, glucose is
converted to energyand lactic acid. Answer: B
23 In a succession profile diagram, an earlier species (Rhizophora sp.) will alter its
current habitat to be conducive to be succeeded by another species (Bruguiera sp.)
to come after it. Answer: A
24 Secondary consumers feed on primary consumers which in turn feed on producers.
Answer: A
25 Saprophytes feed on dead organisms. Answer: C
26 Using the Capture, Mark, Release and Recapture technique, the stimated population
(30 𝑥 20)
size of dragon flies = = 120. Answer: C
27 The highest BOD corresponds to the lowest amount of dissolved oxygen and vice
versa. Answer: C
28 The chlorine atom acts as a catalyst in the destruction of ozone molecules.
Answer: A
29 The pulmonary vein returns oxygenated blood at low pressure to the left atrium.
Answer: A
30 Lymphocytes, which have a large rounded nucleus, produce antibodies. Answer: A
31 Water molecules cling to each other through cohesion, and cling to the xylem wall
through adhesion. Answer: A
32 Platelets interact with clotting factors to stop bleeding. Answer: B
33 Carbon dioxide released by cellular respiration is transported away for elimination
as dissolved hydrogen carbonate ions (HCO3-) in the plasma and also as
carbaminohaemoglobin (HbCO2) in red blood cells. Answer: B
34 Photosynthesis occurring in the guard cells results in the accumulation of glucose
making the cells hypertonic. Surrounding water enters the guard cells through
osmosis, turning the cells turgid. Turgidity causes the unevenly thickened inner
guard cell walls to buckle, thus opening the stoma. Answer: C
35 Since the pectoral and pelvic fins are injured,the fish can neither counter
movements shown in C (yawing - side to side movement of the head) nor in A
(pitching -the up and down movement of the head). The fish has no problem with
countering movements shown in B (rolling) or D (moving forward) as its dorsal, anal
and caudal fins are functioning well. Answer: A
36 The lumbar vertebra has a large centrum (body) to support the upper human body.
37 A ligament holds bones together at a joint. Answer: C
38 In its forward motion, the circular muscles of an earthworm contract, squeezing on
the relaxed longitudinal muscles, narrowing its body segments and retracting its

chaetae. Answer: B
39 Vesicles carrying neurotransmitters release the latter into the synaptic cleft.
Answer: B
40 An axon (D) conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body. Answer: D
41 Ecdysis is the shedding of an external skeleton for growth to occur. Answer: A
42 Correct stages of events in early development of the human zygote: S(two-cell
stage) Q (four-cell stage) P (morula)  R (blastocyst). Answer: D
43 V (placenta) transports carbon dioxide from foetus to mother. Answer:C
44 Structure X (vas deferens), whose function is to channel sperms from the epididymis
to the urethra, would not be able to do so if it is ligated.
Answer: C
45 Cells towards the inside of the cambium ring undergo mitotic division, cutting off
new cells to the inside (and outside) of the cambium ring. The inner cells
differentiate into secondary xylem what is subsequently thickened with lignin,
turning it into wood which gives good mechanical support to the plant. Answer: C
46 Parents B b
b Bb (black) Bb (grey)
b Bb (black) Bb (grey)
From the Punnett square the ratio is one black (Bb,Bb) to one grey (Bb, Bb).
Answer: D
47 Stem cells have the ability to produce more stem cells and also have the potential to
differentiate into many other types of cell, including red blood cells. Answer: D

48 In deletion mutation a segment of the chromosome breaks off and is lost, and the
two free ends join to produce a shorter chromosome. Answer: A

49 The dark Bison moth which blended well with the dark tree barks (caused by soot
pollution) were well camouflaged against predatory birds. Answer: A

50 Height is a continuous variation as it has a continuous range of values. In contrast,

the ABO blood group is a discontinuous variation as it has four discrete blood types
(A, B, O and AB). Answer: B

