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DARWIN LNG OPERATIONS

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN

DLNG/HSE/PLN/001

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This document contains proprietary information belonging to ConocoPhillips Group of Companies and must not be wholly or
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When this document is reproduced or printed from the ConocoPhillips intranet and circulated it is an uncontrolled copy. It is the
user’s responsibility to ensure that it is using the latest edition of this document.
DARWIN LNG ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN DLNG/HSE/PLN/001 REV 2

Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 7
1.1 Background 7
1.2 Purpose and Scope of the OEMP 7
1.2.1 Exceptional Development Permit 7
1.2.2 Environment Protection Licence 7
1.3 HSE Management System Framework 9
1.4 OEMP Structure and Content 10
1.5 OEMP Ownership and Review 11

2 SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT 12


2.1 Location 12
2.2 Local Socio-Economic Context 12
2.2.1 Land Use and Zoning 12
2.2.2 Local Population and Land Uses 12
2.2.3 Indigenous Heritage Values 14
2.2.4 European Heritage Values 14
2.3 Environmental Conditions 16
2.3.1 Climate and Meteorology 16
2.3.2 Noise 16
2.3.3 Air Quality 16
2.3.4 Geology and Geomorphology 17
2.3.5 Hydrology and Hydrogeology 17
2.3.6 Estuarine Oceanography 17
2.3.7 Estuarine Physico Chemical Characteristics 18
2.3.8 Harbour Water Quality 18
2.3.9 Harbour Sediment Quality 18
2.3.10 Ecosystems and Vegetation Communities 18
2.3.11 Fauna 21
2.3.12 Conservation Values 23

3 OPERATING CONTEXT 24
3.1 Introduction 24
3.2 DLNG Plant Components and Design Standards 24
3.3 ConocoPhillips Policies 33
3.3.1 Sustainable Development Position 33
3.3.2 Climate Change Position 33
3.3.3 Australian Business Unit HSE & SD Policy 33
3.4 Legal Requirements and Standards of Operation 34

4 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT 42


4.1 Methodology 42
4.2 Environmental Risk Assessment 45

5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 72


5.1 Implementation Strategy 93
5.1.1 Roles and Responsibilities 93
5.1.2 Awareness Training and Competency 93
5.1.3 Monitoring and Reporting 93
5.1.4 Verification Audits and Reviews 96

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6 EMERGENCY RESPONSE ARRANGEMENTS 97


6.1 Emergency Response Plans (ERP) 97
6.2 Spill Response 97
6.2.1 Spill Response Arrangements 97
6.3 Potential Spill Characteristics 99

7 REFERENCES 101

8 ATTACHMENT 1 104
8.1 Environment Protection Licence 54-05 104

9 ATTACHMENT 2 105
9.1 Exceptional Development Permit 02/0015 105

1 LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Key Components of the DLNG Plant 25


Table 2 DLNG Emission Sources 26
Table 3 Authorised Discharge Points 27
Table 4 Summary of Key Environmental Legislation and Standards Applicable to DLNG Plant
Operations 35
Table 5 Environmental Consequence Criteria 43
Table 6 Likelihood Criteria 43
Table 7 Risk Matrix and Ratings 44
Table 8 Environmental Hazards, Potential Effects and Residual Risk Assessment 46
Table 9 Environmental Management Strategies 72
Table 10 Environmental Management Strategy- A1 Management of Emissions 75
Table 11 Environmental Management Strategy- C1 Management of Chemicals and Hazardous
Substances 78
Table 12 Environmental Management Strategy - M1 Management of LNG Loading Operations 80
Table 13 Environmental Management Strategy - W1 Management of Liquid Wastewater 82
Table 14 Environmental Management Strategy- W2 Management of Hazardous and Non-
Hazardous Waste (Solid and Sludge) 85
Table 15 Environmental Management Strategy - E1 Management of Flora and Fauna 87
Table 16 Environmental Management Strategy-S1 Stakeholder Relations 90
Table 17 Environmental Management Strategy-S2 Management of Heritage Values (Indigenous
and European) 92
Table 18 Summary of DLNG Operations EMP Monitoring Programs 94
Table 19 ConocoPhillips Spill Response Tiers 99

List of Figures

Figure 1 ABU HSEMS Elements 9


Figure 2 ABU HSEMS Related Documentation 10
Figure 3 DLNG Plant Location and Adjacent Land Use Zoning Map 13
Figure 4 Known Heritage and Archaeological Sites Adjacent to the DLNG Plant Site 15
Figure 5 Vegetation Communities of Wickham Point 20
Figure 6 DLNG Plant Operating Context 24
Figure 7 DLNG Plant Process Block Diagram 29
Figure 8 DLNG Plant Layout 30
Figure 9 DLNG Plant Key Atmospheric Sources 31
Figure 10 Location of Discharge Points, Sedimentation Ponds and Clean water Outfalls 32
Figure 11 ConocoPhillips ABU-West Crisis, Emergency Management and Response Structure 98

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SYMBOLS AND ACRONYMS


Symbol /
Description
Acronym
o
C Degrees Celsius
ABU ConocoPhillips Australasian Business Unit
ADF Automotive Diesel Fuel
AHD Australian Height Datum
ALARP As Low As Reasonably Practicable
ANZECC Former Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council
APPEA Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association
AQIS Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
ARMCANZ Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand
AS Australian Standard
AWTS Aerated Water Treatment System
AQIS Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
BD Blow down
BOD Biological Oxygen Demand
BTEX Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl benzene, and Xylene
BUD Beneficial Use Declaration
CASA Civil Aviation Safety Authority
CEMP Construction Environmental Management Plan
Clth Commonwealth
CO Carbon Monoxide
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
CO2e Carbon Dioxide equivalent
CoP ConocoPhillips Company (corporation)
COP ConocoPhillips Australia Pty Ltd (formerly Phillips Petroleum Company Australia Pty Ltd)
CPPA ConocoPhillips Pipeline Australia Pty Ltd
CPI Corrugated Plate Interceptor
DAC Darwin Aquaculture Centre
DAF Dissolved Air Flotation
dBA A-weighted sound levels in Decibels
DHWQO Darwin Harbour Water Quality Objectives
DOR Department of Resources, Division of Primary Industry and Fisheries
DG Dangerous Goods
DHAC Darwin Harbour Advisory Committee
DHCS Former (Northern Territory) Department of Health and Community Services
DIPE Former (Northern Territory) Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment
DLNG Darwin LNG
DPC Darwin Port Corporation
EDP Exceptional Development Permit
EHR Environmental Hazards Register
EIS Environmental Impact Statement
EMP Environmental Management Plan
EPL Environment Protection License
EPO Environmental Protection Objective
ERP Emergency Response Plan
GHG Greenhouse Gas
GWP Global Warming Potential
HSE Health, Safety and Environment
HAZID Hazard Identification
HAZOP Hazard and Operability (study)
H2S Hydrogen Sulphide
HC Hydrocarbons
Hg Mercury
HSEMS Health, Safety and Environment Management System
HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning

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Symbol /
Description
Acronym
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods code
IMO International Maritime Organisation
kg Kilogram
kg/h kilogram per hour
kPa Kilopascal (measure of pressure)
KPI Key Performance Indicator
L Litre
LMS Learning Management System
LNG Liquefied Natural Gas
LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LP Low Pressure
3
m /h Cubic metres per hour
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, adopted by the
MARPOL
International Conference on Marine Pollution, convened by IMO, 1973/78.
m Metre
mg Milligram
MMP Mangrove Monitoring Programme
MTPA Million Tonnes per Annum
NEPM National Environment Protection Measure
Natural Gas Liquids (NGL produced by the DLNG Plant will comprise LPG) and
NGL
condensate)
NMHC Non Methane Hydrocarbons
NPI National Pollutant Inventory
NT EPA Northern Territory Environmental Protection Authority
N2O Nitrous Oxide
NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide
NOx Oxides of Nitrogen
NT Northern Territory
ODP Ozone Depletion Potential
ODS Ozone Depleting Substances
OEH Former Northern Territory Office of Environment and Heritage
OEMP Operations Environmental Management Plan
OSCP Oil Spill Contingency Plan
PER Public Environmental Review
PFD Process Flow Diagram
P&ID Process and Instrumentation Diagram
PM10 Particulate Matter (diameter less than 10 micrometres)
ppb Parts per billion
ppm Parts per million
ppt Parts per thousand
PV Pressure valve
PWC (Northern Territory) Power and Water Corporation
QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment
RAN Royal Australian Navy
SEWPAC Department of Sustainability Environment Water Population and Communities
SOx Sulphur oxides
SPO Sedimentation Pond Outfall
TBT Tributyltin
TCF Trillion cubic feet
Train LNG processing section of the plant
USEPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
UXO Unexploded Ordinance
v/v Volume by volume
VOC Volatile Organic Compound
WM&PC Act Waste Management and Pollution Control Act (NT)

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2 INTRODUCTION

2.1 BACKGROUND

ConocoPhillips Pipeline Australia Pty Ltd (COP) operates the DLNG Plant on behalf of DLNG
Pty Ltd. Equity ownership of the Darwin LNG plant is held by the following companies, through
various affiliated entities: ConocoPhillips, Eni, Santos, INPEX, Tokyo Electric and Tokyo Gas.
Construction of the Darwin Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant commenced in June 2003 and the
plant was commissioned in the first quarter of 2006 when LNG sales commenced.

The DLNG Plant receives dry natural gas from the ConocoPhillips-operated Bayu-Undan Field
(located in the Timor Sea Joint Petroleum Development Area) via the 502 km-long Bayu-Darwin
Pipeline, for the purpose of producing LNG for export. The buyers of LNG are Tokyo Electric
Power Company Inc. and Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. The point of sale of the LNG product is when the
LNG is loaded onto purpose–built LNG carriers, provided by the LNG buyers, at the DLNG Plant
jetty. The LNG is shipped to Japan by the buyers and used for power generation by Tokyo
Electric Power Company Inc., and gas distribution and sales to residential, industrial and
commercial customers by Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd.

The Darwin Liquefied Natural Gas Plant (DLNG Plant), located at Wickham Point, Darwin, has a
maximum instantaneous capacity, or nameplate capacity, equivalent to 3.7 million tonnes per
annum (MTPA). The 3.7 MTPA DLNG Plant is the first train of a nominal 10 MTPA LNG Plant.

2.2 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE OEMP

This document is the environmental management plan for DLNG Plant operations. The
upstream battery limit of the DLNG Plant is defined as the beach valve of the Bayu-Undan to
Darwin gas export pipeline, located on Wickham Point. The downstream battery limit is the LNG
loading arms of the jetty. The Operations Environmental Management Plan (OEMP) excludes
activities performed by third parties outside the control of COP.

The purpose of the OEMP is to ensure implementation of the requirements of the Exceptional
Development Permit (EDP) and the Environment Protection Licence (EPL).

2.2.1 Exceptional Development Permit

The Exceptional Development Permit (EDP) allows schemes which would otherwise be
prohibited under the Northern Territory Planning Scheme to progress under specific conditions.
Issued by the Minister for Lands and Planning the holder of the permit (DLNG Pty Ltd) must
comply with the EDP throughout the construction, operation and decommissioning phase of the
development.

The DLNG EDP 02/0015 was issued by the Northern Territory Minister for Lands and Planning
on 11 November 2002 for the development of a 10 MTPA LNG Plant in two stages. Subsequent
Variation Permits have been issued and currently the permit is operated under EDP02/0015F
issued on 9 July 2009.

The EDP is included in full in Attachment 2.

2.2.2 Environment Protection Licence

The Environment Protection Licence (EPL) is issued under Section 34 of the Northern Territory
Waste Management and Pollution Control Act 2009. The EPL is required for DLNG as it is
operating premises for processing hydrocarbons so as to produce, store and/or dispatch
liquefied natural gas or methanol in excess of 500,000 tonnes annually.

The DLNG EPL-LNG 01 was issued by the Executive Director of the Environment Protection
Authority on 9 December 2005 for the production of LNG and natural gas liquids at the DLNG

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production plant at Wickham Point, with nameplate production capacity equivalent to 3.7 MTPA.
Subsequent licenses have been issued as follows:

• EPL-LNG 01 issued 25 September 2009;

• EPL 54-02 issued 7 October 2010;

• EPL 54-03 issued 12 July 2012;

• EPL 54-04 issued due to minor administrative changes;

• EPL 54-05 issued due to minor administrative changes. The expiry date on the issued
updates remained the 18 May 2017

This EPL provides an Environment Protection Objective (EPO), Beneficial Use Declaration
(BUD) and specific Environmental Interests related to the site. The EPO is a statutory instrument
to establish principles on which:

a) Environmental quality is to be maintained, enhanced, managed or protected;

b) Pollution, or environmental harm resulting from pollution, is to be assessed, prevented,


reduced, controlled, rectified or cleaned up; and

c) Effective water management is to be implemented or evaluated.

Beneficial Use Declaration (BUD) is a legislated process that reduces the effects of water
pollution and assists in the protection and management of water. The community decides how a
particular water body should be used by choosing on one or more Beneficial Use categories.

The EPO and BUD are detailed as:

• Northern Territory of Australia, Environment Protection (National Pollutant Inventory)


Objective, as in force at 7 January 2004;

• Declaration of Beneficial Uses and Objectives, Darwin Harbour Region, Northern


Territory Government Gazette No. G27, 7 July 2010; and

Environmental Interests highlight sensitivity of the surrounding land use and environment
associated with the location which represents an interest to the Northern Territory Government
and the community and is detailed as:

• Sites of Conservation Significance, SOCS Number 6, (NT Parks and Conservation


Masterplan Map Number 12).

EPL 54-05 commenced on 15 July 2012 and expires on 18 May 2017. The licence can be
renewed between 90 and 30 days prior to the expiry date.

Specific EPL 54-05 requirements, in addition to those detailed within this report include:

• Licensee must notify NT EPA within 24 hours if there are changes to the details of the
24-hour emergency contact as provided on page one of this Licence.

• Licensee must notify NT EPA within 14 days if there are changes to the Licence details
shown on page one of this Licence

• Licensee must cause clear and legible signage to be displayed in a prominent location at
the Wickham Point Road entrance to the Location including the following details:

ο EPL number issued under the Waste Management and Pollution Control Act;
and

ο 24 hour emergency contact details as provided on page one of this Licence.

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• All notices, documents or other correspondence required to be provided pursuant to this


Licence must be provided in both hard and electronic form unless otherwise specified as
a condition of this Licence.

The EPL is included in full in Attachment 1.

2.3 HSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FRAMEWORK

DLNG operates under the ConocoPhillips Health Safety Environment Management System
(HSEMS) framework to protect people, assets and the environment.

The HSEMS comprise 15 individual elements. The elements are interrelated and the full
implementation of each element is essential for the effective functioning of the system as a
whole. The 15 elements are based on the continuous improvement cycle with phases of Policy &
Leadership, Plan, Do, Assess and Adjust. Each phase includes one or more key elements as
shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 ABU HSEMS Elements

The COP Management System (HSEMS) Standard does not dictate how the management
system should be implemented; only what it must include.

The COP Australian Business Unit (ABU) HSEMS manual is the over-arching business unit
process and sets element goals for the individual assets to achieve. This document provides a
link between the Corporate (COP) HSEMS and the ABU HSEMS.

The primary purpose of the OEMP is to:

• Define the environmental performance objectives, targets and key performance


indicators with respect to statutory and corporate requirements;

• Document the DLNG facility Operations Environmental Management Strategies


(environmental performance standards) in relation to the aforementioned requirements;
and

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• Provide direction (by way of cross-references) to other related HSEMS documentation


(depicted in Figure 2) that implements the requirements of the 15 HSEMS standard
elements and the Environmental Management Strategies.

Figure 2 shows supplementary ABU HSEMS documentation supporting the requirements of the
15 HSEMS standard elements and the environmental management strategies. The one-
directional arrows on Figure 2 depict an information or performance driver input to the OEMP.
The two-directional arrows depict an on-going information exchange relationship between the
OEMP and other documentation. Components of the ABU HSEMS are depicted in blue.

Legislative
Public Environmental Requirements
CoP Corporate
Report and EIS
Standards, Guidelines ABU-W HSE MS
Industry Codes and and Procedures documentation
Contracts
Standards
NT and Commonwealth
Government
Assessment Reports Safety Report

Exceptional Hazard Registers


Waste
Development Permit & DLNG OPERATIONS Management
Variations ENVIRONMENTAL Plan
Health & Hygiene
MANAGEMENT PLAN Management Plan

Environment Protection
Licence (under WMPC Operations
Act) Procedures

Supply Chain
HSE Procedures
Procedures

Emergency and Spill Maintenance Asset Integrity


Response Plans Third Party Contractor Procedures Procedures
Plans and Procedures

Figure 2 ABU HSEMS Related Documentation

2.4 OEMP STRUCTURE AND CONTENT

The Australian Commonwealth Government Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism


Guidelines for Preparation of an Environment Plan were used as a best practice reference guide
for defining the content and structure of the OEMP.

The following sections of this OEMP explain the implementation and functioning of the
environmental management process as depicted in Figure 1:

• Section 2 describes the socio-economic and environmental setting for the DLNG Plant.

• Section 3 defines the operating context, providing an overview of the DLNG Plant,
operational activities, and the relevant legal and corporate performance objectives and
requirements.

• Section 4 describes the hazard identification and environmental risk assessment


processes, and summarises the findings of the DLNG Plant Operations risk assessment.

• Section 5 documents the Environmental Management Strategies, including


performance objectives, targets, key performance indicators, and the key processes for
their implementation within the ABU HSEMS framework.

• Section 6 outlines the emergency response arrangements.

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• Section 7 lists the references cited in the OEMP.

Attachments 1 and 2 include current versions of the EPL (EPL 54-05) and the EDP
(EDP02/0015)

2.5 OEMP OWNERSHIP AND REVIEW

The DLNG Plant OEMP is a controlled document residing in the ABU HSEMS. The ABU West
HSE Department is responsible for ensuring that the OEMP and other related ABU HSEMS
documents are reviewed and revised to maintain their accuracy and currency.

Reviews and revisions of the OEMP and associated ABU HSEMS documents are to be
undertaken in accordance with the ABU Management of Change process and document control
requirements of the ABU HSEMS.

In particular, reviews and revisions shall be performed whenever one or more of the following
circumstances arise.

• Changes in relevant regulatory requirements and/or industry codes and standards.

• Changes in HSE management practices and/or operational management of the facilities.

• Changes in plant performance or significant modification of the facilities.

• Additional relevant information regarding environmental hazards and risks becomes


available from sources including, but not limited to, operational experience,
environmental surveys and monitoring data.

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3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT

The socio-economic and environmental setting of the DLNG Plant is described in the Darwin
LNG Plant Draft Environmental Impact Statement and the Darwin 10 MTPA LNG Facility Public
Environmental Report.

The following key information provides the context for the environmental management strategies
presented in Section 5.

3.1 LOCATION

The DLNG Plant is located at Wickham Point on the Middle Arm Peninsula in Darwin Harbour
(Figure 3).

The DLNG Plant is located approximately 6 km south to south-east of Darwin, and 4 km north of
Channel Island Power Station. Access to the DLNG Plant site is via Wickham Point Road, from
Channel Island Road along Middle Arm Peninsula.

3.2 LOCAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONTEXT

3.2.1 Land Use and Zoning

The NT Planning Scheme Litchfield zoning map shows the area occupied by the DLNG Plant at
Wickham Point (Sections 1860 and 1870 to 1873, Hundreds of Ayers) is zoned for Future
Development (Figure 3).

A significant proportion of Middle Arm Peninsula, to the south and east of Wickham Point, is
gazetted for Open Space Conservation (OC) land use where further industrial development is
restricted.

3.2.2 Local Population and Land Uses

The nearest major residential populations in proximity to the DLNG Plant include Palmerston to
the north-east of Middle Arm Peninsula (approximately 10 km by direct line of sight from the
DLNG site), and the Darwin central business district (approximately 6 km by direct line of sight
from the DLNG site) (see Figure 3).

Current land uses of Middle Arm Peninsula in the vicinity of the DLNG Plant include:

• Industrial land use at Channel Island (PWC power station, LPG storage and unloading
facility, and the Darwin Aquaculture Centre);

• Aquaculture lease areas on Middle Arm Peninsula, to the south of Channel Island Road;
and

• INPEX LNG plant at Blaydin Point (currently under construction).

• Recreational uses, reflecting the popularity of Darwin Harbour for recreational boating
and fishing. In particular, Channel Island Bridge is a popular local fishing location.

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Figure 3 DLNG Plant Location and Adjacent Land Use Zoning Map

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The most intensive use of Darwin Harbour is commercial shipping, recreational boating and
fishing, tourism and naval activities.

Prawn farms located to the south of Wickham Point (known as Aussie Prawn Farm and Golden
Prawns) are DLNG Plant’s nearest neighbours. When in use, these farms are seasonally active
during the day. Sleeping quarters are available.

East Arm Port is to the north-east of Wickham Point. It is a significant active Port development
used by a range of maritime industries.

Fishing effort in Darwin Harbour is estimated at over one million hours per year. It accounts for
around half of NT fishing effort. Slightly more fishing is undertaken from boats than from the
shore. Around 18% of the population of Darwin own a boat – the vast majority of them
powerboats. In total, some 800,000 fish are caught in Darwin Harbour per year. The most
commonly caught fish are snapper species, followed by catfish, whiting, emperors and
barramundi. In addition mud crabs are caught.

3.2.3 Indigenous Heritage Values

Wickham Point is considered to be of particular significance for the Larrakia people. The
significance of Wickham Point to Aboriginal people flows from four sources:

• It has played a part in particular periods of Aboriginal history;

• Aboriginal people may have been buried on Wickham Point in the past;

• Adjacent marine areas are used as a source of food; and

• Wickham Point is of spiritual significance to all Larrakia people.

No Aboriginal burial grounds are known on Wickham Point. It is possible that burials occurred
near the Leprosarium site at the northern extremity of the peninsula (Figure 4). This site is well
away from the DLNG Plant site and is not to be disturbed.

A number of middens discovered within and adjacent to the plant boundary were subject to
investigation, in consultation with the former Heritage Branch of DIPE (Figure 4). Shell middens
are the most commonly recorded type of archaeological site in the Darwin region.

