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Chapter I Introduction

CHAPTER-I
PROFILE OF THE INDUSTRY AND THE COMPANY

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Consumer buying behaviour in Unibic cookies Salem region. Marketers are
leaving no stone unturned to influence the customers by offering them in various ways,
at various locations, in various forms resulting in emergence of various retail formats
throughout the country. Customers are highly influenced by image of the brand cookies,
its attributes, product range, variety, services, employee’s behaviour, and marketing
strategies. In this study the objective of the researcher is to know the Consumer buying
behaviour towards unibic cookies in Salem region .This study is how to consumer
choose the variety of cookies in our own perception. And some consumer accepted for
offers and check the manufacturing date and check quality of teats after that buying the
cookies .The Primary data was collected by the researcher with the help of structured
questionnaire administered to the consumer Salem region. 200 consumer constitute the
sample size. Type of sampling method used was Convenience sampling. The data
analysis & interpretation was analysed based on structured questionnaire method. Using
simple percentages data was analysed by excel sheet and using pie chart, bar chart, line
chart etc. Based on the test results, some of the relevant findings were derived and
Recommendation.

Introduction to Consumer Buying Behaviour

Consumer buying behaviour is the sum total of a consumer's attitudes, preferences,


intentions, and decisions regarding the consumer's behaviour in the marketplace when
purchasing a product or service. The study of consumer behaviour draws upon social
science disciplines of anthropology, psychology, sociology, and economics.

Introduction to the current chapter


The objective of the study is consumer buying behaviour towards unibic cookies
and analysis in retailer marketing which are the way to achieve increase sales margin
successfully and about distribution process. The first chapter has seven sub headings,
each heading explained briefly.

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The first chapter under sub heading deals with the conceptual and theoretical
foundations of the topic and related to consumer concepts and definition to this study,
second heading is deals with importance and scope of the study, what demand in the
consumer market, consumer perception and what level of service quality given
distributor, and third heading deals with limitation of the study three month I was briefly
explained. Fourth heading is profile of the industry, Confectionary industry in India,
major players. Fifth heading is profile of the company. And finally the overall conclusion
of this first chapter.

1.2 CONCEPTS AND THEORETICAL


1.2.1 EXTERNAL FACTORS
Social norms are a prominent external factor influencing consumer behaviour. The
prevalence of brand-name clothing or new trends in design and fashion, for example,
affects what any individual consumer will choose for themselves. Cultural values are an
increasingly tapped factor in influencing consumer.

Cultural factors
Culture deeply impacts the buying behaviour of an individual and thus
marketing professionals should focus on segmenting their markets based on the cultural
needs and wants of consumers. “Culture represents the mix of norms, financial and moral
values, convictions, attitudes and habits developed in time by mankind, which the
members of the society share and which highly determine their behaviour, including the
purchase and consumption behaviour.

The culture has two primary implications for marketing: it determines the most
basic values that influence consumer behaviour patterns, and it can be used to distinguish
subcultures that represent substantial market segments and opportunities. Radulescu, (V.,
I. Cetina, and G. Orzan,(2012))

Buyer Cultural

Culture refers to the entire way of life of a group of people from a particular society,
place or time. Culture encompasses every aspect of life including the thoughts,
behaviour, practices, technology, rituals, norms, language, believes, ethics, lifestyle,
institution, and art of any given group of individuals. Therefore, individuals differing in

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Chapter I Introduction

cultural background may have different views about a particular product of service. They
may have preference for goods and services which suite their culture.

For example, wearing western outfit on festivals is not accepted in Indian culture.

Subculture

Every culture consists of several varied subcultures such as, nationalities, geographic
regions, racial groups, religions etc. Subculture can be referred as the group of people
who have common experiences and situations

Social Class

Every culture has some forms of division based factors like on income, profession, and
education. These divisions can be referred to as social classes; people from the same
social class generally have common interests and behaviour.

SOCIAL FACTORS
Social factors also make important contributions to the pathogenesis of obesity. The
range of BMI of a population varies significantly according to the stage of transition to
market economy and associated industrialization of a country, urbanization, changing
social structures, and socio-economic status. In the initial stages of the transition, the
wealthier sections of society show an increase in the proportion of people with a high
BMI, whereas in the later phases of transition, a high BMI among the poor shows
increasing prevalence. This is usually accompanied by an increase in childhood and
adolescent obesity and obesity-related disorders.

The important social factors are: reference groups, family, role and status

Reference Groups

Individuals are knowingly or unknowingly a part of some groups. For example –


female students studying at a particular university are a part of the female student group
in that university. The group to one belongs are known as membership group, and the
group to which one compares against to evaluate self’s of the group’s achievements,
behaviour or attitudes, is called as reference group.

