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Dinamica si Fiabilitatea Autovehiculelor Rutiere

Proiect

1.Sa se proiecteze un autoturism avand urmatoarele date initiale:

Masa totala Ga [kg] 12700


Viteza maxima in [km/h] si [m/s] 90 25
Panta maxima [°] 31
Coeficientul de rezistenta la rulare f (0,025…0,035) 0.2
Aria sectiunii transversale A [m2] (1,6…2,5) 2.5
Coeficientul de neuniformitate 0.97
cx (0,3…0,5) 0.4
Densitate aer ρaer [kg/m3] 1.225
Randamentul η 0.8
Puterea la viteza maxima Pvmax [kW] 19.900391

2.Date tehnice autoturism VW Passat 2.0 TDI

Tipul motorului 8.5


Puterea motorului [kW] 265
Turatia la putere maxima [rot/min] nP 1500
Cuplu motor [Nm] 1775
Turatia la cuplu maxim [rot/min] nM 1000
Viteza maxima Vmax in [km/h] si [m/s] 90 25
Numar usi 2
Numar scaune 2
Lungime [mm] 10680
Latime [mm] 2450
Inaltime [mm] 2930
Ampatament [mm] 5550
Ecartament fata [mm] 2055
Ecartament spate [mm] 2065
Amplasare motor Fata Transversal
Volum motor [cm3] 8500
Tractiune 4x4
Masa proprie G0 [kg] 8550
Masa maxima autorizata [kg] 12700
Tipul pneului 425/85R21

Dimensiuni pneuri
91 indicele de sarcina [kg/pneu] 4000
Latime [mm] 425
Inaltime [m] 0.2975
Raport H/B 0.7
Diametrul jantei [m] 0.3556
Raza de rulare rr=r0 [m] 0.4753

Repartitia greutatii pe punti


Greutate totala autovehicul Ga [kg] 12700
Greutate bagaj [kg] 4000
Greutate pasager [kg] 80
b/A [%] 0.57 b [mm] 3163.5
a/A [%] 0.43 a [mm] 2386.5
G1 [kg] 7239
G2 [kg] 5461
Greutate pe anvelopa G1d [kg] 3619.5

3.Trasarea caracteristicii externe

Puterea maxima dezvoltata de motor Pmax [kW] 265


Coeficientul de elasticitate al motorului 0.6666666667
α1 0.5
α2 2
α3 -1.5
nvmax=nmax (coeficient pentru MAC=0,9…1) 1500
nvmax/np 0.9
f(nvmax/np) 0.9765
Randamentul total 0.874
Turatia minima mmin 300
Turatia minima stabila nmin stabil 500

n [rpm] Pe [kW] Me [Nm] kn kPe kMe


500 147.22222 2811.9444 46.296296 35.8633 188.56448
600 197.16 3138.13 55.555556 48.0282 210.43796
700 252.28 3441.82 64.814815 61.4554 230.80292
800 311.87556 3723.0144 74.074074 75.9729 249.65937
900 375.24 3981.7133 83.333333 91.4085 267.0073
1000 441.66667 4217.9167 92.592593 107.59 282.84672
1100 510.44889 4431.6244 101.85185 124.345 297.17762
1200 580.88 4622.8367 111.11111 141.502 310
1300 652.25333 4791.5533 120.37037 158.889 321.31387
1400 723.86222 4937.7744 129.62963 176.333 331.11922
1500 795 5061.5 138.88889 193.662 339.41606
1600 864.96 5162.73 148.14815 210.704 346.20438
1700 933.03556 5241.4644 157.40741 227.287 351.48418
1800 998.52 5297.7033 166.66667 243.239 355.25547
1900 1060.7067 5331.4467 175.92593 258.388 357.51825
2000 1118.8889 5342.6944 185.18519 272.561 358.27251
2100 1172.36 5331.4467 194.44444 285.587 357.51825
2200 1220.4133 5297.7033 203.7037 297.293 355.25547
2300 1262.3422 5241.4644 212.96296 307.507 351.48418
2400 1297.44 5162.73 222.22222 316.056 346.20438
2500 1325 5061.5 231.48148 322.77 339.41606
2600 1344.3156 4937.7744 240.74074 327.475 331.11922
2700 1354.68 4791.5533 250 330 321.31387

kn kPe kMe
10.8 4.1050909 14.912376

400
390 Pe [kW] Me [Nm]
380
370
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
30

