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From Charpy to Present Impact Testing

D. Franqois and A. Pineau (Eds.)


4) 2(X)2Elsevier Science IJd. and ESIS. All rights reserved 119

DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION EVALUATION OF JAPANESE SWORD


AND WEIRD METALS USING MINIATURIZED IMPACT SPECIMENS

TOSHIttEI MISAWA and SI-IIN-ICHI KOMAZAKI


Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
Muroran Institute of Technology,
27-1 Mizumoto-cho, Muroran,
050-8585 JAPAN

Abstract: A small specimen impact test using miniaturized specimens with 1.5, 1.0 and 0.7 mm
square and 20 mm length has been demonstrated for evaluating the strength-toughness balance
along a cross section of Japanese sword and the ductile-brittle transition properties of three
different kinds of weld metals. The traditional empirical processing of Japanese sword gave the
excellent gradated balance of strength-toughness. The edge side consisting of the hard structure
of martensite showed low absorbed impact energies. On the other hand, the back side of the
ferrite/pearlite coexisting structure exhibited higher values. In the case of weld metals, the
statistically reliable ductile-brittle transition curves and the values of DBTT and FATT were
obtained by using the miniaturized specimens sampled from the different weld metals. They
were correlated to those of the conventional Charpy-V specimens. Consequently, the laser
welded steel metal composed of an extremely fine acicular ferritic structure has a superior
toughness and was estimated to exhibit a DBTT as large as 168 K when converted to the value
estimated for standard size specimen.

Key words: small specimen testing technique, small specimen impact test, ductile-brittle
transition, Japanese sword, weld metal, laser weld steel, DBTT, FATT

INTRODUCTION

Small punch (SP) testing method using miniaturized specimens, which is a kind of small
specimen testing technique (SSTT), has been developed for two decades for the purpose of
estimating the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) [1, 2] and the fracture toughness [3]
for advanced nuclear energy structural steels. In recent years, the small specimen impact test has
been carried out in our laboratory [4-6] to evaluate the strength-toughness balance of the
120 T. MISA WA AND S. !. KOMAZA KI

traditional Japanese sword, and to obtain the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and
the fracture appearance transition temperature (FATT) correlated to conventional standard
Charpy-V impact specimens in welded steel metals.
The present paper aims to demonstrate a possible extension of the small specimen impact
test to ductile-brittle transition evaluation using miniaturized specimens extracted from the
various microstructure parts in forged Japanese sword and in different welded steel metals.
Indeed it would have been difficult to appreciate directly the fracture toughness and the
mechanical properties from conventional full size specimens due to a limited shape of sword
and a fracture path deviation from weld metal to base metal.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Materials

The following two kinds of steel samples were cut into miniaturized impact specimens.
(1) The as-received Japanese sword [5] made by means of TSUKURIKOMI process,
which combines four kinds of edge, core, back and side steels with different carbon contents. By
this process, edge (HASAKI) side becomes high carbon steel and back (MUNE) side is made of
low carbon steel. The cooling velocity in quenching of the Japanese sword is controlled by a
process, which coats the sword with clay, thinner in the edge side and thicker in the back side.
The edge side is quickly cooled and the back side is slowly cooled. The microstructure in the
edge side shows martensite while the back side shows a mixed structure of ferrite and pearlite.
Figure 1 shows the cutting procedure of miniaturized V-notched impact specimens with 1.0 and
0.7 mm square and 20 mm length (Fig. 2) from a Japanese sword made by Mr. Tanetada Horii,
Japanese sword smith of JSW, Muroran.
(2) Three kinds of miniaturized V-notched impact specimens with 1.5, 1.0 and 0.7 mm
square and 20 mm length, as shown in Fig. 2, were employed to evaluate the toughness of
different weld metal steels. Three kinds of weld metals with quite the same composition of low
carbon steel (API grade X60) [6] were prepared as shown in Fig. 3: submerged arc weld metal
(type S), CO2 laser weld metal welded on the submerged arc weld metal (type L), and the
submerged arc weld metal subjected to a thermal cycle with water quenching after welding (type
T). The microstructures of type S, L and T were homogeneous acicular ferrite, fine acicular
ferrite and martensite, respectively.

