00 voturi pozitive00 voturi negative

1 vizualizări34 paginiJun 20, 2019

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

© All Rights Reserved

1 vizualizări

00 voturi pozitive00 voturi negative

© All Rights Reserved

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 34

Fl Over

Flow O B

Bodies:

di D Drag and

d Lift

D E

Dr.-Eng. Zayed

Z d Al-Hamamre

Al H

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Content

Overview

Drag and Lift

Flow Past Objects

Boundary Layers

Laminar Boundary Layers

Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers

Drag on Immersed Objects

Lift on Immersed Objects

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

External Flows: Overview

If a body is immersed in a flow, we call it an external flow.

External flows involving air are typically termed

aerodynamics

aerodynamics.

Some important external flows include airplanes, motor

vehicles,, and flow around buildings,

g , under water

submarine.

In internal flows, the entire flow field is dominated by viscous effects, while

In external flow, the viscous effects are confined to a portion of the flow field such as the

boundary layers and wakes.

When a fluid moves over a solid body, it exerts pressure forces normal to the surface and shear

forces parallel to the surface along the outer surface of the body.

The component of the resultant pressure and shear forces that acts in the flow direction is

called the drag force (or just drag), and the component that acts normal to the flow direction is

called the lift force (or just lift).

3

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Often flow modeling is used to determine the flow fields in a wind tunnel or water tank.

stability, and control are directly related to the

aerodynamic/hydrodynamic forces and moments.

correct design

Typical quantities of interest are lift and drag acting on these objects.

The flow fields and geometries for most external flow problems are too complicated to be

solved analytically, and thus we have to rely on correlations based on experimental data

4

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example: Automobile Drag

Development of the Cw

value for motor vehicles

5

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Types of External Flows:

sectional size and shape the flow is normal to the body. the

end effects are negligible

sectional shape about the axis of symmetry.

symmetry.

The bodies can be classified as streamlined or blunt, tends to block the flow, buildings.

Streamlined object typically move more easily through a fluid, airfoils, racing cars.

A fluid may exert forces and moments on a body in and about various directions

The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction is called drag

6

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

External Flows: Drag and Lift

When any body moves through a fluid, an interaction

between the body and the fluid occurs; forces at the

fl id b d iinterface.

fluid–body t f

Normal stresses due to the pressure,

Shear Stresses on the surface also lead to lift and drag.

D

Drag: Ali

Alignedd with

ith the

th Flow

Fl Lift: Normal to the Flow

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Scion XB Porsche 911

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

Air at standard conditions flows past a flat plate as is indicated. In case a the plate is parallel to

the upstream flow, and in case b it is perpendicular to the upstream flow. If the pressure and

shear stress distributions on the surface are as indicated

indicated, obtained either by experiment or

theory, determine the lift and drag on the plate.

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example Cont.

10

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example Cont.

flow, and maximum for a flat surface

parallel to flow

Th

The pressure ddrag iis proportional

ti l tot the

th frontal

f t l area andd to th difference

t the diff b t

between the

th

pressures acting on the front and back of the immersed body.

11

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

The fluid velocity ranges from zero at the surface (the no-slip condition) to the free-

stream value away from the surface

The character of the flow field is a function of the shape of the body size,

size orientation,s

orientation s peed,

peed

and fluid properties.

Low Reynolds , Number: Re = 0.1

strong viscous effects, Large Boundary Layer

Large Reynolds

N b R

Number: Re = 105

Thin Boundary Layer

viscous effects are negligible

12

Boundary layer: a thin Engineering

Chemical region onDepartment

the surface of a body

| University in which

of Jordan viscous

| Amman 11942,effects

Jordan are very important

and outside of Tel.

which+962the fluid

6 535 5000behaves

| 22888 essentially as if it were inviscid

Flow Over Flat Plate :

13

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Symmetric

from the cylinder.

The streamlines are essentially symmetric about the center of the

cylinder the streamline pattern is the same in front of the cylinder as

i is

it i behind

b hi d the

h cylinder.

li d

14

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

External Flows: Flow Past Objects

Separation

p

As the Reynolds number is increased, the region ahead of the cylinder in which viscous effects

are important becomes smaller,

The viscous region extending only a short distance ahead of the cylinder.

The flow loses its symmetry and the flow separates from the body at the separation location

With the increase in Reynolds number, the fluid inertia becomes more important and at some

location on the body, denoted the separation location, the fluid’s inertia is such that it cannot

follow the curved path around to the rear of the body.