50

70

90

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29
0

0
0

0
20
10
0

30

50

70

90

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29
0

0
0

0
4.Calculul rezistentei la rulare Rr

Viteza maxima [km/h] 162


f0 0.013295
f01 [h/km] -0.000028664
Tipul pneului (radial/cord metalic)
f02 [h2/km] 1.8036E-07
f03 [h3/km] 0
Coeficientul pentru autoturisme λs 4
Indicatorul neregularitatilor drumului hd (starea caii foarte buna) 150
Coef. pentru relatia ce ev.numai viteza de deplasare fr,0 0.0098
Coef. pentru relatia ce ev.numai viteza de deplasare fr,1 0.0024
Coef. pentru relatia ce ev.numai viteza de deplasare fr,4 0.001
Coeficientul f0 0.01
Coeficientul fs 0.0024
Greutatea totala a autovehiculului Ga [kg] 12700
Unghiul de inclinare longitudinala al drumului α 0.9510565163

Viteza fR1 fR2 fR3 fR4 fR5


0 0.013295 0.013295 0.0098 0.0125 0.0133
10 0.0130264 0.013895 0.0100401 0.0125269 0.0133
20 0.0127939 0.015695 0.0102816 0.0126521 0.01334
30 0.0125974 0.018695 0.0105281 0.012919 0.01341
40 0.012437 0.022895 0.0107856 0.0133601 0.01354
50 0.0123127 0.028295 0.0110625 0.0140026 0.01372
60 0.0122245 0.034895 0.0113696 0.0148703 0.01396
70 0.0121723 0.042695 0.0117201 0.0159847 0.01428
80 0.0121562 0.051695 0.0121296 0.0173657 0.01467
90 0.0121762 0.061895 0.0126161 0.0190317 0.01514
0.25
f
0.24
0.23
fR1 fR2 fR3 fR4 fR5
0.22
0.21
0.2
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.16
0.15
0.14
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.1
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
-1.14491749414469E-16
km/h

-0.01
-1.14491749414469E-16
km/h

-0.01

Rezistenta la rulare in functie de greutatea autovehiculului

Greutatea totala a autovehiculului Ga [kg] 12700


Unghiul de inclinare longitudinala al drumului α=18° si α=0° 0.9510565 1
Pentru λ=18°
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 Viteza
160.58256 160.58256 118.36849 150.98022 160.58256 0
157.33825 167.82961 121.26852 151.30488 160.67423 10
154.52963 189.57077 124.18546 152.81678 161.10112 20
152.15671 225.80602 127.16279 156.04117 162.01154 30
150.21947 276.53537 130.27298 161.36935 163.51596 40
148.71793 341.75883 133.6175 169.12928 165.707 50
147.65209 421.47639 137.32678 179.60928 168.66606 60
147.02193 515.68805 141.56026 193.06975 172.46667 70
146.82747 624.39381 146.50638 209.74999 177.17638 80
147.0687 747.59367 152.38253 229.87264 182.85807 90
400
390
380
370
360
350
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210 R1
200 R2
190 R3
180 R4
170
R5
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0

Pentru λ=0°
Viteza R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
0 168.8465 168.8465 124.46 158.75 168.847
10 165.43523 176.4665 127.50927 159.09137 168.943
20 162.48207 199.3265 130.57632 160.68107 169.392
30 159.98703 237.4265 133.70687 164.0714 170.349
40 157.9501 290.7665 136.97712 169.67377 171.931
50 156.37129 359.3465 140.49375 177.83304 174.235
60 155.25059 443.1665 144.39392 188.85238 177.346
70 154.58801 542.2265 148.84527 203.00555 181.342
80 154.38354 656.5265 154.04592 220.54419 186.294
90 154.63718 786.0665 160.22447 241.70239 192.268
100 0 0 0 0 0
110 0 0 0 0 0
120 0 0 0 0 0
130 0 0 0 0 0
140 0 0 0 0 0
150 0 0 0 0 0
160 0 0 0 0 0
170 0 0 0 0 0
180 0 0 0 0 0
190 0 0 0 0 0
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420