Section A
1(a)(i) You are required to name structures R, S and T in a cross section of a leaf.
Answer: R = chloroplast; S = palisade mesophyll; T = xylem tissue
1(a)(ii) You are required to arrange R, S and T in their correct levels of cell
Answer: R (organelle)  S (cell)  T (tissue)
1(b) You are required to explain the abundance of R in cell S.
Answer: R found abundantly in S to maximise the absorption of sunlight for
energy in photosynthesis.
1(c) You are required to explain the function of T.
Answer: T transports water and mineral salts to leaves, and to provide
mechanical support.
1(d) You are required to name and explain two adaptive features of in Eichornia sp.
which will enable it to live in a fresh water habitat.
1. Its petioles are spongy and inflated which enable the plant to float on water
surface. Its petioles contain aerenchyma cells with large air pockets.
2. Its leaves are broad, flat and tough and facing upwards to trap sunlight
required for photosynthesis. Its leaves contain sclereids (sclerenchyma)
within its mesophyll to provide mechanical support, making its leaves tough
strong and open.
2(a)(i) A cell cycle diagram is shown, and you are required to name parts labeled X
and Y.
Answer: X = S phase; Y = cytokinesis
2(a)(ii) You are required to describe the events in X.
Answer: The amount of DNA is doubled and the chromosomes are replicated.
2(b) You are required to explain the importance of mitosis.
Answer: Reproducing similar new cells to replace old ones. Preservation of the
diploid status of somatic cells.
2(c)(i) You are required to state and explain a technique to produce a large number of
banana plants in a short time.
Answer: Tissue culture. Small pieces of the plant tissue (explants) are cultured
in a nutrient medium under sterile conditions to produce plantlets. By
artificially controlling growing conditions and the use of plant hormones,
plantlets are induced to produce large number of plantlets which are
subsequently planted normally in soil.
2(c)(ii) You are required to state what three characteristics of the plants produced
through this technique.
Answer: They are genetically identical, all clones are susceptible to the same
disease or changes to the environment, and will lead to less variation.
3(a)(i) You are required to name the food group that butter and plant-based cooking
oil are classified under.
Answer: Fats/Lipid
3(a)(ii) You are required to state the nutritional function of the named food group.
Answer: Energy source.
3(a)(iii) You are required to state two differences between butter and cooking oil.
Answer: At room temperature, butter is a solid, but cooking oil is a liquid.
Butter is mainly saturated fat; plant-based cooking oil is mainly unsaturated fat.

3(b) You are required to name and explain a type of disease a person on a butter-
rich daily diet is susceptible to.
Answer: Cardiovascular disease. Saturated fats contribute to a buildup of
plaque inside arteries and a blockage of blood flow may lead to a heart attack.
3(c)(i) Based on a given diagram, you are required to explain process in the hydrolysis
of a lipid molecule.
Three water molecules supply the (-H) and (-OH) groups to break up three ester
bonds in one triglyceride molecule to produce one glycerol molecule and three
fatty acid molecules.

3(c)(ii) You are required to explain the cleaning action of lipase.

Lipase catalyses the hydrolysis of fats and grease in stained clothing.
4(a) Based on their respective action shown, you are required to name the types of
blood cells labeled P and Q.
Answer: P = platelet; Q = neutrophil or monocyte
4(b)(i) You are required to explain the importance of the action of P.
Answer: Platelets are important in blood clotting which prevents blood loss in
damaged tissues.
4(b)(ii) You are required to explain the action of Q on bacteria.
Answer: Q extends its pseudopodia to engulf invading pathogens before
secreting hydrolytic enzymes to digest them.
4(b)(iii) You are required to state the action of antibodies on antigens.
Answer: Antibodies bind onto antigens to neutralize them and turning them
4(c) You are required to describe two different types of immunity experienced by
individuals K and M.
Answer: K has natural active immunity – during the natural course of an
infection, the lymphocytes which were activated to produce antibodies to
counter the antigens still remain in the body.
M has artificial passive immunity – antiserum, which contains antibodies, was
injected to fight the measles. Efficacy of antiserum is extremely fast but short
5(a)(i) You are required to explain the formation of structure X.
When a pollen grain touches the stigma through pollination, sugars in the
stigma stimulate it to germinate to form a pollen tube (structure X), with a tube
nucleus at its end, and grows into the style towards the embryo sac.

5(a)(ii) You are required to explain what happens to the plant if structure X failed to
The function of the pollen tube is to channel two male nuclei into the embryo
sac for double fertilization to form the seed and the fruit. This would not
happen if structure X failed to form.

5(b) You are required to explain why a mango has only one seed, but a watermelon
has many seeds.
After double fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed. A mango flower has
one ovule and therefore develops a single seed; a watermelon flower has many
ovules which develop into many seeds.