Family

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Chapter I Introduction

Preferences or opinion of family members have great influence on individual or the


family’s purchases. The habits in terms of consumption are influenced--to a higher or
lower extent--by the family, in relation to its functions--traditional or modern, with a less
significant role, as a consequence of involving other social groups and institutions

Role and Status

The role individuals perform and the status they have in the group determine their
position in the group. Thus, they are tending to select and use goods that suite their
position.

1.2.2 INTERNAL FACTORS


Internal factors also called personal factors represent the consumer’s ability to benefit
directly from the product A person’s motivation to purchase or consume any given
product is an internal factor, and it may rely on a person’s desire to achieve goals related
to other internal and external factor. Perception greatly determines a consumer behaviour
allowing them to justify one action or another based on the perceived outcomes.(
Andersone, I. and E. Gaile-Sarkane.(2008))

PERSONAL FACTORS

The decisions of a buyer/consumer are also influenced by personal characteristics,


especially by age and the stage of the life cycle that the consumer crosses, sex,
occupation, financial status, lifestyle, personality and opinion of self.

Age

Obviously the individual’s needs depend on his age. Wants and preferences change as
the person’s age change. At every stage in a human’s life the needs and desires are
different. For example - A 70yrs diabetic patient will not regularly buy high calories and
high sugar chocolates, whereas a 10 year old boy would like to buy chocolates very
often.

Education

The educational level or educational field also determines the behaviour of the
consumers. Generally, an educated person tends to make wise decisions as compared to
an uneducated Person. It is because they differ in the ability of collecting, processing and

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Chapter I Introduction

analysing information. Educational field also has an impact on the buying behaviour of
the consumers. For example, doctors may incline more towards healthy food as they are
aware about the advantageous of it.

Profession

The occupation of an individual impacts his buying decision. Individuals select items
which suite their profession and/or are required for them in their professional life.

For example, a project manager may purchase more issues of the ‘PM Network’
magazine as compared to general public.

Income

Obviously, everyone thinks about their income and expenditure before spending.
Therefore, the economic condition of individuals influence what price range product they
buy. Consumers always hunt for economic deals; however, if the economic condition of
the buyer is very good he/she may buy premium products.

Personality

Personality is not just the appearance of a person but personality is also that
characteristic of individuals which determine how they behave in situations and interact
with others. A persons personality impacts his/ her buying behaviour, the incline towards
products which suite their personality. However, it is difficult to identify the association
between the individual personality and the pattern of exhibited behaviour.

Lifestyle

Lifestyle is the way one lives and connects with others. Lifestyle describes a person’s
pattern of living as expressed in activities, interests, and opinions. Lifestyle traits are
more concrete than personality traits and more directly linked to the acquisition, use, and
disposition of goods and services.

Types of buying stores

Department Stores. A department store is a set-up which offers wide range of products to
the end-users under one roof.

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 Discount Stores
 Supermarket
 Warehouse Stores
 Mom and Pop Store (also called Kirana Store in India)
 Malls.
 e-tailers

MARKETING MIX
A product is an item that is built or produced to satisfy the needs of a certain group of
people. The product can be intangible or tangible as it can be in the form of services or
goods. The marketer must do an extensive research on the life cycle of the product that
they are creating. A product has a certain life cycle that includes the growth phase, the
maturity phase, and the sales decline phase. It is important for marketers to reinvent their
products to stimulate more demand once it reaches the sales decline phase, it may be
wise to expand your current product mix by diversifying and increasing the depth of your
product line.

Price in the marketing mix of UNIBIC

Competitive pricing is the sole pricing strategy which Unibic uses. Unibic is one of the
major competitors of Unibic and in that unibic has remained unbeatable for decades. In
dairy, Amul is a strong competitor for Milk, Cheese and other dairy based products. In
bakery products. To stay above all of them, unibic adopts a competitive pricing strategy.
Thus, Unibic products are much better in quality and are good in price as well. The
pricing strategy along with distribution has been so strong, that people buy these
products even on Railway stations and while traveling, instead of buying local snacks.

1.3 IMPORTANT SCOPE OF THE STUDY

 Improve the facilities and products to them the strong factors.


 Factors are rigidness, quality, availability, and durability and also expect the
service and availability.
 Hence through advertising in the local media free.
 The service may be held once or twice in year attract potential consumer
behaviour in India.