R5
R4
R3
R2
R1
80 100 120 1
60
40
200

0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18 20
0 0 0 0 0 0

5.Calculul rezistentei aerului Ra ,Pa si a rezistentei la panta Rp

Aria sectiunii transversale maxime A [m2] 2.5


Coeficientul de rezistenta al aerului cx 0.4
Densitatea aerului ρ [kg/m3] 1.225
Viteza de deplasare a autovehiculului [m/s] 37.5
Unghiul de inclinare longitudinala a caii de rulare α [°] 22
α [°] Rp
Viteza [km/h]Viteza [m/s] Ra Pa 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 221.646
10 2.7777778 4.7260802 0.013128 2 443.224
20 5.5555556 18.904321 0.105024 3 664.667
30 8.3333333 42.534722 0.354456 4 885.907
40 11.111111 75.617284 0.840192 5 1106.88
50 13.888889 118.15201 1.6410001 6 1327.51
60 16.666667 170.13889 2.8356481 7 1547.74
70 19.444444 231.57793 4.5029042 8 1767.5
80 22.222222 302.46914 6.7215364 9 1986.72
90 25 382.8125 9.5703125 10 2205.33
100 27.777778 472.60802 13.128001 11 2423.27
110 30.555556 571.85571 17.473369 12 2640.48
120 33.333333 680.55556 22.685185 13 2856.88
130 36.111111 798.70756 28.842218 14 3072.41
140 38.888889 926.31173 36.023234 15 3287
150 41.666667 1063.3681 44.307002 16 3500.59
160 44.444444 1209.8765 53.772291 17 3713.12
170 47.222222 1365.8372 64.497867 18 3924.52
180 50 1531.25 76.5625 19 4134.72
190 52.777778 1706.115 90.044957 20 4343.66
21 4551.27
22 4757.5
23 4962.29
24 5165.56
25 5367.25
26 5567.31
27 5765.68
28 5962.29
29 6157.08
30 6350
31 6541
32 6730
33 6916.92
34 7101.75
35 7284.42

1800
1700
Ra
1600
1500
1400
1300
1200
1100
1000
900
Ra
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18 20
0 0 0 0 0 0
300
200
100
0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18 20
0 0 0 0 0 0

Pa
100

90

80

70

60

Pa
50

40

30

20

10
40

30

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Rp
1000

900

800

700

600

Rp
500

400
600

Rp
500

400

300

200

100

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

6.Determinarea grafica a vitezei maxime

Pa+Pr1 Pa+Pr3 Pa+Pr5 Pr1 Pr2 Pr3 Pr4 Pr5


0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4.383635 3.3816981 4.4763011 4.370507 4.6619337 3.36857 4.2029134 4.46317313
8.6900037 7.0042162 9.0550863 8.5849797 10.531709 6.89919 8.4898209 8.95006227
13.034182 10.951355 13.855418 12.679726 18.817168 10.5969 13.003431 13.5009615
17.531245 15.314968 19.008632 16.691053 30.726153 14.4748 17.929927 18.1684404
22.296269 20.198986 24.655862 20.655269 47.466504 18.558 23.490177 23.0148615
27.444329 25.723445 30.946659 24.608681 70.246065 22.8878 29.93488 28.1110106
33.090502 32.028511 38.038089 28.587598 100.27268 27.5256 37.541341 33.5351852
39.349863 39.278509 46.094065 32.628326 138.75418 32.557 46.611108 39.3725288
46.337487 47.665944 55.28483 36.767175 186.89842 38.0956 57.468159 45.7145173
13.128001 13.128001 13.128001 0 0 0 0 0
17.473369 17.473369 17.473369 0 0 0 0 0
22.685185 22.685185 22.685185 0 0 0 0 0
28.842218 28.842218 28.842218 0 0 0 0 0
36.023234 36.023234 36.023234 0 0 0 0 0
44.307002 44.307002 44.307002 0 0 0 0 0
53.772291 53.772291 53.772291 0 0 0 0 0
64.497867 64.497867 64.497867 0 0 0 0 0
76.5625 76.5625 76.5625 0 0 0 0 0
90.044957 90.044957 90.044957 0 0 0 0 0