5(c)(i) You are required to explain why the dry weight of a germinating seed
decreases before it increases.
Initially when a seed starts to germinate, its dry weight gradually decreases as
it uses food stored in its seed for energy. Once the seedling is able to carry out
photosynthesis and make its own food, its dry weight increases rapidly.
5(c)(ii) You are required to explain the importance of secondary growth in plants.
Secondary growth forms woody tissue to increase the girth of stems, trunk,
branches and roots which provide mechanical support to plants.
It enables plants to grow tall to obtain more sunlight and strong to resist
invasion by pests and to withstand storms and to live longer.
Section B
6(a) You are required to explain the ultrafiltration process in the Bowman’s capsule.
 The afferent arteriole that carries blood to the glomerulus has a larger
diameter than the efferent arteriole that leaves the glomerulus.
 Therefore blood enters the afferent arteriole under high hydrostatic
 As blood flows from the afferent arteriole into the glomerulus, high blood
pressure forces the plasma out of the blood vessel into the Bowman’s
capsule by a process called ultrafiltration.
6(b) You are required to explain the situation whereby a person has high urea content
in his urine.
 Excess amino acids in the human body are converted by the liver into urea
through a process called deamination.
 Urea in the bloodstream is filtered out by the kidneys and removed in the
 High urea content in the urine may be due to consuming too much protein in
one’s diet.
 It may also mean that one’s body is breaking down too much protein.

6(c) You are required to explain how the levels blood water and salt are regulated
by the ADH and aldosterone in individual R whose blood has more salt than
water, and in individual S whose blood has more water than salt.
Individual R:
 R has high blood osmotic pressure due to a high level of salt.
 Hypothalamus detects high blood pressure and sends impulse to pituitary
gland to secrete more ADH into the bloodstream.
 ADH causes distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to be more
permeable to water.
 More water is absorbed through the tubule and collecting duct and returned
to bloodstream.
 Blood osmotic level returns to normal.
 A smaller volume of hypertonic urine is produced.
Individual S:
 S has low blood osmotic pressure.
 Pituitary gland stimulates adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone.
 Aldosterone increase reabsorption of salt from the distal convoluted tubule.
 Salt returns to blood and increases blood osmotic pressure
 A large volume of hypotonic urine is produced to excrete excess water

7(a)(i) You are required to identify the types of variation in the examples of body mass
and blood groups.
Body mass is a continuous variation; blood groups is a discontinuous variation.

7(a)(ii) You are required to explain the variation in body mass.

Weight ranges from the lightest person in the world to the heaviest person. Any
body mass is possible between these two values.

7(a)(iii) You are required to describe the factors that cause continuous variations and
discontinuous variations.
Continuous variation:
 Is controlled by many genes (polygenic)
 Genes show additive effect, e.g., more “dark” genes will produce a darker
skin colouration.
 Is affected by the environment, for e.g., body mass is affected by one’s diet.
Discontinuous variation:
 Is controlled by one or just a few genes.
 Genes do not show additive effect
 Is not affected by the environment, for e.g., blood groups are not affected by
a one’s diet.
7(b) Given that the father’s and mother’s blood group is respectively AB and O, you
are required to explain the possible blood group types of their offspring using a
schematic diagram.

Father’s Mother’s
blood X blood
group group
phenotype: AB O

Parental IAIB IoIo

Gamete: IA IB Io Io



 Blood groups are controlled by alleles IA, IB and Io.

 IA and IB are codominant, and both are dominant to Io
 Father’s blood group is AB, so his genotype is heterozygous, IAIB.
 Mother’s blood group is O, so her genotype is homozygous recessive, IoIo.
 Possible offspring produced are of blood groups A and B, in the ratio of 1:1.

8(a) You are required to describe the digestion of cellulose in the cow.
 First, a cow chews and grinds its plant-material food which consists mainly of
cellulose with its molars and premolars in its mouth.
 The partially chewed and shredded food is mixed with saliva and swallowed
into the rumen.
 In the rumen, symbiotic microorganisms (bacteria and protozoans) secrete
cellulase to digest the cellulose into glucose.
 Most of the glucose is absorbed into the wall of the rumen, and some
absorbed by the microorganisms.
 From the rumen, the fermented cellulose material moves into the reticulum
and form soft food balls called cud.
 Cud is regurgitated from the reticulum into the mouth bit by bit to be
rechewed which further soften and break down the cellulose to be more
accessible to further microbial action in other parts of its stomach.