The result is a separation bubble behind the cylinder in which some of the fluid is actually

fl i upstream, against

flowing i the

h direction

di i off the h upstream flow

fl 15

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Wake

At larger Reynolds numbers, the area affected by the viscous forces is forced farther

downstream until it involves only a thin boundary layer on the front portion of the cylinder

Irregular, unsteady perhaps turbulent wake region that extends far downstream of the cylinder.

The fluid in the region outside of the boundary layer and wake region flows as if it were

inviscid.

Th

The velocity

l i gradients

di within

i hi the

h boundary

b d layer

l andd wake

k regions

i are muchh larger

l than

h those

h

in the remainder of the flow field

The viscous effects are confined to the boundary layer and wake regions.

regions 16

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Streamlining

• Streamlining reduces drag by

reducing FD,pressure, at the cost of

increasing wetted surface area

and FD,friction.

• Goal is to eliminate flow

separation

i andd minimize

i i i totall

drag FD

• Also improves

p structural

acoustics since separation and

vortex shedding can excite

structural modes

modes.

17

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Streamlining

18

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Streamlining

The friction drag is zero for a flat surface normal to flow, and maximum for a flat surface

parallel to flow

The pressure drag is proportional to the frontal area and to the difference between the

pressures acting on the front and back of the immersed body.

Th

The pressure drag

d becomes

b mostt significant

i ifi t when h the

th velocity

l it off the

th fluid

fl id is

i too

t high

hi h for

f the

th

fluid to be able to follow the curvature of the body, and thus the fluid separates from the body

at some point and creates a very low pressure region in the back.

The part of drag that is due directly to wall shear stress τw is called the skin friction drag (or

friction drag FD, friction) since it is caused by frictional effects,

The part that is due directly to pressure P is called the pressure drag (also called the form

drag because of its strong dependence on the form or shape of the body)

19

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Streamlining

The first thought that comes to mind to reduce drag is to streamline a body in order to reduce

flow separation and thus to reduce pressure drag

Streamlining has opposite effects on pressure and friction drags. It decreases pressure drag by

delaying boundary layer separation and thus reducing the pressure difference between the

y and increases the friction dragg byy increasing

front and back of the body g the surface area

both effects and must attempt to minimize the sum of the two

20

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

CD of Common Geometries

most geometries remain essentially constant

becoming fully turbulent.

21

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

CD of Common Geometries

22

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

CD of Common Geometries

23

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

CD of Common Geometries

24

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

As part of the continuing efforts to reduce the drag coefficient and thus to improve the fuel

efficiency of cars, the design of side rearview mirrors has changed drastically from a simple

circular plate to a streamlined shape.

shape

Determine the amount of fuel and money saved per year as a result of replacing a 13-cm-

diameter

d e e flat mirror

o by one

o e with

w a hemispherical

e sp e c back

b c . Assume

ssu e thee car

c iss driven

d ve 24,000

, km a

year at an average speed of 95 km/h.

The densities of air and gasoline are taken to be 1.20 kg/m3 and 800 kg/m3, respectively. The

heating value of gasoline is given to be 44,000 kJ/kg.

Price of gasoline is $0.60/L, and the overall efficiency of the engine to be 30 percent

25

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example Cont.

The amount of work done to overcome this drag force and the required energy input for a

distance of

26

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

External Flows: Boundary Layers

Turbine blades

27

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

The

h boundary layer region, in which the viscous effects and the velocity

l i changes

h are

significant, viscous shearing forces and

The irrotational flow region

region, in which the frictional effects are negligible and the

velocity remains essentially constant.

For parallel flow over a flat plate, the pressure drag is zero, and thus the drag coefficient is

equal to the friction drag coefficient

28

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

External Flows: Boundary Layers

When both sides of a thin plate are subjected to flow, A becomes the total area of the top and

bottom surfaces.

The Reynolds number at a distance x from the leading edge of a flat plate is

29

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Friction Coefficient

30

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Friction Coefficient

the average friction coefficient over the entire plate

flow than they are in laminar flow because of the

intense mixing that occurs in the turbulent boundary

layer

31

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

32

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers

Turbulent Spots in Transitional Flow

boundary layers

layers.

velocity gradient at the wall,

wall and produce a larger

boundary layer thickness than do the laminar

profiles

33

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Analogous to Moody

Chart

Surface roughness

roughness, in general

general,

increases the drag coefficient in

turbulent flow.

34

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Drag on Immersed Objects

The critical Reynolds number for flow across a circular cylinder or sphere is about

the fluid completely wraps around the cylinder and the two arms of the fluid meet on the

rear side of the cylinder in an orderly manner.

