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CHAPTER II Types of Research - Quantitative vs.

Qualitative Research
I. Quantitative Research
• A systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or numerical data or
computational techniques
• A research based on measuring variables for individual participants to obtain scores, usually numerical values, that
are submitted to statistical analysis for summary and interpretation.
II. Qualitative Research
• Research that asks broad questions and collects word data from participants. The researcher looks for themes and
describes the information in themes and patterns exclusive to that set of participants.
• It is based on making observations that are summarized and interpreted in a narrative report.
Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative
Quantitative Qualitative
Purpose of the study To describe and explain events using To detail the processes applied and draw
numerical data to ultimately be able patterns/ insight; to explore/determine data
to control and predict factors influencing an event using words and
Role of the participants As subjects or respondents whose As persons/individuals group whose ideas
views are aggregated into statistical and feelings are important; identity is
data important
Role of the researcher Manipulates conditions for Observes events in the natural setting, as in
experiments/quasi-experiments survey (although it is not a concern to
Instruments Using inventories, questionnaire or The qualitative researcher is the primary
machines to collect data instrument for data collection and analysis.
Process Theory is largely causal or deductive. The qualitative process is inductive.
Inductive method
• Inductive Approaches and Some Examples
• In an inductive approach to research, a researcher begins by collecting data that is relevant to his or her topic of
• Once a substantial amount of data have been collected, the researcher will then take a breather from data
collection, stepping back to get a bird’s eye view of her data.
• At this stage, the researcher looks for patterns in the data, working to develop a theory that could explain those
patterns. Thus when researchers take an inductive approach, they start with a set of observations and then they
move from those particular experiences to a more general set of propositions about those experiences. In other
words, they move from data to theory, or from the specific to the general.

• Example: Katherine Allen, Christine Kaestle, and Abbie Goldberg’s study (2011) [1] of how boys and young men learn
about menstruation. To understand this process, Allen and her colleagues analyzed the written narratives of 23
young men in which the men described how they learned about menstruation, what they thought of it when they
first learned about it, and what they think of it now.
• By looking for patterns across all 23 men’s narratives, the researchers were able to develop a general theory of how
boys and young men learn about this aspect of girls’ and women’s biology. They conclude that sisters play an
important role in boys’ early understanding of menstruation, that menstruation makes boys feel somewhat
separated from girls, and that as they enter young adulthood and form romantic relationships, young men develop
more mature attitudes about menstruation.
• Example:
• In another inductive study, Kristin Ferguson and colleagues (Ferguson, Kim, & McCoy, 2011) [2] analyzed empirical
data to better understand how best to meet the needs of young people who are homeless. The authors analyzed
data from focus groups with 20 young people at a homeless shelter. From these data they developed a set of
recommendations for those interested in applied interventions that serve homeless youth.

• The researchers also developed hypotheses for people who might wish to conduct further investigation of the
topic. Though Ferguson and her colleagues did not test the hypotheses that they developed from their analysis,
their study ends where most deductive investigations begin: with a set of testable hypotheses.
Deductive method
Deductive Approaches and Some Examples
• Researchers taking a deductive approach take the steps described earlier for inductive research and reverse their
• They start with a social theory that they find compelling and then test its implications with data. That is, they move
from a more general level to a more specific one.
• A deductive approach to research is the one that people typically associate with scientific investigation. The
researcher studies what others have done, reads existing theories of whatever phenomenon he or she is studying,
and then tests hypotheses that emerge from those theories.

Example: In a study of US law enforcement responses to hate crimes, Ryan King and colleagues (King, Messner, & Baller,
2009) [3] hypothesized that law enforcement’s response would be less vigorous in areas of the country that had a
stronger history of racial violence.
The authors developed their hypothesis from their reading of prior research and theories on the topic. Next, they tested
the hypothesis by analyzing data on states’ lynching histories and hate crime responses. Overall, the authors found
support for their hypothesis.
Example: In another recent deductive study, Melissa Milkie and Catharine Warner (2011) [4] studied the effects of
different classroom environments on first graders’ mental health. Based on prior research and theory, Milkie and
Warner hypothesized that negative classroom features, such as a lack of basic supplies and even heat, would be
associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children.
The researchers found support for their hypothesis, demonstrating that policymakers should probably be paying more
attention to the mental health outcomes of children’s school experiences, just as they track academic outcomes
(American Sociological Association, 2011). [5]
I. Quantitative Approach
A. Correlational Research
• A quantitative method that focuses on the degree and direction of relationship of two or more quantitative variables
from the same group of subjects.
• Do not identify cause and effect relationship
• Theoretically, any 2 quantitative variables can be correlated (for example, midterm scores & number of body
piercings!) as long as you have scores on these variables from the same participants.
• Types of Variable in Correlational Research
• Predictor Variable, a variable used in a non-experimental research to predict another variable.
• It is sometimes referred to as an independent variable if it is manipulated rather than just measured.
• Criterion Variable, The variable being predicted.
• In general, the criterion variable is the dependent variable.
• Types of Correlation
• Positive
• The higher the stress the higher the poor health outcomes or
• There is significant relationship between level of stress and poor health outcomes
• Negative
• The lower the anxiety the higher the examination scores
• There is significant relationship between anxiety and examination scores
• Zero
• There is no significant relationship between body built and masculinity
B. Survey Research
• Research method that focuses on description of variables.
• Do NOT identify relationship or difference between variables.
• Types: Personal, mail, interviews, telephone surveys
• Examples: What is the level stress of College students?