3.2.4 European Heritage Values

Wickham Point and other areas surrounding Darwin Harbour have significant European heritage
values. Of the many heritage shipwrecks in Darwin Harbour, only the USAT Mauna Loa and
USAT Meigs are situated close to the Bayu-Darwin Pipeline.

An archaeological study of Wickham Point confirmed the area holds some significance as a
training base for the Z-Force military during World War II years, and artefacts (including concrete
slabs from a relic search light camp) have been recorded on Peak Hill and surrounding areas.
These artefacts have since been documented and temporarily stored off-site. Interpretative
signage has been established at the Esplanade Park in the centre of Darwin.

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Figure 4 Known Heritage and Archaeological Sites Adjacent to the DLNG Plant Site

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The remains of the ‘Mud Island’ leprosarium are located on a sandy beach ridge forming the
northern extremity of Wickham Point. This is well away from the DLNG Plant site and will not be
disturbed.

Unexploded ordnance (UXO) has been found on Wickham Point, remaining from Z-Force
activities, and Japanese aerial attacks and bombing of Darwin in 1942. Discovered UXO have
been removed and surveys were undertaken during the DLNG Plant construction phase to
ensure the DLNG Plant site is clear of UXO.

3.3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

3.3.1 Climate and Meteorology

Darwin is situated in the monsoonal (wet/dry) tropics of northern Australia and experiences two
distinct seasons: a hot, wet season from November to April and a warm, dry season from June
to September. May and October are transitional months between the wet and dry seasons.

Distinctive seasonality of rainfall is the most distinguishing feature of the regional climate. A pre-
wet season transitional period, commonly referred to as the build-up, occurs during October and
November. Irregular thunderstorms characterise this period prior to the onset of more
predictable rain systems associated with monsoonal troughs that occur in the wet season.
Average annual rainfall for the Darwin region is 1,711 mm over an average of 111 rain days, with
most rainfall occurring during the wet season.

The strongest winds and heaviest rainfall are associated with the passage of tropical cyclones.
These occur at any time during the period November to April, and occur on average once every
two years. Prevailing winds during the wet season are light west to north-westerly, freshening in
the afternoon due to sea breezes. Prevailing winds in the dry season are the south-easterly
trade winds.

3.3.2 Noise

Noise surveys were undertaken to measure background (ambient) and construction noise at and
around the DLNG Plant site.

The results indicated that typical minimum noise levels at commercial/residential areas (e.g.
Darwin city, East Arm, Durack, Palmerston) ranged between 34.2 and 41 dB (A).

Noise modelling undertaken by Bechtel has predicted noise from the operational LNG plant will
not exceed a limit of 70 dB (A) on the property boundary. Levels at Darwin are predicted to be
well below 45 dB (A) during normal atmospheric conditions.

3.3.3 Air Quality

Monitoring data and emissions estimates (from the Darwin Air shed National Pollutant Inventory)
indicate that on a regional level the Darwin Air shed is generally considered to have good air
quality (Bechtel, 2001 and CSIRO, 2001). However, air quality (particularly particulates and NOx)
in the Darwin region is significantly affected by point sources of pollution (notably Channel Island
Power Station) as well as regional emissions associated with dry season fires occurring at a
regional scale.

Baseline ambient air quality monitoring was undertaken by Darwin LNG in 2004-05, and a follow
up study of similar scope was conducted in 2008. The 2008 follow-up air monitoring programme
indicated that ambient air quality in Darwin, as measured by Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and
Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) is very good. A distinct seasonal variation in NOx levels was noted, with
greater NOx concentrations in the dry season. This is likely to be associated with bushfire
plumes. No National Environmental Protection Measure (NEPM) standards were exceeded
during the entire monitoring programme.

In accordance with EPL 54-05, air and greenhouse gas emissions trigger values have been
assigned to DLNG. Monitoring results will be provided to NT Environment Protection Authority

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(NT EPA) within the yearly Monitoring Report. Air and greenhouse gas emissions relative to 3.7
MTPA production are displayed in Table 1 of Attachment 1.

3.3.4 Geology and Geomorphology

3.3.4.1 Wickham Point Geology and Soils


The bedrock consists of meta-sediments that have metamorphosed and undergone one major
deformation, producing steep dips and resulting in the pervasive north-north-east strike of the
strata. The Burrell Creek Formation present on Wickham Point consists of a sequence of
phyllite, siltstone, shale, sandstone and conglomerate.

Parts of the Koolpinyah surface are present on the peninsula, and take the form of laterite
deposits on bench areas of lower slopes or the flanks of the ridges and as extensive platforms
near sea level. There is a prominent ferricrete pavement near sea level that extends seawards
out to the low tide level. It forms a capping on the shallow near shore reefs.

Offshore subsurface stratigraphy is represented by 5 m to 9.5 m of sediment in the DLNG Plant


jetty head area, underlain by phyllite and meta-siltstone of the Burrell Creek formation.

3.3.4.2 Darwin Harbour Sediments


There are three main sources of sediment input to Darwin Harbour:

• Breakdown of rocks in the catchment area by weathering and erosion;

• Remobilisation of existing sediments, including partially consolidated sediments; and

• Sediments of biogenic origin, including those derived from corals.

Most harbour sediments are a mixture of all three types. There is a general annual cycle of
sediment deposition during the wet season and erosion during the dry. The seabed of Darwin
Harbour is dominated by gravel with a scour zone in the centre of the harbour. The intertidal
area off the point has fine sands and silts.

Tidal mudflats adjacent to Wickham Point comprise mangrove flats and salt flats. The mudflats
are composed of Quaternary marine alluvium, commonly with shell fragments and organic
matter in the mangrove zone and salt crusting on the salt flats. A broad intertidal flat lies in front
of the western mangrove fringe of Wickham Point. An expanse of exposed pavement supporting
three intertidal rock stacks occurs at the southern tip of Wickham Point.

3.3.5 Hydrology and Hydrogeology

Early Proterozoic sediments of the Burrell Creek Formation, comprising shale, siltstone,
sandstone, and phyllite underlie the DLNG Plant site on Wickham Point. Outcrop is limited to two
small sandstone ridges. A fine-grained sandy colluvium forms scree slopes on the base of the
ridges.

The Burrell Creek Formation, which underlies the peninsula, is generally impermeable and holds
only limited water in fractures. Minor volumes of groundwater may be retained in the colluvium
during the wet season. Groundwater stored in the colluvium and fractures is likely to be utilised
by the vegetation or lost through evaporation.

Several small creek lines flow from upland areas of Wickham Point to the harbour during the wet
season.

3.3.6 Estuarine Oceanography

Darwin Harbour is characterised by a macro tidal regime. Tides are predominantly semidiurnal
(two highs and two lows per day). The lowest spring tides of the year occur during October,
November and December.

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The Harbour is considered well protected, with wind-generated waves typically less than 0.5 m
in height, with periods of 2 - 5 seconds. The majority of waves are generated in the harbour or in
Beagle Gulf. Predicted wave heights during cyclones would be around 3 to 3.5 m.

Extreme high water levels at Wickham Point, taking into account cyclone storm surge, cyclone
wave set-up and astronomical tide, are estimated to be 3.8 m (10 year return period), 5.1 m (100
year) and 6.4 m (1,000 year).

3.3.7 Estuarine Physico Chemical Characteristics

Water salinity in Darwin Harbour varies considerably during the year, due to greater freshwater
inputs during the wet season. Salinity throughout the harbour is about 37 parts per thousand
(ppt) during the dry season, with surface and bottom depths having similar salinity. Salinity in the
middle of the harbour can decrease to 27 ppt at the height of monsoonal inflow during March.
Salinity in the arms are more influenced by freshwater inflow and can be as low as 17 ppt. The
water at this time is highly stratified, with the bottom salinity being as much as 12 ppt higher than
on the surface.

Ambient water temperature in Darwin Harbour is relatively high, between 31 ºC and 32 ºC for
most of the year although it can decrease to about 29 ºC during the peak of the wet season.

Light levels reaching the sea surface in Darwin Harbour are relatively high. The turbidity of the
water rapidly dissipates light and light levels even a few metres below the surface can be very
low. This is particularly so during the wet when turbidity levels are very high.

3.3.8 Harbour Water Quality

Water quality in Darwin Harbour is generally high, even though naturally turbid for most of the
time. Many water quality parameters in the harbour are affected by seasonal, spatial and tidal
factors (e.g. turbidity, total suspended solids and chlorophyll a).

Current levels of nutrient discharges have not greatly affected water quality in the harbour. This
is a likely result of dilution factors and the harbour’s strong tidal current flow regime. The waters
of Darwin Harbour were declared to have beneficial uses for the protection of aquatic
ecosystems, recreational water quality and aesthetics under the Northern Territory Water Act in
1996, in accordance with the objectives and criteria defined in the former Australian and Zealand
Environment and Conservation Council, and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of
Australia and New Zealand (ANZECC & ARMCANZ) Guidelines.

Objectives for surface water quality have been produced due to Darwin Harbour having
Declaration of Beneficial Uses (NRETAS, 2010). As such Darwin Harbour Water Quality
Objectives (DHWQO) are provided for specific parameters present in discharge to the harbour.
Given the location of the DLNG site the interim ambient guideline values and water quality
objectives for priority indicators of the Darwin Harbour are for the mid-estuary region.

In addition to the DHWQO specific surface water discharge trigger values are provided for
authorised discharge points within the EPL 54-05 and are detailed in Table 2 of Attachment 1.

3.3.9 Harbour Sediment Quality

Geochemical investigations of marine sediments at the head of the product loading jetty and
along the length of the construction dock were undertaken in 2002. The findings indicated
concentrations of all metals except arsenic were below ANZECC and ARMCANZ screening
levels at all sites. Arsenic concentrations at all but one site exceeded the ANZECC and
ARMCANZ screening level, but not the maximum level. Hydrocarbons were below the analytical
detection limit in all five samples. All samples tested for tributyltin (TBT) were below detection
limits.

3.3.10 Ecosystems and Vegetation Communities

3.3.10.1 Vegetation Communities of Wickham Point

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The vegetation of the Wickham Point end of Middle Arm Peninsula comprises extensive
intertidal areas supporting mangrove forests and salt flats that completely surround two upland
or hinterland areas rising to a maximum elevation of 32 m at Peak Hill.

The hinterland areas surrounding the DLNG Plant are largely vegetated with dry monsoon
rainforest. Limited areas of paperbark-dominated woodland occur on Wickham Point. The major
plant community is monsoon rainforest, also known as dry rainforest, vine forest or vine thicket,
which covers the majority of Wickham Point.

The floristic zones of the intertidal and dry land areas are depicted on Figure 5.

The intertidal areas include:

• Seaward mangrove area;

• Shoreline mangrove area;

• Tidal Creek mangrove area;

• Mid Tidal Flat mangrove area;

• Hinterland fringe mangrove area;

• Mixed species low woodland; and

• Samphire/salt flat.

The hinterland areas include:

• Beach;

• Dry rainforest (dense canopy);

• Dry rainforest (mid-dense canopy);

• Littoral woodland;

• Melaleuca Woodland; and

• Sedgeland and grassland.

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Figure 5 Vegetation Communities of Wickham Point

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3.3.10.2 Darwin Harbour Habitats


Rocky intertidal shores predominant the margins of headlands of Darwin Harbour. Extensive
mangrove assemblages occur in the upper intertidal zone, with mud and sand flats in the lower
intertidal zone. There are few sandy beaches in the harbour.

Coral communities occur at limited locations in Darwin Harbour where the substrate is rocky in
the lower intertidal and subtidal zones. The subtidal rocks are dominated by algal communities.
The coral communities occurring in Darwin Harbour are considered to be at the limit of their
tolerance because of the turbid harbour water quality.

Seagrasses in Darwin Harbour are known to occur off Mandorah, Talc Head, Weed Reef,
Wickham Point and between Channel Island and the mainland. The seagrasses are typically
very sparse, primarily comprising Halodule uninervis and Halophila decipiens with some
Halophila ovata and Cymodocea serrulata.

3.3.11 Fauna

Five fauna habitat types are recognised and described at Wickham Point. These include
eucalyptus open forest; mangroves, margins and samphire; monsoon rain forest; paperbark
woodland; and intertidal flats. Fauna records below were gathered through field surveys during
September 1996 (dry season) and February 1997 (wet season). Reference to existing
documentation and databases were also made, further details are available in Appendix I of the
Draft EIS.

3.3.11.1 Amphibians
All recorded frog species have been found in Eucalyptus open forest during the wet season.
Frogs are common in waterlogged areas with sedges. The most common species are Brown
Tree Frog (Litoria rothi) and Dwarf Tree Frog (L. bicolor).

3.3.11.2 Reptiles
Eleven species of reptiles have been recorded for the site, including one species of crocodile,
and 10 lizard species. The most commonly recorded species are small skinks of the genus
Carlia, of which three species have been observed. Carlia munda was the most abundant, and
was found in all non-marine habitats. Carlia amax was only observed around rocky areas in the
monsoon vine thickets. Two skinks, Glaphromorphus darwiniensis and G. douglasi, were
observed to be generally confined to the monsoon vine thickets and paperbark forest habitats.

Estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) occur in Darwin Harbour and are occasionally seen
on the mudflats and in the small mangrove creeks around Wickham Point.

Four species of water snake are specialised for life in mangroves, and are very likely to occur in
this area. These species are Bockadam (Cerberus rhynchops), White-bellied Mangrove Snake
(Fordonia leucobalia), Richardson's Mangrove Snake (Moron richardsoni) and Little File Snake
(Acrochordus granulatus).

3.3.11.3 Birds
Ninety species of birds have been recorded in the study area during field surveys. An additional
93 species are known to occur in Darwin Harbour. These and are likely to be present at
Wickham Point. The birds most commonly observed during previous surveys include Bar-
shouldered Dove (Geopelia humeralis), Sulphur-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua galerita), Helmeted
Friarbird (Philemon buceroides) and Yellow Oriole (Oriolus flavocinctus).

More bird species (57 species) were observed in mangrove-associated habitats than in any of
the other habitats. The next richest habitat was Eucalyptus open forest.

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A great deal of seasonal variation was observed in bird species composition and numbers
between two field surveys undertaken in the vicinity on the DLNG Plant site in September 1996
(dry season survey) and February 1997 (wet season survey). Similar numbers of species were
observed in each seasonal survey (67 in the dry; 62 in the wet), but only 38 species were
recorded on both field surveys, indicating the area has a very high proportion of transient or
seasonal migrant species compared to residents. These species are made up of groups such as
migratory waders and other wet season visitors. A number of wet season visitors have been
recorded during September, which is the usual time for the arrival of seasonal migrants.

Large nesting mounds of the Orange-footed Scrubfowl are a prominent feature of Wickham
Point.

3.3.11.4 Mammals
Fifteen mammal species (including two introduced species) have been recorded at Wickham
Point during field surveys in September 1996 and February 1997. The Northern Brown
Bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) is a common species at Wickham Point. Agile Wallabies
(Macropus agilis) are occasionally observed around the mangrove fringes and their tracks are
seen on the samphire flats.

Microchiropteran (insectivorous) bats have been recorded frequently in Eucalyptus open forest,
over tributaries and water bodies and using flyways on mangrove/open forest ecotones. Flying
Foxes (Pteropus alecto) are occasionally observed in mangrove areas.

Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and Irrawaddy River Dolphins (Orcaella
brevirostris) are commonly observed in the harbour. Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are known to
occur in Darwin Harbour, and in the vicinity of East and Middle Arms.

3.3.11.5 Aquatic Fauna


There are no permanent freshwater habitats on Wickham Point or the adjacent mainland
peninsula. Wet season freshwater habitats are present in some areas of the mainland peninsula.
It is likely that these seasonal freshwater areas provide breeding sites for some estuarine and
coastal freshwater fishes.

Harbour waters support a high abundance of resident and transient pelagic tropical fish species.

3.3.11.6 Introduced Species


Cats are established at Wickham Point and were probably well established before the
construction of the DLNG Plant. They currently appear to be present in relatively low numbers.
Unless there is any indication of a significant increase in cat numbers or there is identification of
a specific threat posed by cats to the survival of any vulnerable native species, there is no
reason to implement a cat control program at this time. Cat control in mainland situations is
impractical and not advocated by the Federal Department of Sustainability Environment Water
Population and Communities (SEWPAC).

Wild dogs are known to occur in the area as evident from tracks, scats and DLNG Plant staff
observations. These animals will continue to use the area and the number of wild dogs, although
relatively low will fluctuate in response to seasonal variations (resource availability). As with cats,
until proven as a pest or threat to site operations or a threat to the environment of Wickham
Point no action to manage these animals is currently required.

Cane toads are established at Wickham Point and may pose a threat to populations of native
predators. No indication of detrimental impacts by cane toads on the DLNG Plant operations or
environment has been reported.

The Port of Darwin has been determined to be free of introduced marine pest species. This is
despite detection of an infestation of the Black-striped Mussel (Mytilopsis sallei) in harbour
marinas in 1999. The populations were detected early and reportedly eradicated.

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3.3.11.7 Biting Pests


Biting insects (mosquitoes and midges) are common at Wickham Point. The mosquito
Ochlerotatus vigilax is considered to have the greatest potential as a pest and disease vector in
the area. It and several other species are known to be vectors for Ross River virus and Barmah
Forest virus. The freshwater mosquito, Culex annulirostris, is known to occur on Wickham Point,
albeit in low numbers, this mosquito can be a vector of Murray Valley encephalitis. Substantial
numbers of biting midges breed in the Wickham Point area.

A biting insect monitoring programme was undertaken by the Northern Territory Department of
Health and Community Services (DHCS) Medical Entomology Branch (MEB) during the
construction phase. A post-construction follow-up inspection was undertaken on the site by MEB
at the end of 2005, and recommendations provided for on-going site management during the
operations phase.

3.3.12 Conservation Values

All of the conservation areas in Darwin Harbour are distant from the DLNG Plant site. These
include the East Point and Doctor’s Gully Aquatic Life Reserves, Charles Darwin National Park
and the Channel Island coral community.

The coral community at Channel Island is listed on the Register of the National Estate and has
been declared a Heritage Place under the Northern Territory Heritage Conservation Act 1991.
The declaration is based on the presence of a relatively diverse coral community, which
demonstrates that a coral based community can survive in a highly turbid environment with large
tidal variations.

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4 OPERATING CONTEXT

4.1 INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this section is to define the operating context for environmental management of
the DLNG Plant activities, i.e. the inherent engineering design features of the facilities, and the
regulatory and policy context within which the DLNG Plant operates (Figure 6).

Figure 6 DLNG Plant Operating Context

4.2 DLNG PLANT COMPONENTS AND DESIGN STANDARDS

The DLNG Plant uses the ConocoPhillips Optimised Cascade LNG process. This is a mature
process technology first used in 1969 at the Kenai (Alaska) LNG plant. Major components of the
DLNG Plant include:

• Gas receiving facilities (including beach valve, pig receiver and meter station for the
Bayu-Undan to Darwin Gas Export Pipeline);

• Gas processing facilities to remove impurities and liquefy the natural gas;

• On-site power generation facility (OSPG);

• A single LNG product storage tank; and

• Plant infrastructure and utilities, including a LNG carrier loading jetty on the west side of
Wickham Point.

The key components of the DLNG Plant are listed in Table 1, and their inter-relationship
depicted in a process block diagram in

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Figure 7. The site layout is shown in Figure 8.

Table 1 Key Components of the DLNG Plant

Unit
Unit Name
Identifier
11 Inlet Receiving and Gas Measurement
12 Acid Gas Removal Unit
13 Dehydration and Mercury Removal
14 Propane Refrigeration
15 Ethylene Refrigeration
16 Liquefaction and Methane Compressor/Nitrogen Rejection Unit (NRU)
17 Heavies Removal/NGL Recovery
19 Flare/Vent/Incinerator System
20 Refrigerant Storage
21 Diesel and NGL Storage and Transfer
22 Fuel Gas System
24 LNG Storage/Loading
29 Effluent/Stormwater/Sewage Treatment
31 Power Generation and Standby Generation
32 Lube Oil Cooling Water System
33 Firewater System
35 Plant/Instrument Air
36 Demineraliser/Water Systems (service water)
37 Turbine Air Humidifier System (TAHS)
38 Steam Generation System
39 Nitrogen Storage and Vaporisation

The inlet feed gas preparation uses standard treatment processes tailored for the Bayu-Undan
gas feed composition and condition. Feed preparation consists of pressure reduction, acid gas
removal, dehydration and mercury removal.

The gas is subsequently fed to the refrigeration system where it is liquefied as the LNG product.
This achieved through a series of propane and ethylene chilling and compression units. Heavier
hydrocarbons and natural gas liquids (NGL) are removed during the chilling process. A small
amount of NGL (as LPG and/or condensate) may occasionally be recovered from the feed gas
and be consumed as fuel on site. Following chilling and liquefaction, the LNG is sent to storage
in the LNG tank before being piped to the jetty facility for loading onto LNG carriers.

Unit 19 is the flare and vent system. This includes a ground flare system (comprising one wet
and one dry flare), a marine flare and an acid gas incinerator. The wet flare is to burn waste
hydrocarbon streams that may contain water vapour and/or contain free liquid hydrocarbons and
water. The dry flare is to handle cryogenic hydrocarbons (vapour and liquid). The marine flare is
to handle LNG carrier tank purging vapors and flashed LNG vapors if the Boil Off Gas (BOG)
Compressor is out of service. The Acid Gas Incinerator is designed to burn and disperse the
acid gas from the Acid Gas Removal Unit. The incinerator is also equipped to burn flash gas.

Power generation is provided by turbine generators, two of which are duel fuel (gas/diesel). A
diesel fuelled black-start generator is also available.

Propane and ethylene for refrigerant are imported by truck or sea-going container transport and
stored on-site

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The locations of the primary atmospheric emission sources in the DLNG Plant are depicted in
Figure 9. Details of emission sources are provided in Table 2.

