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Name_______________________

Sonnet 18

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?


Thou art more lovely and more ​temperate​:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's ​lease​ hath all too short a date:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold ​complexion​ dimm'd;
And every fair from fair sometime ​declines​,
By chance, or nature's changing course, ​untrimm'd​;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st;
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow'st;
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee

Vocabulary:
Word Definition Word Definition

darling pretty eternal Lasting or existing


forever

hath Old form of ‘have’ possession Ownership or control

The eye of heaven The sun lines poetry

fair Beautiful things/ ow’st own


attractiveness

temperate To move in a downward complexion The skin and features of


direction the face

lease A period of temporary decline Showing self control


ownership

untrimmed Made or left plain,


disorderly
Think Questions:

1. In lines 1-4, the speaker begins by asking if he should compare his beloved to
________________________________________________________________________.
The speaker thinks his beloved is better than summer because
_________________________________________________________________________.

2. In lines 5-8, the speaker describes the summer sun as


__________________________________________________________________________.
Then the speaker explains that anything of beauty will
__________________________________________________________________________.

3. In lines 9-12, the speaker claims the youth and beauty of his beloved will
___________________________________________________________________________.
Then the speaker says his beloved will live on in
___________________________________________________________________________.

4. In lines 13-14, the speaker claims his beloved will never die as long as
___________________________________________________________________________.

5. To what does the word “this” refer in the final line of the poem? Support your response with details and
evidence from the text.

In lines 1 and 2, the speaker describes someone who is _______________________________


______________________________than a summer's day. In lines 11–14, the speaker believes that through
his lasting poetry, "thee" can be _______________________________________
________________________________________________. I think the word "thee" refers to someone who is
___________________________________________________________ by the speaker of the poem.
Summary Sentence Frames (Emerging, Expanding & Approaching)

Lines 1–4 The speaker begins by asking if he should


compare his beloved to ​a summer's day​.
The speaker thinks his beloved is better than
summer because ​the beloved is more "temperate"
and summer is always too short​.

Lines 5–8 The speaker describes the summer sun as


sometimes too hot and often "dimm'd," or hidden
behind clouds​.
Then the speaker explains that anything of beauty
will ​eventually fade​.

Lines 9–12 The speaker claims the youth and beauty of his
beloved will ​not fade​.
Then the speaker says his beloved will live on in
"eternal lines," or poetry​.

Lines 13–14 The speaker claims his beloved will never die as
long as ​people have eyes to read this poem​.

3. Think
Sentence Frames (Emerging)
1. In lines 1 and 2, the speaker describes someone who is ​more beautiful and pleasant ​than a summer's day. In
lines 11–14, the speaker believes that through his lasting poetry, "thee" can be ​preserved for all time​. I think the
word "thee" refers to someone who is ​much admired and loved​ by the speaker of the poem.
2. In lines 2, 3, and 5, the speaker feels that his beloved is "more lovely" and "more temperate" than the summer
because summer sometimes has ​"rough winds"​and is ​"sometime too hot."​ In lines 8 and 9, the speaker explains
that summer is open to "nature's changing course," but his beloved has an ​"eternal"​ quality that "​ shall not fade."​ I
think the speaker is saying that his beloved can ​outlast ​the seasons and that this person is also more ​constant
and reliable.
3. In line 12, the speaker explains that by describing his beloved in the "eternal lines" of his poetry, his beloved will
live forever​. In lines 13–14, the speaker explains that as long as there is someone to read the poem, his beloved
will ​live on each time someone reads it​. I think the word "this" in the final line refers to ​the poem itself​.
4. In line 4, the speaker describes the summer's lease as having "all too short a date," suggesting that "lease" is
related to ​a period of time​. The word "lease" follows the possessive word "summer's," so it is likely an object or
thing and therefore its part of speech is a​ noun​. From this, I can determine that a "lease" refers to something that
is ​owned for a period of time​. This definition works in the sentence since summer only lasts for ​a limited time each
year.
5. In line 5, the sentence begins with a metaphor comparing the sun to ​an eye looking at the earth below​. In line 6,
the phrase "his gold complexion" refers to the sun or the sky, which both ​shine like gold in the summer​. I might
infer that Shakespeare is continuing with facial imagery from line 5 in this line and that "complexion" must refer to
the face of the sun or the sky​.

