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Fluid Mechanics (0905241)

Fl Over
Flow O B
Bodies:
di D Drag and
d Lift

D E
Dr.-Eng. Zayed
Z d Al-Hamamre
Al H

Chemical Engineering Department | University of Jordan | Amman 11942, Jordan


Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Content

 Overview
 Drag and Lift
 Flow Past Objects
 Boundary Layers
 Laminar Boundary Layers
 Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers
 Drag on Immersed Objects
 Lift on Immersed Objects

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External Flows: Overview
If a body is immersed in a flow, we call it an external flow.
 External flows involving air are typically termed
aerodynamics
aerodynamics.
 Some important external flows include airplanes, motor
vehicles,, and flow around buildings,
g , under water
submarine.
 In internal flows, the entire flow field is dominated by viscous effects, while
 In external flow, the viscous effects are confined to a portion of the flow field such as the
boundary layers and wakes.

 When a fluid moves over a solid body, it exerts pressure forces normal to the surface and shear
forces parallel to the surface along the outer surface of the body.
 The component of the resultant pressure and shear forces that acts in the flow direction is
called the drag force (or just drag), and the component that acts normal to the flow direction is
called the lift force (or just lift).
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External Flows: Overview


Often flow modeling is used to determine the flow fields in a wind tunnel or water tank.

Fuel economy, speed, acceleration, maneuverability,


stability, and control are directly related to the
aerodynamic/hydrodynamic forces and moments.

correct design
 Typical quantities of interest are lift and drag acting on these objects.

 The flow fields and geometries for most external flow problems are too complicated to be
solved analytically, and thus we have to rely on correlations based on experimental data

Such testing is done in wind tunnels


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Example: Automobile Drag

Development of the Cw
value for motor vehicles
5

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External Flows: Overview


Types of External Flows:

Two-Dimensional: infinitelyy longg and of constant cross-


sectional size and shape the flow is normal to the body. the
end effects are negligible

Axisymmetric: formed by rotating their cross-


sectional shape about the axis of symmetry.

Three-Dimensional: may or may not possess a line of


symmetry.

 The bodies can be classified as streamlined or blunt, tends to block the flow, buildings.
 Streamlined object typically move more easily through a fluid, airfoils, racing cars.

 A fluid may exert forces and moments on a body in and about various directions

 The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction is called drag
6

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External Flows: Drag and Lift
 When any body moves through a fluid, an interaction
between the body and the fluid occurs; forces at the
fl id b d iinterface.
fluid–body t f
Normal stresses due to the pressure,

Pressure Distributions around an object lead to lift and drag.


Shear Stresses on the surface also lead to lift and drag.

D
Drag: Ali
Alignedd with
ith the
th Flow
Fl Lift: Normal to the Flow

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Example: Automobile Drag


Scion XB Porsche 911

CD = 1.0, A = 25 ft2, CDA = 25ft2 CD = 0.28, A = 10 ft2, CDA = 2.8ft2

Drag force FD=1/2V2(CDA) will be ~ 10 times larger for Scion XB

Source is large CD and large projected area

Power consumption P = FDV =1/2V3(CDA) for both scales with V3! 8

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Example
 Air at standard conditions flows past a flat plate as is indicated. In case a the plate is parallel to
the upstream flow, and in case b it is perpendicular to the upstream flow. If the pressure and
shear stress distributions on the surface are as indicated
indicated, obtained either by experiment or
theory, determine the lift and drag on the plate.

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Example Cont.

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Example Cont.

 The friction drag is zero for a flat surface normal to flow


flow, and maximum for a flat surface
parallel to flow

 Th
The pressure ddrag iis proportional
ti l tot the
th frontal
f t l area andd to th difference
t the diff b t
between the
th
pressures acting on the front and back of the immersed body.

11

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External Flows: Flow Past Objects


 The fluid velocity ranges from zero at the surface (the no-slip condition) to the free-
stream value away from the surface
 The character of the flow field is a function of the shape of the body size,
size orientation,s
orientation s peed,
peed
and fluid properties.