Table 2 DLNG Emission Sources

Emission
Operation/Process Further Information
Sources
Gas Refrigeration Gas Fuel gas is used in the liquefaction process to fuel
Compressor Compression refrigeration turbines.
Turbines
Power Onsite Power Fuel gas is used in power generation. Two of the five
Generation generator turbines are duel fuel (gas/diesel).
Turbines
Flaring Pilot gas, Wet, Dry Flaring of gas can occur during full or partial blow-
and Marine Flare down, emergency shutdown, plant re-start, export-
vessel cool down and pressure safety valve
operation. Flaring is a necessary activity that allows
for the safe combustion of flammable gases.
The flare system includes a ground flare system
(comprising one wet and one dry flare) and a marine
flare. The wet flare is to burn warm waste
hydrocarbon streams that may contain water vapour
and/or contain free liquid hydrocarbons and water.
The dry flare is to handle cryogenic hydrocarbons
(vapour and liquid). The marine flare is to handle
LNG carrier tank purging vapours and flashed LNG
vapours if the boil-off gas (BOG) compressor is out
of service.
Process Boilers Steam Generation Fuel gas is used in the boilers to generate steam.
Acid Gas CO2 Removal Native CO2 and some minor amounts of SO2 and
Incinerator CO (Acid Gas) are discharged from the Acid Gas
Incinerator
The Acid Gas Incinerator is designed to burn and
disperse the acid gas.
Venting from the Acid Gas Vent (CO2 If the AGI unit is shutdown methane and higher end
Acid Gas Removal) hydrocarbons are vented through the Acid Gas Vent.
Removal Unit The plant has a NRU Vent. Nitrogen rejection
Vent and equipment is necessary to meet fuel specification for
Nitrogen GE LM2500+ aero derivative turbines (i.e. reduction
Removal Unit of nitrogen in the fuel source). The NRU vent stream
Vent is routed to the adjacent BOC Helium plant on a
permanent basis, to provide feedstock for Helium
production. If the vent stream exceeds methane
thresholds, it is processed via the DLNG ground
flare.
Diesel Storage Localised The Diesel Oil Storage Tank is designed to transfer
Tank generation diesel oil to the Firewater Pump, Auxiliary Air
Compressor and the Standby Generator. Diesel can
also be used for filling the storage tank

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As-built features of the DLNG Plant to reduce greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions
include:

• GE LM2500+G4 aero-derivative turbines have a high relative thermal efficiency and


therefore lower fuel consumption.

• NRU vent flow directed to a helium plant adjacent the DLNG Plant unless there is a trip
associated with a higher than normal methane content, in which case it would be
directed to flare (since May 2010).

• Waste heat recovery system to recover heat from four gas turbine exhausts and use it
for various heating requirements in the plant. Two supplemental boilers support this
process.

• Equipment to recover vapour displaced from LNG carrier tanks during loading
operations, so as to minimise flaring from the marine flare during LNG carrier loading.

Process effluent is generated from three sources; reject waters from the reverse osmosis plant
(RO reject), sewage treatment plant (STP) and the oil/water separation and solids removal
system (Corrugated plate interceptor (CPI) and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF)). These
wastewater treatment streams are approved for discharge via on-site irrigation or the jetty outfall
and are detailed in Table 3.

Dedicated storm water settling (sedimentation) ponds are in place to treat storm water runoff
from process areas and site roads. The five clean water discharge points include ‘clean’ runoff
water (i.e. runoff that is generated by surface flow across areas of the plant outside any of the
process areas). The location of sedimentation ponds, stormwater outfalls and clean water
outfalls are shown in Figure 10.

Table 3 Authorised Discharge Points

Identification Description Location Discharge


SC-2914 Jetty Outfall 12.5235 S Demineraliser (RO) plant reject
130.8500 E water

SC-2913 Irrigation Water 12.5217 S TAHS / boiler blowdown and


130.8680 E water from the treated water
holding tank (including tertiary
treated sewage effluent and
process water treated through
the CPI and DAF)
SPO1 Sedimentation Pond Outfall 1 12.5236 S Stormwater runoff from
138.8670 E process area (including the RO
green sand filter backwash
discharge) and site roads.
SPO2 Sedimentation Pond Outfall 2 12.5175 S Stormwater runoff from site
130.8690 E roads and administration areas

SPO3 Sedimentation Pond Outfall 3 12.5237 S Stormwater runoff from site


130.8730 E roads and administration areas

Note – Clean water discharges do not form part of the authorised discharge locations as they are assumed
not to be impacted.

The Power and Water Corporation (PWC) supply fresh water for firewater and lube oil cooling
use. Some of the purchased water is further treated to produce demineralised water, for use in
the plant process.

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A small quantity of electricity from the Darwin grid is purchased from PWC and used to power
offices onsite. In 2009, infrastructure was installed to allow the DLNG Plant to supply backup gas
to the utility provider, PWC. Operational control of piping and associated infrastructure falls
under the responsibilities of the utility provider.

Other facilities on the DLNG Plant site include:

• Security guardhouse;

• Administration offices;

• Fire station and first aid building;

• Laboratory;

• Maintenance workshop; and

• Warehouse and storage compounds.

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NRU Vent
to BOC
Helium
Plant

Figure 7 DLNG Plant Process Block Diagram

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Figure 8 DLNG Plant Layout

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Figure 9 DLNG Plant Key Atmospheric Sources

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Figure 10 Location of Discharge Points, Sedimentation Ponds and Clean water Outfalls

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4.3 CONOCOPHILLIPS POLICIES

The key COP Corporate policies pertaining to the environmental management of the DLNG
Plant operations are the Sustainable Development Position, the Climate Change Position, and
the ConocoPhillips Company Health, Safety and Environment Policy which is fully covered in the
Australasia Business Unit HSE Policy. These commitments are incorporated in individual OEMP
environmental management strategies (see Section 5).

The policies are endorsed at the highest level of management in the corporation, i.e. the COP
President and Chief Executive Officer.

4.3.1 Sustainable Development Position

ConocoPhillips Company’s Sustainable Development Position makes nine commitments to


implement the principles of sustainability:

1. “Increase the availability of ever-cleaner energy”

2. “Be transparent and accountable by measuring and reporting both our financial and non-
financial performance”

3. “Operate to the highest safety standard”

4. “Positively impact communities where ever we operate”

5. “Minimize the environmental impact of our operations”

6. “Invest in the well-being and development of our employees”

7. “Constantly improve the energy and material efficiency of our operations”

8. “Practice and uphold the highest ethical standard”

9. “Ensure the long-term financial viability of the company”

4.3.2 Climate Change Position

The corporation’s Climate Change Position “Recognizes that human activity, including the
burning of fossil fuels, is contributing to increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere that can lead to adverse changes in global climate.”

ConocoPhillips (COP) considers greenhouse gas management to be a long-term issue. The


Australian Business Unit has developed a local Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. It is
used to manage all aspects of climate change in the Australian Business Unit (ABU).

4.3.3 Australian Business Unit HSE & SD Policy

The DLNG Plant operations are managed under the HSE & SD Policy of the ConocoPhillips
AustraliaBusiness Unit. This HSE & SD Policy directs development of the other elements of the
DLNG HSEMS. The Policy states that the ConocoPhillips Australia Business Unit will support
the following fundamental principles through our demonstrated actions:

• All injuries and releases can be prevented

• No work is so urgent or important that we cannot take the time to do it safely.

• All employees and contractors have the authority and the responsibility to stop work or
shutdown equipment, if concerns exist about safety, security, the environment or
property loss, without regard to loss of production.

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• Working safely is a condition of employment and each employee and contractor is


responsible for their own safety and the safety of those around them. All incidents are to
be immediately reported.

• We will safeguard our operations from process safety incidents by implementing


systems to ensure the integrity and reliability of our equipment and operational
capability.

• Managers and supervisors will demonstrate visible and active leadership that engages
all employees and contractors to manage HSE performance with clear authorities,
accountabilities and expectations.

• Employees and contractors are involved in comprehensive HSE audits and incident
investigations to seek timely corrective action.

• Sustainability is a factor in our ongoing operations as well as in planning and execution


of future projects.

• Business is conducted in a way that contributes to economic growth, a healthy


environment and vibrant communities in the areas we operate.

• Employee participation and ownership in community activities is encouraged.

4.4 LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND STANDARDS OF OPERATION

A list of key environmental legislation and standards pertaining to the operation of the DLNG
Plant is summarised in Table 4. This list is not exhaustive and requirements are subject to
change.

Controlled copies of Northern Territory environmental protection legislation can be found at the
NT Department of the Chief Minister’s website:

http://dcm.nt.gov.au/strong_service_delivery/supporting_government/current_northern_territory_l
egislation_database

CoP also obligations under Commonwealth legislation

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Table 4 Summary of Key Environmental Legislation and Standards Applicable to DLNG Plant Operations

Act / Regulation /
Objectives / Provisions Relevance to DLNG Plant Operations
Standard
Northern Territory Legal Requirements
Bushfires Act (NT) The Act establishes the Bushfires Council and provides for the prevention and Permits are required to light fires (e.g. for purpose of on-
control of bushfires in the Northern Territory. site incineration of packaging waste).
Fire breaks to be maintained between vegetation and other
flammable materials, and ignition sources.

Dangerous Goods Act and This Act relates to the handling of certain dangerous goods (DG) within the Northern Regulations stipulate requirements for the safe handling,
Dangerous Goods Territory. storage and transportation of dangerous goods, including
Regulations (NT) provision of adequate training for personnel, and suitable
DG hazard labelling, DG storage facilities and on-site
emergency response capability.
Division 2. Requirements for obtaining a Licence to store
DGs – applicable to DLNG Plant site.
Division 4. Requirement to notify authorities of a
Dangerous Occurrence.

Darwin Port Corporation Clause 16. Functions of Darwin Port Corporation. Darwin Port Corporation is Operation of the LNG loading facilities, as defined in the
Act and Port By-Laws (NT) responsible for the movement of all vessels within the Port limits. Darwin LNG Marine Terminal Handbook and Emergency
Response Plans, to be compliant with Darwin Port
Port officers act as Agents for the prevention, management and control of pollution Corporation requirements.
by oil in this jurisdiction.
Clause 29. Directions for movement and control of vessels within the Port, including
traffic, mooring and anchoring of vessels.

Environmental Offences The Act defines levels and penalties for environmental offences. Penalties in the event of causing environmental harm.
and Penalties Act (NT)

Fisheries Act (NT) It is illegal to pollute waters where the effect of the substance is that fish or aquatic Controls on offsite discharges to Darwin Harbour from
life are injured, detrimentally affected or the habitats, food or spawning grounds are DLNG Plant site are required to prevent water pollution.
detrimentally affected.

Heritage Conservation Act The Act provides for the recording, declaration, conservation and protection of A European heritage sites survey of the DLNG Plant site
and Heritage Conservation heritage and archaeological places and objects. was conducted prior to clearance for construction. Sites
Regulations (NT) remaining in situ are marked and must not be disturbed.
Approval must be sought and obtained before heritage sites or artefacts can be
disturbed or removed. A survey for heritage sites must be conducted prior to any
future site clearance work.

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Act / Regulation /
Objectives / Provisions Relevance to DLNG Plant Operations
Standard
NT Major Hazard Facilities This Code is adopted as best practice guidance by NT Worksafe, to guide industry to The DLNG Plant Operator committed to develop and
Standard and Code of implement and document a systematic process of hazard identification, risk submit a Safety Report to the NT Worksafe, documenting
Practice assessment, control and evaluation to ensure the safety of a major hazard facility. the measures taken to ensure the safe operation of the
DLNG Plant (a major hazards facility).

Marine Pollution Act and The objective of the Marine Pollution Act is to protect the marine and coastal Operation of LNG carriers and support vessels at the LNG
Marine Pollution environment from ship/boat sourced pollution. This includes litter/ rubbish, loading facilities, as defined in the Darwin LNG Marine
Regulations (NT) hydrocarbons and substances that may be hazardous to the marine environment Terminal Handbook and Emergency Response Plans, to
(including substances that may be in ballast and grey water). be compliant with requirements of this Act.

Northern Territory This Act creates the Aboriginal Areas Protection Authority, which issues (Sacred An Aboriginal sites survey of the DLNG Plant site was
Aboriginal Sacred Sites Act Sites) Certificates for specific areas. These certificates advise of sacred sites within conducted prior to clearance for construction. Sites
and Regulations (NT) an area. remaining in situ are marked and must not be disturbed.
Approval must be sought and obtained before sacred sites can be disturbed or A survey for Aboriginal sites must be conducted prior to
destroyed. any future site clearance work.

Planning Act and Planning Provides for the planning and control of the use and development of land, which may Development and use of area defined as 1860, 1870,
Regulations (NT) or may not be subject to a planning instrument. The planning instrument is the NT 1871, 1872 and 1873, Wickham Point, Hundred of Ayers,
Planning Scheme which consists of Development Provisions (town plans which must be in compliance with the conditions of Exceptional
specify land zoning), Land Use Objectives (planning policy) and Incorporated Development Permit EDP02/0015 and subsequent
Documents. Variations to the Permit. An application must be submitted
to obtain changes to Permit conditions.

Public Health Act and This regulation prescribes requirements for waste and sewage management, and Approval is required to install septic tanks and sewage
Public Health (General site housekeeping to prevent pollution of water courses, discourage breeding of treatment facilities on site. The DLNG Plant has obtained
Sanitation, Mosquito mosquitos and rats, and mosquito prevention such as drainage works and approval to install and operate a tertiary sewage treatment
Prevention, Rat Exclusion maintenance of drainage systems to avoid ponding of water and reed growth. plant.
and Prevention)
Regulations (NT) Site housekeeping procedures to ensure appropriate
storage and handling of waste, and inspection and regular
cleaning and treatment of potential mosquito and feral rat
breeding habitats.

Soil Conservation and Makes provision for the prevention of soil erosion and for the conservation and Activities on site that may lead to erosion and
Land Utilisation Act (NT) reclamation of soil. sedimentation, or disturbance of sediments must be
controlled to minimise adverse impacts.

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Act / Regulation /
Objectives / Provisions Relevance to DLNG Plant Operations
Standard
Territory Parks and Wildlife An Act to establish Territory Parks and other Parks and Reserves, and to study, Section 48. Feral animal control areas. The Minister may
Conservation Act, By-laws protection, conservation and sustainable utilisation of wildlife. declare an area of land in respect of the wildlife, habitat,
and Regulations (NT) ecosystem, vegetation or landscape to be a feral animal
"Wildlife" means: control area.
(a) animals and plants that are indigenous to Australia; Section 49 (1).The Director may, by notice in writing,
(b) animals and plants that are indigenous to the Australian coastal sea or the require the owner or occupier of land in a feral animal
sea-bed and subsoil beneath that sea; control area to undertake the measures specified in the
notice for the control or eradication of a feral animal on the
(c) migratory animals that periodically or occasionally visit Australia or the land.
Australian coastal sea;
Section 43 (1). All wildlife that: (a) is in a park, reserve,
(d) animals and plants of a kind introduced into Australia, directly or indirectly, sanctuary, wilderness zone or area of essential habitat; or
by Aboriginals before the year 1788; and (b) is a vertebrate that is indigenous to Australia, is
(e) other animals and plants as are prescribed. protected wildlife. (2) The Regulations may prescribe
species of wildlife that are protected wildlife.
The management of wildlife is to be carried out in a manner that promotes:
Section 66 (1). A person must not take or interfere with
(a) the survival of wildlife in its natural habitat; protected wildlife unless the person is authorised to do so
under this Act.
(b) the conservation of biological diversity within the Territory;
Wildlife are present on Wickham Point. DLNG Plant site
(c) the management of identified areas of habitat, vegetation, ecosystem or
activities must be conducted so as to avoid disturbance
landscape to ensure the survival of populations of wildlife within those
and minimise adverse impacts to wildlife and their habitat.
areas;
Feral animal surveillance monitoring is to be undertaken on
(d) the control or prohibition of (i) the introduction or release of prohibited
the DLNG Plant site.
entrants into the Territory; and (ii) any other act, omission or thing that
adversely affects, or will or is likely to adversely affect, the capacity of
wildlife to sustain its natural processes; and
(e) the sustainable use of wildlife and its habitat.

Waste Management and The Act places general environment protection duties on persons to not undertake Schedule 2. An Environment Protection Licence is required
Pollution Control Act and an activity that pollutes or might pollute the environment unless the person takes all to operate premises for processing hydrocarbons so as to
Waste Management and reasonable and practicable measures to prevent or minimise any resulting produce, store and/or despatch liquefied natural gas where
Pollution Control environmental harm. the premises are designed to produce more than 500,000
(Administration) tonnes annually. The Environment Protection Licence and
Regulations (NT) subsequent variations issued for the DLNG Plant stipulates
performance and reporting criteria.

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Act / Regulation /
Objectives / Provisions Relevance to DLNG Plant Operations
Standard
Waste Management and The Act provides for implementation of Commonwealth National NEPMs in NPI NEPM includes substances that will be emitted from
Pollution Control Act and conjunction with the National Environment Protection Council (Northern Territory) the DLNG Plant. Clause 3 Environment Protection (NPI).
Environment Protection Act. The Environment Protection (National Pollutant Inventory) (NPI) Objective
(National Pollutant pertains to emissions of solid, gaseous and liquid substances (as defined by column Objective: The occupier of premises at which a reporting
Inventory) Objective (NT) 1 of the NPI NEPM) to the environment in pure form or contained in other matter. threshold for a substance is exceeded during a reporting
period must provide a report in an approved form to NT
EPA by 30 September for the previous reporting period (1
July to 30 June).

Water Act and Water Provides for the investigation, use, control, protection, management and Darwin Harbour (and marine reaches of rivers and creeks
Regulations (NT) administration of water resources within the NT. Under this Act, the waters of Darwin draining into the Harbour) are declared Beneficial Uses for
Harbour (and the marine reaches of rivers draining into it) were declared to have the purposes of “Aquatic Ecosystem Protection and
“beneficial uses” for the protection of aquatic ecosystems, recreational water quality Recreational Water Quality and Aesthetics”.
and aesthetics. It is an offence under this Act to pollute the declared waterways and
impact on the beneficial uses. Division 2 Section 45. Licences are required to Take or
Use Water (including surface water from Darwin Harbour).
Section 74. Licence is required to discharge waste to
natural waters. An Application for a Waste Discharge
Licence is required for wastewater discharges to Darwin
Harbour and creeks or rivers draining into the Harbour.
DLNG operations to assess Jetty Outfall water quality
against mid-estuary Darwin Harbour Water Quality
Objectives. Where the DHWQO cannot be met for the Jetty
Outfall site specific values will be developed (in accordance
with EPL 54-05).

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Act / Regulation /
Objectives / Provisions Relevance to DLNG Plant Operations
Standard
Weeds Management Act The Act classifies weeds and requires specific weeds to be dealt with under the There is potential for introduction of declared weeds to the
2001 and Regulations (NT) provisions of the Act. DLNG facilities site via vehicular and pedestrian traffic, and
wind-borne incursions.
Section 9 (1). The owner and occupier of land must:
The site environmental monitoring procedures must include
(a) take all reasonable measures to prevent the land being infested with a surveillance for and management of declared weeds.
declared weed;
(b) take all reasonable measures to prevent a declared weed or potential weed
on the land spreading to other land; and
(c) within 14 days after first becoming aware of a declared weed that has not
previously been, or known to have been, present on the land, notify an
officer of the presence of the declared weed.
(2) The owner and occupier of land on which a declared weed or potential weed
is present must comply with a weed management plan relating to the weed.
(3) The owner and occupier of land on which a potential weed is present must
dispose of the weed only on the land or at a designated weed disposal area.

Work Health and Safety The Work Health Act promotes occupational health and safety in the Territory to An employer is required to take a constructive role in
(National Uniform prevent workplace injuries and diseases, and to protect the health and safety of the promoting improvements in work health and safety
Legislation) Act 2011 and public in relation to work activities. A Safety Management Plan is required under the practices as assisting persons conducting businesses or
Regulations (NT) Act. undertakings and workers to achieve a healthier and safer
working environment
A licence is required for the operation of certain facilities.

Commonwealth Legal Requirements


Environment Protection Under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, any DLNG not to impact on nineteen listed threatened species
and Biodiversity development requires assessment if it has the potential to affect one or more of eight and 53 migratory species indicated under the Protected
Conservation (EPBC) Act matters of National Environmental Significance (NES), which are: Matters Search Tool (PMST) as occurring within 10 km of
1999 DLNG.
• World Heritage properties
• National Heritage places
• Wetlands of international importance (listed under the Ramsar Convention)
• Listed threatened species and ecological communities
• Migratory species protected under international agreements
• Commonwealth marine areas
• The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
• Nuclear actions (including uranium mines).

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Act / Regulation /
Objectives / Provisions Relevance to DLNG Plant Operations
Standard
Energy Efficiency Under the Energy Efficiency Opportunities Act 2006. DLNG is required to report annually on progress of energy
Opportunities (EEO) Act efficiency projects to the Federal government.
2006 Corporations must report publicly on the results of their energy efficiency
assessments and the opportunities that exist for projects with a financial payback of
up to four years. The focus is on the energy savings opportunities identified in the
assessment and the business response to those opportunities.

National Greenhouse and The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007 (NGERs) was passed on DLNG is required to report annually on greenhouse gas
Energy Reporting (NGER) 29 September 2007. emissions, energy consumption and energy production to
Act 2007 the Federal government.
The NGERs Act introduces a single national reporting framework for the reporting
and dissemination of information about the greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse
gas projects, and energy use and production of corporations. Under NGERs, There
are two types of thresholds at which corporations are required to participate – facility
thresholds and corporate thresholds. Each type of threshold has a greenhouse gas
and an energy threshold. If a corporation exceeds any one or more of the four
thresholds for each year, registration is required. Organisations that exceed these
thresholds must report their greenhouse gas emissions, energy production; and
energy consumption.

National Environment The National Environment Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality, established in See reporting requirements listed for Waste Management
Protection (Ambient Air 1998, specifies standards and goals for ambient levels of "criteria" air pollutants and Pollution Control Act Environment Protection (NPI)
Quality) Measure (Clth) considered to be general indicators of air quality in urban airsheds. The Ambient Air Objective
Quality NEPM requires that each Australian jurisdiction reports on general air quality,
breaches and trends based on monitoring network data.
In 2003, the Ambient Air Quality NEPM was varied to add an Advisory Reporting
Standard for Particulate Matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5).

