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In General
Espiritu, Lyza Janelle M.

Hernandez, Neale Siegfried

Vergara, Pamela Ysabel N.

Villanueva, Reian Ken L.

11 – St. Lawrence

Proposal for Normal and Underweight

Children from 0-71 months
I. Background of the Study

Health has been a priority in the Philippine development agenda since

the adoption of the Millennium Declaration. Among the eight Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs), there are three health-specific goals—for child
health (MDG4), maternal health (MDG5), and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria,
and other diseases (MDG6). In addition, the goal for reducing poverty (MDG1)
includes nutrition targets, which directly impact health; and three other goals
address social dimensions critical for improving health—education (MDG2),
gender equality (MDG3), and environmental sustainability (MDG7).

A healthy weight is defined by a body composition that positively

contributes to an individuals' overall health, wellbeing, and quality of life over
their lifespan. Healthy weights in children vary by age, sex, and height. A
growth chart is used to correctly interpret a child's BMI. Because one's weight is
dependent on their body type, healthy weight is commonly determined by
measuring body mass index or BMI, which is usually established by calculating a
person's weight and height. If the BMI is between 18.5 and 24.9, then you are
considered to have a normal weight. In general, a child is underweight if he or
she is in the bottom 5th percentile for weight compared to their height.
Underweight is not only classified compared to other children their age, but to
their height as we clinically look for a child to be proportionate.

As defined by World Health Organization (WHO), it is a "State of complete

physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease
or infirmity." Health is a dynamic condition resulting from a body's constant
adjustment and adaptation in response to stresses and changes in the
environment for maintaining an inner equilibrium called homeostasis.
Available data show large numbers of Filipino children are normal: about
4,500 children that are 0-71 months are normal; and about 95 children are

II. Problem
Problems on why there are a large number of underweight citizens in Taal:

 High cost of food products: Not all of Taal’s citizens are rich enough to buy
food products for their own living and satisfaction. Some of them are not
able to eat three times a day due to the expensive products that some of
them can’t afford leading to underweight cases.
 Overpopulation/Large family members: We all know that Taal has a large
population and this could be a factor on why underweight cases are
uprising. Many people only mean that there are more mouths to feed but
some poor families can’t accommodate to give enough food to all of the
members of the family because of their social status.

 Scarcity or Lack of Food Storage due to Calamities: Taal indeed is a very

productive city and have massive amount of products. But calamities and
natural disasters can affect these factors too. Looking at the graph of our
report, it was shown that the number of underweight citizens risen up and
knowing the fact that typhoon Haiyan devastated our place, this
affected the number of production of supplies in Taal. At that time being
the cost of supplies also risen up due to shortage of supplies which only
means that other prople cant afford to buy the supplies they need
leading to underweight cases.

 Lack of high demand in Vitamins: In some studies, it was proven that

vitamins and iron are some solutions for underweight cases. But knowing
the fact that people must comply first with their basic needs, they don’t
accommodate to buy these nutrient sufficient products. This practice can
help decrease the cases of underweight people.

III. Solution

The first 1,000 days in the life of a child is described as the window of
opportunity to provide the best nutrition for optimum growth and development.
It is also the most crucial development stage of a child when undernutrition
would have an irreversible impact on the child’s cognitive and physical
development. Malnutrition comes in two guises: undernutrition and overnutrition
that leads to obesity. Making sure that kids eat right is one issue the parents
need to understand and follow through. Taal, Batangas population has
increased a bit, from year 2010 (51,503) to 2015 (56,327),_Batangas , this shows that there is approx
4,824 children age 0-71 weeks more or less. Undernutrition is one of the major
public health problem among Taalenos children. Undernutrition puts children at
a greater risk of death from common infections, increases the frequency and
severity of illnesses, and delays recovery. The number of underweight children
below 6 years of age has declined from 26.9 percent to 24.6 percent, but still,
malnutrition is still one of the top 20 diseases and causes of hospitalization
among children. Malnutrition in early childhood affects the mental, physical,
and emotional development of children, and their future productivity. Children
should be given the recommended energy nutrient intake for their age to
ensure that they take the right amount of each type of food every day. Some
of the reasons for malnutrition among Taaleno children are: they take in too
much fluid but not enough food (children these days are given by parents and
elders soda which is really bad for them), they are too selective when it comes
to food (parents and elders give the children processed food that makes kids
not learning to eat fresh and healthy food) , they shows limited attention span at
mealtime (excessive use of gadgets to kids is big no-no, these days, kids are
hooked on using gadgets that leads them not to eat on time and doesnt eat at
all). Studies show that poor weight gain due to loss of appetite increases the risk
of malnutrition in children with problems involving their metabolism, digestion,
immunity, or vitamin deficiencies. Increasing the number of calories in the diet is
not always the best remedy for a child who is underweight. It is better to give
him high-energy and nutrient-rich foods that boost his ability to absorb protein
from his diet.

Factors affecting the nutrition of a child include household food insecurity,

inadequate care and feeding practices, and unhealthy household environment
and inadequate health services. If we really want to stop malnutrition to
children, our actions or strategies should target the different causes of
undernutrition to reach sustainable change. This requires a multisectoral
approach. Among these solutions are essential nutrition practices which are
effective, feasible, available and affordable. These simple solutions should be
made a program in the government of Taal and also by some public groups

• exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, this can be carried on by

DSWD who will make house visits to new mothers so they can be taught
and will be given some highlights about the importance of this to their
babies and themselves as well. Educating pregnant mothers about
their own nutrition, and preparing them for breastfeeding are
important so that they will able to provide the best first nutritional
source for their newborns.;
• the introduction and use of calorie, nutrient dense, and safe solid and semi-solid
foods with continued breastfeeding in various settings – the home, rural health units,
barangay health stations and birthing facilities
• adequate intake of Vitamin A and iron for women and children, should be done
by DSWD in each barangay. Every mother and children should be given a free
vitamin A and iron supplements.
• adequate intake of iodine by all members of the household, as we all know, iodine
is important for a good immune system.
However, lack of commitment among those in the government has been observed and
insufficient progress has been made towards achieving the target on avoiding
undernourished incidents in Taal.
Even if the government is making so many programs that will help alleviate the
problem on malnutrition of children 0-71 weeksm in the whole town, there will
always be a problem if the people assigned to do this is only good on starters but they
fail to give commitment on their duty.

IV. Graph

Number of Children

2015 2016 2017 2018
Number of Children

100 Girls
80 Boys
2015 2016 2017 2018


The data displayed with the graphs presented above show that the
numbers of normal and underweight children from 0-71 months old as years go
by is dynamic. Look at the first graph of the Normal Children. In the year 2015,
the numbers of Normal boys are 3751 while the numbers of girls are 3570. In 2016,
there are 2964 boys and 2620 girls. In 2017, there are 4023 boys and 3530 girls.
And in 2018, there are 2797 boys and 2564 girls. Next, look at the second graph
of the Underweight Children. As you can observe, in 2015, there are 22 boys and
18 girls. In 2016, there are 95 boys and 95 girls. In 2017, there are 36 boys while
there are 20 girls. And in 2018, there are 31 boys and 14 girls.

This signifies that there might be other factors that affected the children's
growth and resulted to an ever changing count of children of the said BMIs
residing in Taal. From the graphs above we cannot predict what the next count
would be because there is no certainty or there is no pattern seen in the graphs.