Medium Reynolds Number: Re = 10


Low Reynolds , Number: Re = 0.1
strong viscous effects, Large Boundary Layer
Large Reynolds
N b R
Number: Re = 105
Thin Boundary Layer
viscous effects are negligible
12
Boundary layer: a thin Engineering
Chemical region onDepartment
the surface of a body
| University in which
of Jordan viscous
| Amman 11942,effects
Jordan are very important
and outside of Tel.
which+962the fluid
6 535 5000behaves
| 22888 essentially as if it were inviscid
Flow Over Flat Plate :

13

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External Flows: Flow Past Objects

Symmetric

 The viscous effects are important several diameters in any direction


from the cylinder.
 The streamlines are essentially symmetric about the center of the
cylinder the streamline pattern is the same in front of the cylinder as
i is
it i behind
b hi d the
h cylinder.
li d

14

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External Flows: Flow Past Objects

Separation
p

 As the Reynolds number is increased, the region ahead of the cylinder in which viscous effects
are important becomes smaller,
 The viscous region extending only a short distance ahead of the cylinder.
 The flow loses its symmetry and the flow separates from the body at the separation location
 With the increase in Reynolds number, the fluid inertia becomes more important and at some
location on the body, denoted the separation location, the fluid’s inertia is such that it cannot
follow the curved path around to the rear of the body.
 The result is a separation bubble behind the cylinder in which some of the fluid is actually
fl i upstream, against
flowing i the
h direction
di i off the h upstream flow
fl 15

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External Flows: Flow Past Objects

Wake

 At larger Reynolds numbers, the area affected by the viscous forces is forced farther
downstream until it involves only a thin boundary layer on the front portion of the cylinder
 Irregular, unsteady perhaps turbulent wake region that extends far downstream of the cylinder.
 The fluid in the region outside of the boundary layer and wake region flows as if it were
inviscid.
 Th
The velocity
l i gradients
di within
i hi the
h boundary
b d layer
l andd wake
k regions
i are muchh larger
l than
h those
h
in the remainder of the flow field
 The viscous effects are confined to the boundary layer and wake regions.
regions 16

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Streamlining
• Streamlining reduces drag by
reducing FD,pressure, at the cost of
increasing wetted surface area
and FD,friction.
• Goal is to eliminate flow
separation
i andd minimize
i i i totall
drag FD
• Also improves
p structural
acoustics since separation and
vortex shedding can excite
structural modes
modes.

17

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Streamlining

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Streamlining
 The friction drag is zero for a flat surface normal to flow, and maximum for a flat surface
parallel to flow
 The pressure drag is proportional to the frontal area and to the difference between the
pressures acting on the front and back of the immersed body.

 Th
The pressure drag
d becomes
b mostt significant
i ifi t when h the
th velocity
l it off the
th fluid
fl id is
i too
t high
hi h for
f the
th
fluid to be able to follow the curvature of the body, and thus the fluid separates from the body
at some point and creates a very low pressure region in the back.

 The part of drag that is due directly to wall shear stress τw is called the skin friction drag (or
friction drag FD, friction) since it is caused by frictional effects,
 The part that is due directly to pressure P is called the pressure drag (also called the form
drag because of its strong dependence on the form or shape of the body)

19

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Streamlining
 The first thought that comes to mind to reduce drag is to streamline a body in order to reduce
flow separation and thus to reduce pressure drag
 Streamlining has opposite effects on pressure and friction drags. It decreases pressure drag by
delaying boundary layer separation and thus reducing the pressure difference between the
y and increases the friction dragg byy increasing
front and back of the body g the surface area

Optimization study to reduce the drag of a body must consider


both effects and must attempt to minimize the sum of the two

The minimum total drag

20

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CD of Common Geometries

 At higher Reynolds numbers, the drag coefficients for


most geometries remain essentially constant

 This is due to the flow at high Reynolds numbers


becoming fully turbulent.