8(b) You are required to explain the digestion of protein in the human stomach.
 Gastric glands in the stomach secrete gastric juice which contains pepsin,
rennin, hydrochloric acid and mucus.
 Hydrochloric acid prepares an acidic medium for the optimum function of
 Pepsin, which is a protease, hydrolyses proteins into polypeptides.
 Rennin curdles milk by transforming caseinogen into insoluble casein which
can be hydrolysed by pepsin into polypeptides.
 Mucus protects the stomach, which is a protein from being digested by

8(c) You are required to suggest, with reasons, the types of food suitable for a nursing
mother and her newborn baby.
 Food rich in calcium and vitamin D such as low fat milk, dairy products, dark
leafy green vegetables and dried beans.
Calcium is necessary in the maintenance of strong bones of the nursing
mother. Calcium also required in breast milk to meet the baby’s requirement
for growing bones. Vitamin D helps in the absorption of calcium.
 Food rich in proteins such as fish, eggs and lean meat
A nursing mother needs protein is needed for growth, repair and
maintenance of body tissues and in the production of milk. The baby needs
protein from the breast milk to sustain the rapid growth in the first year of
his/her life.
 Food rich in iron such as fish, lean meats, cereals and dark leafy green
Iron helps the nursing mother maintain her energy level, preventing fatigue

and less prone to sickness.
 Food rich in DHA from fatty fish such as salmon, tuna and mackerel
DHA is an omega-3 fatty acid, which is present in breast milk, which is crucial
for growth and development of the baby’s nervous system and eyes.
 Food rich in vitamin C such as oranges and other citrus fruits, tomatoes and
A nursing mother needs vitamin C to maintain her general health, and also to
ensure the right level of vitamin C is present in her breast milk for the health
of her baby.
 Complex carbohydrates such as whole-wheat bread, oatmeal, brown rice
and beans
A nursing mother needs extra energy in producing enough milk for her baby.
Complex carbohydrates rather than simple carbohydrates provide a nursing
mother with a longer lasting energy supply of energy required.
9(a) You are required to explain how leguminous plants planted between young
rubber trees assist in the latter’s growth
 Nitrogen is necessary in synthesizing proteins needed for growth and
development in young rubber trees.
 Rubber trees cannot directly use atmospheric nitrogen gas, but only absorb
nitrogen in the form of nitrates through their roots.
 Nitrogen fixation is a process in which gaseous nitrogen is converted into
nitrogenous compounds such as ammonia, nitrites and nitrates.
 Rhizobium sp. bacteri, which live as symbionts in the root nodues of
leguminous plants, convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium compounds
(NH4+ ions) to be further converted into nitrates by other nitrifying bacteria.
 Therefore, planting leguminous plants between young rubber trees make
available nitrates for use by young rubber trees thus improving soil fertility.
 Leguminous plants also improve the quality of soil by protecting leaching of
soil minerals by surface running water during monsoons.
 During hot dry spells, the ground coverage of leguminous plants protect the
surface soil from direct sunlight and keep the soil moist and well aerated; this
which improves the soil condition for the young rubber trees.

9(b)(i) You are required to explain the causes contributing to the increasing
concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and the effects of the latter to the
 Human activities have contributed to the exponential increase in atmospheric
carbon dioxide from 280 ppm in 1750 to 380 ppm in 2000.
 Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) combustion by man to power our factories,
electric power stations, ships, ocean liners, aircrafts and motor vehicles have
belched out large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
 Deforestation for timber and land for development has prevented forests
from acting as carbon sink by removing excessive atmospheric carbon dioxide
through photosynthesis.
 Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, retaining more heat in the atmosphere,
contributing to global warming.
 Global warming causes weather changes with more and stronger storms
 Global warming melting polar ice caps and glaciers leading to rising sea levels
and flooding low-lying countries.
9(b)(ii) You are required to suggest ways to balance the concentration of atmospheric
carbon dioxide.
 Implement public awareness programmes on the effects of increasing carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere and ways to reduce their personal carbon
 Embark on large reforestation of denuded forest areas programmes
nationwide; trees would act as carbon sinks by removing atmospheric carbon
dioxide through photosynthesis.
 Switch to using cleaner energy sources such as hydrogen, water, wind and
solar energy which do not emit carbon dioxide to power our industries,
electric generating stations, houses, motor vehicles, etc.
 Countries to invest in efficient energy technologies, industries and
approaches to build clean energy economies.
 Global effort to build more industrial plants using cutting edge technology to
directly capture carbon dioxide from the air.
 United Nations need to spearhead more concerted international cooperation
together with political enforcement on efforts to reduce carbon dioxide
emissions from member countries.