National Environment The national environment protection goals established by this NEPM are to assist in Australian industrial facilities using more than a specified
Protection (National reducing the existing and potential impacts of emissions of substances and to assist amount of the substances listed on the NPI reporting list
Pollutant Inventory) government, industry and the community in achieving the desired environmental are required to estimate and report emissions of these
Measure (Clth) outcomes set out in Clause 5 of the NEPM by providing a basis for: substances annually. The NPI database can be viewed at:
http://www.npi.gov.au/
(a) the collection of a broad base of information on emissions of substances on
the reporting list to air, land and water; and
(b) the dissemination of information collected to all sectors of the community in
a useful, accessible and understandable form.

National Environment The Air Toxics NEPM is intended to facilitate management of air toxics in ambient air Although this NEPM will not carry monitoring obligations on
Protection (Air Toxics) that will allow for the equivalent protection of human health and wellbeing. The jurisdictions, it requires the NT Government to undertake a
Measure (NEPM) (Clth) NEPM lists five priority substances: benzene, toluene, xylenes, benzo-a-pyrene (as a desk-top assessment of air toxic “hot spots” and identify
marker for Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons) and formaldehyde. Other substances may possible sites that may be prioritised for monitoring for air
be included in the future. toxic pollutants.

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Act / Regulation /
Objectives / Provisions Relevance to DLNG Plant Operations
Standard
Industrial Chemicals Industrial chemicals are regulated by the Australian Government, administered by Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are required for all
(Notification and the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) industrial chemicals on-site.
Assessment) Act and and located within the Office of Chemical Safety.
National Industrial MSDSs required for products produced by DLNG Plant.
Chemicals Notification and NICNAS is the Australian Government regulatory authority for industrial chemicals. It
Assessment Scheme provides a national notification and assessment scheme to protect the health of the
(NICNAS) Regulations public, workers and the environment from the harmful effect of industrial chemicals;
(Clth) and assesses all chemicals new to Australia and assesses those chemicals already
used (existing chemicals) on a priority basis, in response to concerns about their
safety on health and environmental grounds.

Ozone Protection and The purpose of the Act is to implement the requirements of the Vienna Convention DLNG Plant to avoid use of ozone depleting substances.
Synthetic Greenhouse Gas and the Montreal Protocol, through a system of controls on the manufacture, import,
Management Act 1989 and distribution, use and export of substances that deplete ozone in the atmosphere.
Ozone Protection and
Synthetic Greenhouse Gas
Management Regulations
1995

Quarantine Act and The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) administers current AQIS is responsible for shipping inspections and
Quarantine Regulations legislation relating to quarantine matters. monitoring of potential introduced marine pests.
(Clth)
The Quarantine Act provides powers for quarantine officers to deal with quarantine Darwin LNG Marine Terminal Handbook to define
matters, sets out the legal basis for controlling the importing of goods, animals and requirements for LNG carrier waste and ballast water
plants and determines the offences for breaches of the Act. management (to be implemented by the vessel operator).
On July 1 2001, Australia introduced mandatory ballast water management
requirements to reduce the risk of introducing harmful aquatic organisms into
Australia’s marine environment through ship’s ballast water.

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5 HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT

DLNG Plant operations poses a potential source of risk to the surrounding environment. This
chapter details the methodology, outcomes (consequence and likelihood) of the operations
environmental risk assessment and links to the OEMP’s proposed management measures.

5.1 METHODOLOGY

The environmental hazard identification and risk assessment process applied to the DLNG Plant
is based on COP’s internal risk assessment methods. It is in accordance with the principles of
Australian Standard AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 (AS/NZS, 2009) and HB 203:2006 (AS/NZS,
2006). Key steps in this process include:

• Identifying aspects of the project that may impact the environment.

• Describing potential environmental impacts.

• Assigning a consequence rating to the potential impact (Table 5Error! Reference


source not found.)

• Assessing the likelihood of the potential environmental impact occurring considering


mitigation controls in place (Table 6)

• Determining the residual level of risk for each potential impact, with consideration of
existing mitigation controls (Table 7)

Risk control mitigations are designed to minimise adverse effects on the environment to as low
as reasonably practicable (ALARP).

The environmental aspects and sources of risk have been determined on the basis of the DLNG
Plant description, facility piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs), operating and
maintenance procedures and environmental performance since production operations
commenced.

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Table 5 Environmental Consequence Criteria

CONSEQUENCE SEVERITY Description (most severe down to least severe )


2,3 5,6
Negative Regulatory/
Envir Impact 1
Asset 1
Business 2
Public 1
Socio-Cultural Economic
Category 2,4
Safety
(Remediation)
Public 5
Biodiversity Impact Claims &
Damage Interruption Notification Impact
Image Litigation
Permanent lost access or use
of area with permanent
Catastrophic permanent
Fatality, Public reduction in community or
loss/extinction (100%) of
5 Hospitalization, or National Complete Area tribal quality of life; major
> $10 MM > $10 MM > $10 MM species, habitat or ecosystem. > $10 MM
Severe Health Coverage Evacuation economic impact to
Irrevocable loss, no mitigation
Effects surrounding community;
possible.
irrevocable loss of culture
resources.

Permanent partial restriction on


Serious loss or migration
Permanent access or use, or use, or total
(>50%) of species population,
Disability, restriction >10 years in
Selected Areas habitat or ecosystem. Partial
4 Multiple $1 MM to $10 $1 MM to $10 $1 MM to $10 Regional duration; temporary reduction
of Evacuation mitigation only possible $1 MM to $10 MM
Hospitalizations, MM MM MM Coverage in quality of life > 10 years
Notification through prolonged and
or Major Health duration; harm to cultural
resource intensive effort (>50
Effects resources requiring major
years).
mitigation.

Temporary restriction <10


Temporary, but reversible
One or More Lost years in duration with a
loss/migration of species
Time Workday moderate reduction in usage
3
$100 M to $1 $100 M to $1 State Shelter in Place population (<25%), habitat or
Cases or $100 M to $1 MM levels or quality of life; harm to $100 M to $1 MM
MM MM coverage Notification ecosystem. Moderate
Significant Health cultural resources recoverable
mitigation efforts required for
Effects through moderate mitigation
total reversal.
efforts.

Brief restriction <5 years in


Brief, but reversible
Medical duration with a minor reduction
loss/migration of species
Treatment with Local (Selected in usage levels or quality of life;
2
$10 M to $ Local population (<15%), habitat or
Restricted Duty or $10 M to $ 100M $10 M to $ 100M Phone/Leaf-Let minor harm to cultural $10 M to $ 100M
100M Coverage ecosystem. Minor mitigation
Medium Health Notice) resources that are recoverable
efforts required for total
Effects through minor mitigation
reversal.
efforts.

Restrictions on access without


Medical loss of resources; temporary Some minor loss/migration of
Treatment, Minor No but fully reversible impacts on species population (<10%)
1
No Outside
Health Effects, $ 0 to $10 M $ 0 to $10 M $ 0 to $10 M Communication quality of life; minor impact on habitat or ecosystem that are $ 0 to $10 M
Coverage
First Aid Case, or to Public cultural resources, landscapes, short term and immediately
Less traditions that are fully and completely reversible.
reversible without lost value.

1. Severity values for Asset Damage and Business Interruption are Corporate perspective. Each specific BU may need to adjust severity values as applicable.
2. The non-monetary severity columns (Safety, Public Image, and Public Notification) are independent of any monetary relationships and are not intended to be proportionally related to the
other Consequence Severity Categories.
3. Public image to reference resources such as major TV news channels or newspapers / periodicals and not necessarily internet carried articles. CNN coverage is National Coverage,
Reuters may not be.
4. See Guidance Document for definitions of Health Effects.
5. These categories are developed for more specific risk evaluations associated with the initial stages of Production (upstream) or Manufacturing / Processing (downstream) Projects.
6. Risk Mgmt and Remediation projects may find this category applicable, as well.
NOTE: Evaluation of the Consequence Severity is evaluated without safeguards in place. See the Risk Matrix Training Reference document for details on how to properly apply the risk matrix. Click on link
below.
Risk Matrix Training Reference document

Table 6 Likelihood Criteria

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Table 7 Risk Matrix and Ratings

Risk Matrix
5 II II III IV IV
4 I II III III IV
LIKELIHOOD

3 I II II III III
2 I I II II II
1 I I I I II
1 2 3 4 5
CONSEQUENCE

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5.2 ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT

Potential environmentally hazardous events are identified for seven broad environmental effects
categories:

• Atmospheric Emissions;

• Liquid Discharges;

• Heat, Noise and Vibration;

• Vegetation and Ecosystems;

• Waste Handling and Disposal;

• Socio-Economic Effects on Community Stakeholders; and

• Cultural Heritage Values.

The qualitative risk assessment identified a total of 53 potential risks. Two were assessed as
‘significant’, thirty were assessed as ‘medium’ and twenty one assessed to be ‘low’ residual
risk. Table 8 shows the risk assessment, with management and mitigation measures for each of
the potential risks.

Note: the risk ratings documented in Table 10 represent residual risk levels, i.e., the likelihood of
occurrence of an identified event and the associated consequence severity, taking into account
risk mitigation controls in place as a result of the hardware controls (engineering), operating
personnel competencies, operating plans and procedures, and emergency response plans and
arrangements.

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Table 8 Environmental Hazards, Potential Effects and Residual Risk Assessment

Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
Atmospheric Emissions (Greenhouse Gases, Air Pollutants and Ozone Depleting Substances)
A1 Planned – Exhaust and The refrigeration gas Propane turbines run on fuel gas 4 5 20 Strategy A3 –
Fuel Gas greenhouse gas compressors are the most produced at the plant. Fuel gas is Management
material source on site the cleanest fuel that could be Moderate Frequent Significant
Consumption emissions from of Exhaust
by Propane, propane contributing approximately used at the DLNG plant Stack
Ethylene and compressors gas 48.92% of the total GHG (compared to diesel). Exhaust Emissions
Methane turbines inventory gas stacks are equipped with
Compressors waste heat recovery units
Hot exhaust gas discharge (WHRUs), designed to recover
Gas Turbines
causes a local effect on heat for reuse in heaters
microclimate in the vicinity elsewhere in the process.
of the facilities.
GE LM-2500+ G4 aero-derivative
In 2008, ambient air gas turbines have a high thermal
monitoring results for efficiency (lower fuel
criteria pollutants (CO, consumption), and reduce NOx
NO2, PM-10 and SO2) emissions through water
indicate that maximum injection.
concentrations of these
pollutants in the ambient Improved control of fuel use and
environment at specified water injection is implemented
locations are well below through regular gas
Australian National compositional analysis.
Environment Protection
Measure standards and The NOx limit is set at 50 ppm
World Bank Guidelines. within the control system
resulting in improved equipment
longevity and exhaust emissions.
Position indicators are fitted on
fuel gas vent solenoids todetect
uncontrolled venting from the
system

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
A2 Planned – Exhaust and Onsite power generation Only two of the five OSPG Solar 3 5 15 Strategy A3 –
Fuel greenhouse gas accounts for Taurus 60’s with Solonox II Management
approximately 4.47% of technology for NOx control duel Moderate Frequent Significant
Consumption emissions from of Exhaust
by the OSPG the gas-fuelled the total GHG emissions fuel run on either fuel gas or Stack
Solar Taurus OSPG gas inventory. diesel. Emissions
60’s Turbines turbines (Note
Hot exhaust gas discharge The other three turbines run on
two of the five
causes a local effect on fuel gas only.
OSPG turbines
microclimate in the vicinity
are dual diesel/ The fuel source for the power
of the facilities.
gas-fuelled) generation compressors can be
The 2008 ambient air taken from the front end of the
monitoring results for plant (feed gas) or the back end
criteria pollutants (CO, of the plant (fuel gas).
NO2, PM-10 and SO2)
indicate that maximum Use of ultra-low sulphur diesel
concentrations of these fuel
pollutants in the ambient
environment at specified
locations are well below
Australian National
Environment Protection
Measure standards and
World Bank Guidelines

A3 Planned – fuel Exhaust gas Greenhouse gas Use of ultra-low sulphur diesel 1 5 5 Strategy A3 –
consumption emissions from emissions and air fuel Management
Negligible Frequent Medium
by the stand- the stand-by pollutants from fuel of Exhaust
by diesel diesel and black combustion. The stand-by Stack
generator and start generators diesel generator and the Emissions
the black start black start generator are
diesel only used occasionally.
generator

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
A4 Planned – Flaring of Flaring accounts for Radiation shield installed around 1 5 5 Strategy A1 –
Operation of hydrocarbons approximately 6.52% of ground flare to prevent radiation Management
the total GHG emissions effects to surrounding vegetation, Negligible Frequent Medium
Flare pilots through the wet of Flaring
and dry flares inventory. piping, roads and site staff.
(routine flaring Strategy E2 –
Minor residual radiation Plume modelling indicates no Management
emissions flare
from ground flare to direct impact to commercial of Native
pilots)
surrounding vegetation airport operations. Vegetation
and environment. Exhaust
gas from the ground flare Strategy S1 –
creates a plume of hot Management
gas, which eventually of Stakeholder
dissipates under the Relations
effects of plume buoyancy
and winds. Low potential
for nuisance to aircraft
operations.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
A5 Planned – Flaring of excess Consumption of natural The LNG vapour recovery system 2 5 10 Strategy A1 –
LNG ship LNG vapour resource (hydrocarbons). is designed to recover the LNG Management
Annual GHG emissions boil off vapour during ship loading Minor Frequent Medium
loading through the of Flaring
operations dedicated marine due to routine flaring operations and consequently
flare, including through the marine flare reduce the volume of LNG sent to Strategy E2 –
fuel gas, used for system (i.e. ship loading the marine flare. Management
purge and pilot operations and fuel gas of Native
flare purge) amount to Relatively low height of marine Vegetation
gas.
approximately 0.81% of flare and partial shielding by the
the total. LNG tank reduce the radiation
effects and light spillage on
GHG emissions inventory marine and terrestrial
(based on 52 LNG carriers environments.
off takes a year).including
2 off-spec ships. Unit 24 LNG ship loading
procedure
Emission of air pollutants
such as NOx and CO. Unit 24 Cargo Operations
Gassing Up of Inert Tankers
Radiation and heat and/or Extended Cool down of
dissipation to adjacent Warm Tankers
environment.
Visual effects from the
marine flare (visible from
Stokes Wharf, Darwin)
could attract/disrupt local
marine wildlife during night
time ship loading and
flaring operations.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
A6 Upset and Increased flaring Majority of flaring is non- Radiation shield around ground 2 5 10 Strategy A1 –
maintenance emissions routine flaring from the flare to prevent radiation effects Management
to surrounding vegetation, piping Minor Frequent Medium
flaring through through the wet ground flare associated of Flaring
the ground and dry flares increase in emissions of and roads, occasionally used by
flare (non-routine air pollutants such as site personnel. Strategy E2 –
flaring emissions) NOx, SO2 and CO. Management
Plume modelling indicates no of Native
Increase in noise levels
direct impact to commercial Vegetation
over ‘background’ routine
airport operations. Airport control
flaring noise levels. Strategy S1 -
centre will be notified well in
Minor residual radiation advance of planned non-routine Management
from ground flare to flaring operations. Emergency of Stakeholder
surrounding vegetation flaring will result in immediate Relations
and environment. Exhaust notification of airport control
gas from the ground flare centre.
will create a plume of hot
For the cases of high gas arrival
gas, which will eventually
pressure at the plant inlet, an
dissipate under the effects
Independent Safety Instrumented
of plume buoyancy and
System (ISIS) has been provided
winds. Low potential for
in addition to the SIS to prevent
nuisance to aircraft
over-pressurisation of the Inlet
operations.
Separator and downstream
equipment thus minimizing the
amount of flaring that would be
required upon failure of the inlet
control instrumentation.
Minor capital project on advanced
process control (APC) has made
production more reliable.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
A7 Upset/ Increased flaring Consumption of natural Non-routine marine flaring 2 4 8 Strategy A1 –
maintenance emissions from resource (hydrocarbons). estimate is based on tank heat Management
Annual GHG emissions Minor Probable Medium
flaring through the marine flare leakage when the liquefaction of Flaring
the marine (non-routine due to non-routine flaring plant is offline during shutdown
flare flaring) through the marine flare operations.
system have been
estimated at
approximately 5,130
tonnes CO2e per annum.
Associated increase in
emissions of air pollutants
such as NOx, SO2 and
CO.
Visual effects from the
flare (aesthetic effect).
Night-time flaring could
attract/ disrupt the local
marine wildlife’s habitat
due to light acting as an
attractant for fish and their
predators.

A8 Planned– Venting of Intermittent venting of Nitrogen rejection vent stream 1 4 4 Strategy A2 –


Venting of methane and GHG (methane and which contains methane was Management
nitrogen) to atmosphere. Negligible Probable Low
nitrogen rich Nitrogen through formerly vented to atmosphere. of Venting and
gas through the nitrogen vent Total annual NRU flow is This waste stream is now sold to Fugitive
3
the nitrogen approximately 28 kNm , of local domestic gas supplier as Emissions
vent this between 19 and 23 feedstock (off-site helium plant).
3
knm is sent to BOC. The On occasion when the flow is too
remainder is vented high for the helium plant, the
through the NRU vent. difference is vented to
atmosphere. When the helium
plant trips the NRU waste stream
is vented to atmosphere. High
methane content trips are
diverted to flare.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
A9 Planned – Venting of acid Occasional venting of Acid gas is normally burnt off in 2 5 10 Strategy A2 –
Acid gas gas, containing CO2 and methane (both the acid gas incinerator and Management
Minor Frequent Medium
venting when 99.85% CO2 and GHG) to atmosphere, vented only when the incinerator of Venting and
acid gas 0.13% methane amounting to is offline due to maintenance/ Fugitive
incinerator is to atmosphere. approximately 33.27% of malfunction. Reliability of the acid Emissions
offline the total inventory. gas incinerator has improved
since operations commenced.

A10 Planned – Venting of Venting of nitrogen and Prior to maintenance, all process 1 4 4 Strategy A2 –
Equipment nitrogen and residual hydrocarbon fluids will either be drained or Management
Negligible Probable Low
Maintenance residual gases (methane and flared where possible to minimize of Venting and
Venting hydrocarbons VOCs) to atmosphere. venting of hydrocarbons to Fugitive
through the flare Minor GHG emissions. atmosphere (equipment Emissions
system or through maintenance procedures).
local equipment
vents

A11 Unplanned – Release of Release of GHG Inventory isolation (Emergency 1 4 4 Strategy A2 –


Accidental hydrocarbons to (methane) and volatile Shutdown Valves) and plant Management
emergency depressurisation Negligible Probable Low
release of atmosphere organic hydrocarbons of Venting and
hydrocarbon (ethane etc.) to through the ground flare. Fugitive
gas from the atmosphere. Consumption Gas and fire detection and Emissions
process and/ of natural resources. emergency response systems.
or utilities
areas Preventative maintenance and
regular equipment inspections.
Process control system. Safety
Instrumented System and
Independent Safety Instrumented
System.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
A12 Unplanned – Release of Consumption of natural Process monitoring system and 1 4 4 Strategy A2 –
Accidental hydrocarbon resources (hydrocarbons). alarms. Safety Instrumented Management
Propane is not recognized System. Emergency shutdown Negligible Probable Low
release of gases to of Venting and
Refrigerants( atmosphere as a primary GHG (but is and inventory isolation/affected Fugitive
propane and known to participate, equipment isolation. Emissions
ethylene) along with NOx, in the
formation of troposphere Gas and Fire Detection Systems.
ozone and other Preventative
photochemical oxidants) maintenance/equipment
and has no ozone inspections and corrosion testing.
depleting potential. Material selection in design
Ethylene is a naturally phase. Operator area
occurring gas with no inspections. Operator training
known GHG or air and emergency response
pollutant. procedures.

Flammable gas, which if


not ignited, will rapidly
disperse in the
atmosphere.

A13 Planned – Fugitive VOC Minor emissions of volatile Vents typically located on tank 1 4 4 Strategy A2 –
Storage of emissions from hydrocarbons (typically tops to facilitate dispersion of Management
Negligible Probable Low
fuels (diesel diesel and peaking during fuel volatile emissions and provide of Venting and
and hydraulic/ hydraulic oil loading operations, when segregation from potential Fugitive
lube oils) storage tanks the vapour space in the ignition sources. Emissions
storage tanks is displaced
by liquid). Flame arresters on vents
provided for combustible fuel
storage tanks (e.g. diesel).

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
A14 Planned – Fugitive Negligible fugitive Area Inspection Weekly 1 4 4 Strategy A2 –
Collection of emissions from emissions from sumps, Checklist. Issues identified as Management
requiring further action are Negligible Probable Low
spills and process and containing liquid of Venting and
contaminated utilities area hydrocarbon spills or logged in SAP. Fugitive
washdown sumps (e.g. hydrocarbon water Emissions
Hydrocarbon spills inside bunds
water in propane mixtures.
will be cleaned with spill
process/ condenser sump,
adsorbent material first (if safe
utilities area washdown pad
and practical to do so) in
sumps sump, laboratory
preference to washing them
and maintenance
down to the CPI/ DAF unit for
workshop sumps
treatment
etc.)

A15 Planned – Fugitive Fugitive emissions from Process monitoring system 1 4 4 Strategy A2 –
Production emissions from valves, flanges, pump (pressure and temperature Management
controls). Material selection in Negligible Probable Low
operations equipment seals, connectors and of Venting and
including piping other items of equipment design phase and corrosion Fugitive
connectors, have been calculated to testing. Emissions
valves, pumps contribute 36 tonnes of
Area Inspection Weekly
and flanges VOC emissions to
Checklist. Issues identified as
atmosphere each year
requiring further action are
from the DLNG plant.
logged in SAP.