At higher velocities,

The fluid still hugs the cylinder on the frontal side, but it is too fast to remain attached to the

surface as it approaches the top (or bottom) of the cylinder.

As a result, the boundary layer detaches from the surface, forming a separation region behind

the cylinder

Flow in the wake region is characterized by periodic vortex formation and pressures much

lower than the stagnation point pressure.

pressure 35

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

The high pressure in the vicinity of the stagnation point and the low pressure on the opposite

side in the wake produce a net force on the body in the direction of flow.

Th

The drag

d force

f is

i primarily

i il due

d to friction

f i i drag

d at low

l Reynolds

R ld numbers

b (Re(R < 10) and

d to

pressure drag at high Reynolds numbers (Re > 5000).

36

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Drag on Immersed Objects

37

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

38

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Drag on a Smooth Sphere and Cylinder

39

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

If there were not viscous effects acting on an object there would be no friction drag

nor any pressure drag.

Viscosity

i i causes friction

f i i andd separation

i which

hi h causes pressure drag.

d

Friction Drag: the part of drag due directly to the shear stress

Pressure Drag/Form

/ Drag: the

h part off drag

d due

d directly

di l to the

h pressure

The Drag Coefficient is highly dependent on shape and the Reynolds Number:

At the same Reynolds number, the above shapes have the same amount of drag.

40

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Drag on Immersed Objects

For small Reynolds Number flows, the coefficient of drag varies inversely with

the Reynolds Number, Re < 1.

41

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

This is done by tripping the boundary layer into turbulence at a lower Reynolds 42

number, and thus

Chemical causing

Engineering the fluid| University

Department to closeofinJordan

behind the body,

| Amman 11942,narrowing

Jordan the

wake Tel.

and+962

reducing pressure

6 535 5000 | 22888drag onsiderably.

Effect of Surface Roughness

For blunt bodies such as a circular cylinder or sphere, an increase in the surface roughness

may actually decrease the drag coefficient

Thi

This iis ddone bby ttripping

i i theth boundary

b d layer

l into

i t turbulence

t b l att a lower

l Reynolds

R ld number,

b andd

thus causing the fluid to close in behind the body, narrowing the wake and reducing pressure

drag considerably

This results in a much smaller drag coefficient and thus drag force for a rough-surfaced

cylinder or sphere in a certain range of Reynolds number compared to a smooth one of

identical size at the same velocity

43

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

44

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Drag on Immersed Objects

Shock waves, which cannot exist in subsonic flows, provide a mechanism for the generation of

drag that is not present in the relatively low-speed

low speed subsonic flows

If the velocity of the object is sufficiently large, compressibility effects become important

The Mach number and Reynolds number effects are often closely connected because both are

directly proportional to the upstream velocity.

Strongly

dependent

Independent

p for Ma < 0.5

45

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

blunt and sharp bodies

wave structure and the accompanying flow

separation.

The leading edges of wings for subsonic aircraft

are usually

s all quite

q ite rounded

ro nded and blunt,

bl nt while

hile those

of supersonic aircraft tend to be quite pointed

and sharp

46

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Drag on Immersed Objects

Froude number is a ratio of the free-stream speed to a typical wave speed on the interface of

two fluids, such as the surface of the ocean

47

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

Engine oil at 40°C flows over a 5-m-long flat plate with a free-stream velocity of 2 m/s.

Determine the drag force acting on the plate per unit width.

laminar flow over the entire plate, and the average friction coefficient

48

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

A 2.2-cm-outer-diameter pipe is to span across a river at a 30-m-wide section while being

completely immersed in water. The average flow velocity of water is 4 m/s and the water

temperature is 15

15°C

C. Determine the drag force exerted on the pipe by the river.

river

CD = 1.0.

49

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

50

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example Cont.

51

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

52

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Lift on Immersed Objects

The component of the resultant pressure and shear forces that acts normal to the flow direction

is called the lift force (or just lift).

A typical device designed to produce lift does so by generating a pressure distribution that is

different on the top and bottom surfaces

V is the upstream velocity of the fluid (or,

equivalently, the velocity of a flying body in a

quiescent fluid).

nonsymmetric i airfoil,the

i f il h pressure

Lift is generated because the flow velocity at distributions on the upper and lower

the top surface is higher, and thus the surfaces are different,and a lift is

pressure on that surface is lower produced even with

the angle between the upstream flow and the axis of

the object 53

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Flow starts out with no lift, but the lower fluid

stream separates at the trailing edge when the

velocity

l i reaches

h a certaini value.

l

This forces the separated upper fluid stream to

close in at the trailing edge,

edge initiating clockwise

circulation around the airfoil.

