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PEDS 2007

Novel Auxiliary Diagnosis Method for


State-of-Health of Lead-Acid Battery
Yu-Hua Sun*, Hurng-Liahng Jou*, Member, IEEE, Jinn-Chang Wu**

* Department of Electrical Engineering


National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences
415 Jiangong Road, Kaohsiung 80778, Taiwan, Republic of China
* * Department of Microelectronics Engineering
National Kaohsiung Marine University
142 Haijhuan Road, Nanzih District 81143, Taiwan, Republic of China

Abstract--A novel auxiliary diagnosis method for for general battery [5] and 60% of the initial capacity for
state-of-health (SOH) of a lead-acid battery unit is proposed small capacity battery [6]. SOH diagnosis by using the
in this paper. This method is based on the concept that the capacity is the ratio between the nominal capacity of the
discharging curve for a health battery unit is smooth, present time to the initial time, and it is represented as [7]:
however, the degradation of battery unit caused by the (nominal capacity at present time)
SOH (1)
internal cell shorts, shorted cells open or the cell reversal will =

(nominal capacity at initial)


distort the discharging curve. Some experimental results are
carried out to verify the proposed SOH diagnosis method. (b) coup de fouet
The experimental results show that the proposed method has The "coup de fouet" is a phenomenon particular to
the expected performance. lead-acid batteries, which occurs at the beginning of the
discharging. [8] This method involves measuring the
Index Terms-- lead-acid battery, state-of-health trough voltage (low voltage point) in the "coup de fouet"
region and using in determining the SOH of a battery [9].
I. INTRODUCTION (c) impedance techniques
Lead-acid batteries have been widely used in electric Impedance techniques are based on the principle that the
vehicles [1], stand-alone renewable power generation, impedance and the resistance of a valve regulated
back-up power supplies for communication or computer lead-acid (VRLA) battery increase as the battery ages and
related equipment [2] and uninterruptible power supply loses capacity. Various impedance meters have been
(UPS). State-of-health (SOH) of the battery is used to claimed to accurately measure the SOH of batteries [10].
supply the degradation information of battery to the users. The methods [11, 12] combined impedance measurements
SOH indicates the ability of the battery to perform well in and fuzzy logic data analysis to estimate the SOH of the
the charging, discharging power. If SOH can be estimated battery and have been published.
accurately, the users will know the state of the battery and Besides the above methods, SOH monitoring based on
whether the battery should be replaced or not. The battery voltage, temperature, capacity or internal
degradation of battery may be caused by drying out, grid impedance was developed [13,14] to obtain accurate
corrosion, thermal runaway, electrolyte leakage, internal results for estimating the SOH of the battery. However,
cell shorts, shorted cells open, interconnected open or cell there are still no economical methods which can
reversal [3]. There are many methods that have been accurately diagnose SOH of a battery.
developed to estimate the SOH of a battery. These
methods can be categorized into three types: In this paper, a novel auxiliary SOH diagnosis
(a) capacity method to detect the degradation of lead-acid battery unit
Capacity is the most popular method to indicate the SOH caused by the internal cell shorts, shorted cells open or the
[4]. In the methods of this type, the life of battery is cell reversal is proposed. The salient feature of the
defined to be stopped when the capacity of battery is proposed method is that the health status of the battery is
decreased to approximately 80% of the initial capacity estimated automatically at the end of each discharge cycle
by measuring the battery voltage and current, and it does
The work was support by the ABLEREX Electronics not require any complicated measurement. To verify the
Corporation, Ltd. proposed auxiliary SOH diagnosis method, aging

