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# 2.

COURSE OUTCOME

## CO 1 : Apply engineering knowledge of

basic fundamentals design of steel and
timber structures.

## CO 2 : Design the basic structural

components of steel and timber using
relevant codes of practices.

2
PROGRAMME OUTCOME

## PO 2 : Identify, formulate, research literature and

analyse complex civil engineering problems
reaching substantiated conclusions using first
principles of mathematics, natural sciences and
engineering sciences.

## PO 5 : Create, select and apply appropriate

techniques, resources, and modern engineering
and IT tools, including prediction and modeling,
to complex civil engineering problems, with an
understanding of the limitations.

3
Structural and Materials Division
LEARNING
Faculty of Civil OUTCOMES
Engineering
Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang

## At the end of this lesson, students should be able

to:
 Understand philosophy of permissible stress
design.
 Design timber flexural members.

4
Introduction
 A member which carries loads that act transversely with respect to
its longitudinal axis so as to cause the member to bend.
 Beams, girders, stringers, bearers, purlins and joists are the
example of bending members.
 A beam may supported in a number of ways such as simply
supported at both ends, supported by intermediate supports or fixed
at one end with the other end free.
 The most common cross-sectional shape of a beam is rectangular
with the bigger dimension, the depth, placed parallel to the load.
 The greater the ratio of depth-breadth, the more economical is the
section but the ratio should not exceed the limits so as not to cause
the member to buckle sideways.
Design Span
 If the bearing area is larger than required, the distance
between the centers of the necessary bearing length is
to be taken as design span.
 For continuous beam, the center of these intermediate
supports may be taken as the span centers.
Stiffness and Deflection
(MS544:P2, Clause 11.7)
 Stiffness is related to deflection.
 When a member is said to be stiff, it means that it is able to resist
deflection to a certain extent depending on the degree of stiffness.
 Excessive deflections are visually unacceptable and may cause
damage to surfacing materials, ceilings, partitions, finishing and
other function needs such as ducting.
 The deflection of the supporting members when fully loaded should
not exceed 0.003 of the span.
 Emean is used for deflection calculation if the element is roof joist,
floor joist or other system where transverse distribution of load is
≤60% x permissible stress induced by the full design load.
 Emin is used for components which acts alone.
Lateral Support
 A deep beam, one having a high depth to breadth ratio,
may buckle sideways, twist and thus may not be able to
carry the maximum possible loads that it should.
 To avoid this side twist, Table 7 (MS544) gives the
limiting depth
d 
  to breadth ratio for solid rectangular
 
b
member corresponding to the appropriate degree of
lateral support.
Modification Factors
 Should be applied to the grade stresses as given in
Table 1,2 and 4 in MS544 to obtain permissible stress.
 Modification factors:
 Load sharing system K 2 
 Length and position of bearing K 3 
 Notched members K 4 
 Form factor K 5 
 Depth factor K 6 
 Timber structures are greatly affected by the duration of
 The strength of timber decreases significantly as the
 The stiffness which is related to deflection of timber is
also affected.
 Table 5 in MS 544 gives modification factor for duration
 A number of members act together to support a common
load so that the failure of one member will result in the
the structure as a whole will not collapse.
 Modification factor for load-sharing is 1.1 and the mean
value of modulus of elasticity may be used.
stress and the minimum E is used.
 For load sharing system to be applicable the following
conditions must be satisfied:
 There must be at least four or more members.
 The spacing of members must not be more than 610mm apart with
 The stresses due to dead or permanent load are not more than 60% of
the stresses due to the total design load.
3.Length and Position of Bearing
 Sufficient bearing area of the beam should be provided
at the support and under the load points to prevent
excessive crushing of the wood.
 Table 6 in MS 544 gives modification factor for length of
bearing.
4. Notched Members
 Square-cornered notched at the ends of a flexural member cause a concentration
of stress which should be allowed for in calculating the shear strength by:
 Using the effective depth,
d
 Multiplying the grade stresse in shear by a modification factor K calculated as follows:

## For a notched beam on the lower side

effectived epth , d e
K4 
totaldepth , d

## For a beam notched on the upper side

d d e  a   ad e for
K4  a  de
d e2
for
K4  1 a  de
de
The ratio for a beam notched on the upper side should not be less than 0.6
d
5. Form Factor
6. Depth Factor
 The maximum bending stress developed by a beam at
failure decreases as the depth of the beam increases.
 For solid beam having the depth (in mm) greater than
300mm, the grade bending stress should be multiplied
by the modification factor:

 d 2  92300 
K  0.81 2  d  300mm
 d  56800  ,
Procedure in Beam Design
 Lateral stability
 Bending stress
 Shear stress
 Deflection
 Bearing stress at the support or at the
1. Lateral Stability
 To prevent any buckling towards the lateral direction by limiting its
Buckling to the
lateral direction
depth

Lateral direction

## Examples of lateral supports

2. Bending Stress
 The actual bending stress in the member due to maximum moment
does nor exceed the permissible stress;
fs  f p

## f s = the actual bending stress

f p = the permissible bending stress

bh 2 M = max moment
Z xx  = section modulus
6 Z

M xx
For rectangular section, fs 
Z xx

## The permissible stress, fp  f g xK1xK 2 xK 5xK 6

3. Shear Stress
 The actual maximum shear stress must be less than the permissible shear
stress.
qs  q p
qs = the max shear stress (actual)
q p = the permissible shear stress V
Vaverage 
For rectangular section BD

3 V
B Vmax 
2 BD
3 V
qs 
2 BD
q p  qg xK1 xK 4
4. Deflection
The total deflection (actual) ≤ 0.003 x span
≤ 14mm (floor domestic joists)

s   p
s  m  s
 m = deflection due to bending
s = deflection due to shear
Since in timber and wood based structural materials the shear modulus is
considerably lower as a proportion of the modulus of elasticity, compared to
other structural materials such as steel, the effect of shear deflection can be
significant and should be considered in the design calculations.

## The maximum shear deflection induced in a single-span simply supported beam

of either rectangular or square cross-section, may be determined from the
following equation: 19.2M max
s 
AE
5. Bearing Stress
 The bearing stresses in timber beams are developed due to compressive
forces applied in a direction perpendicular to the grain and occur in positions
such as points of support or applied concentrated loads.
Cts  Ctp
Cts = the actual compression stress perpendicular to grain
Ctp = the permissible compression stress perpendicular to
grain

Where,
R R = reaction at support or the concentrated load
Cts 
As As = bearing area

## Ctp  Ctg xK1 xK 2 xK 3

Example 6.1: Design of Floor Joists
A timber floor spanning 3.8m centre to centre is to be designed using
timber joists at 400mm centers. The floor is subjected to a domestic