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50 Pa+Pr1
Pr1
40

30

20

10

0
0 20 40 60 80 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 12 14 16 18 20

220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110 Pa+Pr3
100 Pr3
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
120
110 Pa+Pr3
100 Pr3
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18 20
0 0 0 0 0 0

100

90

80

70

60

50 Pa+Pr5
Pr5
40 Pa+Pr5
Pr5
30

20

10

0
0 20 40 60 80 0 0 0 0 0 0
10 12 14 16 18 20

Coordonatele punctului B pentru MAC 231.61

Punctul de intersectie se alfa la viteza de 135 de [km/h] 45.8333333333

7.Determinarea raportului de transmitere al transmisiei principale

i0 1.6289443508
Ze 21
Zp 11
I0ef 1.6289443508
FRmax [N] 85525.4291373337
φ 0.5
hg 2.136
Coef de incarcare dinamica in regim de demarare m1φ 0.7792430006
Gad 28756.9104132838

8.Determinarea vitezelor minime si maxime in fiecare treapta

Icv1 16.0859619987
n1=nm 1000
n2=nvmax 1500
etajarea initiala q 1.5
Calcularea numarului de trepte kmin 7.8512602208
Rotunjirea numarului de trepte 4
Recalcularea ratiei de etajare 2.5243467643
Icv2 6.3723265862
Icv3 2.5243467643
Icv4 1
Icv5 0.9

n Vtr1 Vtr2 Vtr3 Vtr4 Vtr5


500 0.9497584 2.3975196 6.0521708 15.277778 16.9753
600 1.1397101 2.8770235 7.262605 18.333333 20.3704
700 1.3296618 3.3565274 8.4730391 21.388889 23.7654
800 1.5196135 3.8360313 9.6834733 24.444444 27.1605
900 1.7095651 4.3155352 10.893907 27.5 30.5556
1000 1.8995168 4.7950392 12.104342 30.555556 33.9506
1100 2.0894685 5.2745431 13.314776 33.611111 37.3457
1200 2.2794202 5.754047 14.52521 36.666667 40.7407
1300 2.4693719 6.2335509 15.735644 39.722222 44.1358
1400 2.6593236 6.7130548 16.946078 42.777778 47.5309
1500 2.8492752 7.1925587 18.156512 45.833333 50.9259
1600 3.0392269 7.6720627 19.366947 48.888889 54.321
1700 3.2291786 8.1515666 20.577381 51.944444 57.716 i0ef 1.62894435
1800 3.4191303 8.6310705 21.787815 55 61.1111 icv1 16.085962
1900 3.609082 9.1105744 22.998249 58.055556 64.5062 icv2 6.37232659
2000 3.7990337 9.5900783 24.208683 61.111111 67.9012 icv3 2.52434676
2100 3.9889853 10.069582 25.419117 64.166667 71.2963 icv4 1
2200 4.178937 10.549086 26.629552 67.222222 74.6914 icv5 0.9
2300 4.3688887 11.02859 27.839986 70.277778 78.0864 ntr 0.874
2400 4.5588404 11.508094 29.05042 73.333333 81.4815 rr 0.4753
2500 4.7487921 11.987598 30.260854 76.388889 84.8765
2600 4.9387438 12.467102 31.471288 79.444444 88.2716
2700 5.1286954 12.946606 32.681722 82.5 91.6667

80

75

70

65

60
Pe
[kW]
55
Vtr1

50 Vtr2

Vtr3
45
Vtr4
40 Vtr5

35

30

25

20

15

10

0
1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

2000

2200

2400

2600

2800

3000

3200
800

9.Caracteristica de tractiune a autovehiculelor

Forta de tractiune Fr1 222743.712534348


Forta de tractiune Fr2 88238.1595462049
Forta de tractiune Fr3 34954.8488328301
Forta de tractiune Fr4 13847.0868296635
Forta de tractiune Fr5 12462.3781466972
Momement motor efectiv Me 4622.8366666667
Raza de rulare rr 0.4753
Randamentul total al transmisiei autovehiculului 0.874