1(a) You are required to record the time taken to decolourise methylene blue solution
from water samples from 4 different locations – P, Q, R and S.
Source of water Time taken to decolourise methylene blue solution
P 2 minutes 30 seconds
Q 10 minutes 30 seconds
R 1 hour 30 minutes
S 2 hours
1(a)(i) You are required to state two observations.
Observation 1: Water sample from location P took 2 minutes and 30 seconds to
Observation 2: Water sample from location S took 2 hours to decolourise.
1(a)(ii) You are required to state an inference each from observations 1 and 2 in 1(a)(i).
Inference 1: The water sample from location P was highly polluted by aerobic
bacteria which had reduced the level of dissolved oxygen.
Inference 2: The water sample from S was less polluted by aerobic bacteria as it
contains a high level of dissolved oxygen.
1(c) You are required to complete the type of variable and the method to handle the
variable in the given table.

Variable Method to handle the variable

Manipulated variable: Obtain water samples from different
Source of water locations
Responding variable: Use a digital stop watch to observe
Time taken to decolourise methylene the decolourisation of methylene blue
blue solution and record the time taken.
Constant variable: Use reagent bottles of the same size.
Volume and concentration of Use 0.1% methylene blue solution for
methylene blue solution all water samples

1(d) You are required to state the hypothesis for the experiment.
The sample of water taken from the industrial area is the most polluted.

1(e)(i) You are required to construct a table with the following titles to record all data
collected from this experiment: Sources of water sample; Time taken for
decolourisation of methylene blue solution; and Level of water pollution based on
the following scale: 4 - most polluted, 3 - polluted, 2 - less polluted, 1 - not
Sources Time taken for Level of water
of water decolourisation of pollution:
sample methylene blue solution 4 - most polluted
3 – polluted
2 - less polluted
1 - not polluted
P 2 minutes 30 seconds 4
(or 2.5 minutes)
Q 10 minutes 30 seconds 3
(or 10.5 minutes)
R 1 hour 30 minutes 2
(or 90 minutes)
S 2 hours 1
(or 120 minutes2)

1(e)(ii) Based on the table in 1(e)(i), you are required to draw a bar chart Time taken for
decolourisation of methylene blue solution against Sources of water sample on
the graph paper provided.

Answer: Time taken for decolourisation of methlyn blue

solution for each source of water sample
methylene blue solution (minutes)
Time taken for decoliurisation of

Sources of water sample

1(f) Based on the bar chart in 1(e)(ii), you are required to state and explain the
relationship between the time taken for the decolourisation of methylene blue
and water samples.
The more polluted the water sample is, the shorter is the time taken for the
decolourisation of methylene blue. This is because the more polluted the water
sample is, the faster is the consumption of dissolved oxygen by the bacteria (the
higher is the Biological Oxygen Demand).

1(g) You are required to predict the time taken for the decolourisation of methylene
blue solution of another water sample taken from location X (stream flowing out
from a vegetable farm), and explain your prediction.
The time taken for the decolourisation of methylene blue solution of the water
sample would be less than 2 minutes and 30 seconds. Water flowing out from a
vegetable farm would contain high concentrations of fertilizers and organic
matter which encourages the rapid growth of aerobic bacteria and other
decomposers. Thus the BOD of the water sample would be extremely high.

1(h) Based on the result of this experiment, you are required to state the operational
definition of polluted water.
Polluted water is water that rapidly decolorizes 1 cm3 of methylene blue solution
injected with a syringe into 100 cm3 of its sample kept in a reagent bottle,

1(i) You are required to classify a given list of elements found in water from a river as
heavy metals and non-heavy metals
Heavy metal Non-heavy metal
Lead, mercury, cadmium, copper Magnesium, sodium

2 You are required to plan an experiment to investigate the effect of distance

between green bean plants and their growth.
Problem statement: How does the effect of distance between green bean plants
affect their growth?
Hypothesis: The average height of green bean plants planted far away from each
other is higher than the average height of green bean plants planted near to each
 Manipulated variable: Distance between seedlings
 Responding variable: Average height of seedlings
 Fixed variable: type of soil, amount of water, light intensity, ambient

List of apparatus and materials:
 Apparatus: Two seedling trays (1m x 1m), garden soil, ruler, spade and
 Materials: green beans and water
1. Label two seedling trays as Q and R.
2. Fill each tray with the same amount of garden soil and level it evenly with a
3. Plant the green beans in tray Q in a grid of 2 cm apart from each other.
4. Plant the green beans in tray R in a grid of 5 cm apart from each other.
5. Place trays Q and R in a place where there is sufficient sunlight, and water
both trays with the same amount of water daily.
6. After four weeks, pick 20 seedlings at random from tray Q and measure their
7. Repeat step 6 for tray R, too.
8. Record the data in the following table and calculate the average height of
seedlings from tray P and tray Q
Presentation of data:
Height of young plants (cm) Average

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20