A16 Unplanned – Release of Release of R134A to Use of a licensed contractor for 1 3 3 Strategy A2 –
HVAC system refrigerant from atmosphere. R134A has a the maintenance of the HVAC Management
Negligible Rare Low
loss of permanent high global warming systems. No ozone depleting of Venting and
containment buildings’ HVAC potential (GWP), but is not substances (ODS) are used on Fugitive
systems an ozone depleting the plant. Emissions
substance.
Strategy C1 –
Management
of Chemicals
and
Hazardous
Substances

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
Liquid Discharges (Wastewater, Process Contaminants, Liquid Hydrocarbons)

M1 Planned – Use of plant Low potential for soil and Monthly sampling completed on 2 4 8 Strategy C1 –
Effluent, wastewater groundwater treated effluent. Effluent water Management
contamination with salts, quality complies with all DLNG Minor Probable Medium
Stormwater effluents for of Chemicals
and Sewage onsite irrigation heavy metals, nutrients environment protection licence and
Treatment (nitrogen and requirements. Hazardous
phosphorus), traces of Substances
hydrocarbons and traces Treatment of plant collected
of process chemicals. storm and wastewater into a CPI/ Strategy W1 –
DAF hydrocarbon removal unit. Management
Water used for irrigation of Liquid
consists of treated Three stages of sanitary effluent
Wastewater
process/utilities areas treatment in the site’s sewage
stormwater sewage treatment plant. Strategy E2 –
treatment plant effluent, Management
Dilution of CPI and sewage
TAHS/boiler and of Native
treatment plant effluents with
demineraliser (RO) Vegetation
reverse osmosis reject water
system blowdown water. (concentrated in salts fresh
Negligible impact on water) prior to discharge.
mangrove community from Use of treated effluent for onsite
irrigation water carry over irrigation.
(e.g. winds or runoff).
Effluent water quality monitoring
Annual nitrogen loadings program.
from irrigation have been
calculated to be below the Groundwater table levels vary
nutrient requirement for considerably – from ground level
the irrigated area during the wet season to 10-15 m
(additional nutrient below ground level during the dry
required to be applied). season.
Water rates calculated to Wastewater Performance Report
be sustainable and no 2010.
runoff is expected to be
produced.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M2 Planned – Discharge of RO During the dry season During normal operations of the 1 4 4 Strategy C1 –
Effluent, reject water to Demineraliser (RO) plant DLNG demineralised water plant, Management
reject water in excess of Negligible Probable Low
Stormwater Darwin Harbour the RO reject water quality of Chemicals
and Sewage during the dry that required for irrigation should be relatively stable and and
Treatment season supply is discharged to the predictable. Water quality is Hazardous
harbour. Demineraliser monitored on a monthly basis. Substances
RO reject water is Compliance with DLNG
essentially potable water environmental license. Strategy W1 –
concentrated in mineral Management
content, e.g. the RO reject of Liquid
water stream contains Wastewater
elevated concentrations of Strategy E1 –
sulphate, nitrate and Management
chloride anions and of Fauna
cations including iron, Interaction
magnesium, manganese, (Native and
potassium etc. Feral)
This discharge will result
in a small change in
physical water quality,
experienced in the
immediate vicinity of the
jetty only. There will be
some increase in the
concentration of some
ions, but these will be
diluted to background
concentrations within the
immediate vicinity of the
jetty and will not have a
measurable impact in the
dry season at Wickham
Point or Channel Island.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M3 Planned – Discharge of All reject water from Water quality monitoring program 2 4 8 Strategy C1 –
Effluent, excess plant demineralisation (RO) and plant performance controls Management
plant is processed through and monitoring. Minor Probable Medium
Stormwater effluent to Darwin of Chemicals
and Sewage Harbour during Corrugated Plate and
Interceptor and Dissolved Effluent is discharged from a pipe
Treatment the wet season Hazardous
Air Flotation Treatment running along the jetty at a deep
Substances
System discharged enough location to prevent
through the jetty outfall. exposure during low tides. The Strategy W1 –
discharge point is below water Management
Tertiary Treated Sewage surface (distance to water of Liquid
Effluent, Turbine Air surface varying with the tide) Wastewater
Humidifier System approximately 15 m above
Wastewater, Boiler seabed level. Strong tides and
Blowdown and HC currents in the harbour facilitate
impacted Process and the rapid dispersion of the plume,
Storm water processed allowing good mixing with the
through the Corrugated receiving water body and dilution
Plate Interceptor and to background concentrations
Dissolved Air Flotation within the immediate vicinity of
Treatment System and the jetty.
discharged to irrigation
fields. Treatment of plant collected
storm and wastewater into a
Stormwater is sediment CPI/DAF hydrocarbon removal
ponds is tested for the unit.
presence of hydrocarbons,
if present it is treated, if Three stages of sanitary effluent
not it is discharged. treatment in the site’s sewage
treatment plant.
Dilution of CPI and sewage
Potential of metals and treatment plant effluents with
nutrients being discharged reverse osmosis reject water
to the harbour or (concentrated in salts fresh
groundwater. water) prior to discharge.
Compliance with DLNG license

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M4 Planned – Discharge of Potential for sediment Sedimentation ponds built in 2 5 10 Strategy E2 –
Effluent, stormwater carry over from the DLNG DLNG plant construction phase Management
to control sediment carry over Minor Frequent Medium
Stormwater effluent from site to harbour, resulting in of Native
and Sewage Sedimentation increased sediment from stormwater run-off from the Vegetation
Treatment Ponds 1, 2 and 3 deposition in the construction site to the harbour.
to harbour mangrove communities
Sedimentation ponds designed to
surrounding the plant site.
handle the worst case rainfall
Potential impacts to
event. Sedimentation is via
mangrove fauna and tree
gravity separation with optional
stress if the deposited
addition of chemicals
material accumulates in
(flocculants).
excess of natural
sedimentation rates and/or Water quality monitoring for
to sufficient depths to bury suspended solids and pH weekly
the aerial root system. during discharge.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M5 Planned l – Discharge of Negligible influx of fresh Clean stormwater not passing 1 4 4 Strategy C1 –
Production stormwater via water to harbour, affecting through process areas is Management
discharged via five stormwater Negligible Probable Low
Operations stormwater the salinity of the of Chemicals
ditches to harbour immediate receiving water outfalls to the harbour. Fresh and
environment only. water discharge into the harbour Hazardous
Potential for chemical and during the wet season is a natural Substances
hydrocarbon process, occurring every year.
contamination to be The stormwater influx from the Strategy E2 –
carried with stormwater to site is only a small fraction of the Management
harbour. freshwater feeding the harbour in of Native
Modification to surface the wet season. Its environmental Vegetation
water drainage and sub- effect is expected to be
surface seepage negligible.
conditions that maintain
Clean stormwater drains will be
groundwater salinities
kept clean of chemical and
required for mangroves to
hydrocarbon spills and debris.
survive in the hinterland
fringe mangrove zone. Area Inspection Weekly Checklist
Potential changes include - issues identified as requiring
an increase in freshwater further action are logged in SAP.
input to mangroves in Sumps are maintained clean and
some areas (more any spills pumped out.
luxurious growth in some
areas) and a decrease in
other areas (potentially
resulting in mangrove
dieback).

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M9 Planned – Discharge of Discharge of negligible Area Inspection Weekly Checklist 2 3 6 Strategy C1 –
Discharge of potentially volumes of fresh water to - Issues identified as requiring Management
Minor Rare Medium
stormwater hydrocarbon harbour. Stormwater from further action are logged in SAP. of Chemicals
from LNG contaminated LNG sumps could be Sumps are maintained clean and and
loading spill stormwater to contaminated with traces any spills pumped out. Hazardous
containment harbour of hydrocarbons (if Substances
sump or LNG previous contamination of
loading line sumps has occurred). Strategy W1 –
culvert sump Potential contaminants will Management
to harbour biodegrade quickly in the of Liquid
marine environment, not Wastewater
significantly affecting the Strategy E1 –
water quality around the Management
plant. of Fauna
Interaction

M10 Unplanned – Overflow of Discharge of stormwater Area Inspection Weekly Checklist 2 3 6 Strategy C1 –
Overflow of process area spill contaminated with traces -issues identified as requiring Management
Minor Rare Medium
process area containment of hydrocarbons and further action are logged in SAP. of Chemicals
spill sump to clean process chemicals to Sumps are maintained clean and and
containment stormwater drains harbour. Biodegradation of any spills pumped out. Hazardous
sump hydrocarbons and Substances
chemicals in the marine
environment. Strategy W1 –
Management
of Liquid
Wastewater
Strategy E1 –
Management
of Fauna
Interaction

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M11 Unplanned – Overflow of diesel Contamination of clean Below ground sump valves are 2 3 6 Strategy C1 –
Diesel spill to clean stormwater ditch with always in the closed position Management
diesel fuel (generation of unless clean bund stormwater is Minor Rare Medium
during diesel stormwater ditch of Chemicals
loading if below ground hazardous liquid and solid drained to the clean stormwater and
operations sump valve left waste). If spill occurs in ditches. Hazardous
open the wet season, potential Substances
for diesel carry over to Area Inspection Weekly Checklist
harbour via clean storm - issues identified as requiring Strategy W1 –
water ditch outlet. further action are logged in SAP. Management
Sumps are maintained clean and of Liquid
Minor transient any spills pumped out. Wastewater
contamination with
hydrocarbons. Diesel will Strategy E1 –
eventually biodegrade in Management
the marine environment. of Fauna
Interaction

M12 Unplanned – Overflow of Contamination of clean Below ground sump valves are 2 4 8 Strategy C1 –
Amine spill amine to clean stormwater ditch with always in the closed position Management
amine (generation of unless clean bund stormwater is Minor Probable Medium
during loading stormwater ditch of Chemicals
operations if below ground hazardous liquid and solid drained to the clean stormwater and
sump valve left waste). If spill occurs in ditches. Hazardous
open the wet season, potential Substances
for amine carry over to Area Inspection Weekly Checklist
harbour via clean storm -issues identified as requiring Strategy W1 –
water ditch outlet. further action are logged in SAP. Management
Sumps are maintained clean and of Liquid
Direct effects include fish any spills pumped out. Wastewater
mortality (amine is toxic to
marine life) or indirect Strategy E1 –
effects of bioaccumulation Management
in the ecosystem. of Fauna
Interaction

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M13 Unplanned – Overflow of Discharge of potentially Process control and safety 2 2 4 Strategy C1 –
Process area process area spill contaminated stormwater instrumented system (SIS). Fire Management
temperature and gas detection. Minor Remote Low
hydrocarbon containment with traces of of Chemicals
or chemical sump to clean hydrocarbons and process Process areas to be kept clean at and
spill stormwater drains chemicals to harbour. all times from spills and debris Hazardous
Ecotoxic effects on marine Substances
Process area spill containment
fauna (through ingestion
sump is designed to impound Strategy W1 –
of contaminated water).
12.7 mm of runoff (contaminated Management
No noticeable impact on
stormwater). of Liquid
water quality or ecosystem
health is expected. Wastewater
Oil skimmer fitted. Sump pump
starts and stops automatically on
high and low levels in the sump.
Area Inspection Weekly Checklist
- issues identified as requiring
further action are logged in SAP.
Sumps are maintained clean and
any spills pumped out.

M14 Unplanned – Discharge/ Minor and temporary Process monitoring (Pressure, 2 2 4 Strategy M1 –
Spill of LNG to overflow of LNG contamination with LNG temperature and flow monitoring). Management
Minor Remote Low
LNG loading to harbour and other hydrocarbons. of Marine
Operator attendance of loading
line save all. Operations
operations at jetty.
Strategy W1 –
Equipment inspections prior to
Management
loading operations.
of Liquid
Preventative maintenance. Wastewater
Area Inspection Weekly Checklist
- Issues identified as requiring
further action are logged in SAP.
Sumps are maintained clean and
any spills pumped out.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
3
M16 Unplanned – Spill of LNG liquid Between 117 – 167 m of This assumes that the failed 2 2 4 Strategy M1 –
Total failure of during LNG LNG released from loading arm section is positioned Management
primary containment above water (typically the arm Minor Remote Low
a loading arm loading onto LNG of Marine
and the carrier (based on loading rate of stretches across an open water Operations
3
associated 7,000 – 10,000 m /h and a gap of 3 m between the jetty’s
powered one minute event duration edge and the ship’s edge). Strategy E1 –
emergency based on incident Management
detection and response Pre-loading inspections of the of Fauna
release
time). loading arms and the associated Interaction
coupler
PERC automatic shutoff system
(PERC)
Minor and temporary (‘Routine Testing of Double Ball
automatic
contamination with Valves and PERC’ and ‘LNG
shutoff system
hydrocarbons. LNG will Storage and Loading Normal
evaporate within minutes Operation’ Operating
upon contact with water Procedures).
(due to heat absorption
from ambient air and Operator attendance/ monitoring
water). There is an of loading operations. Remotely
aggressive reaction due to controlled ESD valves shutoff the
the phase transfer. LNG supply to the loading arms.
Automatic and manual means to
shut down the LNG transfer
pumps and stop the transfer of
LNG to the LNG loading arms.
Loading operations to be
shutdown in an emergency
arising from the LNG carrier.
Statistical data on LNG ship
grounding incidents, compiled by
QUEST Consulting indicates that
five LNG cargo transfer arms spill
incidents have occurred in the
period 1959 – 2000 resulting in
loss of LNG cargo. In all five
incidents there was no PERC
automatic shut off system.
Water curtains on the tanker will
expedite vaporisation of LNG.
ABU Spill Response Plan

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M17 Unplanned – Spill of LNG from Up to 50 L per loading arm Distance/angle limit switches on 2 2 4 Strategy C1 –
Activation of loading arm to or 100 L in total for the two loading arms. Management
LNG loading arms. Minor Remote Low
PERC during harbour of Chemicals
16 mooring lines on the carrier –
ship loading and
LNG vapour release to 8 at each end of the ship. Each
operations Hazardous
atmosphere from return line has a tension sensor and
(e.g. resulting Substances
vapour arm. alarms to Marine Terminal
from ship
Building Control Room and the Strategy M1 –
emergency or
Tanker’s Control Room. Management
ship moving
outside of Marine
LNG carrier crew members on
loading Operations
deck are dedicated to observing
envelope) the loading operation. Strategy E1 –
Management
An alarm is sounded when the
of Fauna
ship moves from its berthing
Interaction
location, followed by an ESD if
the ship continues to move
outside the working envelope.
LED site boards are installed to
communicate tanker positioning
and movements.
Mooring and loading
requirements are reiterated at the
preload meeting.
Loading operations disallowed or
suspended in non-permissive
weather conditions (operating
limits defined in the DLNG Marine
Terminal Handbook).

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
M20 Unplanned - Spill of hydraulic Up to 20 litres of hydraulic Small number of small diameter 2 4 8 Strategy C1 –
LNG loading fluid to harbour oil discharged into the sea hydraulic lines. Management
Minor Probable Medium
arm hydraulic if the location of the failed of Chemicals
Hydraulic lines to LNG loading
line failure section of hydraulic line is and
arms routed above jetty to allow
close to the edge of the Hazardous
containment of spills.
jetty. Substances
An operator is expected to be in
Minor and transient Strategy M1 –
attendance at the area during
marine pollution with Management
loading operations and will trip
ecotoxic chemicals. of Marine
the hydraulic fluid pumps in the
Impact on individual Operations
event of a loss of containment.
marine species (including
Remote control of the operations
oiling and ingestion).
from the tanker and the DLNG
CCR.
Emergency Response Plan,
DLNG.
Use of vegetable oil for loading
arm hydraulic fluid.

M21 Unplanned - Spill of hydraulic Approximately 20 litres Flexible small diameter hose. 2 4 8 Strategy C1 –
Failure of fluid to harbour lost direct to sea as there Management
Regular inspection and planned Minor Probable Medium
hydraulic hose is no containment of Chemicals
maintenance of hydraulic system
on the provided for the hydraulic and
to prevent malfunction in
hydraulically hoses on the gangway. Hazardous
operation and potential spills from
operated Substances
Minor and transient primary containment.
gangway
between the marine pollution with eco- Strategy M1 –
An operator will be in attendance
jetty and the toxic chemicals. Impact on Management
at the area during loading
LNG carrier individual marine species of Marine
operations and will trip the
(including oiling and Operations
hydraulic fluid pumps in the event
ingestion).
of a loss of containment.
Operator can stop loading
operations immediately if a leak
is identified.
Emergency Response Plan,
DLNG
Vegetable oil is used for the
hydraulic loading arm lubrication.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
Vegetation and Ecosystems

E1 Planned – Noise from Minor noise disturbance to Thermal/ acoustic insulation 2 2 4 Strategy E1 –
Production process native fauna outside the (lagging) provided for the noisiest Management
of the compressor lines, including Minor Remote Low
Operations machinery (gas plant perimeter. Noise of Fauna
turbines, disturbance to marine life the propane and ethylene Interaction
compressors, (dugongs) in the harbour recirculation lines. (Native and
pumps, area around the jetty. Feral)
Water edge line is outside the 70
generators etc.)
dbA noise contour around the Strategy S1 –
and flaring
plant. No mechanical equipment Management
close to the plant boundaries of Stakeholder
including the water edge. Relations

E2 Planned – Heat emissions Thermal pollution impacts Waste heat recovery units 2 4 8 Strategy E1 –
Production from processing to fauna and vegetation installed on 4 of 6 gas turbines Management
exhaust stacks. Minor Probable Medium
Operations plant and flares from processing activities. of Fauna
Interaction
The ground flare is enclosed with
(Native and
radiation shield. Use of marine
Feral)
flare is minimised through ship
loading procedures. Strategy E2 –
Management
of Native
Vegetation
Strategy S1 –
Management
of Stakeholder
Relations

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
E3 Planned – Light intrusion Light intrusion from the Light is a safety requirement for 2 2 4 Strategy E1 –
Production from processing plant to the adjacent night operations. Management
Minor Remote Low
Operations plant and flares mangrove and terrestrial of Fauna
The process area flares are at
vegetation habitats. Interaction
ground level and fenced off with
Disturbance of marine and (Native and
solid panels to prevent light spill
terrestrial fauna by light Feral)
to surrounding area.
and noise/attraction of
fauna to site perimeter. Strategy E2 –
Management
of Native
Vegetation
Strategy S1 –
Management
of Stakeholder
Relations

E6 Planned – Sediment Sediment deposition from Sedimentation ponds are 2 3 6 Strategy E1 –


Stormwater deposition into plant site via stormwater maintained to allow water Management
residence time for sediment Minor Rare Medium
management adjacent drains or from erosion of of Fauna
and erosion mangrove areas perimeter embankments removal by gravity prior to Interaction
control may be deposited into stormwater runoff to mangrove (Native and
adjacent mangrove areas. areas. Feral)
Operational areas are Strategy E2 –
predominately hardstand or Management
contain a vegetative cover to of Native
minimise sediment runoff. Vegetation
Mangrove monitoring program.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
E7 Unplanned – Spill runoff into Toxic effects on flora and Bunding/ secondary containment 2 4 8 Strategy E1 –
Spills and either terrestrial fauna from direct contact for chemical and fuel storage in Management
Dangerous Goods Facility and Minor Probable Medium
releases of or marine with hydrocarbons and of Fauna
hydrocarbons environment other chemicals. Waste Transfer Facility. Interaction
and chemicals (Native and
LNG loading spills sump on jetty
Feral)
and LNG loading line culvert (in
proximity to LNG tank). Strategy E2 –
Management
Process and utilities areas have
of Native
secondary containment.
Vegetation
Chemical selection and approval
Strategy W1 –
process.
Liquid
Mangrove Monitoring Program Wastewater

E8 Unplanned – Propagation of Destruction of potentially Separation distances between 3 2 6 Strategy E1 –


Fires/ fire to large area of terrestrial plant and adjacent perimeter line, Management
Moderate Remote Medium
explosions surrounding ecosystems on Wickham fire breaks on property boundary. of Fauna
bushland Point and associated Interaction
significant vegetation and Fire fighting systems (automatic (Native and
fauna. and manual). External fire fighting Feral)
resources. Emergency response
plans and provisions. Strategy E2 –
Management
Process control and emergency of Native
shutdown and depressurization Vegetation
systems. Fire and gas detection
system and alarms.
On-site fire management by
DLNG Pty Ltd, with assistance
from NT emergency response
agencies, as required.

E9 Unplanned l – Disturbance of Unauthorised disturbance Instructions to site personnel and 2 2 4 Strategy E2 –


Unauthorised surrounding of vegetation inside site contractors. Management
Minor Remote Low
access inside bushland inside boundary, leading to of Native
site perimeter site boundary ecosystem degradation DLNG Site Inductions Vegetation
and breach of facility Plant security serves as a
operating approvals. Strategy E3 –
deterrent to people from the Management
general public getting access for of Weeds and
unauthorized activities in areas Plant
surrounding the plant. Pathogens

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
E10 Planned – Introduction of Introduction of invasive Regular monitoring of weeds in 2 2 4 Strategy E3 –
Vehicle and invasive weed weeds and plant the DLNG plant site and lease Management
Minor Remote Low
equipment species inside pathogens. Propagation of area. of Weeds and
movements and outside plant invasive introduced Plant
onto Wickham areas species resulting in a Pathogens
Point balance shift in the local
ecosystem. Displacement
of native flora and
vegetation assemblages in
surrounding areas of
Wickham Point.

Waste Management

W1 Generation of Inappropriate Contamination of Waste segregation including 2 4 8 Strategy W2 –


non-hazardous handling and environment with non- recycling facilities on site prior to Hazardous
offsite disposal. Minor Probable Medium
waste disposal of non- hazardous waste and Non-
hazardous waste hazardous
Waste management contractor
Waste (Solid
selection and auditing processes.
and Sludge)
Chemicals selection and approval
Strategy C1 –
process.
Management
ABU Waste Management Plan. of Chemicals
and
DLNG Waste Transfer Facility Hazardous
Inspection Procedure Substances
Disposal of hazardous waste in
accordance with regulatory
requirements.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
W2 Generation of Inappropriate Contamination of Waste segregation on site prior to 2 4 8 Strategy W2 –
hazardous handling and atmosphere, soil and/or offsite disposal. Hazardous
Minor Probable Medium
waste disposal of water resources. and Non-
Waste management contractor
hazardous waste hazardous
selection and auditing processes.
Waste (Solid
Chemicals selection and approval and Sludge)
process.
Strategy C1 –
ABU Waste Management Plan Management
of Chemicals
DLNG Waste Transfer Facility and
Inspection Procedure Hazardous
Disposal of hazardous waste in Substances
accordance with regulatory
requirements.

