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COURSE OUTCOME

basic fundamentals design of steel and

timber structures.

components of steel and timber using

relevant codes of practices.

2

PROGRAMME OUTCOME

analyse complex civil engineering problems

reaching substantiated conclusions using first

principles of mathematics, natural sciences and

engineering sciences.

techniques, resources, and modern engineering

and IT tools, including prediction and modeling,

to complex civil engineering problems, with an

understanding of the limitations.

3

Structural and Materials Division

LEARNING

Faculty of Civil OUTCOMES

Engineering

Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang

to:

Understand philosophy of permissible stress

design.

Design timber flexural members.

4

Introduction

A member which carries loads that act transversely with respect to

its longitudinal axis so as to cause the member to bend.

Beams, girders, stringers, bearers, purlins and joists are the

example of bending members.

A beam may supported in a number of ways such as simply

supported at both ends, supported by intermediate supports or fixed

at one end with the other end free.

The most common cross-sectional shape of a beam is rectangular

with the bigger dimension, the depth, placed parallel to the load.

The greater the ratio of depth-breadth, the more economical is the

section but the ratio should not exceed the limits so as not to cause

the member to buckle sideways.

Design Span

If the bearing area is larger than required, the distance

between the centers of the necessary bearing length is

to be taken as design span.

For continuous beam, the center of these intermediate

supports may be taken as the span centers.

Stiffness and Deflection

(MS544:P2, Clause 11.7)

Stiffness is related to deflection.

When a member is said to be stiff, it means that it is able to resist

deflection to a certain extent depending on the degree of stiffness.

Excessive deflections are visually unacceptable and may cause

damage to surfacing materials, ceilings, partitions, finishing and

other function needs such as ducting.

The deflection of the supporting members when fully loaded should

not exceed 0.003 of the span.

Emean is used for deflection calculation if the element is roof joist,

floor joist or other system where transverse distribution of load is

achieved and where the stress induced by dead or permanent load

≤60% x permissible stress induced by the full design load.

Emin is used for components which acts alone.

Lateral Support

A deep beam, one having a high depth to breadth ratio,

may buckle sideways, twist and thus may not be able to

carry the maximum possible loads that it should.

To avoid this side twist, Table 7 (MS544) gives the

limiting depth

d

to breadth ratio for solid rectangular

b

member corresponding to the appropriate degree of

lateral support.

Modification Factors

Should be applied to the grade stresses as given in

Table 1,2 and 4 in MS544 to obtain permissible stress.

Modification factors:

Duration of loading K1

Load sharing system K 2

Length and position of bearing K 3

Notched members K 4

Form factor K 5

Depth factor K 6

1.Duration of Loading

Timber structures are greatly affected by the duration of

load over the years.

The strength of timber decreases significantly as the

duration of load increases.

The stiffness which is related to deflection of timber is

also affected.

Table 5 in MS 544 gives modification factor for duration

of loading.

2. Load Sharing System

A number of members act together to support a common

load so that the failure of one member will result in the

redistribution of the load to the adjacent members and

the structure as a whole will not collapse.

Modification factor for load-sharing is 1.1 and the mean

value of modulus of elasticity may be used.

For non load-sharing, there is no increase in the grade

stress and the minimum E is used.

For load sharing system to be applicable the following

conditions must be satisfied:

There must be at least four or more members.

The spacing of members must not be more than 610mm apart with

adequate provision for lateral distribution of load

The stresses due to dead or permanent load are not more than 60% of

the stresses due to the total design load.

3.Length and Position of Bearing

Sufficient bearing area of the beam should be provided

at the support and under the load points to prevent

excessive crushing of the wood.

Table 6 in MS 544 gives modification factor for length of

bearing.

4. Notched Members

Square-cornered notched at the ends of a flexural member cause a concentration

of stress which should be allowed for in calculating the shear strength by:

Using the effective depth,

d

Multiplying the grade stresse in shear by a modification factor K calculated as follows:

effectived epth , d e

K4

totaldepth , d

d d e a ad e for

K4 a de

d e2

for

K4 1 a de

de

The ratio for a beam notched on the upper side should not be less than 0.6

d

5. Form Factor

6. Depth Factor

The maximum bending stress developed by a beam at

failure decreases as the depth of the beam increases.

For solid beam having the depth (in mm) greater than

300mm, the grade bending stress should be multiplied

by the modification factor:

d 2 92300

K 0.81 2 d 300mm

d 56800 ,

Procedure in Beam Design

Lateral stability

Bending stress

Shear stress

Deflection

Bearing stress at the support or at the

point of loading

1. Lateral Stability

To prevent any buckling towards the lateral direction by limiting its

depth to breadth ratio.

breadth

Buckling to the

lateral direction

depth

Lateral direction

2. Bending Stress

The actual bending stress in the member due to maximum moment

does nor exceed the permissible stress;

fs f p

f p = the permissible bending stress

bh 2 M = max moment

Z xx = section modulus

6 Z

M xx

For rectangular section, fs

Z xx

3. Shear Stress

The actual maximum shear stress must be less than the permissible shear

stress.

qs q p

qs = the max shear stress (actual)

q p = the permissible shear stress V

Vaverage

For rectangular section BD

3 V

B Vmax

2 BD

3 V

qs

2 BD

q p qg xK1 xK 4

4. Deflection

The total deflection (actual) ≤ 0.003 x span

≤ 14mm (floor domestic joists)

s p

s m s

m = deflection due to bending

s = deflection due to shear

Since in timber and wood based structural materials the shear modulus is

considerably lower as a proportion of the modulus of elasticity, compared to

other structural materials such as steel, the effect of shear deflection can be

significant and should be considered in the design calculations.

of either rectangular or square cross-section, may be determined from the

following equation: 19.2M max

s

AE

5. Bearing Stress

The bearing stresses in timber beams are developed due to compressive

forces applied in a direction perpendicular to the grain and occur in positions

such as points of support or applied concentrated loads.

Cts Ctp

Cts = the actual compression stress perpendicular to grain

Ctp = the permissible compression stress perpendicular to

grain

Where,

R R = reaction at support or the concentrated load

Cts

As As = bearing area

Example 6.1: Design of Floor Joists

A timber floor spanning 3.8m centre to centre is to be designed using

timber joists at 400mm centers. The floor is subjected to a domestic

imposed load of 1.5kN/m2 and carries a dead loading, including self-

weight of 0.35kN/m2. Carry out design checks to show that a series of

44mm x 200mm deep sawn section SG4, common type with moisture

content 10% is suitable.

THANK YOU

SEE YOU IN THE NEXT CLASS!

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