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1.4 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY


 The study was carried out for a short duration of time and so other seasonal
factors may influence the results.
 Some of the consumer were not ready to give information related to this research.
 The study was conducted in the consumer buying behaviour cookies only
covering Salem region.
 Sample size is a constraint as the sample consist of 150 respondents

1.5 PROFILE OF INDUSTRY


Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) or consumer packaged goods (CPG) are products
that are sold quickly and at relatively low cost. Items in this category include all
consumables (other than groceries/pulses) people buy at regular intervals. Fast moving
consumer goods (FMCG) manufacturing is very much as the name suggests: high quality
products that fly off the production lines as fast as they fly off supermarket shelves. In
FMCG, engineers have the vital role of developing and managing manufacturing
processes to remove costs and wastage and keep things moving thousands of units of
each product can come off a production line every minute. Engineers also continually
innovate new machines and processes to match the demands made on products by
consumers. The most common in the list are toilet soaps, detergents, shampoos,
toothpaste, shaving products, shoe polish, packaged foodstuff, and household accessories
and extends to certain electronic goods. These items are meant for daily of frequent
consumption and have a high return. Though the profit margin made on FMCG products
is relatively small (more so for retailers than the producers/suppliers), they are generally
sold in large quantities; thus, the cumulative profit on such products can be substantial.
FMCG is a classic case of low margin and high volume business. (Dwyer
R.F., &. W. (1985))

CHARACTERISTICS OF FMCG
 From the consumer's perspective
 Frequent purchase
 Low involvement (little or no effort to choose the item)
 Low price
 Short shelf life
 Rapid consumption
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 From the marketer's perspective


 High volumes
 Low contribution margins
 Extensive distribution networks
 High stock turnover

PLAYERS IN THE INDUSTRY


Top Companies According to the study conducted by AC Nielsen, 62 of the top 100
brands are owned by MNCs, and the balance by Indian companies. Fifteen companies
own these 62 brands, and 27 of these are owned by Hindustan Unilever.

The top ten India FMCG brands are:

 Hindustan Unilever Ltd.


 ITC (Indian Tobacco Company)
 Nestlé India
 GCMMF (AMUL)
 Dabur India
 Asian Paints (India)
 Cadbury India
 Unibic Industries
 Procter & Gamble Hygiene and Health Care
 Marico Industries.

PRODUCTS
 Cookies
 Chocolate
 Nutrias choices cookies
 Health cookies
 Cakes ( upcoming days)

1.6 COMPANY OVERVIEW


UNIBIC Foods India Pvt. Ltd. manufactures and markets premium cookies. It
offers Choco chip, Choco nut, Choco kiss, fruit and nut, butter, cashew, pista badam,
doosra chilli butter, doosra Keera, ginger nut, scotch finger, oatmeal digestive, honey

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oatmeal, multigrain breakfast, milk, sugar free multi grain breakfast, sugar free cashew
butter, sugar free butter, sugar free oatmeal, sugar free orange cream, sugar free
pineapple, sugar free vanilla cream, festive, gift pack celebration, gift pack festive
moments, gift pack greeting, and gift pack sugar free delight cookies. The company’s
cookies are available online at Big Basket and Amazon; and exported to counties, such
as the United Kingdom, Korea, Australia, New Zealand, the Middle East, and others.
UNIBIC Foods India Pvt. Ltd. was formerly known as UNIBIC Biscuits India Pvt. Ltd.
The company was incorporated in 2004 and is based in Bengaluru, India. UNIBIC Foods
India Pvt. Ltd. operates as a subsidiary of Unibic Australia Pty. Ltd.

In India our largest markets are in the South of the country. We are also
present in various cities and towns in Maharashtra, West Bengal, and North East and in
Delhi NCR. Our footprint is growing rapidly and we are entering new markets every
month. Outside of India we export to countries like the UK, Korea, Australia, New
Zealand, Middle East and many more. For the last ten years, the bakers at UNIBIC have
been baking perfect, crunchy and delightful cookies. We are happy that you stopped by
to get to know them better. Welcome to our world of Bicalicious cookies. (Frazier,
G.L.(1999))

OUR VISION

To dominate the food and beverage market in India with the distinctive rage of
tasty yet healthy Unibic brands.

EXCELLENCE: Constantly focus on building expertise, thereby enhancing the


potential for quantum growth.

PASSION: Create energy and excitement at work motivate by example conviction and
courage to lead.

INNOVATION: Constantly look for new and better ways to delight consumers.

INCLUSIVENESS: Ensure individuals' dignity in all interactions by addressing the


issue and not the person encourage ideas from people at all levels

OPENESS: Give, receive and seek feedback without bias/prejudice


(regardless of source)

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MARKETING MIX OF UNIBIC


The marketing mix refers to the set of actions, or tactics, that a company uses
to promote its brand or product in the market. The 4Ps make up a typical marketing mix
are as follows

 Price
 Product
 Promotion
 Place.

UNIBIC PRODUCT PORTFOLIO:


I learned about what are the types of product in UNIBIC by the market visit
because for a sales person must know products first after that he can sell the products in
the market.