Turatia Moment Treapta I-a Treapta a II-a Treapta a III-a


n [rot/min] Me [Nm] Va [km/h] Fr1 [N] Va [km/h] Fr2 [N] Va [km/h] Fr3 [N]
800 2811.9444 5.4706085 135488.88 13.809713 53673 34.860504 21262.0735
900 3138.13 6.1544345 151205.59 15.535927 59899 39.218067 23728.474
1000 3441.82 6.8382606 165838.38 17.262141 65696 43.57563 26024.778
1100 3723.0144 7.5220866 179387.27 18.988355 71063 47.933193 28150.9853
1200 3981.7133 8.2059127 191852.25 20.714569 76001 52.290756 30107.0961
1300 4217.9167 8.8897388 203233.31 22.440783 80509 56.648319 31893.1102
1400 4431.6244 9.5735648 213530.47 24.166997 84588 61.005882 33509.0278
1500 4622.8367 10.257391 222743.71 25.893211 88238 65.363445 34954.8488
1600 4791.5533 10.941217 230873 27.619426 91459 69.721008 36230.5732
1700 4937.7744 11.625043 237918.47 29.34564 94250 74.078571 37336.2011
1800 5061.5 12.308869 243880 31.071854 96611 78.436134 38271.7323
1900 5162.73 12.992695 248757.58 32.798068 98543 82.793697 39037.1669
2000 5241.4644 13.676521 252551.27 34.524282 100046 87.15126 39632.505
2100 5297.7033 14.360347 255261 36.250496 101120 91.508823 40057.7465
2200 5331.4467 15.044173 256886.91 37.97671 101764 95.866385 40312.8914
2300 5342.6944 15.727999 257428.86 39.702924 101978 100.22395 40397.9396
2400 5331.4467 16.411825 256886.91 41.429138 101764 104.58151 40312.8914
2500 5297.7033 17.095651 255261 43.155352 101120 108.93907 40057.7465
2600 5241.4644 17.779478 252551.27 44.881567 100046 113.29664 39632.505
2700 5162.73 18.463304 248757.58 46.607781 98543 117.6542 39037.1669
2800 5061.5 19.14713 243880 48.333995 96611 122.01176 38271.7323
2900 4937.7744 19.830956 237918.47 50.060209 94250 126.36933 37336.2011
3000 4791.5533 20.514782 230873 51.786423 91459 130.72689 36230.5732

Turatia Moment Treapta IV-a


n [rot/min] Me [Nm] Va [km/h] Fr4 [N]
800 2811.9444 88 8422.8022
900 3138.13 99 9399.8473
1000 3441.82 110 10309.51
1100 3723.0144 121 11151.79
1200 3981.7133 132 11926.688
1300 4217.9167 143 12634.203
1400 4431.6244 154 13274.336
1500 4622.8367 165 13847.087
1600 4791.5533 176 14352.455
1700 4937.7744 187 14790.441
1800 5061.5 198 15161.044
1900 5162.73 209 15464.265
2000 5241.4644 220 15700.103
2100 5297.7033 231 15868.559
2200 5331.4467 242 15969.633
2300 5342.6944 253 16003.324
2400 5331.4467 264 15969.633
2500 5297.7033 275 15868.559
2600 5241.4644 286 15700.103
2700 5162.73 297 15464.265
2800 5061.5 308 15161.044
2900 4937.7744 319 14790.441
3000 4791.5533 330 14352.455

00
70
00
65
00
60
00
55
00
50
00
45
00
40 Fr1 [N]
0 Fr2 [N]
3 50
Fr3 [N]
00
30 Fr4 [N]
00
25
00
20
00
15
00
10
0
50
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180