Socio-Economic and Cultural Heritage

S1 Planned – Restricted fishing Reduced access to local 500 m exclusion zone around the 1 5 5 Strategy S1 –
Marine access in the fishing resources in the DLNG jetty during tanker loading Management
Minor Frequent Medium
activities vicinity of the vicinity of the DLNG operations and 100 m outside of of Stakeholder
DLNG plant marine terminal (restricted tanker loading operations Relations
access and safety zones (localised area relative to area of
limiting access of vessels Harbour that is accessible for
to the DLNG jetty). fishing activities).

S2 Planned – Noise and visual Noise and visual impacts Plant activities only visible from 1 5 5 Strategy S1 –
Production amenity on Darwin (waterfront). Darwin waterfront. Management
Minor Frequent Medium
and Shipping of Stakeholder
Separation across harbour
Operations Relations
between Wickham Point LNG
Facility and residential and urban
entertainment areas.
Complaints monitoring.

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Environmentally Potential Environmental


Element Operational Risk Management Controls and Residual Management
Hazardous Effect (of Operating As- Consequence Frequency
No Activity Mitigation Risk Strategy
Event Built Facility)
S3 Unplanned – Disturbance to Loss of cultural amenity Security fence. Security patrol at 3 2 6 Strategy S1 –
unauthorised sites of and sites of historical the plant’s fence line. Management
Moderate Remote Medium
disturbance Indigenous and significance for Aboriginal of Heritage
outside facility European and/or Clearing/disturbance outside the Values
boundary/ heritage values Australian/European plant perimeter requires a (Indigenous
vandalism or communities. Negative number of permits prior to and
fire image for COP in the local authorisation. European)
and possibly national Sites of cultural significance
media. noted on area drawings and
inspected regularly.

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6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

This section of the OEMP outlines strategies to manage potential environmental effects and
risks associated with DLNG production operations, and to ensure compliance with regulatory
requirements and COP policies and processes.

Environmental management strategies for DLNG Operations are categorised into the following
groups: air emissions; discharges to the marine environment; flora and fauna; spills; waste
generation; and disposal and social and economic impact. The links between hazardous
operations, environmental effects and management strategies are presented in Table 9.

Table 9 Environmental Management Strategies

Applicable Operations Environmental


Environmental Aspect/Hazard Environmental Effect/Risk
Management Strategy
Atmospheric Emissions
1
Flaring Greenhouse gas emissions A1 – Emissions
2
(Ground and marine flares) Air pollutant emissions
Stack emissions Greenhouse gas emissions A1 – Emissions
(turbines, generators, boilers, gas Air pollutant emissions
heaters and incinerators)
Venting (compressor vents, relief Greenhouse gas emissions A1 – Emissions
valves, cold box vents, drains, Air pollutant emissions C1 – Chemicals and Hazardous
laboratory) Substances
Emergency venting (manually- Greenhouse gas emissions A1 – Emissions
operated vents, pressure safety Air pollutant emissions
valves)
Fugitive emissions and Greenhouse gas emissions A1 – Emissions
accidental leaks Air pollutant emissions C1 – Chemicals and Hazardous
Substances
HVAC refrigeration units Ozone depleting substances C1 – Chemicals and Hazardous
Substances
Discharges to Marine Environment
Accidental spills and unplanned Hydrocarbon discharges C1 – Chemicals and Hazardous
releases to Darwin Harbour Ecotoxic chemical discharges Substances
Low biodegradable substance W1 – Liquid Wastewater
discharges
Heavy metal discharges
Discharges containing nutrients Nutrient discharges C1 – Chemicals and Hazardous
and chemicals (treated Heavy metal discharges Substances
wastewater, stormwater runoff) Ecotoxic chemical discharges W1 – Liquid Wastewater
Marine vessel discharges Introduction of non-indigenous M1 – Marine Operations
containing exotic species species
Hull fouling on LNG carriers Introduction of non-indigenous M1 – Marine Operations
species

1
The accepted definition of greenhouse gas (GHG) means carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen dioxide,
hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. Only the former three GHGs are of relevance to the
DLNG Plant as it does not emit hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons or sulphur hexafluoride.
2
The primary air pollutants of relevance to the DLNG Plant operations are oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide,
carbon monoxide and particulates.

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Applicable Operations Environmental


Environmental Aspect/Hazard Environmental Effect/Risk
Management Strategy
Vegetation and Ecosystem Disturbance
Heat, light, noise and vibration Disturbance to marine and E1 – Flora and Fauna
from Plant operations terrestrial fauna M1 – Marine Operations
Native fauna interaction Interaction with marine and E1 – Flora and Fauna
associated with Plant site terrestrial fauna M1 – Marine Operations
activities
Accidental spills and unplanned Nutrient discharges C1 – Chemicals and Hazardous
wastewater releases to land and Ecotoxic chemical discharges Substances
Darwin Harbour Low biodegradable substance W1 – Liquid Wastewater
discharges
Heavy metal discharges
Surface water runoff Water quality degradation W1 – Liquid Wastewater
Sedimentation E1 – Flora and Fauna
Soil erosion
Transmission of weed seeds Introduction of invasive weeds E3 - Weeds and Plant Pathogens
Displacement of native flora and
native fauna habitat
Plant site activities that attract Introduction of feral animals E1 – Flora and Fauna
feral animals Disturbance to native fauna
habitat
Plant site activities that impact on Air pollutant emissions A1 – Emissions
conservation values of significant Direct disturbance to nearby E1 – Flora and Fauna
vegetation in proximity to the mangrove ecosystems
DLNG Plant Indirect disturbance to local
ecosystem
Waste Generation and Disposal
Generation of non-hazardous Waste handling and disposal W2 – Hazardous and Non-Hazardous
solid and sludge Wastes arrangements Waste (Solid and Sludge)
Generation of hazardous solid Waste handling and disposal W2 – Hazardous and Non-Hazardous
and sludge wastes arrangements Waste (Solid and Sludge)
Social and Socio-Economic Impacts
Inefficient natural resource use Greenhouse gas emissions A1 – Emissions
Hot exhaust emissions
Natural resource depletion
Disruption to recreation boating, Public access restrictions S1 – Stakeholder Relations
commercial fishing and port Public safety risks
operations
Noise and light emissions from Noise impacts on site workforce S1 – Stakeholder Relations
plant site activities (e.g. marine and local community
flare) Visual impact
Socio-economic effects on local Employment opportunities S1 – Stakeholder Relations
communities Supply chain demands
Plant site activities that impact on Direct impact on sites of S2 - Heritage Values (Indigenous and
heritage values in proximity to Indigenous or European heritage European)
LNG plant significance

The environmental management strategies are analogous to the performance standards referred
to in Division 2.3 Clause 13 (4) of the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) (Management of
Environment) Regulations 1999. Environmental objectives defined in the environmental
management strategies are based on identified environmental hazardous events, associated
environmental effects and assessed risks, corporate policies and performance commitments,
and applicable legal requirements.

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Environmental objectives, targets and key performance indicators (KPI) are defined as follows.

• Objective – Specific performance objectives tailored to the operational context to meet


legal requirements, corporate performance commitments and standards of operation.

• Target – A target level of performance expressed as a tangible, measurable objective,


against which actual performance can be compared, including a goal expressed as a
quantitative standard, value or rate.

• KPI – Measure of performance against a reference target.

The environmental management strategies are presented in Tables 10 through to Table 17.

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Table 10 Environmental Management Strategy- A1 Management of Emissions

A1 – Management of Emissions
Applicable Site Activities/Events
Flaring associated with:
• Normal process flaring from dry • Normal operation of marine flare– • Full or partial blowdowns
and wet ground flares – purge and flare purge gas and flaring of LNG (maintenance and upsets)
pilot gas flaring carrier cool-down vapours (routine • Emergency shutdowns and start-
and non-routine) up flaring
Venting and fugitive emissions from:
• Venting of acid gas when acid gas • BOG Compressor seals • Venting during natural gas liquids
incinerator offline • Equipment maintenance venting (NGL) loading and offloading (if
• Venting from Nitrogen Rejection • Venting of LNG vapour from LNG loaded to road tanker – rare)
Unit (NRU) when methane gas carriers due to cargo tank over- • Accidental process and utilities
content less than 5% in vent gas pressurisation areas gas releases
stream • Fugitive emissions from DLNG
• Bypassing PSVs Plant processes.
Exhaust emissions from process and power plant equipment:
• Two on-site dual fuel (gas and • Start-up boiler • Thermal oxidiser to combust NGL
diesel) power generation turbines • Acid gas incinerator vapours during truck loading
• Three gas turbine power • Three firewater pumps operations
generators • Auxiliary air compressor • Diesel-fired black-start and
• Six refrigeration compressor gas emergency generators
turbines • Temporary equipment use (e.g. for
maintenance/shutdown)
Potential Environmental Effects
• Emissions of greenhouse gases
• Emissions of air pollutants.
• Inefficient use of energy/ natural resources
• Localised noise and heat emissions
• Flaring light (marine flare) – visible off-site
• Heat dissipation to atmosphere.
Corporate Commitments
• Minimise the environmental impact of our operations (Sustainable Development Position)
• Constantly improve the energy and material efficiency of our operations (Sustainable Development Position)
• Set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining safe operations and sound economics
(Climate Change Position)
• ABU Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan
Performance Objectives Targets Key Performance Indicators
• Compliance with EPL 54-05 air • Air and greenhouse emissions • Number of exceedances of air and
emission trigger values. less than trigger values listed in greenhouse emissions volumes
Appendix 1 of Attachment 1. against trigger values.
• Maximise DLNG Plant GHG • Annual GHG intensity target of 0.5 • Number of annual GHG intensity
efficiency tonnes CO2E/tonne production. (tonnes CO2E/tonne production)
against annual target. Annual
evaluation of GHG and emissions
reduction opportunities

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A1 – Management of Emissions
• Minimise/avoid use of gases • No release of ODS substances • Number of ODS releases.
containing Ozone Depleting where substitute products /
Substances (ODS). chemicals are available.
Engineering (As-Built) Controls
• Plant design (flare tip efficiency)
• Flare KO Drums (wet and dry ground flares) for liquids recovery
• LNG carrier boil off vapour recovery system
• Closed Circuit TV (CCTV) flare pilots monitoring
• Flame sensors for monitoring safe operation of flare pilots
• Low radiation/ visibility ground flare system
• Plant design (valve specifications, flange minimisation)
• LP Flare system for LP hydrocarbon emissions
• Ship vapour recovery system during LNG carrier loading
• Redirection of NRU vent stream to helium plant
• Option to send high methane content NRU vent to flare
• Water injection to process gas turbines to reduce NOx emissions
• Installation of low NOx control technology (Low NOx burners) on power turbines
• Waste Heat Recovery Units on four process gas turbines
• Use of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel
• Use of fuel-efficient GE LM2500+ aero-derivative turbines
• Only two out of the five power plant turbines are dual fuelled (process gas and diesel). Note diesel is to be used
as a back-up fuel only.
• Dedicated compressed gases storage area.
• Only R134A and R410A is used on-site – in the Building HVAC steams.
Operations Procedural Controls
• DLNG Plant Asset Integrity Management System
• Dry and wet flare system start-up and operating procedure - Process Operating Guideline (POG) section 19
• Marine flare start-up and operating procedure POG section - 19
• DLNG Marine Terminal Handbook (restrictions on venting from cargo tanks within Port of Darwin and minimise
night-time flaring during LNG offloading)
• OSPG operating procedures
• Propane Refrigeration (Unit 14), Ethylene Refrigeration (Unit 15) and Liquefaction and Methane Compressor/
Nitrogen Rejection Unit (Unit 16) start-up/ commissioning procedures – POG section 14, 15 & 16
• Compressor gas turbines operating procedures
• Acid gas incinerator operating procedures - POG section12
• NGL truck loading vapour incinerator operating procedures - POG section 21
• Incident reporting and investigation procedure – ALL/HSE/PRO003
Environmental Performance Monitoring, Reporting Requirements and Applicable Regulatory Requirements

• Flaring, venting and fuel usage volumes resulting from routine and non-routine processes to be recorded via the
Operations Approval (OA) & Production Reporting system.
• Quarterly stack emissions testing for emissions to inform monthly and annual emissions calculations
• Annual emissions reporting to be reported as part of the Annual Audit and Compliance Report to the NT EPA and
annual Monitoring Report – due for submission by 12 June following reporting period (1 January to 31 December).
• Annual reporting of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions to be reported as part of the NGERS report – due for
st
submission by 31 October following reporting period (1 July to 30 June).
• Annual reporting of National Pollutant Inventory listed substances. Include as part of the DLNG Plant annual NPI
st
report – due for submission by 31 March following reporting period (1 January to 31 December).

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A1 – Management of Emissions
• Environment Protection Licence EPL 54 issued under Waste Management and Pollution Control Act:
o Air and greenhouse gas emissions from pre-selected process sections at the DLNG Plant are to
be sampled and assessed against trigger values, associated trigger values are identified in
Appendix 1 of Attachment 1. Air and greenhouse gas emissions will be reported in the annual
Monitoring Report.
• EDP02/0015 Conditions 31, 32, 35 and 36
o Commitments to develop a greenhouse gas management plan
o Annual GHG inventory
o Restricted area surrounding flare site, 340 m radius and 490 m in height
o Provide Darwin International Airport air traffic control with planned flaring activity a minimum 1
hour prior to commencement
o The Licensee must keep records of all non-compliances with this Licence.
o Commitments to develop a greenhouse gas management plan, annual GHG inventory
• PER commitment
o Improvements in energy efficiency will be sought throughout the operational life of the project (e.g.
LNG carrier vapour recovery to minimise use of marine flare)
o Improvements in energy efficiency will be sought throughout the operational life of the project.
o Stack emissions will meet ambient air quality guidelines, verified through periodic emissions
testing. Depending on the results, a NOx monitoring programme will be established.
• NTG Assessment Report
o The EMP will contain a specific section on strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions,
including provision for audits, a process of regular review of new technologies, benchmarking
against other LNG facilities (to achieve international best practice), and commitment to offset GHG
emissions.
o DLNG Pty Ltd shall continually assess higher efficiency turbines as part of the design of the
facility. DLNG Pty Ltd shall also include, as part of the Construction and Operational
Environmental Management Plans details on the process and timeframe by which the selection of
higher efficiency turbines will be considered and potentially incorporated into the project. If
incorporated, the proponent shall report on the impact of high efficiency turbines on reducing or
offsetting the greenhouse gas emissions.
o The OEMP shall include a section on periodic emission testing programs to quantify the major
emission sources. Dependent on the results of this verification process, the proponent will
establish a monitoring system for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from key emission sources at the
facility and shall verify that standards contained in the National Environment Protection Measure
for Ambient Air Quality are not exceeded

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Table 11 Environmental Management Strategy- C1 Management of Chemicals and


Hazardous Substances

C1 – Management of Chemicals and Hazardous Substances


Applicable Site Activities/Events
Products including chemicals, lubricants, fuels, paints, solvents and compressed gases used during operational
activities will be managed to minimise the environmental impact associated with their transport, handling, storage,
use and disposal:
• Maintenance-related products • Utilities-related products (e.g. fuel • Domestic cleaning chemicals.
(e.g. lube oils, paints, solvents, gas, diesel, potable water • Safety-related chemicals (e.g. dry
degreasers, compressed gases, treatment chemicals, hypochlorite, powder, AFFF, carbon dioxide,
etc.) corrosion and scale inhibitor and etc.)
• Process-related chemicals (e.g. biocides, refrigerants, etc.) • Laboratory reagents (e.g.
propane, ethylene, methane, • LNG Plant products (LNG and solvents, bases and acids, etc.)
resins, oxygen scavenger, NGL)
mercury-removal absorbents,
amine, etc.)
Potential Environmental Effects
• Ecotoxic effects on marine environment if ecotoxic chemicals are released to the harbour via unplanned or
planned marine discharges.
• Ecotoxic effect on land based ecosystems and plant and animal communities on site perimeter due to unplanned
site spills or releases.
• Soil and groundwater contamination from unplanned releases of chemicals and hydrocarbons.
• Releases of greenhouse gases to atmosphere (CO2, some refrigerants, etc.)
Corporate Commitments
• Minimise the environmental impact of our operations (Sustainable Development Position)
• Integrate our climate change policies into strategic planning, decision making, and operations processes (Climate
Change Position)
• Demonstrate viable and active leadership that engages employees and service providers and manage HSE
performance as a line responsibility with clear authorities and accountabilities (HSE Policy)
Performance Objectives Targets Key Performance Indicators
• Minimise the potential for • Zero significant offsite releases of • Number of significant releases to
environmental impact through chemicals to the environment. environment.
management of chemicals usage
and disposal.
Engineering (As-Built) Controls
• Appropriate chemical and hazardous substance segregation and storage on-site.
• Dedicated storage vessels and transfer hoses for main production and utilities chemicals.
• Bunding and/or save-alls (or similar) provided in areas of spill risk or high potential impact.
• Drains system designed to contain and recover hydrocarbons and process chemicals.
Operations Procedural Controls
• ABU Purchase and Control of Chemicals and Hazardous Substances procedure, ALL/HSE/PRO/044
• Approved DLNG Chemicals and Hazardous Substances Register, DLNG/HSE/REG/001
• Emergency Response Plan - Darwin LNG, ALL/HSE/ER/002
• ABU Oil Spill Contingency Plan, ALL/HSE/ER/004
• Job Hazard Analysis procedure, DLNG/HSE/PRO/041
• Integrated Safe System of Work (ISSoW)1
• Compressed Gas Cylinders Handling of procedure, ALL/HSE/PRO/026

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C1 – Management of Chemicals and Hazardous Substances


Environmental Performance Monitoring, Reporting Requirements and Applicable Regulatory Requirements
• Approved chemicals and hazardous substances recorded on DLNG Approved Chemicals and Hazardous
Substances Register, DLNG/HSE/REG/001
• Consumption of chemicals to be tracked via DLNG inventory stock control records

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Table 12 Environmental Management Strategy - M1 Management of LNG Loading


Operations

M1 –Management of Marine Operations


Applicable Site Activities/Events
Planned activities during following marine operations:
• LNG loading operation • LNG carrier cool down operations • LNG carrier embarkation /
disembarkation from jetty
Unplanned marine discharges (spills) including incidents during:
• Product transfer operations • LNG loading line failure • LNG loading arm hydraulic line
• Tank rupture during embarkation, failure (spill of hydraulic fluid)
disembarkation or loading at
DLNG e.g. from ship collision (e.g.
LNG carrier/ tug’s wing fuel oil
tanks or hydraulic oil tanks)
Potential Environmental Effects
• Increased marine environmental loading with hydrocarbons, chemicals, heavy metals and nutrients from LNG
loading line failures.
• Ecotoxic effects on marine biota and potential for bioaccumulation in the ecosystem.
Corporate Commitments
• Minimise the environmental impact of our operations (Sustainable Development Position)
Performance Objectives Targets Key Performance Indicators
• Minimise contamination of marine • No unplanned / unauthorised • Number of unplanned /
sediments surrounding the LNG marine discharges from marine unauthorised marine discharges
carrier loading facility arising from operations. with reference to cause and
DLNG activities. subsequent management
measures put in place to prevent
reoccurrence.
• Hydrocarbon, TBT and heavy
metal concentrations in sediments
surrounding the LNG carrier
loading facility with reference to
ANZECC & ARMCANZ trigger
levels.
Engineering (As-Built) Controls
• Double-hulled LNG carrier vessel design
• LNG carrier survey requirements (e.g. confirmation of operational oily water systems, grey water treatment, etc.)
• Powered emergency release coupler (PERC) automatic shutoff system used for the cargo transfers.
• Secondary containment for chemicals and hydrocarbon liquids stored on marine vessels
• Secondary containment for chemicals and hydrocarbon liquids stored on DLNG site.
• Spill clean-up kits on marine vessels suitable for cleaning up small on-board spills
• Spill clean-up kits on DLNG site suitable for cleaning up small spills to ground.
• Vegetable oil used for hydraulic fluid in loading arms.
Operations Procedural Controls
• Chemical Management Procedure ALL/HSE/PRO/004
• Spill Response Plan, Doc. No. ALL/HSE/ER/004
• DLNG Marine Terminal Handbook

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M1 –Management of Marine Operations


Environmental Performance Monitoring, Reporting Requirements and Applicable Regulatory Requirements
• Spills and releases to be reported as part of the DLNG Plant Annual Audit and Compliance Report to the NT EPA
Annual Monitoring Report – due for submission one month prior to the licence anniversary(15 June), for the
reporting period (1 January to 31 December).
• Environment Protection Licence 54-05 issued under Waste Management and Pollution Control Act Conditions:
o The Licence must as soon as practicable and in any case within 24 hours notify NT EPA of non-
compliances with this Licence by emailing pollution@nt.gov.au
o The Licence must immediately and in any case within 24 hours notify NT EPA of any potential or
actual environmental harm or pollution by contacting the Pollution Hotline on telephone number
1800 064 567 and emailing pollution@nt.gov.au
o The Licence must comply with the requirements of Section 14 of the Waste Management and
Pollution Control Act.
o The Licence must comply with the requirements of section 14 of the Waste Management and
Pollution Control Act.
• EDP02/0015 Condition 8
o Requirement for an Emergency Management Plan /Emergency Response Manuals; Site
Emergency Plan (supported by Emergency Response Manuals); Oil Spill Contingency Plans; LNG
Accident Response Plan; and Mangrove Monitoring Plan relating to Activities.
• NTG Assessment Report
o To minimise the risk of grounding or collision, shipping movements will be coordinated through the
Darwin Port Corporation (DPC), including escort by tugs to and from the loading jetty and with the
RAN. A 500 m “moving exclusion zone” around each ship is proposed. The navigational risk
associated with shoals of Charles Point Patches will be addressed by continued liaison between
the proponent and the DPC.
o The proponent will liaise with DOR (AQIS) regarding the exotic marine pests monitoring program
and mitigation of potential impacts from vessels servicing the facility