 Unibic Choco ripple cookies


 Orange milk cookies
 Milk cookies
 Choco chip cookies
 Unibic fruit and nuts cookies
 Unibic cashew cookies
 Unibic butter cookies
 Unibic scotch
 Scotch finger
 Doosra chili butter cookies
 Doosra jeera cookies
 Oatmeal digestive cookies
 Cookie magic cookies

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Conclusion
This research will help to know about the consumer buying behaviour towards
Unibic cookies and gives the overview of health cookies in market and its opportunities
in Salem market. This research has examined Unibic ability to use innovation in a
developed and crowded market-place. There were three clear elements in this process.
The use of consumer research to identify a significant market opportunity Product
research and development combined with extensive consumer testing process Cookies
remains the big opportunity to expand in to the Health cookies market even further. As
Fuse moves through the growth phases of its product life-cycle, the next stage is to move
it into the 'super brand' league. As it does so, the key requirement will be to maintain the
product's momentum by continuing to develop innovative approaches to marketing it to
consumers. New product development may involve, such as investing time, resources
and money in new technologies. However, it also creates business opportunities.

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Chapter II Review of literature

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Consumer behaviour involves the study of individuals and the method they employ to
choose, utilize, and set out products and services to fulfil their wants and the effect that
these method have on the consumer and the society as a whole. Consumer behaviour refers
to all the thought, feelings and actions that an individual has or takes before or while
buying any product, service or idea. Buyer behaviour is the concept which answers what,
why, how, when, and where an individual makes purchase. As a result, the outcome of
buyer behaviour is the buyer’s decision. The entire purchasing process involves giving a
thought on what should be bought, which brand is good or suitable, from where or whom
should the purchase be made, when to purchase, how much to spent, and how many time
to buy and in what intervals. Consequently the end result of the buyer behaviour is the
customer’s final decision regarding the product choice, brand choice, dealer choice,
purchase timing, purchase amount and purchase frequency.
2.1 FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR
There are several factors in the background which make a consumer behave in a certain
manner. The factors that come in picture while finding the answers to the what to buy,
where to buy, why to buy, when to buy how to buy, to buy or not to buy questions are the
ones which influence the buyer behaviour. These factors knowingly or unknowingly
influence the consumer; they may be in or beyond control of the buyer.
These factors can be classified into External (Cultural and Social) and Internal (Personal
and Psychological) factors.
CONSUMER AND THE MARKETPLACE
Katona, G. (1960) According to Author says there has been trade between producers and
consumers ever since people discovered that the folks in the next valley made some very
interesting firewater but lacked their own sure grip axe handles. It has always been an
integral part of the relations between different groups of people, from the Stone Age family
to the modern nation state. This trading nexus is a necessary condition for the growth of
small groups into complex societies with their systems of law, government, finance,
education, administration and so on.

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Chapter II Review of literature

2.2 INVENTORY MANAGEMENT


Evans & Berman (1997), According to Author says keeping the right amount of inventory
is a challenging task for most companies. Matching the inventory to the customer’s
demand requires working communication between the parties, as well as estimating future
sales quantities to maximize the inventory substance. Surplus inventory leads to additional
holding costs, while undersized inventory can lead to loss of sales if the customer does not
get the demanded goods in a given time period. Inventory management is defined as
providing a continuous flow of goods and matching the quantity of goods kept in inventory
as closely as possible with customer demand.
SOCIAL FACTOR
Ramachandran, S(1998), According to Author says Social factors also impact the buying
behaviour of consumers. The important social factors are: reference groups, family, role
and status. The importance attached to children, to education, to health, to husband's status,
the type of house in which one lives and display off consumer durables and other status
symbols are indeed all very relevant to buyer behaviour of the housewife. Therefore,
studying the social factors will improve the marketing effectiveness of firms. Every culture
has some forms of division based factors like on income, profession, and education. These
divisions can be referred to as social classes; people from the same social class generally
have common interests and behaviour.
2.3 CONSUMERISM AND DEMARKETING
Delbert I. (2003),According to Author saysThe market has become further stiff.
Consumerism is a Social movement of citizens and Government to enhance the rights &
powers of buyers in relation to sellers. It encompasses the evolving set of activities of
Government, Businesses and Independent Organisations that are designed to protect the
rights of consumers. Consumerism is concerned with protecting consumers from all
Organisations with which there is an exchange relationship. On the other hand
demarketing influences the consumption pattern among the consumers. There are
consumer problems associated with hospitals, libraries, schools, Police forces, and various
govt. agencies as well as with Business firms. Amidst all these unrest the businesses need
to flourish. This piece of literary work demonstrate the review of Consumer Behaviour
across various industries, such as; FMCG Industry, Banking Industry, Hospitality Industry
etc.

