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4.Discuss the benefits of trg & devp.

Training presents a prime opportunity to expand the knowledge base of all

employees.However training and development provides both the individual and
organisations as a whole with benefits that make the cost and time a worthwhile
investment. The return on investment from training and development of
employees is enumerated below

(a). Improved employee performance – the employee who receives the

necessary training is more able to perform in their job. The training will give the
employee a greater understanding of their responsibilities within their role, and in
turn build their confidence. This confidence will enhance their overall
performance and this can only benefit the company. Employees who are
competent and on top of changing industry standards help your company hold a
position as a leader and strong competitor within the industry.

(b) Improved employee satisfaction and morale – the investment in

training that a company makes shows employees that they are valued. The
training creates a supportive workplace. Employees may gain access to training
they wouldn’t have otherwise known about or sought out themselves. Employees
who feel appreciated and challenged through training opportunities may feel
more satisfaction toward their jobs.

( c) Addressing weaknesses – Most employees will have some weaknesses

in their workplace skills. A training program allows you to strengthen those skills
that each employee needs to improve. A development program brings all
employees to a higher level so they all have similar skills and knowledge. This
helps reduce any weak links within the company who rely heavily on others to
complete basic work tasks. Providing the necessary training creates an overall
knowledgeable staff with employees who can take over for one another as
needed, work on teams or work independently without constant help and
supervision from others.

(d) Consistency – A robust training and development program ensures that

employees have a consistent experience and background knowledge. The
consistency is particularly relevant for the company’s basic policies and
procedures. All employees need to be aware of the expectations and procedures
within the company. Increased efficiencies in processes results in financial gain for
the company.

(e)Increased productivity and adherence to quality standards –

Productivity usually increases when a company implements training courses.
Increased efficiency in processes will ensure project success which in turn will
improve the company turnover and potential market share.

(f)Increased innovation in new strategies and products – Ongoing training

and upskilling of the workforce can encourage creativity. New ideas can be
formed as a direct result of training and development.

(g)Reduced employee turnover – staff are more likely to feel valued if they
are invested in and therefore, less likely to change employers. Training and
development is seen as an additional company benefit. Recruitment costs
therefore go down due to staff retention.

(h)Enhances company reputation and profile – Having a strong and

successful training strategy helps to develop your employer brand and make your
company a prime consideration for graduates and mid-career changes. Training
also makes a company more attractive to potential new recruits who seek to
improve their skills and the opportunities associated with those new skills.

5.What is the relationship between training and development and

performance appraisal?

5.1 Training and development :Training and development refers to work-

related set of skills, knowledge and capabilities that need to be required and
developed by the employee to perform according to the defined levels of
performance by the management . Training and development can be viewed as a
next step to performance appraisals. Training need assessment is a gap analysis to
identify the gaps between the employee's current level of skill, knowledge and
attributes / capabilities and required level of skill, knowledge and attributes so
that the employee(s) can develop their competencies and meet the future
business challenges. Within the created scenario, training and development
programmes provide employees with appropriate professional training such as
short professional and or technical courses, managerial courses etc. The objective
of training and development programmes and practices is to develop the
employee skill, knowledge and attributes level as needed by the organisation. It
should however be noted that training and development practices are not always
a result of performance appraisals. Any developments in business systems such as
up- gradation, re-engineering, new implementations etc. also demands for
developed workforce that will be ultimately using the new of developed system.

5.2 Performance appraisal : Performance appraisal critically evaluates the

performances of the people in an organisation. Staff performances are a
combination of staffs' knowledge, skills, capabilities and behaviour that result in
good / bad / poor performances. Different organisations have different scales and
ways of evaluating the staff performances, however the ultimate objective of this
human resource practice is to

(i) provide structured judgements / ratings so as to support salary

increments, staff promotions, transfers / job rotation and in extreme cases staff
demotions and termination of employment.

(ii) inform and comment on employees' job performance and provide

constructive feedback for making improvements

(iii) form the basis for identifying the coaching, mentoring and counselling
needs for individual staff members to be provided by the senior and more
experience staff member.

It is imperative to note that employees must experience positive

performance appraisal response so that the performance appraisal practices can
positively influence the employee behaviour . Performance appraisal is mostly
deemed to be one of the most central human resource practices and has been
evolving as a strategic approach towards integrating business policies and human
resource activities. This suggestion indicates towards the extent of involvement of
managerial levels in managing periodic performance appraisals in an organisation.

5.3 The advantage of an appraisal system is that

(a) Employees are able to gain a better understanding of their job

role and performance expectations

(b) Understand the job role within the wider context of the

(c) Employees can understand how their performances are perceived

by the management and finding ways of improving their performance

(d) Employees can develop an understanding of how performances

are appraised, reviewed and monitored by the management.

