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From Charpy to Present Impact Testing

I). Franqois and A. Pineau (Eds.)


9 2002 ElsevierScience Ltd. and ESIS. All rights reserved 289

CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CHARPY ENERGY AND CRACK INITIATION


PARAMETERS OF THE J-INTEGRAL-CONCEPT

P. Hiibner and G. Pusch

University of Mining, Institute of Materials Engineering, D 09596 Freiberg, Germany

ABSTRACT

For failure assessment procedures of components crack initiation parameters such as Ji/BI and
J0.2 are needed. Unfortunately in many cases these parameters are not available especially
for welded joints. This paper is concerned with the evaluation of the fracture mechanics
parameter of base metal and welded joints of high strength steels including the region of
yield strength from 600 to 960 MPa. As shown the correlations of the Charpy energy and the
crack initiation parameters agree well with theoretical predictions derived from the Schindler
model.

KEYWORDS: High strength low alloy steel, Charpy energy, crack initiation, upper shelf

INTRODUCTION

High strength low alloy steels (HSLA) like $885 Q and $960 Q are used increasingly
production of mobile cranes and vessels. The use of high strength behaviour demand the
knowledge of the fracture behaviour. Newer structural integrity assessment procedures (like
SINTAP) are used to assess the fitness for purpose of critical components and welded
structures. For these procedures one needs in addition to the crack size and the stress in the
component the yield strength and the fracture toughness crack initiation parameters. Thereby
one has to take into consideration, that the fracture behaviour of ferritic steels depends on the
temperature. For describing brittle fracture depending on temperature the Master curve
approach is used [1] (fig. 1).
290 P. tlUBNER AND G. PUS(:tt

"THE MASTER CURVE APPROACH"]

TYPICAL RAW DATA MASTER CURVE ANALYSIS

ADJ~Wr
s%
-g
i

LARGE SPECIMENS

r r ~ ~

THEORETICAL SCATTER DESCRIPTION


STATISTICAL SIZE ADJUSTMENT
UNIFIED TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE

Fig. I: Master curve approach for transition to brittle fracture [1 ]

In the Eurocode 3 a modified master curve approach for the selection of steels was suggested
[2]. Because of the Master-curve only describing brittle fracture crack initiation values of the
ductile fracture are necessary to describe the fracture behaviour in the upper shelf. For that
the physical crack initiation values J,m. and the technical crack initiation values e.g. Jo.2 are
suitable. These values depend only little on the temperature and they limit the Master curve.
In the following we want to examine whether the values of J,m. and J0.2 correlate with the
Charpy energy in the upper shelf.

E X P E R I M E N T S AND RESULTS

For evaluation of the crack initiation and propagation in the regions of base metal (BM), heat
affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM) of $885 Q (25 mm plate) and $960 Q (10 mm
plate) crack resistance curve in accordance with ESIS P2 in dependence of temperature were
determined [ 3 ].

TABLE I
RESULTS OF STATIC INVESTIGATIONS

R r~).2 Rm A , J ,,13L. J 0.2 TJo,2 - i


[MPa] [MPa] [J] [kJ/m 2] [kJ/m 2] [kJ/m2/mm]
$885 BM 908 954 140 220 277 54
$885 HAZ 978 1032 125 178 222 24
$885 WM 1066 1168 43 59 99 7
$960 BM 1054 1060 83 110 152 14
$960 HAZ 787 1000 79 110 166 26
$960 WM 778 1142 48 58 93 9
Correlations Between Charpy Energy and Crack Initiation Parameters 291

The welded joints were produced as multi layer welding. Because of the different plate
thickness cooling time between 800 and 500 ~ (t,,.~) was 5sec in the case of $885 Q and 18
sec in the case of S 960 Q. In the HAZ of the $885 Q microstructure was martensitic and in
the HAZ of the $960 Q it was bainitic. This can also be seen at the mechanical behaviour of
the welding joint (figure 2).

1
12001400[
t 0 0 /0

1
0

O
t 0,9.

0,8 "
c:
1000
B 0,7 "
t~
G. i 0,6
8OO i
c
m 0
0,5 "
=
0 600
L 0,4 ~
c
Q yield strength 0L

400 0,3"
9 tensile strength
O yield to strength ratio 0,2
200
0,1
0 - -. . . . " - 0
$885 BM $885 HAZ $ 8 8 5 W M $960 BM $960 HAZ S 9 6 0 W M

Fig. 2" Mechanical behaviour of the welding joint.

In the HAZ and the weld metal of S 960 Q the yield-to strength-relation was relatively low.
This shows, that there is a higher content of bainite. In HAZ and WM of S 885 Q and BM of
S 960 Q the yield to strength value over 0.9 point to a higher content in martensite.

500

450 $885 BM
400

350
$885 HAZ
300
E
250 $960 HAZ
$960 BM
200

150 S885 WM
S960 WM
100

50

| | 1 &

0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,2


Aa [ram]

Fig. 3" R-curves of the investigated steels


292 P. HUBNER AND G. PUSCH

The static fracture behaviour of the steels S 885 Q and S 960 Q is ductile in the BM, HAZ
and WM. The WMs show the lowest toughness (fig. 3). With increasing crack initiation
values also the crack resistance increases (see tearing modulus T J in table 1).