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CD of Common Geometries

22

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CD of Common Geometries

23

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CD of Common Geometries

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Example
 As part of the continuing efforts to reduce the drag coefficient and thus to improve the fuel
efficiency of cars, the design of side rearview mirrors has changed drastically from a simple
circular plate to a streamlined shape.
shape
 Determine the amount of fuel and money saved per year as a result of replacing a 13-cm-
diameter
d e e flat mirror
o by one
o e with
w a hemispherical
e sp e c back
b c . Assume
ssu e thee car
c iss driven
d ve 24,000
, km a
year at an average speed of 95 km/h.
 The densities of air and gasoline are taken to be 1.20 kg/m3 and 800 kg/m3, respectively. The
heating value of gasoline is given to be 44,000 kJ/kg.
 Price of gasoline is $0.60/L, and the overall efficiency of the engine to be 30 percent

25

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Example Cont.
 The amount of work done to overcome this drag force and the required energy input for a
distance of

26

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External Flows: Boundary Layers
Turbine blades

27

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External Flows: Boundary Layers

divides the flow over a plate into two regions:


 The
h boundary layer region, in which the viscous effects and the velocity
l i changes
h are
significant, viscous shearing forces and
 The irrotational flow region
region, in which the frictional effects are negligible and the
velocity remains essentially constant.

 For parallel flow over a flat plate, the pressure drag is zero, and thus the drag coefficient is
equal to the friction drag coefficient

28

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External Flows: Boundary Layers
 When both sides of a thin plate are subjected to flow, A becomes the total area of the top and
bottom surfaces.

 The Reynolds number at a distance x from the leading edge of a flat plate is

29

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External Flows: Boundary Layers


Friction Coefficient

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Friction Coefficient
the average friction coefficient over the entire plate

 The local friction coefficients are higher in turbulent


flow than they are in laminar flow because of the
intense mixing that occurs in the turbulent boundary
layer

31

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External Flows: Boundary Layers

32

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Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers
Turbulent Spots in Transitional Flow

No real theories for transitional


boundary layers
layers.

 The turbulent profiles are flatter, have a larger


velocity gradient at the wall,
wall and produce a larger
boundary layer thickness than do the laminar
profiles
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Transitional and Turbulent Boundary Layers

Flat Plate Drag:

Analogous to Moody
Chart

Surface roughness
roughness, in general
general,
increases the drag coefficient in
turbulent flow.

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Drag on Immersed Objects
 The critical Reynolds number for flow across a circular cylinder or sphere is about

the fluid completely wraps around the cylinder and the two arms of the fluid meet on the
rear side of the cylinder in an orderly manner.

At higher velocities,
 The fluid still hugs the cylinder on the frontal side, but it is too fast to remain attached to the
surface as it approaches the top (or bottom) of the cylinder.
 As a result, the boundary layer detaches from the surface, forming a separation region behind
the cylinder
 Flow in the wake region is characterized by periodic vortex formation and pressures much
lower than the stagnation point pressure.
pressure 35

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 The high pressure in the vicinity of the stagnation point and the low pressure on the opposite
side in the wake produce a net force on the body in the direction of flow.
 Th
The drag
d force
f is
i primarily
i il due
d to friction
f i i drag
d at low
l Reynolds
R ld numbers
b (Re(R < 10) and
d to
pressure drag at high Reynolds numbers (Re > 5000).

36

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Drag on Immersed Objects

Drag on a Smooth Sphere and Cylinder:

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Drag on a Smooth Sphere and Cylinder

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Drag on a Smooth Sphere and Cylinder

39

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Drag on Immersed Objects

If there were not viscous effects acting on an object there would be no friction drag
nor any pressure drag.
Viscosity
i i causes friction
f i i andd separation
i which
hi h causes pressure drag.
d
Friction Drag: the part of drag due directly to the shear stress
Pressure Drag/Form
/ Drag: the
h part off drag
d due
d directly
di l to the
h pressure

The Drag Coefficient is highly dependent on shape and the Reynolds Number:

At the same Reynolds number, the above shapes have the same amount of drag.
40

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Drag on Immersed Objects

For small Reynolds Number flows, the coefficient of drag varies inversely with
the Reynolds Number, Re < 1.
41