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Table 13 Environmental Management Strategy - W1 Management of Liquid Wastewater

W1 – Management of Liquid Wastewater


Applicable Site Activities/Events
Planned wastewater discharges include:
• Clean stormwater runoff to • Process wastewater and sewage • Treated process and utilities areas
multiple outfalls via ditches plant effluent, treated and contaminated stormwater to
• Demineralisation plant (RO) reject discharged to harbour outlet multiple outfalls via ditches
water used for on-site irrigation or • Process wastewater and sewage • Sediment ponds discharge
discharged to harbour outlet plant effluent, treated and used for
on-site irrigation
Potential sources of unplanned discharges from primary and secondary containment include:
• Product transfer overflow/ • Flowline failures • Sump containment failures
overfilling incidents • Storage vessel failures during • Pump failures
• Oily water separation system embarkation, disembarkation and • Dropped objects resulting in
failure loading rupture or leakage
• Containment bund failures
Potential Environmental Effects
• Increased harbour environmental loading with hydrocarbons, chemicals, heavy metals and nutrients from
unplanned discharges.
• Ecotoxic effects on marine biota and potential for bioaccumulation in the ecosystem.
• Potential contamination of soil and ground water with trace concentrations of hydrocarbons, potentially heavy
metals and other contaminants associated with use of process chemicals.
Corporate Commitments
• Minimise the environmental impact of our operations (Sustainable Development Position)
Performance Objectives Targets Key Performance Indicators
• Compliance with EPL wastewater • Water quality discharge less than • Number of wastewater discharges
discharge trigger values. trigger values (Condition 16 of exceeding surface water
Attachment 1). discharge trigger values.
Engineering (As-Built) Controls
• Oily water separation equipment on-site with a built-in oil-in-water monitoring equipment and diversion of non-
compliant effluent to a holding tank.
• Bunding provided in areas of high spill risk or high potential impact.
• Dry break hoses to be used for liquid wastewater transfer operations (road tanker off takes).
• Verification of volumes of bulk fluids transferred between vessels and facilities.
• Process Area Spill Containment Sump
• LNG Loading Spill Containment Sump
Operations Procedural Controls
• Sewage Treatment Plant operating procedure - POG section 29
• Process wastewater (CPI/ DAF) plant operating procedure
• Demineralisation Plant operating procedure - POG section 36
• Environmental monitoring procedure
• Workplace Housekeeping, DLNG/HSE/PRO/061
• ABU Waste Management Plan, ALL/HSE/PLN/004
• Auditing & Inspection Procedure ALL/HSE/PRO/081
• Emergency Response Plan – Darwin LNG ALL/HSE/ER/002

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W1 – Management of Liquid Wastewater


Environmental Performance Monitoring, Reporting Requirements and Applicable Regulatory Requirements
• Estimate and record volumes of liquid discharges (including process water, sewage effluent, treated wastewater)
via Operations Approval (OA).
• All releases from are to be reported in accordance with the Incident Reporting and Investigation Procedure,
ALL/HSE/PRO/003.
• Water quality testing of drainage line and sump discharges prior to release to stormwater drainage.
• Periodic monitoring of intertidal vegetation condition (mangrove communities), selected metals and TPH
concentrations in harbour sediments and intertidal biota adjacent to DLNG Plant.
• Annual reporting of wastewater discharge monitoring to be reported as part of the DLNG Plant, Annual Audit and
Compliance Report to NT EPA and Annual Monitoring Report – due for submission by 15 June following reporting
period (1 January to 31 December).
• Environment Protection Licence 54-05 issued under Waste Management and Pollution Control Act:
o Wastewater will be discharged through authorised discharge points (identified in Table 1 of
Attachment 1); trigger values for wastewater discharge monitoring are listed in Table 2 of
Attachment 1.
o The Licensee must investigate and identify the source of contaminants found in the Jetty Outfall
discharge, including but not limited to the source of:
 nutrients; and
 Total Petrol Hydrocarbons.
o The Licensee must, where practicable:
 mitigate the source of contaminants; and
 reduce the concentration of contaminants.
in the Jetty Outfall discharge with the aim of meeting the water quality objectives declared for the
Darwin Harbour Region.
o The licensee must submit a groundwater monitoring plan to the regulatory authority
o Listed waste records must be maintained in accordance with section 11 of the Waste
Management and Pollution Control (Administration) Regulations.
o Groundwater Monitoring Plan to be submitted to NT EPA by 14 June 2013, the plan must:
 Be approved by the administering agency noting that the administering agency may
require the Licence to revise, amend and/or resubmit the proposed program; and
 Be implemented within 10 Business Days of receiving written approval of the monitoring
plan from NT EPA.
o Surface Water Monitoring Plan to be submitted to NT EPA by 14 June 2013, the plan must:
 Where water quality objectives for Darwin Harbour (Table 2) cannot be met for the Jetty
Outfall discharge:
• Sufficient water quality data be available to determine the nature and extent of
the discharge in the marine environment; and
• Including a plan for developing site specific trigger values.
 Be approved by the administering agency noting that administering agency may require
the Licencee to revise, amend and/or resubmit the proposed program; and
 Be implemented within 10 Business Days of receiving written approval of the monitoring
plan from NT EPA.
• EDP 02/0015:
o The permit holder shall conduct a detailed assessment of areas proposed for treatment and
disposal of wastewater using the Department of Health and Community Services report template
and evaluate site constraints to choose the most suitable system. The report shall be submitted to
the Department of Health and Community Services for the site specific type approval. Addressed
in Metito Project Ref: No: 103008, Darwin LNG Project-24879-110, Sanitary Treatment Plant (1X-
2901), DLNG Sewage Treatment & Effluent Reuse Strategy, 12 September 2005.
o The permit holder shall obtain approval from the Environmental Health Darwin Urban sections of

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the Department of Health and Community Services prior to the installation of any large non-
standard aerated wastewater treatment system (AWTS). Treatment and disposal (by irrigation) of
wastewater will need to comply with the Guidelines for Sewerage Systems – use of Reclaimed
Water (ANZECC/ARMCANZ 2000) and site specific type. Addressed in Site specific design
approval from DCHS for alternative septic tank system at Sections 1860, 1861, 1870, 1871, 1872
and 1873 Hundred of Ayers (DHCS Reference: NA2005_030 issued 20 September 2005).
• NTG Assessment Report
o Low volumes of treated sewage will be pumped to a sewage treatment plant and treated effluent
will be routed to an irrigation system after dechlorination. Holding tanks for treated effluent will
allow testing to ensure the water quality is suitable for irrigation.
• PER commitment
o Commitment to avoid the creation of new breeding areas for biting insects and remove identified
breeding sites (i.e. new sites).
o Sewage will undergo treatment before re-use for on-site irrigation. Trace elements in wastewater
will be monitored.
o All potentially contaminated stormwater leaving the process areas of the plant site will be routed
through a CPI separator to ensure removal of any oil.

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Table 14 Environmental Management Strategy- W2 Management of Hazardous and


Non-Hazardous Waste (Solid and Sludge)

W2 – Management of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Waste (Solid and Sludge)


Applicable Site Activities/Events
Hazardous waste generated by:
• Plant area • Pigging waste (scale/sludge) • CPI separator
• Mercury removal unit • Medical waste from First Aid • Waste lubricating oils
• Oily sludge/float Centre • Spent oils and solvents
Non-hazardous waste generated by:
• Demineralisation unit • Inorganic sludge • Ceramic balls from dehydration
• Sewage treatment plant • Clean paper, plastics and glass unit
• Cellulose from administration offices and • Molecular sieve waste from
• Biological sludge workshops dehydration unit

Potential Environmental Effects


• Long term liabilities associated with disposal method (e.g. soil and water contamination at onshore disposal site)
• Inefficient waste reuse and recycling due to inappropriate waste segregation
• Marine pollution from inappropriate handling and disposal
Corporate Commitments
• Minimise the environmental impact of our operations (Sustainable Development Position).
Performance Objectives Targets Key Performance Indicators
• Maximise waste recycling and • Zero occurrences of inappropriate • Number of non-conformance
reuse. waste segregation reported by incidents.
operations and waste contractor • Assessment against annual
• Recycling target of 40% of total recycling targets.
waste volumes.
• 100% of recyclable waste
recycled.
Engineering (As-Built) Controls
• Provision of general and recycling waste bins at DLNG Plant.
• Hazardous Waste Transfer Facility
Operations Procedural Controls
• ABU Waste Management Plan, ALL/HSE/PLN/004
• DLNG Waste Management Procedure (under development)
• Hazardous Waste Transfer Facility Management Maintenance Procedure (N8-10000033628)
• Waste Management Contract with licensed Waste Management Contractor

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W2 – Management of Hazardous and Non-Hazardous Waste (Solid and Sludge)


Environmental Performance Monitoring, Reporting Requirements and Applicable Regulatory Requirements
• Nature, quantity, source and disposal of wastes to be reported as part of the DLNG Plant Annual Audit and
Compliance Report to NT EPA Annual Monitoring Report – due for submission by 12 June following reporting
period (1 January to 31 December).
• Waste manifest and tracking system for all wastes – requirements specified in ABU Waste Management Plan,
ALL/HSE/PLN/004
• Report waste handling incidents via the Incident Reporting and Investigation Procedure,
ALL/HSE/PRO/003.
• Environment Protection Licence 54-05 issued under Waste Management and Pollution Control Act Conditions:
o The Licence must cause all listed wastes to be transported by a licensed person.
• EDP 02/0015 Condition 41
o Permit holder to develop an Operational Waste Management Plan and a Waste Discharge
Licence with analysis of discharge water, and hydrotest formulation, monitoring of receiving
waters and notification of aquaculturalists of imminent credible risk of toxicity
• NTG Assessment Report
o The proponent will actively pursue waste minimisation and recycling opportunities to reduce solid
and semi-liquid waste streams where possible. An Operational Waste Management Plan,
prepared as part of the EMP, will further detail the proponent’s approach to managing these
wastes.
o Non-hazardous wastes (e.g. ceramic balls, biological sludge and domestic garbage) will be
disposed of by waste management contractors and will meet requirements of OEH.
o When final equipment selection is done (during the design phase), any apparatus that is likely to
contain radiation sources and/or irradiating equipment will be identified, and operation of this
equipment will comply with provisions of the NT Radiation (Safety Control) Act.
o Wastes not suitable for disposal at the Shoal Bay Waste Disposal Site (e.g. waste oils, biological
sludge and spent solvents) will be disposed of by commercial waste management contractors.
The proponent will review waste-tracking documentation to ensure these wastes are disposed in a
manner approved by OEH.
• Controlled Waste NEPM

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Table 15 Environmental Management Strategy - E1 Management of Flora and Fauna

E1 – Management of Flora and Fauna


Applicable Site Activities/Events
Feral animals may be introduced via the following operational activities:
• Vehicle and equipment • Main access road providing all tide
movements onto site access for feral animals to move
into Wickham Point from mainland
Planned activities during operations:
• Installations of stormwater • Product transfer & loading • Treated wastewater disposal
management and erosion control • Workforce induction • Flaring (source of heat and light)
• Vehicle movements (dust • Additional construction or • Maintenance of infrastructure
generation) expansion of existing located within intertidal zone
infrastructure close to mangrove (pipeline shore crossing, ramp,
areas jetty)
Operational activities that may result in introduction or spread of weeds and/or plant pathogens:
• Vehicle and equipment • Import of foreign rock or soil
movements onto Wickham Point material (if required)
• Vehicle and equipment
movements from Wickham Point
to off-site destinations
Operational activities that may result in interaction with wildlife:
• Plant lighting and light from flare • Land-based traffic to and from site • Collection of stormwater in
operations (staff and contractor vehicles) sedimentation ponds
• Noise and vibration from loading • Operational noise from the DLNG • Solid waste management
facilities and marine vessels Plant operations • Sump coverings
Unplanned activities:
• Potential spills/discharges from a • Disturbance outside the approved • Chemical and hydrocarbon spills
range of plant process and facility boundary to land or water body
product loading activities into • Fire/explosions • Cyclone or severe storm events
either terrestrial or marine
environments
Potential Environmental Effects
• Mortality of wildlife due to physical impact.
• Attraction of wildlife to sites within the plant site (e.g. fruit bats to water collection areas or bandicoots or possums
to rubbish areas)
• Introduction of feral animals into surrounding ecosystems
• Habitat disturbance for native terrestrial fauna/flora
• Increased competition for resources
• Translocation of diseases by feral animals
• Sediment transported from the plant site by stormwater drains or from erosion of perimeter embankments may be
deposited into adjacent mangrove areas. This has the potential to cause impacts to mangrove fauna and tree
stress if the depositing material accumulates in excess of natural sedimentation rates and to sufficient depths to
bury the aerial root system.
• Modification to surface water drainage and sub-surface seepage conditions that maintain suitable groundwater
salinities required for mangroves to survive in the hinterland fringe mangrove zone. Potential changes include
both an increase in freshwater input to mangroves in some areas (resulting in more luxuriant growth in localised
areas) and a decrease in other areas (potentially resulting in mangrove dieback).
• Heat stress from flaring activities.
• Toxic effects from direct contact with hydrocarbons and other chemicals. Toxic effects can also indirectly affect

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vegetation through depletion or loss of the associated ecosystem functionality. Ecotoxic effects on intertidal biota
and potential bioaccumulation in the ecosystem.
• Shoreline erosion or sedimentation associated with the presence of jetty infrastructure within the intertidal/marine
environment
• Disturbance to significant vegetation by unauthorised access or activities into undisturbed habitats (e.g. dry
rainforest, mangroves) adjacent to the plant.
• Introduction of invasive weeds and plant pathogens
• Displacement of native flora and vegetation assemblages in surrounding areas of Wickham Point
Corporate Commitments
• Minimise the environmental impact of our operations (Sustainable Development Position).
Performance Objectives Targets Key Performance Indicators
• Disturbance to wildlife to be • Zero harmful incidents involving • Number of harmful incidents
minimised wildlife involving wildlife
• Minimise disturbance to the • No impacts to mangroves outside • Number of samples of mangrove
mangrove ecosystem adjacent to the approved disturbance sediments and biota.above
the DLNG Plant boundary relevant guidelines for
hydrocarbon and heavy metal
concentrations
• Prevent the introduction and • Zero weeds or plant pathogens • Number of weeds or plant
spread of weeds and plant present on the DLNG Plant site or pathogens identified on the DLNG
pathogens to DLNG Plant site and lease area Plant site or lease area
lease area
Engineering (As-Built) Controls
• Perimeter security fencing.
• Sump coverings.
• Perimeter security fencing.
• Low radiation ground flare system.
• Bunding / secondary containment for chemical and fuel storage.
• Grounding of equipment for lightning strikes to prevent fire propagation.
• Vehicle wash-down facility
Operations Procedural Controls
• DLNG Waste Management Procedure
• DLNG weed survey and vegetation control program.
• Housekeeping procedures
• DLNG HSE induction - encourage reporting of native and feral animal sightings
• DLNG HSE induction presentation (i.e. education of workforce in regard to sensitive habitats adjacent to the
DLNG Plant)
• On-site irrigation system operating procedures
• DLNG Marine Terminal Handbook
Environmental Performance Monitoring, Reporting Requirements and Applicable Regulatory Requirements
• Report wildlife harm incidents in accordance with Incident Reporting and Investigation Procedure,
ALL/HSE/PRO/003
• Periodic monitoring of weeds incursion on DLNG Plant site – see Section 6. Methodology defined in
Environmental Monitoring and Reporting procedure, ALL/HSE/PRO/066
• Native vegetation condition monitoring in vicinity of key DLNG Plant air emission and discharge sources using
rapid assessment surveillance technique - see Section 6. Methodology defined in Environmental Monitoring and
Reporting procedure, ALL/HSE/PRO/066.
• On an as-required basis, relocate threatened fauna to more suitable habitat following advice from NT Parks and

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Wildlife.
• Maintain a register of listed weeds, including surveyed northing and easting position coordinates of known
infestations and status of treatment.
• Periodic monitoring of mangrove communities adjacent to DLNG marine terminal facility, as part of the Darwin
Harbour Advisory Committee Darwin Harbour monitoring program. Monitoring requirements defined in
Environmental Monitoring and Reporting procedure, ALL/HSE/PRO/066.
• Environment Protection Licence 54 issued under Waste Management and Pollution Control Act
o Mangrove surveillance and chemical monitoring in accordance with Appendix 4 of Attachment 1.
• EDP02/0015 Condition 28
o Requirement for a Mangrove Monitoring Program.
o Requirement for a Weed Monitoring Program.
• NTG Assessment Report
o The proponent will continue to liaise with NT EPA to identify an acceptable dry rainforest
mitigation strategy, including identification of an appropriate area (size and location).
o Fauna habitat surrounding the plant site will be protected by fencing, with access restricted.
o All activities will fully comply with requirements of the Weeds Management Act (NT).
• PER Environmental Management Commitment to prevent the introduction of weeds and plant pathogens.

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Table 16 Environmental Management Strategy-S1 Stakeholder Relations

S1 – Management of Stakeholder Relations


Applicable Site Activities/Events
Onshore social and economic impacts will include:
• Employment and training of • Operational marine discharges • Unauthorised vessel intrusions.
Northern Territory personnel which may impact on commercial • Noise and visual amenity
• Restricted fishing access in the fish species • Potential water quality impacts
vicinity of the DLNG Plant • Water and fuel consumption affecting nearby aquaculture
facilities.
Potential Environmental Effects
• Economic and social impacts on the people of NT.
• Potential reductions in access to local fishing resources in the vicinity of the DLNG Marine Terminal.
• Restricted and safety zones limiting access of vessels in the vicinity of the DLNG Marine Terminal.
• Inefficient use of energy/natural resources.
Corporate Commitments
• Positively impact communities wherever we operate (Sustainable Development Position)
• Minimise the environmental impact of our operations (Sustainable Development Position)
• Invest in the well-being and development of our employees (Sustainable Development Position)
• Practice and uphold the highest ethical standard (Sustainable Development Position)
Performance Objectives Targets Key Performance Indicators
• Employment of local workforce by • Endeavour to employ 50% of • Number of personnel employed
DLNG Plant employees (including contractors) from local workforce
locally.
• Skills and experience • Attain levels of competency • Number of personnel without
enhancement of NT personnel defined within the Competency appropriate competency levels
employed by DLNG Plant Assessment System
Engineering (As-Built) Controls
• Navigation Aids installed on Wickham Point and LNG loading jetty (signage, beacons, lights)
• Marine radio channels and other communication systems.
• Clear and legible signage on display at DLNG Plant site which indicates:
o Environment Protection Licence number issued under the Waste Management and Pollution
Control Act; and
o 24 hour emergency contact details as provided on page one of this License.
Operations Procedural Controls
• DLNG Marine Terminal Handbook
• Maintenance of restricted and safety zones around the facility – Onshore Facility Access Control & Vehicle Safety
ALL/HSE/PRO/023
• Emergency Response Plan – Darwin LNG ALL/HSE/ER/002
• Darwin LNG Operations Training, Assessment and Competency Assurance

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Environmental Performance Monitoring, Reporting Requirements and Applicable Regulatory Requirements
• Learning Management System training records maintained by the CPA Human Resources Department.
• Darwin LNG Operation Training, Assessment and Competency Assurance.
• Environment Protection Licence issued under Waste Management and Pollution Control Act
o Maintain a log of each complaint, made in relation to the activity, to any persons involved in the
activity. The log must include, date of complaint, contact details of complainant, nature of
complaint, prevailing weather conditions at time of complaint and action taken in relation to
complaint (including any follow up contact with complainant.
o Copy of the current ELP 54 to be maintained onsite.
• NTG Assessment Report
o The proponent’s Corporate Relations Management Plan will establish the following: a Corporate
Relations Manager and Department; a Public and Community Relations Program; a Larrakia
Liaison Committee; a CASA/Air Service Australia Liaison Link; and an internet web site.
o Recreational fishing off the northern tip of Wickham Point will not be affected by the LNG plant:
the only restrictions will be adjacent to the loading jetty and construction dock, both of which are
well away from the area of greatest fishing interest. There will be no restriction of access to
landing in the region of the old leprosarium.
o Noise levels on site will be monitored and, in the event of complaints, actions to rectify will be
undertaken if possible.
• NTG Assessment Report / EDP02/0015
o Design measures will be implemented where practical to minimise the potential visual impact of
the development.
• EDP02/0015 General Condition
o Requirement to establish a Heritage Issues Committee
• Summary of complaints received to be reported to NT EPA as part of the DLNG Plant Annual Audit Compliance
Report in accordance with DLNG Environment Protection Licence requirements– due for submission a minimum
of 20 business days prior to the anniversary of the commencement date of the licence (reporting period 1 January
to 31 December).

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Table 17 Environmental Management Strategy-S2 Management of Heritage Values


(Indigenous and European)

S2 – Management of Heritage Values (Indigenous and European)


Applicable Site Activities/Events
Environmental impact on Indigenous and European heritage values of Wickham Point to be minimised from:
• Disturbance outside approved • Unauthorised clearing or access to • Vandalism
facility boundary protected areas • Fire
Potential Environmental Effects
• Physical damage to sites of Indigenous heritage significance (middens).
• Physical damage to remnant WWII artefacts.
Corporate Commitments
• Minimise the environmental impact of our operations (Sustainable Development Position).
Performance Objectives Targets Key Performance Indicators
• Maintain protection of undisturbed • No physical disturbance to sites of • Number of sites disturbed
archaeological and heritage sites archaeological or ethnographic
significance
• Maintain open dialogue with • Adhere to established meeting • Number of meetings /
traditional land owners and schedule of Larrakia Liaison consultations through Larrakia
relevant authorities Committee Liaison committee for the reporting
period
• Maintain the Archaeological Sites • Up to date records of the condition • Number of sites with out of date
Register for Wickham Point of all archaeological sites records
Engineering (As-Built) Controls
• Fencing and protection of known significant middens.
• Authorised removal of major WWII artefacts.
• Development of a pictorial interpretive display located on the Darwin Esplanade
Operations Procedural Controls
• Wickham Point Archaeological Sites Register
Environmental Performance Monitoring, Reporting Requirements and Applicable Regulatory Requirements
• EDP 02/0015 General Condition
o Requirement for an Archaeological Sites Register for Wickham Point and establish a Heritage
Issues Committee
• PER commitment
o Proponent will establish a liaison committee, which will include indigenous interests, to assist in
the management and protection of any archaeological sites which may be discovered on Wickham
Point.
o An archaeological sites register will be established in consultation with DLP Heritage Conservation
Services and will be updated if any new artefacts or historic sites are discovered.
• Reporting of heritage-related incidents in DLNG Plant Annual Environmental Performance Report to NT EPA.