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Chapter II Review of literature

2.4 PRODUCTION AND SELLING CONCEPT


. Kotler & Keller. (2006), According to Author says The production concept is based on
the fact that customers prefer products that are available and affordable. This means that
production managers focus on the superiority of products as well as constant product
development. The selling concept is based on the drive of the marketing, in other words
that the customer will not buy enough of a single product unless it is constantly promoted
RETAILERS CONCEPTS
Kotler & Keller (2006).According to Author says Retailing involves all activities in selling
goods or services directly or indirectly to final consumers for personal non-business use.
It is also referred to as retailing when any organization sells the product or service to an
end customer, no matter of the actual organizational structure, whether it is a manufacturer,
wholesaler, or retailer.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS
Andersone, I. and E. Gaile-Sarkane.(2008). According to Author says Individual’s
perception, motivation, learning, beliefs and attitudes are the main psychological factors
that affect the consumer buying behaviour. The value of a product or service for any
individual depends on how he perceives it, what attitude he/she has toward it, what he
believes about it and what motivates his purchase. When analysing the process by which
consumers make purchase decisions, marketers should under-stand such psychological
factors as motivation, perception, learning, personality, and attitudes because they help
explain the why of consumer behaviour.
2.5 QUALITY AND INNOVATIONS
Schiff man Leon, Karunik L. (2010).According to author told Consumer Behaviour
demonstrates largely the willingness to be associated with the brand and the usage pattern.
The organisations keep working towards their attractive features in order to attract
customers. Quality management of products and innovations form important measure so
as to retain & acquire customers. Karunik and Schiffmanin their book on Consumer
Behaviour have highlighted the dynamic business environment and they it be turbulent as
never before & the service industry as promising as never before. In this era of intense
competition companies understand the customer is the king in the market and success
depends a lot on the efficiency of the managers in delivering the promised product or
services. The responsibility lies on the organisations to develop a culture, ethics,
responsibility, value and quality services should be offered to achieve higher level of

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Chapter II Review of literature

customer satisfaction. Dynamic consumer behaviour is required to analyse various factors


affecting consumer purchase decision directly or indirectly.
2.6 EXTERNAL FACTORS
1.CULTURAL FACTORS
Schiff man Leon, Karunik L. (2010). According to this Author says Culture deeply impacts
the buying behaviour of an individual and thus marketing professionals should focus on
segmenting their markets based on the cultural needs and wants of consumers. “Culture
represents the mix of norms, financial and moral values, convictions, attitudes and habits
developed in time by mankind, which the members of the society share and which highly
determine their behaviour, including the purchase and consumption behaviour.
Buyer Cultural
Culture refers to the entire way of life of a group of people from a particular society, place
or time. Culture encompasses every aspect of life including the thoughts, behavior,
practices, technology, rituals, norms, language, believes, ethics, lifestyle, institution, and
art of any given group of individuals. Therefore, individuals differing in cultural
background may have different views about a particular product of service. They may have
preference for goods and services which suite their culture.
For example, wearing western outfit on festivals is not accepted in Indian culture.
Subculture
Every culture consists of several varied subcultures such as, nationalities, geographic
regions, racial groups, religions etc. Subculture can be referred as the group of people who
have common experiences and situations
2.7 INTERNAL FACTORS
PERSONAL FACTORS
Radulescu, V., I. Cetina, and G. Orzan,(2012) According to Author says Buyer’s
purchasing process is influences by his/her personal factors, and these personal factors are
unique for every individual. The decisions of a buyer/consumer are also influenced by
personal characteristics, especially by age and the stage of the life cycle that the consumer
crosses, sex, occupation, financial status, lifestyle, personality and opinion of self.
Age
Obviously the individual’s needs depend on his age. Wants and preferences change as the
person’s age change. At every stage in a human’s life the needs and desires are different.

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Chapter II Review of literature

For example - A 70yrs diabetic patient will not regularly buy high calories and high sugar
chocolates, whereas a 10 year old boy would like to buy chocolates very often.
Education
The educational level or educational field also determines the behaviour of the consumers.
Generally, an educated person tends to make wise decisions as compared to an uneducated
person. It is because they differ in the ability of collecting, processing and analysing
information.
Educational field also has an impact on the buying behaviour of the consumers. For
example, doctors may incline more towards healthy food as they are aware about the
advantageous of it.

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Chapter III Research Methodology

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The word ‘Methodology’ is the combination of two words ‘Method’ which implies a
particular way of doing something plus ‘Logus’ the Latin word which implies ‘Study’.
Thus ‘Methodology’ is a systematic way of studying something. The research method
includes all those methods and techniques that are used for conducting a research. It
refers to the behaviour and instruments used in selecting and conducting research
techniques and research design. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve
the research problem. It constitutes research methods used in context of research study
and explanation of using a particular method or technique so that research results are
capable of being evaluated.
3.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Since the organization is willing to check the effectiveness of “A STUDY ON
CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS UNIBIC COOKIES IN SALEM
REGION” feedbacks received from consumers pertaining to the system are identified
and taken as input to improvise the system.

3.2 Study design

The study design refers to the overall strategy that one choose to integrate the different
components of the study in a coherent and logical way, thereby, ensuring one will
effectively address the research problem; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection,
measurement, and analysis of data. It defines the study type (descriptive, experimental)
research question, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental
design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.