1-4244-0645-5/07/$20.00©2007 IEEE 262


experiments for lead-acid battery are developed. The SOH (ADSOH) of battery at n+1th sample is shown as:
experimental results show that the performance of the ADSOHn+ = AP.+l - Vn+l Al.+ - (V.,, - VJ) n* tanh (Al n+l )~
proposed method is as expected. = (Vn+1 - Vn)In + Vn+,A 1n+1 - Vn+j A1n+1 - (Vn+1 - Vn) 1n * ~tanh (AI nl
= (Vn+1 -Vn)In -(Vn+1 -Vn)In * tanh(AIn+l ) (4)
II. PROPOSED SOH DIAGNOSIS METHOD
where
In a healthy battery, the battery discharging voltage
will be decreased smoothly. The degraded battery cells
tanh(I~)= sinh(AIn+)
n+l
e(AIn+l -e(Al)
cosh (AIl ) e(AIn+1 +e (Alnl
may result in internal short circuit [15, 16] or cell reversal
Because the absolute value of the tanh(EIl+ ) function
[17], which will result in an unexpected voltage drop of a
will approach unity when the variation value of
battery unit, and when internal short circuit open will
discharging current ( I n ) is obvious. IfEtanh( I
result in the unexpected voltage rise of a battery unit.
Hence, the degradation of battery caused by the internal n+1)l is approach to unity, then, ADSOHn+1 will approach
zero. This means that the ADSOH algorithm shown in (4)
cell shorts, shorted cells open or the cell reversal will
can avoid the effect of discharging current variation
distort the discharging curve of a battery unit. The
although the discharging voltage may be dropped due to
proposed method is based on the concept that the above
the variation of discharging current caused by the load
battery degradation phenomena will result in abrupt
change. If the degradation of battery internal cells caused
change of discharging voltage and discharging power.
by the cell shorts, shorted cells open or the cell reversal
However, the battery current variation caused by the load
appears, the battery voltage will vary immediately. At the
change will also result in abrupt change of discharging
same time, the ADSOH in (4) will be fluctuated evidently,
voltage and discharging power. To avoid the un-corrected
so that the value of ADSOH can be converted into a SOH
diagnosis caused by using the abrupt change of
index.
discharging voltage or discharging power, the
Figure 1 shows the flow chart of the proposed
development of a diagnosis method which can neglect the
ADSOH for a battery set. In discharging operation,
curves of discharging voltage and discharging power
measuring devices are employed to measure and retrieve
distorted by the change of load current (discharging
the data of discharging voltages and currents of the
current) is necessary. Because the proposed method
batteries. The acceptable value of a predetermined sample
cannot diagnose all battery degradation phenomena, such
period of time can be pre-set. The SOH of battery can be
as: dry out or grid corrosion. Hence, the proposed method
calculated via the equation ADSOH at the same time.
is an auxiliary diagnosis method.
The data of discharging voltages, currents and
The variation of discharging current and power can
be expressed as (2) and (3). powers of the batteries and ADSOH are stored in the
database. The curves may be drawn by using the data of
A In+1 I n+1 - In (2) discharging voltages, currents and powers of the batteries
i\ Pn+l =Pn+l Pn Vn+11 n+l Vnl n
= and ADSOH. The compared data of the ADSOH was
= Vn+1 ( In +Ai In+1 ) -v
VnI n converted into a SOH index.
= (Vn+l Vn) In + Vn+j i\ In+1 (3)
where IEJ1 is the variation of discharge current, I1, is III. EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM
the discharging current value at n+± th sample, In. is the An accelerated thermal aging experiment, developed
discharging current value at nth sample, AP11 is the to evaluate the charging and discharging characteristics of
variation of discharging power, P+11 is the discharging the lead-acid battery [18], is used to verify the proposed
power at n+± th sample and P11 is the discharging power at auxiliary SOH diagnosis method. Figure 2 shows the
nth sample. As seen in (3), the variation of discharging experimental system. This experimental system includes
power not only depends on the variation value of battery charger, thermostat, magnetic contact (MC), and
discharging voltage but also the variation value of battery measure system (BMS).
discharging current. The conditions for battery aging experiments are
As seen in (3), the variation value of discharging defined as follows:
power depends on the variation value of discharging (1) Four independent strings of batteries are used in the
current. The purpose of this paper is to develop a experiment, and each string of batteries consisted of
diagnosis method that can avoid the effect of discharging eight 7-Ah 12-V VRLA battery units connected in a
current variation, so that the SOH of battery can be series. Each battery unit consists of six cells internally
diagnosed via only the variation value of the discharging connected in a series.
power. The developed auxiliary diagnosis algorithm for (2) Experiment environment temperature is 50 °C.

263
Take a sample data every 10 sec when battery was decreases gradually because the load used in the
discharged. experiments is a constant resistance and the discharging
Take a sample data every 5 min when battery was current does not have obvious change. There exists an
charged. abrupt voltage drop of initial discharging at the instant
The final discharging voltage of each battery set is when the battery is started to discharge. Instead of the
76.8V. abrupt voltage drop, the gradual decrease of discharging
The discharge load for each battery set is Halogen voltage of the battery appears within the predetermined
Lamp (120V 500W * 3). sample period of time. Correspondingly, a curve in Figure
The experiment is stopped as the capacity of each 3(b) illustrates the discharging voltage of the battery in
sting of batteries is decreased to approximately 60% relation to a predetermined sample period of time, there
of the initial capacity. exists an abrupt change of discharging voltage at the
instant when the battery is started to discharge.
Strat stringl cell#3 cycle 5
4
Providing data of discharge voltages and - 10 -

discharge currents of a battery unit


tm 5
s
Setting an acceptable value of a
predetermined period of time 0 50 100 150 20C0
dischrage time(sec 10)

Calculating ADSOH within the (a)


predetermined period of time stringl ceII#3 cycle 5
- 14 -

Recoding the data of discharge voltages currents


-

1
'powers of the battery unit and ADSOH
10 _

Comparing the data of ADSOH 8


0 P
20 40 60 80 100 12; 0 1 160 180 200
dischrage time(sec 10)
Converting results of the compared data of ADSOH
of the battery unit Into a SOH Index (b)
stringl ceII#3 cycle 5
End :1 60 =
z>140
W120
Fig. 1 The flow chart of the proposed SOH diagnosis method for a C100
battery unit o 80
60
0 50 100 150 200
dischrage time(sec 10)
(c)
2 stringl ceII#3 cycle 5
I
0
-2
4-4