Small Specimen Impact Tests

Figure 4 is a schematic drawing of the developed three-point bending type impact testing
apparatus for small specimens over a range from liquid nitrogen temperature to 500 K [4, 6].
Ductile-Brittle Transition Evaluation of Japanese Sword and Weld Metals 121

(a) Type S (submerged arc weld metal)


~" "'-305
speomen '~m

subm~ged arc weld metal !


heal mOul 652 kJ/ram. speed 1330 ram/ram

(b) Type L (CO2laser weld metal welded


on submerged arc weld metal)
Hv= 258
/fia'~'~g~i ........

laser beam weld metal !

Fig. I Cutting of miniaturized V-notched impact laser power:S 5 kW. speed lx 10 3 nvTVman
specimens from a Japanese sword.
(C) Type T (submerged arc weld metal
subjected to thermal cycle)
Hv= 308

i< lo ~I ~ -
RO.06 --~

unit: mm 30~ a = 1.5, 1.0, 0. ,573K(water quencth)


Fig. 2 Shape and dimension of impact specimen. Fig. 3 Three kinds ofweld metal steels used.

Impact speed of I m/s was adopted for Japanese sword and welded metal specimen tested in this
report. In all cases the load-displacement curves were recorded and the values of fracture energy
were calculated from the full area under the curves, for the evaluation of ductile-brittle transition
behavior.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Strength-Toughness Balance Evaluation along a Cross Section o f Japanese Sword [5]

Figure 5 shows the distribution of micro-Vickers hardness on a cross section of the


Japanese sword from edge to back sides. The microstructures corresponding to symbols I , I11
"~IV, II in Fig. 5 are martensite in quenched region, mixture of proeutectoid ferrite/fine
pearlite in the range of slowly cooled region and martensite matrix with nodular pearlite in the
boundary area of intermediate cooling rate, respectively. The edge side has a very high value of
800 Hv-lkgf for cutting function. In contrast to the edge side, the back side takes part in high
toughness of lower hardness, through the gradated intermediate region.
122 T. MISA WA AN/) S.I. KOMAZAKI

back
boundary ~ I
Specimen
Gas Pressure C~nder (length ' 20ram)
!

'-~-Vt
Laser Reflector .j,,
1000 , w , , , ,
I II III IV
Load Celt >
(2kN,0 2kN) 9I- 80o
Holder
c: O
L~er Sensor
Corr~essed Gas
(7 8 x 103 MPa)
._u 200
> ~OQQoo~
~ ; ,o ,; 2:0 ~
Blade Distance from e d g e side, mm
(~oactspeed
= I x 10 3 mm/s)
Fig. 5 Distributionofmicro-Vickers hardness
Infrared rays
(R.T.~.473K) j .~ _ .. C o l d B a t h
on a cross section of the Japanese sword.
, ~ (77K"--R.T.)

Fig. 4 Schematic illustration of the developed three-point


bending type impact testing machine.

Figure 6 shows a sequence of changes in the load-displacement curves of the impact test
on the position I ~ ~r for the 1.0 and 0.7 mm square specimens, it can be seen that the present
measurement of a load using a strain gauge succeeds in preventing large oscillations [5]. The
absorbed impact energy necessary for fracture was calculated from the area under the load-
displacement curve obtained. The absorbed impact energy and normalized impact value by
initial cross-sectional area from V-notch bottom were plotted against the distance from edge side
in Figs. 7 (a) and (b), respectively. The ductile-brittle transition behaviors can be clearly seen in
both of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm square specimens and large scattering results are not observed in the
present measurements. There is almost no variation in the lower shelf energy between both of
the specimens though the energies are quite low. It seems that the energies in the lower shelf
region could be precisely measured, as well as the other regions, because of relatively good
reproducibility of results, even though the energies are quite low. In contrast to the lower shelf
energy, the upper shelf energy obtained from 0.7 mm square specimen lies below that of 1.0 mm
square specimen with larger cross-section. However, normalizing by initial cross-section results
in the same absorbed energy per square cm, namely, the same impact value. The changes in
absorbed impact energy and impact value on a cross-section show the inverse dependence on the
micro-hardness. The width of the gradated transition region of ductile-brittle extends due to
cyclic folding forging [5], when compared with the narrow hardness distribution in Fig. 5. Thus,
Ductile-Brittle Transition Evaluation of Japanese Sword and Weld Metals 123