3.2.1 Descriptive Research

Descriptive Research Design has been used, which clearly indicates that the study is
all about a certain characteristic of individual’s consumer behaviour. So in
descriptive research, survey method is used for the study.

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Chapter III Research Methodology

3.2.3 Study Period

Study period is the total time period taken by the researcher to identify the problem,
prepare the questionnaire and collect the required data for the study. This study was
conducted for a period of 12 weeks.

3.2.4 Sample method

The technique used for selecting the sample is convenient sampling. Stratified
sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of
their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher.

3.2.5. Area Of study conducted

The study is based on the data collected from individual consumer in Salem.

3.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


 To find the Consumer preference in Salem
 To find out the Consumer expectation level of UNIBIC cookies
 To find out the performance of competitor

3.4 Variables considered

3.4.1 Independent Variable


 Age
 Gender
 Occupation
 Amount willing spent in a particular products

3.4.2 Dependent variable


 Quality of products
 Cost

3.5 Hypotheses

H0- There is relationship between price of cookies and consumer buying behaviour
based on flavour

H1 – There is No relationship between price of cookies and consumer buying


behaviour based on flavour
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3.6 SAMPLING DESIGN:


In the theory of finite population sampling, a sampling design specifies for every
possible sample its probability of being drawn. It refers to the rules and procedures by
which some elements of the population are included in the sample. The "best" sample
design depends on survey objectives and on survey resources. For example, a researcher
might select the most economical design that provides a desired level of precision. Or, if
the Cost is limited, a researcher might choose the design that provides the greatest
precision without going over Cost. Sampling method refers to the rules and procedures
by which some elements of the population are included in the sample. Some common
sampling methods are simple random sampling, Convenient sampling, stratified
sampling, and cluster sampling.

3.6.1 Population and Sample:

The population that was taken for the study are the1000 Consumer in Salem. The sample
taken for the study is 150 Consumer.

3.6.2 Sampling Method:


The technique used for selecting the sample is stratified sampling. Stratified sampling is
a type of sampling method in which the total population is divided into smaller groups to
complete the sampling process.

3.7 Methods and tools of data collection


Data is one of the most important and vital aspect of any research studies. Researchers
conducted in different fields of study can be different in methodology, but every research
is based on data which is analysed and interpreted to get information. Data is the basic
unit in statistical studies. Statistical information like census, population variables, health
statistics, and road records are all developed from data.

3.3.1 Primary Data:


It is the original data that has been collected specially for the purpose in mind. It means
someone collected the data from the original source first hand. Primary data has not been
published yet and is more reliable, authentic and objective. It has not been changed or
altered by human beings. In our research there is no primary data.

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A Study On Consumer Buying Behaviour Towards UNIBIC Cookies in Salem Region
Chapter III Research Methodology

3.7.2 Construction of questionnaire

A structured questionnaire was prepared to collect primary data from the consumer in
Salem .

3.8 Methods and tools of data analysis

Data analysis is the act of transforming data with the aim of extracting useful
information and facilitating conclusions. The data analysis tool used in this study is
SPSS.

3.8.1 Percentage Analysis

Percentage analysis is applied to create a contingency table from the frequency


distribution and represent the collected data for better understanding.

3.8.2 Chi-Square

Chi-square is a statistical test commonly used to compare observed data with data we
would expect to obtain according to a specific hypothesis. The chi-square test is always
testing what scientists call the null hypothesis, which states that there is no significant
difference between the expected and observed result. This chapter gave a clear picture of
the research methodology of this research and also gives in detail how the sample for the
study was selected, how data was collected and how it was analysed. The following
chapter consists of the analysis of the collected data and the interpretation of it.

Conclusion

About this chapter help them for finding out statement of the problem and sample
method and hypotheses helpful for find out the project output, hypotheses method using
SPSS format.

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A Study On Consumer Buying Behaviour Towards UNIBIC Cookies in Salem Region
Chapter IV Data Analysis and Interpretation

CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This Chapter deals with the analysing and Interpreting Data. Because raw data as
such have little meaning, a major practice of researchers is to organize and interpret
data through tabulating, graphing. Such analysis can bring out the meaning of data and the
relevance, so that may be used as evidence.

4.1. Data presentation and Interpretation

TABLE 4.1 Percentage of Respondents Based on Gender

Fig 4.1
From the Fig 4.1 Male are 52.7% and female are 47.3% it is total of gender level in this
Chart is explained

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC cookies in Salem Region
Chapter IV Data Analysis and Interpretation

TABLE 4.2 Percentage of Respondents Based on Age

Fig 4.2
Interpretation:
From this this table interpretation that Age vices buying cookies The cookies
10 – 20 age people 42.7% and 21-30 age people buying 40.6%, 31-40 age people buying
cookies for 6.7% , similarly 41-50 age people buying 6.7%. above 50 age people only
buying 4%. Age vice likely buying for more percentage in 10- 20 age people

TABLE 4.3 CONSUMER CONSUMPTION OF COOKIES PER DAY

TIME A DAY EAT NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


COOKIES
ONCE IN DAY 70 46.7
TWICE IN A DAY 53 35.3
MORE THEN 3 TIME A 27 18.0
DAY
TOTAL 150 100.0

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC cookies in Salem Region
Chapter IV Data Analysis and Interpretation

Interpretation

Table 4.3 consider that how many time eat cookies , mostly people like to once in a day
46.7 % this people daily buying cookies and eat once in day. Only 18% of people more
then 3 times eat cookies.