(e) Employees can also identify their weakness and strengths and
self- evaluate that what further needs to be developed. In so doing
employees also find an opportunity to formally discuss their role,
opportunities for further progression.

(f) Through performance appraisals the management can gain

agreement of the employees about their understanding of their job roles
and objectives for the following year.

(g) From a business / organisational perspective, the current level of

employee and his potential can be assessed. This further forms the basis of
succession planning of each employee.

(h) The management can update the employee information such as

his achievements, new skill, knowledge, ability and competencies.

5.4 The benefit outcomes of training and development practices are:

(a) Training and development practices provide the employees with

challenges that need to be addressed for meeting performance standards as
defined by the management. Challenging job role is one of the many motivational
factors for employees.

(b) Training and development practices can further ensure the employees
that they are being valued by the company that is the reason the company is
making investments in their development.

(c) Successful training and development provides the employees with sense
of ownership of their job role while taking pride in their performance. The results
are higher productivity, efficiency and satisfaction rates.

6. Why is it necessary to link training and development activities to the

achievement of the organisation’s business activities ?

6.1 Training and career development are very vital in any company or
organization that aims at progressing. This includes decision making, thinking
creatively and managing people. Training and development is so important

(a)Help in addressing employee weaknesses

(b) Improvement in worker performance

(c) Consistency in duty performance

(d) Ensuring worker satisfaction

(e) Increased productivity

(f) Improved quality of service and products

(g) Reduced cost.

(h) Reduction in supervision.

6.2 Is investment in the area of training and development linked to the

bottom line within the business. Increasingly, high performing organizations today
are recognising the need to use best training and development practices to
enhance their competitive advantage. Training and development is an essential
element of every business if the value and potential of it’s people is to be
harnessed and grown. Many studies have highlighted the clear links between well
designed and strategic training and development initiatives and the bottom line
within the business. The image of an industry and of individual employers is also
influenced by the extent and quality of staff training and development. Potential
employees in such an open labour market will assess the track record of
prospective employers in this vital area. Career Progression and development is
an increasingly attractive or even basic requirement for many such employees. In
today’s business climate where all industries are experiencing staff and skills
shortages, companies are faced with stiff internal and external competition for
quality employees. Each employer who invests seriously in the area of training
and development will reap the benefits of an enriched working environment with
higher levels of staff retention as well as increased productivity and performance.

6.3 It Improve productivity, effectiveness and efficiency of government service by

development and better utilization of talents, abilities and potential of

6.4 It Helps employees develop their knowledge, skills and abilities so that they
might become better qualified to perform the duties of their present jobs and
advance to more responsible positions.

6.5 Training and development provide for the development of managers and
supervisors capable of organizing and developing effective management systems
for the accomplishment of each State agency’s goals and objectives.

6.6 Alleviate labor market shortages and reduce personnel turnover.

6.7 Prepared employees to deal more effectively with growing social, scientific
and economic problems faced by government by making use of advances in
professional and vocational knowledge and technology.
3. What is the scope of training and development ?

3.1Logically, training needs must apply to individuals, at whatever

level in the organization, but the scope and grouping of application varies
considerably. Consequently, the scale and characteristics of the related training
also varies, and so does its importance and cost.

3.2 Three categories of the scope of training needs can be identified, as

stated below:

(a) At the level of all individuals There are some training needs, which
may cover everyone in the organization. For example, where the
development and survival of a business depends on a much greater
willingness on the part of its managers and work-force generally to accept
change, or where the whole business is moving to a new site. In the present
times of disinvestments of PSUs, computerization and corporate
restructuring, many organizations undertake the exercise of imparting
training to everyone in the organizations. Every individual has to relearn
newer skills to work in newer environment. Example of BALCO
disinvestments, computerization of SBI are some of the typical examples.

(b) Specific groups in an organization This category of training relates

to specific groups of people within an organization, although it is less wide
in its scope. There may be in a particular unit, department, or section; at a
certain level, such as supervision; or within a particular occupation or
exercising a particular function such as designated safety officers. An
example is when a new information system, linking all the retail outlets of a
major chain store, leads to the requirement for training in the use of on-
line computer terminals for certain grades of staff in all branches. In armed
forces, specific strike groups are trained for counter insurgency of anti
terrorist operations. When Election Commission of India decided to use
electronic voting machines, it undertook the task of training the groups
who were to perform the job.
(c) Particular individuals in an organization The third category relates
to particular individuals. Examples of person-specific learning needs

(i)Preparing an employee for a new job. E.g. when a person is

shifted from one department to another, he needs to get trained for
the newer responsibilities.

(ii)Activities in support of career or self-development. E.g. a

person getting training before getting promoted to the next position.

(iii) Remedial training or coaching where work performance is

not up to standard. E.g. an employee might need specific training or
counseling to be able to perform better.

(iv)Updating training E.g. the technology might change and the

organization might have to update the training of the individuals.