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Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya ,

South Goa

Subject: SUPW
Topic: Plantation of shade trees & ornamental
Guided by: Sandhaya Waghale
Session: 2019-20

Name : Siddharth Katoch

Class: 12-Science
Shade tree

A group of albatrosses resting beneath the canopy of a fig, a common

shade tree in many parts of the world.
A shade tree is a large tree whose primary role is to provide shade
in the surrounding environment due to its
spreading canopy and crown, where it may give shelter
from sunlight in the heat of the summer for people who seek
recreational needs in urban parks and house yards, and thus, also
protecting them from the sun's harmful UV rays and sunburns.
Therefore, some shade trees may be grown specifically for the comfort
of the population due to their convenient shelter.
Furthermore, shade trees are also effective in reducing the energy
used in cooling homes.
Popular shade tree
Some of the most popular shade trees in temperate
countries are oaks, plane

trees, willows, birches, beeches, maples, ashes, lindens, and elms. In

subtropical countries like Australia and India, figs are popular choices
as shade trees. In tropical countries, trees such as the African tulip
tree and some Erythrina species are often planted as shade trees.
These trees are commonly grown, and/or used, as shade trees due to
their protuberant size.
paper bark elm
 Black walnut  Coastal Coral Tree
 American ash  Blue Jacaranda  European beech
 American elm  Camphor laurel  Honey locust
 American sycamore  Cape Chestnut  Golden Ash
 Austrian oak  Carob tree  Golden rain tree
 Brush box  Chinese elm  Holm oak
 Banyan tree
 Hopei odorant  Pepper tree  Southern live oak
 Hill's weeping fig  Port Jackson Fig  Swamp Spanish oak
 Indian horse-  Red maple  Sweet gum
chestnut  Royal Poinciana  Sycamore fig
 Japanese elm  Rough-barked apple  Sycamore maple
 London plane  Scarlet oak  Sydney red gum
 Morton bay fig  Scholar tree  Tulipwood
 Norway maple  Silver linden  White feather honey
 Oriental plane  Huard oak myrtle
 Palestine oak  Small-leaved fig  Yellow box

There are a few factors to consider when choosing a shade
tree: deciduousness, coverage, longevity, and the ability of the roots to
damage foundations. Shade trees can enhance the privacy of
a garden, patio, or back yard, by obstructing the view of outsiders. A
disadvantage is that in cool climates, an abundance of shade trees
may lead to a dank environment in any nearby buildings or gardens.
Shade trees must not be planted near chimneys as flying fire sparks
can ignite tree branches which could cause rapidly expanding fires.
Planting shade trees around a home can also reduce the energy that
homeowners use in the summer months. Planting shade trees in
locations near a home air conditioner can keep the air conditioner
cooler which helps it run more efficiently, so less energy is used.
Ornamental plant

Ornamental petunia plant

Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes
in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, cut
flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of ornamental plants is
called floriculture, which forms a major branch of horticulture.

Garden plants
Commonly, ornamental [garden] plants are grown for the display of
aesthetic features including: flowers, leaves, scent, overall foliage
texture, fruit, stem and bark, and aesthetic form. In some cases,
unusual features may be considered to be of interest, such as the
prominent thorns of Rosa service and cacti. In all cases, their purpose
is for the enjoyment of gardeners, visitors, and the public institutions.
Similarly certain trees may be called ornamental trees. This term is
used when they are used as part of a garden, park, or landscape
setting, for instance for their flowers, their texture, form, size and
shape, and other aesthetic characteristics. In some countries trees in
'utilitarian' landscape use such as screening, and roadside plantings
are called amenity trees.

Main article: Ornamental grass

Ornamental grasses are grasses grown as ornamental plants. Many

ornamental grasses are true grasses (Phocaea), however several other
families of grass-like plants are typically marketed as ornamental
grasses. These include
the sedges (Cyperaceous), rushes (Juncaceous), ratios (Restionaceae),
and coat-tails (Typhaceae). All are monocotyledons, typically with
narrow leaves and parallel veins. Most are herbaceous perennials,
though many are evergreen and some develop woody tissues.
Ornamental grasses are popular in many countries. They bring
striking linear form, texture, color, motion, and sound to the garden,
throughout the year.
Ornamental grasses are popular in many colder hardiness zones for
their resilience to cold temperatures and aesthetic value throughout
fall and winter seasons.

Meillandine Rose in clay pot
For plants to be considered ornamental, they require specific work
and pruning by a gardener. For instance, many plants cultivated
for topiary and bonsai would only be considered to be ornamental by
virtue of the regular pruning carried out on them by the gardener,
and they may rapidly cease to be ornamental if the work was
Ornamental plants and trees are distinguished from utilitarian and
crop plants, such as those used for agriculture and vegetable crops,
and for forestry or as fruit trees. This does not preclude any
particular type of plant being grown both for ornamental qualities in
the garden, and for utilitarian purposes in other settings.
Thus lavender is typically grown as an ornamental plant in gardens,
but may also be grown as a crop plant for the production of lavender

The term
The term ornamental plant is used here in the same sense that it is
generally used in the horticultural trades. The term largely
corresponds to 'garden plant', though the latter is much less precise,
as any plant may be grown in a garden. Ornamental plants are
plants which are grown for display purposes, rather than functional
ones. While some plants are both ornamental and functional, people
usually use the term “ornamental plants” to refer to plants which
have no value beyond being attractive, although many people feel that
this is value enough. Ornamental plants are the keystone of
ornamental gardening, and they come in a range of shapes, sizes and
colors suitable to a broad array of climates, landscapes, and gardening
Some ornamental plants are grown for showy foliage. Their foliage
may be deciduous, turning bright orange, red, and yellow before
dropping off in the fall, or evergreen, in which case it stays green
year-round. Some ornamental foliage has a striking appearance
created by lacy leaves or long needles, while other ornamentals are
grown for distinctively colored leaves, such as silvery-gray ground
covers and bright red grasses, among many others.
Other ornamental plants are cultivated for their blooms. Flowering
ornamentals are a key aspect of many gardens, with many flower
gardeners preferring to plant a variety of flowers so that the garden
is continuously in flower through the spring and summer. Depending
on the types of plants being grown, the flowers may be subtle and
delicate, or large and showy, with some ornamental plants producing
distinctive aromas which paint a palette of scents in addition to