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FIS 2011 May 2011

Flight Instructor Seminar / Miami, May 24th and 25th, 2011

Go-Around Procedure

Presented by
Capt. David Owens / Senior Director Flight Crew Training Policy
FIS 2011 May 2011

Content

• Introduction

• Go-Around Preparation

• Why Go Around?

• Correct Go-around – how?

• Conclusions

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 2


FIS 2011 May 2011

Introduction
• Go-around: an essential safety manoeuvre for all pilots
• However, we have seen several examples where a safe go-around was
not achieved so we must review the go-around….
• We regularly practiced in the simulator but often with engine failure
and often from minima
• By contrast, most real-world go-arounds are
• Light weight/High thrust/From any other point on the approach
• Pilots must be familiar and confident with all aspects of the
go-around manoeuvre Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
CLB
ALTITUDE

L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION


FLAPS ALTITUDE
retract 1 step

THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 3


FIS 2011 May 2011

Content

• Introduction

• Go-Around Preparation

• Why Go Around?

• Correct Go-around – how?

• Conclusions

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 4


FIS 2011 May 2011

Go-Around Preparation
• Essential and normal part of approach preparation:
Check and brief the missed approach

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 5


FIS 2011 May 2011

Content

• Introduction

• Go-Around Preparation

• Why Go Around?

• Correct Go-around – how?

• Conclusions

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 6


FIS 2011 May 2011

Why Go Around?
If :
• The approach is not properly stabilized
• You have doubts about your situational awareness
• A malfunction occurs
• Adequate visual cues are not obtained at minima
• Any GPWS/TCAS or wind-shear alert occurs
Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
!
CLB
ALTITUDE
THEN, APPLY THE
L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION
FLAPS
retract 1 step
ALTITUDE
GO-AROUND PROCEDURE
THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 7


FIS 2011 May 2011

Content

• Introduction

• Go-Around Preparation

• Why Go Around?

• Correct Go-around - how?

• Conclusions

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 8


FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


PF announces “Go-around… Flaps!” and simultaneously…
• Sets TOGA thrust

Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
CLB
ALTITUDE

L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION


FLAPS ALTITUDE
retract 1 step

THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 9


FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


PF announces “Go-around… Flaps!” and simultaneously…
• Sets TOGA thrust
• If in manual flight, rotate to the go-around pitch target

Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
CLB
ALTITUDE

L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION


FLAPS ALTITUDE
retract 1 step

THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 10


FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


PF announces “Go-around… Flaps!” and simultaneously…
• Sets TOGA thrust
• If in manual flight, rotates to the go-around pitch target
• Or monitors AP response

Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
CLB
ALTITUDE

L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION


FLAPS ALTITUDE
retract 1 step

THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 11


FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


PF announces “Go-around… Flaps!” and simultaneously…
• Sets TOGA thrust
• If in manual flight, rotates to the go-around pitch target
• Or monitors AP response
• Checks FMA

Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
CLB
ALTITUDE

L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION


FLAPS ALTITUDE
retract 1 step

THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 12


FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


• Pitch?

Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1
A320
A320 A380
THR levers Single Engine
15 o CLB 12.5ACCELERATION
o
ALTITUDE
12.5 o
L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION
FLAPS ALTITUDE

THR levers
Know your pitch target and fly it!
retract 1 step

TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 13


FIS 2011 May 2011

Why is pitch so important?


During a manual go-around, if the required
pitch is not reached or maintained

• Linear acceleration will result,


• This may cause a, “false climb illusion”
Pilot illusion

Actual

Possible pilot reaction


based on illusion

Fly the correct pitch

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 14


FIS 2011 May 2011

Why is pitch so important?


• During a manual go-around, if the correct pitch attitude is not
maintained,

- The aircraft will accelerate towards the flap limit


- There is NO speed protection when the A/THR is blue,
i.e. not active

Maintain the correct pitch attitude


NOTE: SPEED REFERENCE SYSTEM (SRS) pitch orders, when followed accurately, should ensure that the aircraft remains at the
correct speed during the go-around

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 15


FIS 2011 May 2011

Role of PNF/PM
• The PNF must make callouts if flight parameters deviate from
standard / safe values.
- To enhance PF’s awareness of the situation
- To trigger a corrective action by the PF

“PITCH!”

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 16


FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


• PNF retracts one step of FLAPS

Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
CLB
ALTITUDE

L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION


FLAPS ALTITUDE
retract 1 step

THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 17


FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


• PF orders “Gear up!”, when positive climb is confirmed

Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
CLB
ALTITUDE

L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION


FLAPS ALTITUDE
retract 1 step

THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 18


FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


• When reaching thrust reduction altitude

Green Dot
-
-S Flaps 0
-F Flaps 1

THR levers
ACCELERATION
CLB
ALTITUDE

L/G UP THRUST REDUCTION


FLAPS ALTITUDE
retract 1 step

THR levers
TOGA

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 19


FIS 2011 May 2011

Rapid ALT* engagement – with autopilot


• Rapid sequence of events with early capture of altitude (ALT*)
- Go-around initiated close to the selected FCU altitude
- High rate of climb
• As soon as ALT* engages:
- The autopilot lowers the aircraft pitch and the aircraft accelerates
without any A/THR protections (A/THR blue)
- “LVR CLB” flashes on FMA
- THR LVRs must be set from TOGA to CL detent without delay to
activate the A/THR
- This enables A/THR protections
- Providing flap overspeed
protection
Set THR LVRs from TOGA to
CL detent without delay
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 20
FIS 2011 May 2011

Correct Go-around - how?


Notes on lateral guidance:
• Latest A/C are fitted with automatic re-engagement of NAV at GA
• For older A/C

Heading, as NAV guidance


cleared by ATC For GA trajectory

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FIS 2011 May 2011

Go-Around from Intermediate Approach

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FIS 2011 May 2011

Go-Around Close to the Ground


• When close to the ground,
- Initiate a “Standard Go-Around”
- Avoid rapid rotation and excessive pitch
- Low go-around may result in a runway contact, if it does, continue
with the standard go-around

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 23


FIS 2011 May 2011

Content

• Introduction

• Go-Around Preparation

• Why Go Around?

• Correct Go-around - how?

• Conclusions

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 24


FIS 2011 May 2011

Conclusion - recommendation
• FD re-engagement at Go-Around is now basic on all aircraft since
Service Bulletin 22-1058.
• This modification restores FD at go-around engagement (thrust
levers set to TOGA) regardless of the previous FD modes.

AIRBUS recommends all operators to


implement this Service Bulletin.
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 25
FIS 2011 May 2011

Conclusions
• “Go-around: an essential safety manoeuvre for all pilots”
• All pilots must be familiar and confident with the go-around
manoeuvre, from various initial conditions:
• Light weight and heavy
• Available thrust
• High energy
• Different configurations
• From intermediate, decision and low altitude

• Familiarity and confidence will only come with practice


We must train for different
go-arounds to train for safety

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 26


FIS 2011 May 2011

Conclusions

For a Safe Go-Around


PF PNF

Know the pitch, set the pitch, keep the pitch!


Pitch and thrust – basic flying skills!
© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document. 27
FIS 2011 May 2011

© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary


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© AIRBUS S.A.S. All rights reserved. Confidential and proprietary document.