10.Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculelor

Turatia Moment Treapta I-a Treapta a II-a Treapta a III-a


n [rot/min] Me [Nm] Va [km/h] Pr1 [N] Va [km/h] Pr2 [N] Va [km/h] Pr3 [N]
800 2811.9444 5.4706085 205.89072 13.809713 205.891 34.860504 205.890721
900 3138.13 6.1544345 258.4958 15.535927 258.496 39.218067 258.4958
1000 3441.82 6.8382606 315.0128 17.262141 315.013 43.57563 315.012803
1100 3723.0144 7.5220866 374.82406 18.988355 374.824 47.933193 374.824057
1200 3981.7133 8.2059127 437.31189 20.714569 437.312 52.290756 437.311891
1300 4217.9167 8.8897388 501.85863 22.440783 501.859 56.648319 501.858632
1400 4431.6244 9.5735648 567.84661 24.166997 567.847 61.005882 567.846608
1500 4622.8367 10.257391 634.65815 25.893211 634.658 65.363445 634.658146
1600 4791.5533 10.941217 701.67558 27.619426 701.676 69.721008 701.675576
1700 4937.7744 11.625043 768.28122 29.34564 768.281 74.078571 768.281224
1800 5061.5 12.308869 833.85742 31.071854 833.857 78.436134 833.857419
1900 5162.73 12.992695 897.78649 32.798068 897.786 82.793697 897.786487
2000 5241.4644 13.676521 959.45076 34.524282 959.451 87.15126 959.450758
2100 5297.7033 14.360347 1018.2326 36.250496 1018.23 91.508823 1018.23256
2200 5331.4467 15.044173 1073.5142 37.97671 1073.51 95.866385 1073.51422
2300 5342.6944 15.727999 1124.6781 39.702924 1124.68 100.22395 1124.67806
2400 5331.4467 16.411825 1171.1064 41.429138 1171.11 104.58151 1171.10642
2500 5297.7033 17.095651 1212.1816 43.155352 1212.18 108.93907 1212.18162
2600 5241.4644 17.779478 1247.286 44.881567 1247.29 113.29664 1247.28599
2700 5162.73 18.463304 1275.8019 46.607781 1275.8 117.6542 1275.80185
2800 5061.5 19.14713 1297.1115 48.333995 1297.11 122.01176 1297.11154
2900 4937.7744 19.830956 1310.5974 50.060209 1310.6 126.36933 1310.59738
3000 4791.5533 20.514782 1315.6417 51.786423 1315.64 130.72689 1315.6417

Turatia Moment Treapta IV-a


n [rot/min] Me [Nm] Va [km/h] Pr4 [N]
800 2811.9444 88 205.89072
900 3138.13 99 258.4958
1000 3441.82 110 315.0128
1100 3723.0144 121 374.82406
1200 3981.7133 132 437.31189
1300 4217.9167 143 501.85863
1400 4431.6244 154 567.84661
1500 4622.8367 165 634.65815
1600 4791.5533 176 701.67558
1700 4937.7744 187 768.28122
1800 5061.5 198 833.85742
1900 5162.73 209 897.78649
2000 5241.4644 220 959.45076
2100 5297.7033 231 1018.2326
2200 5331.4467 242 1073.5142
2300 5342.6944 253 1124.6781
2400 5331.4467 264 1171.1064
2500 5297.7033 275 1212.1816
2600 5241.4644 286 1247.286
2700 5162.73 297 1275.8019
2800 5061.5 308 1297.1115
2900 4937.7744 319 1310.5974
3000 4791.5533 330 1315.6417

80

75

70

65

60

55

50

45

40 Pr1 [N]
Pr2 [N]
35 Pr3 [N]
Pr4 [N]
30

25

20

15

10

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200
11.Bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculelor

V [km/h] Rr [N] Ra [N] Ra+Rr [N]


0 24917.4 0 24917.4
10 24917.4 4.7260802 24922.126
20 24917.4 18.904321 24936.304
30 24917.4 42.534722 24959.935
40 24917.4 75.617284 24993.017
50 24917.4 118.15201 25035.552
60 24917.4 170.13889 25087.539
70 24917.4 231.57793 25148.978
80 24917.4 302.46914 25219.869
90 24917.4 382.8125 25300.213
100 24917.4 472.60802 25390.008
110 24917.4 571.85571 25489.256
120 24917.4 680.55556 25597.956
130 24917.4 798.70756 25716.108
140 24917.4 926.31173 25843.712
150 24917.4 1063.3681 25980.768
160 24917.4 1209.8765 26127.277
170 24917.4 1365.8372 26283.237
2000