This clockwise circulation increases the velocity

of the upper stream while decreasing that of the

lower stream, causing lift

A starting vortex of opposite sign

(counterclockwise circulation) is then shed

downstream and smooth streamlined flow is

established over the airfoil

54

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Lift on Immersed Objects

Most common lift-generating devices i.e., airfoils, fans, spoilers on cars, etc. operate in the

large Reynolds number range.

Viscous effects to lift is usually negligible since the bodies are streamlined, and wall shear is

parallel to the surfaces of such devices and thus nearly normal to the direction of lift

The most important

i parameter that affects ff 55

Chemical Engineering

the liftDepartment | University

coefficient of Jordanof| Amman

is the shape 11942, Jordan

the object

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Airfoils are specifically designed to generate lift while keeping the drag at a minimum

Thee spo

spoilers

e s andd inverted

ve ed airfoils

o s oon racing

c g ccarss aree des

designed

g ed for

o thee opposite

oppos e pu

purpose

pose oof

avoiding lift or even generating negative lift to improve traction and control

d coefficients

ffi i t off wings

i are dependent

d d t on angle

l off attack.

tt k

At large angles of attack, the boundary layer separates and the wing stalls.

The average lift per unit planform area FL/A is called the wing loading, which is simply the

ratio of the weight of the aircraft to the planform area of the wings (since lift equals the

weight during flying at constant altitude)

56

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Lift on Immersed Objects

The lift acting on an airfoil can be determined by simply

integrating the pressure distribution around the airfoil

ignoring the very thin boundary layer on the airfoil (zero

vorticity, irrotational flow)

N

Net viscous

i forces

f are zero for

f flow

fl past an airfoil

i f il since

i the

h

pressure changes in the flow direction along the surface,

but it remains essentially constant through the boundary

layer in a direction normal to the surface

lift-generating

i devices

d i the

h important

i quantity

i isi

the ratio of the lift to drag developed,

To change the lift and drag characteristics of an airfoil is to

change the angle of attack.

This represents

p a change

g in the shape

p of the object.

j

57

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

In general, the lift coefficient increases and the drag coefficient decreases with an increase in

aspect ratio 58

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Lift on Immersed Objects

Other shape changes can be used to alter the lift and drag when desirable.

In modern airplanes it is common to utilize leading edge and trailing edge flaps

i change

i.e. h the

th shape

h off the

th airfoil

i f il by

b the

th use off movable

bl

leading edge and trailing edge flaps

59

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

perhaps 100 or more times greater than their

drag

The minimum flight velocity can be determined

from the requirement that the total weight W of

the aircraft be equal to lift and

60

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Lift Generated by Spinning

top–bottom symmetry

symmetry.

But when the cylinder is rotated about its axis, the cylinder

drags some fluid around because of the no-slip condition

and the flow field reflects the superposition of the spinning

and nonspinning flows.

The stagnation points shift down, and the flow is no longer

symmetric about the horizontal plane that passes through

y

the center of the cylinder.

The average pressure on the upper half is less than the

average pressure at the lower half

61

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

• CL strongly depends on rate of rotation.

• The effect of rate of rotation on CD is small.

• Baseball, golf

Baseball golf, soccer

soccer, tennis players utilize spin.

spin

• Lift generated by rotation is called The Magnus

Effect.

62

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

63

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example Cont.

64

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example Cont.

65

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

A commercial airplane has a total mass of 70,000 kg and a wing planform area of 150 m2. The

plane has a cruising speed of 558 km/h and a cruising altitude of 12,000 m, where the air density

is 0.312 kg/m3. The plane has double

double-slotted

slotted flaps for use during takeoff and landing, but it

cruises with all flaps retracted. Assuming the lift and the drag characteristics of the wings can be

approximated by NACA 23012, determine (a) the minimum safe speed for takeoff and landing

with

i h andd without

i h extendingdi the flaps, (b) the

h fl h anglel off attackk to cruise

i steadily

dil at the

h cruising

ii

altitude, and (c) the power that needs to be supplied to provide enough thrust to overcome wing

g

drag.

66

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example

tennis ball with a mass of 0.125 lbm and a diameter of 2.52 in is hit at 45 mi/h with a backspin of

4800 rpm. Determine if the ball will fall or rise under the combined effect of gravity and lift due

to spinning shortly after being hit in air at 1 atm and 80

80°F

F.

67

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example Cont.

effect of

Chemical Engineering gravity | and

Department lift due

University to spinning

of Jordan | Amman 11942, Jordan

Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.