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6.1 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY

6.1.1 Roles and Responsibilities

Implementation of the DLNG OEMP is the shared responsibility of ConocoPhillips employees


and contractors directly or indirectly involved with DLNG operations. HSE roles and
responsibilities are defined for personnel in either their position descriptions or in contractual
terms and conditions.

The content of operations team position descriptions include, as applicable, items such as
primary responsibilities, accountabilities, qualifications, competency, skills and experience
requirements for the position.

Specific environmental performance objectives and standards are documented in the OEMP.

While most departments and groups within the ConocoPhillips Australasia Business Unit play a
role in the implementation of the ABU HSEMS, the groups with the major share of direct
involvement are the HSE department and the Operations team.

6.1.2 Awareness Training and Competency

Personnel engaged to work on the DLNG Plant, whether as staff or contractors, are required to
attend a HSE induction and satisfactorily pass the associated competency questionnaire. The
HSE Induction covers the following environmental management requirements. These
requirements are reinforced through periodic workplace HSE meetings and toolbox meetings.

• Pollution prevention and housekeeping practices and procedures;

• Waste management, including segregation and handling of different wastes;

• Chemicals selection, approval and management processes and procedures;

• Emergency Response Plan and procedures; and

Training and competency assessments are tracked by the Training Department. Training
records are held by this group.

6.1.3 Monitoring and Reporting

6.1.3.1 Monitoring
In addition to environmental emissions, discharges and waste generation monitoring and
reporting, a program of environmental impact monitoring is conducted for the DLNG Plant site.
The purpose of this program is to gather information with which to assess the impact of the
operations activities on the local receiving environment, with reference to the baseline data
collected prior to the start of DLNG Plant commissioning and operations.

The monitoring programmes undertaken at the DLNG Plant are outlined in the ABU
Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Procedure (ALL/HSE/PRO/066), with details in Table
18 below.

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Table 18 Summary of DLNG Operations EMP Monitoring Programs

Details Monitoring Key


Monitoring Program Performance
Overview Frequency Indicators
Atmospheric Collection of Quarterly Table 1
Emissions emissions at the
Process Boilers, Acid (EPL 54-05)
Gas Incinerator,
Compressor Turbines
and Power
Generation Turbines

Complaints Monitoring COP maintains a log Continuously EPL 54-05


of any complaints
made in relation to
activities at DLNG.

Wastewater Discharge Collection of water Table 2 and Table 3


samples from
irrigation, jetty and EPL 54-05, DHWQO
sediment pond and ANZECC 2000
outfalls.

Mangrove Monitoring Mangrove Yearly EPL 54-05 –


surveillance and Appendix 4
chemical monitoring
of mangrove
sediments and biota.

Qualitative Monitoring Qualitative monitoring Monthly EPL 54-05 –


of DLNG Plant. Appendix 2

Waste Generation and Maintaining a record Continuously EPL 54-05 and


Disposal of nature and EDP02/0015
quantities of waste
streams generated.

Monthly reports will be compiled, verified and approved for company usage and used for internal
and external reporting purposes. These records are managed by HSE Department. Records are
made available upon request to authorised requestors. Monitoring data will be used, where
appropriate, in updating the conceptual site model.

Monthly monitoring data and reports will be used to produce the DLNG Plant Annual Monitoring
Report and Annual Audit and Compliance Report. The reports are due for submission to NT EPA
by 12 June following reporting period (1 January to 31 December) each year.

Terrestrial sampling points will be identified through appropriate signage so they are easily
identifiable at all times and safe access and egress will be maintained as reasonable practicable.

For each wastewater sample required to be collected by this Licence the following information
must be recorded and retained:

• date(s) on which the sample was taken;

• time(s) at which the sample was collected;

• point(s) at which the sample was taken;

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• name of the person who collected the sample;

• chain of custody forms relating to the sample(s);

• field measurements and/or analytical results for the sample; and

• laboratory QA/QC documentation.

6.1.3.2 Reporting
Reporting requirements associated with environmental statutory reporting requirements,
performance targets and KPI’s are defined in the ABU West Environmental Monitoring and
Reporting Procedure (ALL/HSE/PRO/066).

Operational performance data entry and collation is conducted via the following primary
reporting systems:

• Environmental performance routine and non-routine atmospheric emissions and liquid


wastewater discharges will be tracked daily through the Production Reporting system.

• Environmental Monitoring and Reporting procedure (ALL/HSE/PRO/066).

• ABU Approved Chemicals and Hazardous Substances Register (ALL/HSE/PRO/044).

• Waste disposal records, as required by the ABU Waste Management Plan


(ALL/HSE/PLN/004), EPL 54-05 and DLNG Waste Management Procedure.

• Fauna monitoring and reporting should be in accordance with Environmental Monitoring


and Reporting procedure (ALL/HSE/PRO/066).

• Incident Reporting, Recording and Investigation procedure (ALL/HSE/PRO/003).

Reporting roles and responsibilities, reporting standards, and records management


requirements are defined in the above referenced specifications and procedures.

An Annual Audit and Compliance Report and Monitoring Report will be provided to NT EPA 20
business days and one month respectively prior to the anniversary of EPL 54-05 (15 June). The
Monitoring Report will include:

• Trend analysis and interpretation of quantative and analytical data collected; and

• Cover the period from the 1 January to 31 December of the preceding year.

Environmental performance reporting will be provided to key stakeholders, including, but not
limited to:

• NT EPA (As above; and annual NPI listed substances emissions report);

• Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (National Greenhouse and Energy
Report and Energy Efficiency Opportunity Report);

• ConocoPhillips Company (Performance Assurance Reports);

• Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association (APPEA) (Environmental


Incident Reports

Publically Available Reports

In accordance with the EDP02/0015 and EPL 54-05 the following documents will be available to
members on the public through the DLNG COP website:

• Copies (including variations) of EDP02/0015 and EPL 54-05;

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• Environmental Impact Assessment 1997 – 3MTPA LNG Facility

• Public Environment Report 2002 – 10MTPA LNG Facility

• NTG Environmental Assessment Report & Recommendations (#24 and 39)

• Greenhouse Gas Management Plan

ο Annual Greenhouse Gas Management Plan revisions and GHG inventory

• Environmental Management Programs:

ο Vol I – EMP Overview and Compliance Audit Report

ο Vol II – Construction Phase EMP

ο Vol III – Dredge & Spoil Disposal EMP

ο Vol IV – Operations EMP

• Annual Audit and Compliance Report (Appendix 6 of EPL 54-05 and Volume I of the
EMP Overview and Compliance Audit Report)

Environmental Incident Reporting

All reportable incidents, recordable incidents and unusual events will in the first instance be
reported to COP. HSE hazards and in accordance with the Incident Reporting, Recording and
Investigation Procedure (ALL/HSE/PRO/003). Root cause analysis is performed for incidents as
required to determine the cause and aid identification of appropriate corrective actions.

The definitions of a reportable incident are taken from the Waste Management and Pollution
Control Act, Part 3, 14. A ‘reportable incident’ means any incident (such as an accident or
malfunction) which causes or threatens to cause pollution resulting in material or serious
environmental harm

A reportable incident is required to be reported to the regulator as soon as practicable, but not
later than twenty four hours after the first occurrence of the incident or after the time the operator
becomes aware of the reportable incident (EPL Condition 33 and 34). The Licensee is to notify
the NT EPA of non-compliances of the Licence by emailing pollution@nt.gov.au or via telephone
on the pollution hotline 1800 064 567.

6.1.4 Verification Audits and Reviews

Monitoring implementation of commitments made within the OEMP and associated documented
plans, procedures and processes is validated through the audit processes of the ABU HSEMS.
Environmental audits and follow-up actions are conducted in accordance with the ABU HSE
Auditing and Inspection Procedure (Doc No.ALL/HSE/PRO/031).

Management review of HSE compliance and performance is undertaken in accordance with the
ABU HSEMS review processes described in the HSE Management System Manual
(ALL/HSE/MAN/001). The IOSC HSE Steering Committee conducts annual HSE performance
reviews. The IOSC HSE Steering Committee is comprised of the IOSC management team.
Inputs to the review process are provided from monitoring programs, audits and inspections
conducted by staff and contractors with specialist expertise in operations and HSE. External
review input is provided by corporate and third party specialists, as appropriate.

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7 EMERGENCY RESPONSE ARRANGEMENTS

7.1 EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLANS (ERP)

The ERP provides coordinated and effective response to an emergency by:

• Establishing processes to maintain a high level of emergency preparedness;

• Identifying potential emergency scenarios that could occur;

• Documenting the overall emergency response process and key interfaces;

• Outlining measures to maintain interoperability with emergency services and other


support organizations;

• Detailing the procedures that will be implemented to manage emergency events; and

• Defining the roles and responsibilities of personnel in an emergency event.

The ERP outlines the measures to:

• Ensure the safety of all personnel.

• Protect the environment through effective emergency management.

• Minimise the impact of damage to equipment and assets.

• Liaise effectively with external agencies and authorities

ConocoPhillips has a strategic approach to emergency response, providing a tiered structure of


response. The tiered structure allows the Incident Commander to assess a situation and
mobilise the appropriate level of response. Ongoing appraisal of the situation by the onshore
emergency response team l allows the level of response to be upgraded or reduced in a
controlled and effective manner.

The ConocoPhillips Incident Management Plan (ALL/HSE/ER/001) and Emergency Response


Plan – Darwin LNG (ALL/HSE/ER/002) describe arrangements and reporting relationships for
command, control and communications, together with interfaces to emergency services
specialist response groups, statutory authorities and other external bodies.

7.2 SPILL RESPONSE

7.2.1 Spill Response Arrangements

ConocoPhillips have Emergency Response and ABU Oil Spill Contingency Plans that cover
operations at the DLNG Plant. The ConocoPhillips Oil Spill Contingency Plan provides a three-
tiered approach to spills in accordance with the severity of the spill and organisational
capabilities to mount an effective spill response. The three-tiered approach allows for a smooth
transition of control to Northern Territory and Commonwealth agencies in the unlikely event of,
or potential for, a Tier 2 or Tier 3 response. Response tiers are defined in Table 19.

ConocoPhillips is a member of the Australian Marine and Oil Spill Centre (AMOSC) and Oil Spill
Response limited and can therefore draw on equipment and industry support in the event of a
spill. Procedures for calling out this assistance are detailed in the ConocoPhillips Spill Response
Plan.

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TIER 3
ABU WEST
CRISIS
MANAGEMENT
Global Incident TEAM
Management Assist
Team (GIMAT)

Provide integrated Tier TIER 2


2/3 support for the ABU WEST INCIDENT
Incident Management MANAGEMENT TEAM
Team when requested

TIER 1
FACILITY EMERGENCY RESPONSE
TEAMS

Figure 11 ConocoPhillips ABU-West Crisis, Emergency Management and Response


Structure

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Table 19 ConocoPhillips Spill Response Tiers

Tier Definition and Emergency Response Provisions Nominal Spill Size


Tier 1 SMALL RESPONSE.
IMT Response Resources 0 to 70 barrels (bbl)
3
Notification (0 to 10 m )
May require the assistance of the ConocoPhillips Incident Management
Team.
Tier 2 MEDIUM RESPONSE.
IMT Response Resources
Activation
May require additional off-site regional capabilities, sufficient response
resources are available via the AMOSC and the National Plan
• A Tier 2 event requires ConocoPhillips to access personnel or
equipment beyond the drill rig, vessel or ConocoPhillips business unit.
70 to 7,000 bbl
Response resources may be obtained from spill response Contractors 3
industry and/or Government agencies. 10 to 1,000 m
• A Tier 2 incident requires the assistance of the ConocoPhillips Incident 10 -1,000 t
Management Team and Crisis Management Team.
• Spill response may be taken over by nominated Government Combat
Agency under the relevant Port, State or National Plan.
• ConocoPhillips may mobilise personnel from other ConocoPhillips
Business Units
Tier 3 MAJOR RESPONSE.
CMT Response Resources
Activation
May require additional off-site international capabilities:
A Tier 3 event requires ConocoPhillips to access personnel or resources on
a national or international scale.
>7,000 bbl
• A Tier 3 incident that requires the assistance of the ConocoPhillips 3
Incident Management Team and Crisis Management Team. >1,000 m

• ConocoPhillips may mobilise the personnel from other ConocoPhillips Over 1,000 t
business units.
• ConocoPhillips may seek assistance from overseas company business
units as well as Oil Spill Response Limited (OSRL) and any other
resource deemed appropriate to effectively manage the Tier 3 event.

7.3 POTENTIAL SPILL CHARACTERISTICS

This section provides site specific information on the likely movement and dispersal on spilled
hydrocarbons. This information supplements information provided in the Oil Spill Contingency
Plan (ALL/HSE/ER/004).

Chemicals and hydrocarbon-based products stored and handled onsite are managed so as to
reduce the likelihood of leaks or spills either onto land or into the harbour.

Non-routine or accidental spills that may be associated with operations include:

• A 30 tonne surface release of light marine diesel fuel, to represent a release from a
ruptured tank from a marine tug due to a collision;

• A 300 litre surface release of hydraulic oil (nominally Mobil DTE 16M) to the harbour, to
represent the loss of hydraulic oil from a marine tug due to a collision, or from a major
failure of the LNG loading arms; and

• A 20 litre surface release of hydraulic oil (nominally Mobil DTE 16M) to the harbour, to
represent the loss of hydraulic oil from a minor failure of the LNG loading arms or
hydraulically operated gangway. Note: A readily biodegradable, vegetable-based

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hydraulic oil (Mobil EAL 224H) has been installed in the DLNG jetty loading arms
hydraulic system.

There are five key processes that dictate the fate and transport of oil, diesel or other
hydrocarbons entering the marine environment. These are:

1. Transport of the oil though wind, tide and ocean currents.

2. Spreading of the oil by wind, tide and ocean currents.

3. Entrainment of the oil in the water column as small droplets through wave action.

4. Evaporation of the oil (depends on air and sea temperature and the surface area of the
oil spill).

5. Decay of the oil through natural biological and chemical processes.

The fate of an oil spill at the DLNG Plant would depend on the volume of the spill, the location of
the spill and the type of hydrocarbon released into the environment. Generally, the model results
showed that because of the strength of the currents in the Port of Darwin (exceeding 1 knot at
times), individual slicks were predicted to most commonly advect in the direction of the tidal
current. During a flood tide event the oil slick was predicted to rush through the southern
entrance, coating the eastern coastline. During the ebb tide the slick is then transported out with
the outgoing tide.

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8 REFERENCES

ANZECC/ ARMCANZ, 2000. Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine
Water Quality. Australian and New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and
Agriculture & Resource Management Council of Australia & New Zealand, October 2000.

Asia-Pacific Applied Science Associates, October 2005. Quantitative Oil Spill Exposure
Assessment: Darwin LNG Jetty, Wickham Point, Port Darwin. APASA Project No. L016

Australian Maritime Safety Authority. National Marine Chemical Spill Contingency Plan
(CHEMPLAN).

Australian Maritime Safety Authority. National Marine Oil Spill Contingency Plan.

Bechtel Australia Pty Ltd, 2001. Darwin LNG Plant, Australia. Preliminary Noise Study with
Noise Contour Map. Report prepared by Bechtel Corporation for Phillips Petroleum LNG Pty Ltd.

Bechtel Australia Pty Ltd, 2005. DLNG Sewage Treatment & Effluent Reuse Strategy, Revision
00, 12 September 2005. Information to support the Application for Site Specific Design Approval
issued by ConocoPhillips Australia Pty Ltd 16 September 2005 to NT Department of Health and
Community Services.

Coleman, A.P.M., 1998. Fishcount: a survey of recreational fishing in the Northern Territory.
Fishery Report 43. NT Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Darwin.

Commonwealth Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, Resources Division, 2003.


Guidelines for Preparation and Submission of an Environment Plan, published January 2008.

ConocoPhillips (03-12) Pty Ltd. Bayu-Undan Field Operations Phase Environmental


Management Plan. Doc. No. BU/HSE/PLN/006.

ConocoPhillips Australasia Business Unit. Health, Safety and Environment Policy.

ConocoPhillips Australia Pty Ltd HSE Management System Manual (ALL/HSE/MAN/001

ConocoPhillips Company, 2009. Climate Change Position

ConocoPhillips Company. Health, Safety and Environmental Management System Standard.

ConocoPhillips Pty Ltd ABU Approved Chemicals and Hazardous Substances Register
(ALL/HSE/PRO/044).

ConocoPhillips Pty Ltd ABU Incident Management Plan (ALL/HSE/PLN/004)

ConocoPhillips Pty Ltd ABU Incident Reporting, Recording and Investigation procedure
(ALL/HSE/PRO/003).

ConocoPhillips Pty Ltd ABU Risk Management Procedure ALL/HSE/PRO/040

ConocoPhillips Pty Ltd ABU Waste Management Plan (ALL/HSE/PLN/004).

ConocoPhillips Pty Ltd Industrial Hygiene Exposure Assessment Plan Doc.


No.ALL/HSE/PRO/061

ConocoPhillips Spill Response Plan (ALL/HSE/PLN/002)

CSIRO, 2001. A Pilot Study of Air Quality in Darwin, NT. Report for the Northern Territory
Department of Lands, Planning and Environment, March 2001.

Darwin Harbour Advisory Committee 2003. Draft Darwin Harbour Regional Plan of Management,
August 2003.

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Darwin LNG Pty Ltd. Darwin LNG Wickham Point Australia Marine Terminal Handbook.

Environment Australia, 1998. Proposed Darwin LNG Plant and Pipeline Environment
Assessment Report. Report issued by Environment Assessment Branch, Environment
Protection Group, February 1998.

Environmental Monitoring and Reporting procedure (ALL/HSE/PRO/066).

National Environment Protection Council, 1998. National Environment Protection (Ambient Air
Quality) Measure (as amended June 2010).

Noise Assessment for Train 1 and New Solar GTG. F. Brittain, Bechtel e-mail correspondence
dated 30 August 2004.

Northern Territory Department of Health and Community Services Medical Entomology Branch,
2004. Wickham Point Baseline Biting Insect Report. Study undertaken on behalf of URS
Australia Pty Ltd for Darwin LNG Pty Ltd. January 2004.

Northern Territory Department of Infrastructure Planning and Environment. Waste Management


and Pollution Control Act Environment Protection Approval No. 01. Issued to ConocoPhillips
Australia Pty Ltd), 27 September 2009.

Northern Territory Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Environment (DIPE). Darwin 10


MTPA LNG Facility (Wickham Point) Environmental Assessment Report and Recommendations.
Assessment Report 39 prepared by the NT Office of Environment and Heritage, DIPE, May
2002.

Northern Territory Department of Lands, Planning and Environment, 1998. Darwin Liquefied
Natural Gas Plant and Subsea Pipeline. Environmental Assessment Report and
Recommendations. Assessment Report 24 issued by Environment Protection Division,
Department of Lands, Planning and Environment, February 1998.

Northern Territory Department of Lands, Planning and Environment. National Environment


Protection Measure for Ambient Air Quality – Monitoring Plan for the Northern Territory, May
2001.

Northern Territory Government, 2004. Litchfield Area Plan 2004.

Northern Territory Minister for Lands Planning and Environment. Exceptional Development
Permit EDP02/0015, issued to Phillips Petroleum Company Australia Pty Ltd (now
ConocoPhillips Australia Pty Ltd), 11 November 2002; Variation Permit EDP02/0015A, issued 21
October 2003; Variation Permit EDP02/0015B, issued 11 August 2004; and Variation Permit
EDP02/0015C, issued 4 November 2004.

NT Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts. Environment Protection


Licence issued under Waste Management and Pollution Control Act.

NT Department of Natural Resources, Environment and the Arts and Sports (NRETAS), 2010.
Water Quality Objectives for the Darwin Harbour Region – Background Document. February
2010.

Phillips Oil Company Australia Pty Ltd, 1997. Darwin LNG Plant. Draft Environmental Impact
Statement. Prepared by Dames and Moore.

Phillips Petroleum Company Australia Pty Ltd, 2002. Darwin 10 MTPA LNG Facility – Public
Environmental Report. Prepared by URS Australia Pty Ltd., March 2002.

Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand, 2004. Environmental Risk Management –
Principles and Process, HB 203:2004.

Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand, 2004. Risk Management, AS/NZS 4360:2004.

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Standards Australia, 2004. AS/NZS ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management Systems -


Requirements with Guidance for Use.

URS Australia Pty Ltd, 2002. Baseline Geochemical Analysis Reports. Appendix J to Darwin
LNG Plant Environmental Management Programme – Volume II Construction EMP, October
2002.

URS Australia Pty Ltd, 2005. Darwin LNG Operational Discharge Modelling Review. Report No.
R1149 prepared for Bechtel Australia Pty Ltd, issued 14 October 2005.

URS Australia Pty Ltd, 2005. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Offset Options. Report prepared for
ConocoPhillips Australia Pty Ltd. Report no. 42905314/R1083, 24 May 2005.

URS Australia Pty Ltd, 2010. Darwin LNG Waste Water Irrigation Performance Report prepared
for ConocoPhillips Australia Pty Ltd., December 2010

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9 ATTACHMENT 1

9.1 ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION LICENCE 54-05

http://livelink-abu.conocophillips.net/livelink.exe?func=doc.Fetch&nodeid=946270&viewtype=1

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10 ATTACHMENT 2

10.1 EXCEPTIONAL DEVELOPMENT PERMIT 02/0015

http://livelink-abu.conocophillips.net/livelink.exe?func=doc.Fetch&nodeid=983372&viewtype=1

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