Sentence Frames (Expanding)


1. In lines 1 and 2, the speaker describes someone who is ​more beautiful and pleasant than a summer's day​. In
lines 11–14, the speaker believes that through his ​poetry​, "thee" can be ​preserved for all time​. I think the word
"thee" refers to ​someone who is much admired and loved by the speaker​.
2. In lines 2, 3, and 5, the speaker feels that his beloved is​ "more lovely" and "more temperate"​ than the summer
because summer ​sometimes has "rough winds" and it is​ ​"sometime too hot."​ In lines 8 and 9, the speaker
explains that summer is open to ​"nature's changing course,"​ but his beloved has ​an "eternal" quality that "shall not
fade."​ I think the speaker is saying that his beloved can ​outlast the seasons​ and that this person is also ​more
constant and reliable.
3. In line 12, the speaker explains that by describing his beloved in​ the "eternal lines" of his lasting poetry​, his
beloved will ​live forever​. In lines 13–14, the speaker explains that as long as there is ​someone to read the poem​,
his beloved will ​live on each time someone reads it​. I think the word "this" in the final line refers to ​the poem itself​.
4. In line 4, the speaker describes the summer's lease as having​ "all too short a date,"​ suggesting that "lease" is
related to a period of time​. The word "lease" follows the possessive word "summer's," so it is likely ​an object or
thing​ and therefore its part of speech is​ a noun​. From this, I can determine that a "lease" refers to ​something that
is owned for a period of time​. This definition works in the sentence since summer ​only lasts for a limited time each
year.
5. In line 5, the sentence begins with a metaphor comparing​ the sun to​ ​an eye looking at the earth below​. In line 6,
the phrase "his gold complexion" refers to ​the sun or the sky​, which both ​shine like gold in the summer​. I might
infer that Shakespeare is continuing with ​facial imagery​ from line 5 in this line and that "complexion" must refer to
the face of the sun or the sky​.

Question Number: ​1
CA CCSS: ​RL.11-12.1
Question: ​Using one or more details from the text, explain to whom the word "thee" refers in the poem.
Sample Answer: ​"Thee" refers to someone who is much admired and loved by the speaker of the poem, someone whose
fairness the speaker believes can be preserved for all time.

Question Number: ​2
CA CCSS: ​RL.11-12.1
Question: ​Use details from the text to write two or three sentences summarizing the difference between the poem's
intended recipient and the summer.
Sample Answer: ​The speaker feels that the recipient is "more lovely" and "more temperate" than the summer, which has
"rough winds" and is "sometime too hot." Summer is open to "nature's changing course," but the recipient has an "eternal"
quality that "shall not fade." In other words, the recipient can outlast the seasons and is more constant and reliable.

Question Number: ​3
CA CCSS: ​RL.11-12.1
Question: ​To what does the word "this" refer in the final line of the poem? Support your response with details and
evidence from the text.
Sample Answer: ​"This" appears to be the poem itself, which has come about as a response to the initial question
comparing the loved one to "a summer's day." The poem is also something that "eyes can see." By describing the beloved
in writing, or "eternal lines" that will last for all time, the poet also believes his beloved will live on as long as the poem
"gives life to thee."

Question Number: ​4
CA CCSS: ​L.11-12.4a, L.11-12.4c, L.11-12.4d
Question: ​Use context to determine the meaning of the word "lease." Write the word's part of speech and definition here
and tell how you found and verified it.
Sample Answer: ​Because "lease" is something that follows the possessive word "summer's," it is likely an object or thing
owned by summer and is therefore a noun. The speaker describes summer's lease as having "all too short a date," which
suggests that it is something related to a period of time. From this, I can determine that a "lease" may refer to something
that is owned for a period of time. This works in the context of the sentence, since summer only lasts for a limited period
of time each year. I can also check my definition by looking the word up in a dictionary, which confirms my predicted
meaning.

Question Number: ​5
CA CCSS: ​L.11-12.4a, L.11-12.4d
Question: ​Use sentence clues to determine the meaning of the word "complexion." Write the definition here and explain
how the word relates to the rest of the sentence.
Sample Answer: ​The sentence begins with "too hot the eye of heaven shines," which appears to be a metaphor for the
sun in the summer sky. The phrase "his gold complexion" refers to either the sun or the sky, which both shine like gold in
the summer. Since "eye" was mentioned in the first part of the sentence, I might infer that Shakespeare is continuing with
the facial imagery here and that "complexion" refers to the face of the sun or the sky.