1.0 mm square 0.7 mm square 0.20 1 , | i


(a) absorbed impact e ~ r ~
.-)

I 0
c
0.15
,(30u 00000
4-.
,i
II ,
(J
III
~- 0.10
._
I II
I
N
A
tl '-']40
8 o.os
.IQ

r
0
20

15
9 '
il ,

'
,

' (9'
(b) ,mpacl~value.. ~e~OZX~ A 0 C ~
A
Z~AZ~

io,o._.]
,'3, 0.7 rn~ square
"I .....

'0
I

'

l \
,d
"~ 10
iC: ~176 -
>
II ,Y,I I ~ "
u
,o 5
1 ! E
I
Oo 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Displacemenl. mm Distance from edge side, mm

Fig. 6 Examples of load-displacement curves measured. Fig. 7 Absorbed impact energy and impact value
plotted against distance from edge side.

it was found that the traditional empirical process of Japanese sword gave the excellent gradated
balance of strength-toughness consisting of edge side of the martensite structure showing a
lower value and back side of the ferrite-pearlite coexisting structure showing a higher value in
the absorbed impact fracture energies across a section.

Ductiie-Brittle Transition Evaluation of Different Weld Metal Steels [6]

Figure 8 shows the ductile-brittle transition curves and DBTTs obtained from the three
kinds of small impact specimens with three varieties of weld metals. Each of solid and dotted
lines in Figs. 8 (a), (b) and (c) shows the statistically reliable curves determined on the basis of
the Weibull distribution parameters and the data partitioning method, described in the previous
papers [1, 2, 6, 7]. The type L laser weld metal carried out by impact specimen with !.5 and 1.0
mm square demonstrates higher upper shelf energy and lower DBTT than those of type S and T
weld metal specimens. In addition, the small size of the specimens used for type L weld metal
(< 0.7 mm square) leads to a lowering in DBTT below the test temperature of liquid nitrogen.
Since it was possible to determine DBTTs of type S and T by use of conventional full and
sub size Charpy-V specimens with 10 x 10 x 55 mm and 5 x 10 x 55 mm, DBTTs of the
miniaturized impact specimens versus those of standard impact specimen for type S and T weld
metals are plotted in Fig. 9. It will be noted that the type L laser weld metal which failed to
obtain the value of DBTT by employing the standard size specimen should lie on a linear
relationship together with different weld metals for each same size specimen and the standard
124 7". MISA WA A N D S.i. K O M A Z A K I

1.5 . . . . I . . . . I . . . . I . . . . I . . . .
400 I
(a) 1.5 mm I DBTT/K i ....... S.O mm m
I
--- 1.5 mm "I
o I-e- TypeS 145 / = . . . . 1 0 mm _ _ ,'"" I
O-- I~ Type T 175 l -- -- - 0.7 mm lype I ,-'" I
1.0

0.5
q. ,' .,'o = 200
"E
.~_
oi ,;.,: - _.. '1oo
T L: ,-'""

m
0 121
f-....j .~/..i / 1160 K (olt.)
0.2 (bJl.0mm u "
--.j
0 u

o 1 O0 200 300 400


t_ DBTT (standard size), K
e
E
e Fig. 9 Relationship between DBTTs of standard
"ID
e
0.1
/ specimen and subsize and miniaturized ones.
.2
o
-e- Type S 117
< "/~I A Type T 136 400 /
Type L 89 rn~ size sub standard /
0 9 9 9 9 i . . . . i . . . . i . . . . l . . . .
Type 11.0]1.~ siz~ size //
0.10 S elo (D o /
,~ (c) 0.7 mm 1
n ;/ . 300 mlo ~ /
/
&,
/