TABLE 4.4 CONSUMER RESPONDENTS BASED ON BUYING PRICE

BUYING PRICE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


RS=5 40 26.7
RS=10 44 29.3
RS=20 28 18.7
RS=40 38 25.3
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:
Above the table explain for Rs 5 cookies buynig26.7 most of people buying
for RS 10 cookies 29% of people buying this level cookies, Rs 20 cookies buying for
18.7%, 25.3% of consumer buying for RS 40 price cookies
TABLE 4.5 Favourite Flavour of the consumers

FLAVOUR TO EAT NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


CHOCORIPPLE 64 42.7
CASHEW 20 13.3
BUTTER 40 26.7
MILK COOKIES 20 17.3
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:

Above the table 4.5 buying flavour of cookies the people mostly like and
buying for Choco Ripple cookies .Totally 150 consumer 42.7% of people buying for
Choco ripple cookies.

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC cookies in Salem Region
Chapter IV Data Analysis and Interpretation

TABLE 4.6 Type of cookies preferred by the respondents

PERFER COOKIES NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


NORMAL COOKIES 137 91.3
HEALTH COOKIES 13 8.7
TOTAL 150 100.0
Interpretation:

Above the table 4.6 buying choice of cookies Normal cookies buying people for
91.3% most likely buying because of normal cookies cost price is very less.

TABLE 4.7 Preferred quantity by the consumer (grams)

GRAMS PREFER NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


50 GRAMS 46 30.7
75 GRAMS 77 51.3
100 GRAMS 27 18.0
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:

Above the table 4.7 to be explain for the people buying 75 grams more, 51.3% of people
mostly buying prefer for 75 grams cookies.

TABLE 4.8 Expected offers by the consumer

OFFERS NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


YES 72 48.0
NO 39 26.0
SOMETIME 19 12.7
NEVER 20 13.3
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:

Above the table 4.8 fully explain for 48% of people expect for offering
buying cookies out of 100%. Never expect offering cookies for only 13.3 %.

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC cookies in Salem Region
Chapter IV Data Analysis and Interpretation

TABLE 4.9 Respondents checking manufacture date before buying

CHECK MANU NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


FACTURE DATE
ALWAYS 42 28.0
SOMETIME 65 43.3
NEVER 43 28.7
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:

Above the table explain for some peoples are buying time to be check for the
manufacture date, this table calculation only 43.3 % of people some time to checking the
manufacture date

TABLE 4.10 Consumer preference of shop to buy the cookies

BUYING SHOP NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


KIRANA SHOP 99 66.0
SUPER MARKET 40 26.7
WHOLE SALES 11 7.3
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:

Above the table 4.10 some people buying cookies refer for mostly Karana
shop, because of near the house shop buying more 66% . only 7.3% buying cookies in
whole sales shop.

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC cookies in Salem Region
Chapter IV Data Analysis and Interpretation

TABLE 4.11 Consumer preference in eating cookies

LIKE TO EAT COOKIES NO.OF RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE


TASTE 52 34.7
COST 44 29.3
QUALITY 35 23.3
DIFFERENT VARIENT 19 12.7
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:

The table 4.11 explain for people more and more buying cookies for based
on taste this table explain 34.7% people buying cookies based taste.

TABLE 4.12 Quantity of cookies brought by the consumer

BUYING IN MONTH NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


DAILY 83 55.3
WEAKLY 31 20.7
ONCE IN MONTH 36 24.0
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:

The table 4.12 explain how many people buying cookies in the month
,55.3% of people daily buying in a month, 20.7% people buying cookie weakly once in
month , only 24% of people buying cookies for only one time in a month buying .

TABLE 4.13 Consumer preference cookies of over biscuit

COOKIES OR BISCUIT NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


COOKIES 87 58.0
BISCUITS 63 42.0
TOTAL 150 100.0

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC cookies in Salem Region
Chapter IV Data Analysis and Interpretation

Interpretation:

Above the table 4.13 explain for more people buying cookies or biscuits, this
table explain for more people buying for cookies because of based on taste. 58% people
buying cookies.

TABLE 4.14 Percentage of respondents based on occupation

OCCUPATIONS NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


STUDENT 105 70.0
TEACHER 20 13.3
HOUSE WIFE 5 3.3
IT EMPLOYES 20 13.3
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:

Above the 4.14 table explain for students or 10- 20 age people to be buying
cookies more level there are 70 % of this category people buying cookies more level.