What is the level of work motivation of selected high school teachers?
C. Experimental Research
• Quantitative research that identifies cause and effect relationship between two or more variables.
• This is done in a laboratory or controlled settings.
– Between Subject-Participants are classified in control and experimental groups
– Within Subject-Same group of participants subjected in to two or more treatment conditions.
• Examples:
– The effects of oral academic presentation on levels of cortisol
– The effects of music therapy on levels of stress
– The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance
D. Causal Comparative Ex Post Facto
• Quantitative method that focuses on cause and effect relationship between two variables.
• However, the independent variable cannot be manipulated. The independent variables are known as the attribute
• Cause and effect relationship between “attribute/grouping variable” and “dependent variable”
• True experiment have random assignment because you're looking at something else. In ex post facto, it has NO
RANDOM ASSIGNMENT because you are looking at a prior variable (Effects of Gender) present in the participant.
• True experiment have random assignment because you're looking at something else. In ex post facto, it has NO
RANDOM ASSIGNMENT because you are looking at a prior variable (Effects of Gender) present in the participant.
• Examples:
-Effects of brain damage on cognitive performance
-Effects of sex change on sexual satisfaction
-Effects of single parenting on child’s emotional adjustment
D. Single N Research
• Also known as “single case research” because it only observes and measures one participant all throughout the
research process.
• Commonly used in behavioral experiments (e.g Little albert experiment by John B. Watson).
II. Qualitative Approach
A. Case Study
• It is an in-depth analysis of a single case, group or an event. Uses interviews and behavioral observations in analyzing
a particular variable.
• The researcher interprets the variables involved in the study in a narrative method.
• Methods: Describing the experience, Describing the meaning, Focus on the analysis
• Example:
• Case of Seasonal Affective Disorder
• A Social-Cognitive Exploration of Reactions to Leiby Kletzky's Abduction and Homicide
Differences between survey and case study
1. The group is usually large. 1. Case study may involve and usually involves one
person, family, small group or small community.
2. The number of aspects or variables in the life of the 2. Usually all aspects or variables in the life cycle or the
group surveyed is limited. case under study are included.
3. Cause-effect relationships are not given emphasis. 3. Finding the causes of certain phenomena is always a
Aim of a study may only be to determine status. part of a study.
4. Representatives is important and is given emphasis. 4. Representativeness is not important. The results of a
single case study do not provide certainty that the case
study is truly representative.
5. Curiosity, interest, or just to determine norm or status 5. Abnormalities or undesirable traits or conditions
may initiate a survey. usually initiate a case study.
6. Only conditions or practices present during the survey 6. Data about the case from birth origin or even of the
are considered except in comparative studies when future is considered.
present conditions are compared with conditions in the

B. Phenomenology
• A research method which seeks to understand a person’s perspective as he or she experiences and understands an
• Phenomenon may be events, situations or experiences
• Typically, this method studies 6-10 participants. Interviews are conducted individually and a transcription of it is
done to interpret the variables.
• Examples:
– Abuse experienced by Overseas Filipino Workers
– The experiences of the victims of Mt. Pinatubo eruption
• In general “a phenomenological research is well suited for studying affective, emotional, and often intense human
• A reader of a phenomenological should have a strong sense of “now I understand what it is like to have experienced
that particular phenomenon.
• Here are examples of phenomenological research questions:
• What is the experience of motherhood for female soldiers deployed to Afghanistan who have children between the
ages of 1 and 3 at home?
-The phenomenon in the question above is motherhood
•What is self-forgiveness for convicted murders?
-The phenomenon in the question above is self-forgiveness
• How do high school teachers use intuition in making classroom management decisions during high risk incidents?
-The phenomenon in the question above is the use of intuition spirituality
• Here are examples of phenomenological research questions:
• How do female high school teachers who have been physically assaulted by students overcome their fears so they can
effectively teach?
-The phenomenon in the question above is the recovery process
• What role does spirituality play in the remission of cancer in patients?
-The phenomenon in the question above is spirituality
The attention is paid to the lived experiences of the The attention is paid to individual, a group or an
individuals. event.
Phenomenology produces qualitative data that Case study produces rich qualitative data
mainly explore the subjective meanings that people
produce and sustain.
C. Ethnography
• A research method concerned on the shared beliefs, practices, artifacts, folk knowledge and behavior of people
belonging in a specific culture.
• Focus on relationship between culture and behavior.
• Takes much longer to complete than a case study because the researcher has to immerse him/herself in the
subject(s) being studied and uses naturalistic observation or even artifact collection.
• Example: 'An ethnographic study of gender influences on social behaviour of members at a private golf club'
D. Focus Groups
• A research method which invites panels, facilitated by a moderator, who meet up for a specific period of time to
exchange perspectives, knowledge and/or opinions on a particular topic.
• Less than a dozen individuals are invited to discuss the core issues of a topic.
• Examples:
– A focus group discussion on the difficulties encountered by senior college students in their thesis writing.
– A focus group discussion on how call center agents cope with night-shift work.
E. Grounded Theory
• A research method which uses naturalistic iterative data collection and relationship analysis processes in order to
come up with a theory.
• This method uses stages of coding and categorization in order to develop a new theory about a certain situation or

F. Narrative Research
• A research method concerned on the study on how humans experience the world around them and it allows people
to tell their stories.
• The researcher focuses on the construction of life stories based on the data collected on the interview.
• The participant shares his or her biography and the researcher re-story tells the individual’s life.
G. Historical Research
• A research method which relies on records, diaries, oral histories, photographs, and other artifacts to describe,
analyze and explain past events.
• Once an evidence is collected, it will be examined and authenticated.
• Examples:
– Historical research on Cleopatra
– Historical research on Mahatma Gandhi