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Gypsum from WFGD and Experience of

Gypsum Quality and Usage

Ajay Vajpeyi
Power Management Institute, NTPC, November 29, 2018
Confidential. Not to be copied, distributed, or reproduced without prior approval.
Limestone Forced Oxidation
Wet Flue Gas Desulphurising System

Confidential. Not to be copied, distributed, or reproduced without prior approval.


November 2018

So2 Emission Control for coal power plants

Disclaimer
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All Rights Reserved. No part of this document can be reproduced, transmitted, stored in a retrieval system nor translated into
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otherwise, without the prior written permission of the General Electric Company.
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GE presence in WFGD market in India

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LSFO Process Diagram
STACK
CaCO3 + SO2 + 2H2O + ½O2  CaSO42H2O + CO2
ESP PROCESS
WATER
ABSORBER

PROCESS
WATER
ID FANS TANK

TO LIMESTONE SLURRY
PREP. TANK

TO WWT PLANT
BOOSTER
FAN

LIMESTONE
HYDROCYCLON
CLUSTER

VACUUM
OXIDATION BELT FILTER
AIR
LIMESTONE SLURRY
TANK
GYPSUM
FROM RECLAIM
PROCESS WATER TANK
WATER TANK
BALL MILL

Confidential. Not to be copied, distributed, or reproduced without prior approval.


FGD Sub Systems- Dewatering Area

Hydrocylones

Belt
Filters

Storage
Vacuum
Bunker
Pumps
Confidential. Not to be copied, distributed, or reproduced without prior approval.
Typical Gypsum from WFGD and 
possible variations

November 29, 2018
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Typical Quality Parameters of Gypsum
Free Moisture:  Specification being demanded by the customer ≤ 10%. (vacuum belt technology). 
High inert and fine flyash from poorly performing ESP leads to poor porosity 
and high moisture content.
FGD gypsum needs to be dried prior to further processing.  
Higher moisture content would mean higher drying costs.

Purity:   A direct outcome of the limestone quality being used.  
Flyash content in the flue gas shall also impacts purity adversely.
Inert components adversely impact whiteness, moisture removal.

Water Soluble Salts: Higher magnesium, sodium salts and chlorides for gypsum wallboard leads to 
delamination of wallboard paper and efflorescence

Toxic Substances: Both Natural Gypsum and FGD Gypsum are comparable (Beckert Study).


Possible Malfunction Concerns
High Free Moisture:  Needle shaped crystals – low pH; Plate shaped crystals ‐ high solid content;
Fine PSD (owing to inerts, ESP dust etc.) leads to higher moisture.
Tight PSD with d50 > 32 micron is good for controlling moisture.

Calcium Carbonate Content goes up with increase owing to coarse grinding. 

Whiteness impacted by higher manganese and iron compounds 
in the limestone or by high content of flyash

Purity impacted by limestone purity and poor ESP performance

Increased calcium sulphite improper oxidation

Experience has been that most European, US power stations comply to desired gypsum quality.  However 
severe variations are seen in a number of Non European power stations 
Typical Limestone Quality In US / Europe Typical Limestone Quality In India
CAO  Calcium Oxide (CaO) % 50 to 54 CAO  Calcium Oxide (CaO) % 45 to 49
Moisture content % < 1 Moisture content % < 1
Magnesium as MgO % < 2 Magnesium as MgO % 4
CaCO3  % 94‐96% for high purity gypsum CaCO3  % 80 to 90
> 90% for disposable or cement 
grade gypsum

Typical Gypsum Quality In US / Europe Typical Gypsum Quality In India

Moisture content % ≤ 10 Moisture content % ≤ 10
CaSO4,2H2O %  95, >93% in few cases CaSO4,2H2O % > 90 (for better limestone)
Magnesium as MgO % < 0.1 Magnesium as MgO % < 2
Chloride as Cl mg/kg < 100 Chloride as Cl mg/kg < 100
Gypsum in Indian Content
Usage and Future
Specification of Gypsum in Different Industries
Type of Gypsum Applicable  Usage Purity + Moisture
Standard
Natural Gypsum +  IS:1290 Type 1: Surgical Plaster 96% (min), < 1%; low chloride
Selenite
Type 2  Ammonium  85% ‐ 90%, ‐; low chloride
sulphate
Type 3 – Pottery 96% (min), < 1%

Type 4 ‐ Cement 70%‐85%, typically low moisture; 


low iron and whiteness for white cement
IS: 6046 For Agricultural Use for  >70% Purity; Na < 0.75% and specific 
Reclaiming Alkaline Soil fineness 
Specification for  IS: 10170
Byproduct Gypsum
Gypsum for building  IS:12654 For preparation of Calcined  >60% Purity
Industry Gypsum for a) Gypsum 
Mortar; b) Light weight 
solid gypsum block sof non 
load bearing wall c) 
Specification of Gypsum in Different Industries in India

Source: Indian Minerals Yearbook
Gypsum: Future Prospects in India

Further growth of the Cement Industry has 
increased dependence on imports and 
synthetic gypsum.

Current Cement Production: 
280 Million Tonnes

Gypsum Needed:
Around 12 Million Tonnes

WFGD gypsum shall and will pitch in and can 
replace imports, phospho‐gypsum 

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