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Effect of Surface Roughness

 This is done by tripping the boundary layer into turbulence at a lower Reynolds 42
number, and thus
Chemical causing
Engineering the fluid| University
Department to closeofinJordan
behind the body,
| Amman 11942,narrowing
Jordan the
wake Tel.
and+962
reducing pressure
6 535 5000 | 22888drag onsiderably.
Effect of Surface Roughness
 For blunt bodies such as a circular cylinder or sphere, an increase in the surface roughness
may actually decrease the drag coefficient
 Thi
This iis ddone bby ttripping
i i theth boundary
b d layer
l into
i t turbulence
t b l att a lower
l Reynolds
R ld number,
b andd
thus causing the fluid to close in behind the body, narrowing the wake and reducing pressure
drag considerably
 This results in a much smaller drag coefficient and thus drag force for a rough-surfaced
cylinder or sphere in a certain range of Reynolds number compared to a smooth one of
identical size at the same velocity

43

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Drag on Immersed Objects

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Drag on Immersed Objects

 Shock waves, which cannot exist in subsonic flows, provide a mechanism for the generation of
drag that is not present in the relatively low-speed
low speed subsonic flows
 If the velocity of the object is sufficiently large, compressibility effects become important
 The Mach number and Reynolds number effects are often closely connected because both are
directly proportional to the upstream velocity.

Strongly
dependent
Independent
p for Ma < 0.5

45

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Drag on Immersed Objects


blunt and sharp bodies

 This behavior is due to the nature of the shock


wave structure and the accompanying flow
separation.
 The leading edges of wings for subsonic aircraft
are usually
s all quite
q ite rounded
ro nded and blunt,
bl nt while
hile those
of supersonic aircraft tend to be quite pointed
and sharp

46

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Drag on Immersed Objects

 Froude number is a ratio of the free-stream speed to a typical wave speed on the interface of
two fluids, such as the surface of the ocean

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Example
 Engine oil at 40°C flows over a 5-m-long flat plate with a free-stream velocity of 2 m/s.
Determine the drag force acting on the plate per unit width.

laminar flow over the entire plate, and the average friction coefficient

48

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Example
A 2.2-cm-outer-diameter pipe is to span across a river at a 30-m-wide section while being
completely immersed in water. The average flow velocity of water is 4 m/s and the water
temperature is 15
15°C
C. Determine the drag force exerted on the pipe by the river.
river

CD = 1.0.

49

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Example

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Example Cont.

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Example

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Lift on Immersed Objects
 The component of the resultant pressure and shear forces that acts normal to the flow direction
is called the lift force (or just lift).
 A typical device designed to produce lift does so by generating a pressure distribution that is
different on the top and bottom surfaces
V is the upstream velocity of the fluid (or,
equivalently, the velocity of a flying body in a
quiescent fluid).

Because of the asymmetry of the


nonsymmetric i airfoil,the
i f il h pressure
 Lift is generated because the flow velocity at distributions on the upper and lower
the top surface is higher, and thus the surfaces are different,and a lift is
pressure on that surface is lower produced even with
the angle between the upstream flow and the axis of
the object 53

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Lift on Immersed Objects


 Flow starts out with no lift, but the lower fluid
stream separates at the trailing edge when the
velocity
l i reaches
h a certaini value.
l
 This forces the separated upper fluid stream to
close in at the trailing edge,
edge initiating clockwise
circulation around the airfoil.
 This clockwise circulation increases the velocity
of the upper stream while decreasing that of the
lower stream, causing lift
 A starting vortex of opposite sign
(counterclockwise circulation) is then shed
downstream and smooth streamlined flow is
established over the airfoil

54

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Lift on Immersed Objects

since roughness affects the wall shear, not the pressure,

 Most common lift-generating devices i.e., airfoils, fans, spoilers on cars, etc. operate in the
large Reynolds number range.

 Viscous effects to lift is usually negligible since the bodies are streamlined, and wall shear is
parallel to the surfaces of such devices and thus nearly normal to the direction of lift
The most important
i parameter that affects ff 55

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is the shape 11942, Jordan
the object
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Lift on Immersed Objects


 Airfoils are specifically designed to generate lift while keeping the drag at a minimum
 Thee spo
spoilers
e s andd inverted
ve ed airfoils
o s oon racing
c g ccarss aree des
designed
g ed for
o thee opposite
oppos e pu
purpose
pose oof
avoiding lift or even generating negative lift to improve traction and control

 Most lift generating devices are not symmetrical.