/e I 200 /(D
/
/ I 9 '"
0.05 LL
/
/A

.e i ""i- /
~O
, -left / 100 .cY
v/,, ~ Ty~S 92/t /
/

Type T 122. I I /

T~:)eL < 77 J 1
/
/ ~ /
.... j .... j .... " .... i'i ;i .J l

o ,oo 20o 3oo 40o soo ~ 2oo 400


Temperature, K DEn', K

Fig. 8 Ductile-brittletransition curves and DBTT. Fig. 10 Relationship between DBTT and FATT.

size DBTT value of laser weld metal can be estimated from the DBTT obtained by the use of
miniaturized specimens, as can be seen from Fig. 9. The standard size DBTT of laser weld metal
was estimated to be 168 K from the observed 109 K DBTT of 1.5 mm square specimen and 167
K from the observed 89 K DBTT of 1.0 mm square specimen from the corresponding each
straight line, respectively. The CO2 laser welding was found to be superior to conventional
submerged arc welding in the fracture toughness degradation owing to ductile-brittle transition
in ferritic structural steels.
The fracture appearance transition curves and temperatures (FATT) of the 1.5 and 1.0 mm
square impact specimens were examined and the linear correlations between the FATTs of the
standard impact specimen and subsize and miniaturized impact specimens were also recognized
[6], as well as DBTTs in Fig. 9. Therefore, all of the DBTTs were plotted against the FATTs for
Ductile-Brittle Transition Evaluation of Japanese Sword and WeldMetals 125

different size specimens in this investigation, as shown in Fig. 10. A good linear relationship
was found between DBTT and FATT against all varieties in both impact specimen size and weld
metal. This linear correlation between DBTT and FATT, independent of varieties of specimen
size and weld metal suggests unequivocal evidence conceming the direct evaluation of ductile-
brittle transition properties for a narrow region of welded or jointed metals, sheet steels and
small samples extracted from long-term operating plant steels by the present miniaturized
specimen impact testing technique.

CONCLUSIONS

(1) It was proved that the traditional empirical processing of Japanese sword gave an excellent
gradated balance of strength-toughness consisting of edge side of the hard microstructure of
martensite showing a lower value and back side of the ferrite/pearlite mixed microstructure
showing a higher value in the absorbed impact energies across a section.
(2) The statistically reliable ductile-to-brittle transition curves and the values of DBTT and
FATT were obtained by using the miniaturized specimens of different weld metals keeping
the same correlations as those used for conventional Charpy-V specimens. The laser welded
steel metal composed of an extremely fine acicular ferritic structure was estimated to exhibit
a DBTT as large as 168 K when converted to the value estimated for standard size
specimens.
(3) The miniaturized specimen impact testing has been demonstrated as a useful method to
evaluate the fracture toughness in a small and local region.

REFERENCES

1. Misawa, T., Adachi, T., Saito, M. and Hamaguchi, Y. (1987),I. Nucl. Mater 150, 194.
2. Misawa, T., Suzuki, K., Saito, M. and Hamaguchi, Y. (1991)J. Nucl. Mater 178-181,421.
3. Misawa, T., Nagata, S., Aoki, N., lshizaka, J. and Hamaguchi, Y.(1989) J. Nucl. Mater. 169,
225.
4. Kimura, A., Koya, A., Morimura, T. and Misawa, T. (1994) Mater Sci. andEng. A176, 425.
5. Sasaki, N., Horii, T., Fujiwara, M., Saitoh, H., and Misawa, T. (2000) Tetsu-to-Hagane
(ISIJ) 86, 45.
6. Misawa, T., Takasa, S., Nakano, Y and Yasuda, K (1996) Tetsu-to-Hagane (ISIJ) 82, 707.
7. Manahan, M. P., Quayle, S., Rosenfield, A. R. and Shetty, D. K., (1986). In: Fatigue,
Corrosion Cracking, Fracture Mechanics and Failure Analysis, pp.495-500, Goel, V.S. (Ed).
ASM, Ohio.