0 50 100 150 200


dischrage time(sec 10)
(d)
Fig. 3 Discharging curve of a battery (string 1, No.3) at 5th cycle (a)
current, (b) voltage, (c) power, (d) ADSOH

Figure 3(c) illustrates the discharging power of the


battery in relation to a predetermined sample period of
time. Except the starting duration of discharging the
battery, the change of the discharging power will be within
a preferred range and the curve of discharging power is
Fig. 2 Experimental system for a string of batteries
slight decrease. Figure 3(d) illustrates the ADSOH of the
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS battery in relation to a predetermined sample period of
The data of discharging current, voltage, power, and time. Except the starting duration of to discharge the
ADSOH of the battery (string 1, No.3) at 5th cycle are battery, the change of the ADSOH will be within a
shown in Fig.3. The curve of discharging current preferred range and the curve of discharging power is
slight decrease. Because the abrupt change of discharging

264
current, voltage and power at the instant of initial may be distorted at the instant of load change. To verify
discharging is caused by the "coup de fouet". [8, 9] the effect of load change (discharging current variation),
phenomenon, this is a normal phenomenon for the battery. the following experiment is carried out. In this experiment,
Accordingly, the SOH of the battery can be determined only a battery unit is tested, electronic load is used as the
"health" and no battery should be replaced. variable load and the load current is changed in three steps
Figure 4 shows the data of discharging current, during a discharge cycle..
voltage, power and ADSOH of the battery (string 1, No.3) Figure 5 shows the discharging curve of the battery
at 159f cycle. Figure 4 illustrates the SOH of this battery under discharging current changed from 7A- 14A-21A, the
is worsen. Figure 4(a) shows the curve of discharging evident changes of discharging power and discharging
current does not have obvious change. However, the curve voltage of the battery unit occur at the instant of load
of discharging voltage in Figure 4 (b) is distorted seriously. (discharging current) changes. As seen in Figure 5(b) and
The abrupt drop of battery voltage near 400 and 500 sec 5(c), the discharging curve of the battery voltage and
can be explained as some cells in the battery are shorted, battery power will be distorted at the instant of load
and the voltage rise near 1000 sec can be explained as a change. Figure 5(d) shows the curve of ADSOH which
short cell opens. Figure 4(c) show the curve of discharging will not be affected by the change of discharging current
power. As seen in Figure 4 (c), the curve of discharging However, ADSOH curve will not be changed due to the
power in Figure 4 (c) is also distorted seriously. Figure 4(d) changes of discharging current. Accordingly, the data of
show the curve of the proposed ADSOH. The ADSOH discharging voltage and discharging power cannot be used
curve showed in Fig. 4(d) is seriously fluctuated. This to determine the SOH of the battery due to the fact that it
means that the health of battery is degraded.. is affected by the change of the discharging current, but
the ADSOH can avoid the effect caused by the variable
stringl cell#3 cycle 159
:15 discharging current.
10-
th-ree step discharge
5- ~t25
@ 20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
U 15
dischrage time(sec 10)
z 10
(a)
stringl ceIl#3 cycle 159 0 100 200 300 400 500
14 -
dischrage time(sec"2)
12 - (a)
10 three step discharge
8- <> 14
65 o 0 12
20 40 60 80 100 120 140
dischrage time(sec 10)
n 10
(b)
stringl cell#3 cycle 159 0 100 200 300 400 500
1o
B: dischrage time(sec 2)
- 160
X 140
(b)
'
120 three step discharge
300
Y 100
IC 80
-
250
a5 60' o 200
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
dischrage time(sec 10) ;n 150

(c) 100 _

stringl ceII#3 cvfcle 159


o
100 200 300 400 504 10
20
dischrage time(sec 2)
10 (c)
0 three step discharge
4
-10
2
-20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
dischrage time(sec 10) -2
(d) 4
Fig. 4 Discharging curve of a battery (string 1, No.3) at 159th cycle, 0 100 200 300
dischrage time(sec 2)
400 500

(a) current, (b) voltage, (c) power, (d) ADSOH. (d)


F ig.5 Discharging data of a battery at 7A- 14A-2IAthree step discharge
The experimental results of above batteries show that experiment (a) current, (b) voltage, (c) power, (d) ADSOH
they are discharged by a constant resistance. However, the
discharging curve of battery voltage and battery power From the above, it can be concluded that the data of

265
ADSOH can be used to determine the SOH of the battery 2002, pp. 583 -590.
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V. CONCLUSIONS
[13] A. H. Anbuky, P. E. Pascoe, P. M. Hunter, "Knowledge
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