TABLE 4.15 Respondents to eat cookies

FAMILY MEMBERS TO NO .OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


EAT COOKIES
YES 127 84.7
NO 23 15.3
TOTAL 150 100.0

Interpretation:
Above the table 4.15 explain for 84.7% of family member like to eat
cookies, only 15.3% family members don’t eat cookies.

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC cookies in Salem Region
Chapter IV Data Analysis and Interpretation

Chi –square test

TABLE 4.16

P1 * FV1 Cross tabulation


Count
FV1 Total

CHOCO CASHEW BUTTER MILK COOKIE


RIPPLE

5 19 8 9 4 40
10 16 5 9 14 44
P1
20 17 4 2 5 28

40 12 3 20 3 38
Total 64 20 40 26 150

Interpretation:

 P1- price of cookies


 Fv1 – flavour of cookies
 Price of Rs 5 Choco ripple buying 17 consumer , same price cashew
cookies buying 8 consumer , butter cookies 9 consumer ,milk cookies
only 4 consumer. Totally 40 consumer buying Rs 5 cookies.
 Price of Rs 10 Choco ripple cookies out of 44 consumer mostly like
and buying 16 consumer
 Price of Rs 20 more level of buying cookies for Choco ripple 17
consumer.
 Price of RS 40 butter cookies only more level buying 20 consumer.

If the consumer buying behaviour of cookies to be based on flavour to buying my analysis


most of consumer buying for ten rupees cookies buying for more people. This analysis
help for chi-square test.

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC cookies in Salem Region
Chapter V Finding and Conclusion

CHAPTER V

FINDING AND CONCLUSION


The summary of the findings and suggestions for the Consumer Buying behaviour towards
UNIBIC cookies In Salem Region and the resulting conclusion are as follows.

5.1 FINDINGS
 52.7% Male and 47.3% of Female respondents for buying cookies in Salem
Region
(Table 4.1)
 42.7% 10-20 age consumer, 40.6% of 21-30 age consumer ,6.7% of 31-40 and
41-50 age consumer 4% of above 50 age consumer buying . This explain only 10-
20 age consumer buying cookies more level.(Table 4.2)
 46.7% out off 100% consumer once in a day eating cookies (Table 4.3)
 Explain for most of people buying for RS 10 cookies, 29% of people buying this
level cookies. (Table 4.4)
 Most of consumer buying prefer for only Choco Ripple cookies 42.7% out of
100%, only 13.7% very low buying cashew cookies. (Table 4.5)
 Consumer buying choice of cookies Normal cookies buying people for 91.3%
most likely buying because of normal cookies cost price is very less. (Table 4.6)
 Explain for the consumer buying 75 grams more, 51.3% of people mostly buying
prefer for 75 grams cookies. (Table 4.7)
 48% of people expect for offering buying cookies out of 100%. Never expect
offering cookies for only 13.3 %.( Table 4.8)
 43.3 % of people some time to checking the manufacture date.(Table 4.9)
 Some Consumer buying cookies refer for mostly Karana shop, because of near
the house shop buying more 66%. Only 7.3% buying cookies in whole sales
shop.(Table 4.10)
 34.7% people buying cookies based taste. (Table 4.11)
 55.3% of people daily buying in a month, 20.7% people buying cookie weakly
once in month , only 24% of people buying cookies for only one time in a month
buying .(Table 4.12)
 People buying cookies or biscuits, this analyses explain for more people buying
for cookies because of based on taste. 58% people buying cookies. (Table
4.13)

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC Cookies in Salem Region
Chapter V Finding and Conclusion

 70 % of this category people buying cookies more level.it is based on age 10-20
age of consumer buying cookies more.(Table 4.14)
 84.7% of family member like to eat cookies, only 15.3% family members don’t
eat cookies.it is based on taste.(Table 4.15)

5.2 CHI – SQUARE TEST

Null hypotheses: There is relationship between consumer buying cookies based on price
and flavour.

Alternative hypotheses: There is no relationship between consumer buying cookies based


on price and flavour.

From the Chi-Square test

 There is relationship between costs of cookies related to flavour

5.3 SUGGESTIONS
 They have to buy all flavours so that sales improve
 Offer can be provided to retailers if more cookies are sold

Conclusion:

Consumer buying behavior is a study of behavioral pattern of consumer leading their


buying preferences &attitude. Consumer Behavior is a dynamic aspect having the potential
to businesses. This study mainly consider that buying behavior of cookies in different
perception gender , age ,day to eat cookies and price of cookies ,which flavor more buying
the consumer , if expect any offer of the cookies and occupation of consumer because of
work base buying and eating cookies . I take one chi test because of compare to factor find
the solutions..

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A Study on Consumer Buying Behaviour towards UNIBIC Cookies in Salem Region