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2.

2 Design of Flexural Members


COURSE OUTCOME

CO 1 : Apply engineering knowledge of


basic fundamentals design of steel and
timber structures.

CO 2 : Design the basic structural


components of steel and timber using
relevant codes of practices.

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PROGRAMME OUTCOME

PO 2 : Identify, formulate, research literature and


analyse complex civil engineering problems
reaching substantiated conclusions using first
principles of mathematics, natural sciences and
engineering sciences.

PO 5 : Create, select and apply appropriate


techniques, resources, and modern engineering
and IT tools, including prediction and modeling,
to complex civil engineering problems, with an
understanding of the limitations.

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Structural and Materials Division
LEARNING
Faculty of Civil OUTCOMES
Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang

At the end of this lesson, students should be able


to:
 Understand philosophy of permissible stress
design.
 Design timber flexural members.

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Introduction
 A member which carries loads that act transversely with respect to
its longitudinal axis so as to cause the member to bend.
 Beams, girders, stringers, bearers, purlins and joists are the
example of bending members.
 A beam may supported in a number of ways such as simply
supported at both ends, supported by intermediate supports or fixed
at one end with the other end free.
 The most common cross-sectional shape of a beam is rectangular
with the bigger dimension, the depth, placed parallel to the load.
 The greater the ratio of depth-breadth, the more economical is the
section but the ratio should not exceed the limits so as not to cause
the member to buckle sideways.
Design Span
 If the bearing area is larger than required, the distance
between the centers of the necessary bearing length is
to be taken as design span.
 For continuous beam, the center of these intermediate
supports may be taken as the span centers.
Stiffness and Deflection
(MS544:P2, Clause 11.7)
 Stiffness is related to deflection.
 When a member is said to be stiff, it means that it is able to resist
deflection to a certain extent depending on the degree of stiffness.
 Excessive deflections are visually unacceptable and may cause
damage to surfacing materials, ceilings, partitions, finishing and
other function needs such as ducting.
 The deflection of the supporting members when fully loaded should
not exceed 0.003 of the span.
 Emean is used for deflection calculation if the element is roof joist,
floor joist or other system where transverse distribution of load is
achieved and where the stress induced by dead or permanent load
≤60% x permissible stress induced by the full design load.
 Emin is used for components which acts alone.
Lateral Support
 A deep beam, one having a high depth to breadth ratio,
may buckle sideways, twist and thus may not be able to
carry the maximum possible loads that it should.
 To avoid this side twist, Table 7 (MS544) gives the
limiting depth
d 
  to breadth ratio for solid rectangular
 
b
member corresponding to the appropriate degree of
lateral support.
Modification Factors
 Should be applied to the grade stresses as given in
Table 1,2 and 4 in MS544 to obtain permissible stress.
 Modification factors:
 Duration of loading K1 
 Load sharing system K 2 
 Length and position of bearing K 3 
 Notched members K 4 
 Form factor K 5 
 Depth factor K 6 
1.Duration of Loading
 Timber structures are greatly affected by the duration of
load over the years.
 The strength of timber decreases significantly as the
duration of load increases.
 The stiffness which is related to deflection of timber is
also affected.
 Table 5 in MS 544 gives modification factor for duration
of loading.
2. Load Sharing System
 A number of members act together to support a common
load so that the failure of one member will result in the
redistribution of the load to the adjacent members and
the structure as a whole will not collapse.
 Modification factor for load-sharing is 1.1 and the mean
value of modulus of elasticity may be used.
 For non load-sharing, there is no increase in the grade
stress and the minimum E is used.
 For load sharing system to be applicable the following
conditions must be satisfied:
 There must be at least four or more members.
 The spacing of members must not be more than 610mm apart with
adequate provision for lateral distribution of load
 The stresses due to dead or permanent load are not more than 60% of
the stresses due to the total design load.
3.Length and Position of Bearing
 Sufficient bearing area of the beam should be provided
at the support and under the load points to prevent
excessive crushing of the wood.
 Table 6 in MS 544 gives modification factor for length of
bearing.
4. Notched Members
 Square-cornered notched at the ends of a flexural member cause a concentration
of stress which should be allowed for in calculating the shear strength by:
 Using the effective depth,
d
 Multiplying the grade stresse in shear by a modification factor K calculated as follows:

For a notched beam on the lower side

effectived epth , d e
K4 
totaldepth , d

For a beam notched on the upper side

d d e  a   ad e for
K4  a  de
d e2
for
K4  1 a  de
de
The ratio for a beam notched on the upper side should not be less than 0.6
d
5. Form Factor
6. Depth Factor
 The maximum bending stress developed by a beam at
failure decreases as the depth of the beam increases.
 For solid beam having the depth (in mm) greater than
300mm, the grade bending stress should be multiplied
by the modification factor:

 d 2  92300 
K  0.81 2  d  300mm
 d  56800  ,
Procedure in Beam Design
 Lateral stability
 Bending stress
 Shear stress
 Deflection
 Bearing stress at the support or at the
point of loading
1. Lateral Stability
 To prevent any buckling towards the lateral direction by limiting its
depth to breadth ratio.
breadth
Buckling to the
lateral direction
depth

Lateral direction

Examples of lateral supports


2. Bending Stress
 The actual bending stress in the member due to maximum moment
does nor exceed the permissible stress;
fs  f p

f s = the actual bending stress


f p = the permissible bending stress

bh 2 M = max moment
Z xx  = section modulus
6 Z

M xx
For rectangular section, fs 
Z xx

The permissible stress, fp  f g xK1xK 2 xK 5xK 6


3. Shear Stress
 The actual maximum shear stress must be less than the permissible shear
stress.
qs  q p
qs = the max shear stress (actual)
q p = the permissible shear stress V
Vaverage 
For rectangular section BD

3 V
B Vmax 
2 BD
3 V
qs 
2 BD
q p  qg xK1 xK 4
4. Deflection
The total deflection (actual) ≤ 0.003 x span
≤ 14mm (floor domestic joists)

s   p
s  m  s
 m = deflection due to bending
s = deflection due to shear
Since in timber and wood based structural materials the shear modulus is
considerably lower as a proportion of the modulus of elasticity, compared to
other structural materials such as steel, the effect of shear deflection can be
significant and should be considered in the design calculations.

The maximum shear deflection induced in a single-span simply supported beam


of either rectangular or square cross-section, may be determined from the
following equation: 19.2M max
s 
AE
5. Bearing Stress
 The bearing stresses in timber beams are developed due to compressive
forces applied in a direction perpendicular to the grain and occur in positions
such as points of support or applied concentrated loads.
Cts  Ctp
Cts = the actual compression stress perpendicular to grain
Ctp = the permissible compression stress perpendicular to
grain

Where,
R R = reaction at support or the concentrated load
Cts 
As As = bearing area

Ctp  Ctg xK1 xK 2 xK 3


Example 6.1: Design of Floor Joists
A timber floor spanning 3.8m centre to centre is to be designed using
timber joists at 400mm centers. The floor is subjected to a domestic
imposed load of 1.5kN/m2 and carries a dead loading, including self-
weight of 0.35kN/m2. Carry out design checks to show that a series of
44mm x 200mm deep sawn section SG4, common type with moisture
content 10% is suitable.
THANK YOU
SEE YOU IN THE NEXT CLASS!