 Lift can be generated by adjusting the angel of attack of the object.

 Lift andd drag


d coefficients
ffi i t off wings
i are dependent
d d t on angle
l off attack.
tt k
 At large angles of attack, the boundary layer separates and the wing stalls.

 The average lift per unit planform area FL/A is called the wing loading, which is simply the
ratio of the weight of the aircraft to the planform area of the wings (since lift equals the
weight during flying at constant altitude)

56

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Lift on Immersed Objects
 The lift acting on an airfoil can be determined by simply
integrating the pressure distribution around the airfoil
ignoring the very thin boundary layer on the airfoil (zero
vorticity, irrotational flow)
N
Net viscous
i forces
f are zero for
f flow
fl past an airfoil
i f il since
i the
h
pressure changes in the flow direction along the surface,
but it remains essentially constant through the boundary
layer in a direction normal to the surface

 IIn many lif


lift-generating
i devices
d i the
h important
i quantity
i isi
the ratio of the lift to drag developed,
 To change the lift and drag characteristics of an airfoil is to
change the angle of attack.
 This represents
p a change
g in the shape
p of the object.
j
57

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Lift on Immersed Objects

 In general, the lift coefficient increases and the drag coefficient decreases with an increase in
aspect ratio 58

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Lift on Immersed Objects
 Other shape changes can be used to alter the lift and drag when desirable.
 In modern airplanes it is common to utilize leading edge and trailing edge flaps
i change
i.e. h the
th shape
h off the
th airfoil
i f il by
b the
th use off movable
bl
leading edge and trailing edge flaps

59

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Lift on Immersed Objects

 High-performance airfoils generate lift that is


perhaps 100 or more times greater than their
drag
 The minimum flight velocity can be determined
from the requirement that the total weight W of
the aircraft be equal to lift and

60

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Lift Generated by Spinning

 When the ball is not spinning, the lift is zero because of


top–bottom symmetry
symmetry.
 But when the cylinder is rotated about its axis, the cylinder
drags some fluid around because of the no-slip condition
and the flow field reflects the superposition of the spinning
and nonspinning flows.
 The stagnation points shift down, and the flow is no longer
symmetric about the horizontal plane that passes through
y
the center of the cylinder.
 The average pressure on the upper half is less than the
average pressure at the lower half

61

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Lift Generated by Spinning


• CL strongly depends on rate of rotation.
• The effect of rate of rotation on CD is small.
• Baseball, golf
Baseball golf, soccer
soccer, tennis players utilize spin.
spin
• Lift generated by rotation is called The Magnus
Effect.

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Example

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Example Cont.

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Example Cont.

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Example
A commercial airplane has a total mass of 70,000 kg and a wing planform area of 150 m2. The
plane has a cruising speed of 558 km/h and a cruising altitude of 12,000 m, where the air density
is 0.312 kg/m3. The plane has double
double-slotted
slotted flaps for use during takeoff and landing, but it
cruises with all flaps retracted. Assuming the lift and the drag characteristics of the wings can be
approximated by NACA 23012, determine (a) the minimum safe speed for takeoff and landing
with
i h andd without
i h extendingdi the flaps, (b) the
h fl h anglel off attackk to cruise
i steadily
dil at the
h cruising
ii
altitude, and (c) the power that needs to be supplied to provide enough thrust to overcome wing
g
drag.

66

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Example
tennis ball with a mass of 0.125 lbm and a diameter of 2.52 in is hit at 45 mi/h with a backspin of
4800 rpm. Determine if the ball will fall or rise under the combined effect of gravity and lift due
to spinning shortly after being hit in air at 1 atm and 80
80°F
F.

The translational and angular velocities of the ball are

67

Chemical Engineering Department | University of Jordan | Amman 11942, Jordan


Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888

Example Cont.

The ball will drop under the combined 68


effect of
Chemical Engineering gravity | and
Department lift due
University to spinning
of Jordan | Amman 11942, Jordan
Tel. +962 6 535 5000 | 22888