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E. E.

Examine the effect of climate change on communities and natural systems.

Following the last half-century, the Earth has experienced many differences in temperature and
climate. Climate change is the change in the Earth’s temperatures due to the human and natural
factors, including the emission of carbon dioxide into our atmosphere. These changes have a
large impact on both communities and natural systems, which vary depending on their location
and vulnerability. These impacts could intensify if action is not taken, and could lead to extreme
and irreversible issues.

Climate change is provoking the icebergs in the most northern and southern parts of the world
to melt, as global temperatures are increasing. Due to the massive fragments of ice melting into
the oceans, the sea levels are rising, which places low-lying areas at risk of flooding. For
example, by 2050 many islands such as the Maldives and Seychelles (in the Pacific Ocean) are
expected to be underwater, and have disappeared. Areas such as Venice, Italy, and the
Netherlands will be affected as they too may be submerged, along with many coastal cities. This
would mean that thousands of people need to be displaced, and could lead to overcrowding in
certain areas. It must be considered that global climate change will have a range of
consequences depending on the location and wealth of a country and its people, as well as the
level of education and overall vulnerability to climate change. For example, an area that is
landlocked, such as Uzbekistan will not be as weary of the loss of land due to sea levels rising,
unlike a coastal area, such as the Italian coastline, e.g: Venice. This is because Uzbekistan
would not be losing its land to the sea, whereas parts of Italy would. Islands and coastal cities
will have slightly different impacts from climate change, though both are under lots of pressure,
as their land masses are decreasing in size, and they must find strategic solutions quickly.

Global climate change would also have various opportunities for certain areas. For instance in
Canada, despite the loss of wildlife in its northern territory, the melting of sea ice would allow
new sea routes to open up, as well as many fishing opportunities.

The melting of sea ice not only affects humans, but wildlife too. In the Arctic for example, polar
bears are losing their homes or are drowning from the collapse of icebergs. It is expected that
polar bears go extinct by 2035, which would hinder the Arctic food chain, and eventually the
human food chain.

Climate change also affects communities due to the food produce problems. With prolonged
rainfall or wildfire seasons, crops can be ruined and people could starve as they may be unable
to provide for themselves. For example, in India in 2014, a years worth of rainfall poured in just
five hours during their monsoon season. These extreme weather conditions are pushing the
natural environment to its limits. As soil is eroded again and again, the quality is degraded. This
means that many nutrients are lost and could ruin crop yields, which could in turn lead to
famine. As weather conditions are becoming much more extreme, action to stop climate change
is vital for future generations’ survival.
E. E.

To conclude, there are multiple impacts from climate change which affect humans, such as the
loss of land and crops, though there are equally impacts on the natural environment, such as
the loss of animals and their habitats, including polar bears and penguins. There are also some
opportunities in countries such as Canada, such as the opening of sea routes and fishing
advantages. These impacts will not all be felt in the same way by every country, as each
country experiences different climate change issues. Not every nation will be as vulnerable to
climate change problems as others, though it really depends on their location, wealth and level
of education. The impacts of climate change are expected to worsen if changes in our lifestyles
aren’t made soon.