450

400

350 - - -- ~ C < 0 , 1
300 -
~ ~ P ~ ~ , M artensit C=0' 16~176
,,.,} 250

-, 200
-.}
150

100

50
~"~ Weld metal ~ " - ~
l I I I I I
0
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
R~.z[MPa]
Fig. 4: Crack initiation parameter J,/BL in dependence on yield strength and microstructure

Figure 4 illustrates the influence of the yield strength (Rp0.2) and the microstructure on J,/l~L.
The martensitic structure with lower carbon shows the highest values and the weld metal
with bainitic structure shows the lowest values.

450

400 J~L = 1,94*Av~x - 48,3


2 O O ~r
R = 0,89 j v
350 O

300

"E~
,-1
250

.., 200
e_ 9 S885 HAZ
.-1
150

100
..+..,,COO $960 BM
$960 HAZ

50

0 50 100 150 200 250


Arm,,, [J]

Fig. 5" Correlation between Ji/BL and Avm.x


Correlations Between Charpy Energy and Crack Initiation Parameters 293

5OO

450 Jo 2 = 2,16*Avma,,- 23,8 O O ,,,,'70


' a 2 = 0,96
400

350

-'" 300
E S885 BM
..~ 250
cw

_~200

150 WM
~
.,,,,p,-u $960 BM
$885 HAZ

$885 X J ~ $960 HAZ


100
S960 WM
+
5O
& I I &
0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Av~,~ [J]

Fig. 6: Correlation between J0.2 and Av,,ax

In the case of ductile fracture plastic deformation, crack initiation and propagation occur.
Because of that we expect a correlation between crack initiation value Ji/BL and J0.2 and
Charpy energy in the upper shelf. Figures 5 and 6 illustrate that this is really the case. All
values of base metal, HAZ and WM can be included in this correlation, which was set up for
HSLA steels in the yield strength region of 600-1066 MPa with quenched and tempered
microstructure [4 ].
In a theoretical investigation Schindler [5] assumed, that the R-curve follows an power law:

J = C. Aa 2 ~ (1)

The value C depends on strain hardening exponent n and on upper shelf energy Av,.,....

d = 11.44. Ar,~,` 9n I ~ 9Aa 2 ~ (2)

With the help of the assumption of n - Agl and using (2) with Aa - 0,2 mm follows a
correlation between Avmax and J0,2:

J02. = 3.92. AIllI ~. A,,,~ (3)

Agl is theelongation at tensile strength.


For Agl there is an empirical correlation found by Dahl and Hesse [6]"

,4# = 10 -(k'g~R..... ,-I,,~r (4)

An evaluation of (3) using (4) shows a very good correspondence between the experimental
points and the model. At higher values of Av,,,x the prediction of the model is conservative.
294 P. llOBNER ANt)G. PUSCH

A further statistical examination is necessary to find out whether this good prediction also
applies for other steel groups (ferritic and ferritic-perlitic steels). The reason for this
necessity is that Schindler assumed the crack propagation behaviour to be constant.

5OO

450 9 9 ," "t

400 9 mesauredpoint ~ 9 e ~ & ~


350 9 calculated points ,," ~~"
--model ,, " " ~
300

250 "'"
,.-. ,'0. 9
- 2oo ,

150

IO0

5O
0 I I & &

0 50 100 150 200 250


Av.,=, [J]

Fig. 7: Verification of the Schindlcr-modcl

700

600
TJ = 2,98"Av,~,- 165.94 9
5OO R2 = 0,79
1,--i
j w
E
E 400
E
v
,.__,,
300
--r
200

100

50 100 150 200 250


Av,,,=, [J]
Fig. 8: Correlation between T-modulus and Avmax
Correlations Between Charpy Energy and Crack hfftiation Parameters 295

For simplification Schindler assumed a constant exponent in the power law (1) of the R-
curve. Figure 8 illustrates that this is not the case, because the tearing modulus depends on
Avm~x. Also the crack resistance curves in fig. 3 show different exponents. It follows that the
good prediction could be limited if steels with very different crack resistance behaviour
would be compared.

CONCI,USION

For failure assessment procedures of components, crack initiation parameters such as Ji and
J0,2 are needed. Unfortunately in many cases these parameters are not available especially
for welded joints. Fracture mechanical tests and Charpy energy tests were realised in the BM
and HAZ of S 885 Q and S 960 Q. As shown the correlations of the Charpy energy and the
crack initiation parameters agree well with theoretical predictions of the Schindler model.

REFERENCES

Wallin, K. and R. Rintamaa (1998).


In: 24. MPA-Seminar 8. und 9.10.1998 Stuttgart, Vortrag 45

Langcnbcrg, P.; Kalinowski, B.; Dahl, W. and A. Mansfeld (1998)


In: 24. MPA-Seminar 8. und 9.10.1998 Stuttgart, Vortrag 44

H iibner, P. (1996)
Dissertation TU Bergakademic Freiberg, Germany

F. Fischer (1993)
Dissertation TU Bergakadcmie Freiberg, Germany

H.-J. Schindlcr (1998)


Proc. of the 12.European Conference on Fracture (ECF 12) Sheffield pp. 841-846

6. Dahl, W. and Hesse, W. (1986) Stahl u. Eiscn 12, 695