1900

1800

1700

1600

1500

1400

1300

1200

1100

1000 Rr [N]
Fr4 [N]
900
Ra+Rr [N]
800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18 20
0 0 0 0 0 0
Caracteristica de tractiune si bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului pentru α=5 [°] 5

V [km/h] Rr [N] Rp+Rr [N] Ra+Rr+Rp[N]


0 24917.4 35775.873 35775.873
10 24917.4 35775.873 35780.599
20 24917.4 35775.873 35794.777
30 24917.4 35775.873 35818.407
40 24917.4 35775.873 35851.49
50 24917.4 35775.873 35894.025
60 24917.4 35775.873 35946.011
70 24917.4 35775.873 36007.45
80 24917.4 35775.873 36078.342
90 24917.4 35775.873 36158.685
100 24917.4 35775.873 36248.481
110 24917.4 35775.873 36347.728
120 24917.4 35775.873 36456.428
130 24917.4 35775.873 36574.58
140 24917.4 35775.873 36702.184
150 24917.4 35775.873 36839.241
160 24917.4 35775.873 36985.749
170 24917.4 35775.873 37141.71

00
34
00
32
00
30
00
28
00
26
00
24
00
22
00
20 Rp+Rr [N]
00 Ra+Rr+Rp[N]
18
00 Fr3 [N]
16 Rr [N]
00
14
00
12
00
10
0
80
0
60
0
40
0
20
0
00
12
00
10
0
80
0
60
0
40
0
20
0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

Caracteristica de tractiune si bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului pentru α=10 [°] 10

V [km/h] Rr [N] Rp+Rr [N] Ra+Rr+Rp[N]


0 24917.4 46551.706 46551.706
10 24917.4 46551.706 46556.432
20 24917.4 46551.706 46570.61
30 24917.4 46551.706 46594.24
40 24917.4 46551.706 46627.323
50 24917.4 46551.706 46669.858
60 24917.4 46551.706 46721.844
70 24917.4 46551.706 46783.283
80 24917.4 46551.706 46854.175
90 24917.4 46551.706 46934.518
100 24917.4 46551.706 47024.314
110 24917.4 46551.706 47123.561
120 24917.4 46551.706 47232.261
130 24917.4 46551.706 47350.413
140 24917.4 46551.706 47478.017
150 24917.4 46551.706 47615.074
160 24917.4 46551.706 47761.582
170 24917.4 46551.706 47917.543
5000
4800
4600
4400
4200
4000
3800
3600
3400
3200
3000
2800
2600 Rr [N]
2400 Rp+Rr [N]
2200 Ra+Rr+Rp[N]
2000 Fr2 [N]
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
2200 Ra+Rr+Rp[N]
2000 Fr2 [N]
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

Caracteristica de tractiune si bilantul de tractiune al autovehiculului pentru α=18 [°] 18

V [km/h] Rr [N] Rp+Rr [N] Ra+Rr+Rp[N]


0 24917.4 63416.9 63416.9
10 24917.4 63416.9 63421.626
20 24917.4 63416.9 63435.805
30 24917.4 63416.9 63459.435
40 24917.4 63416.9 63492.518
50 24917.4 63416.9 63535.052
60 24917.4 63416.9 63587.039
70 24917.4 63416.9 63648.478
80 24917.4 63416.9 63719.369
90 24917.4 63416.9 63799.713
100 24917.4 63416.9 63889.508
110 24917.4 63416.9 63988.756
120 24917.4 63416.9 64097.456
130 24917.4 63416.9 64215.608
140 24917.4 63416.9 64343.212
150 24917.4 63416.9 64480.268
160 24917.4 63416.9 64626.777
170 24917.4 63416.9 64782.737

8000

7500

7000

6500

6000

5500

5000

4500
Rr [N]
4000 Rp+Rr [N]
3500 Ra+Rr+Rp[N]
Fr1 [N]
3000

2500

2000

1500
Rr [N]
4000 Rp+Rr [N]
3500 Ra+Rr+Rp[N]
Fr1 [N]
3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

12.Bilantul de putere al autovehiculului


Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculului pentru α=5 [°]
Va [km/h] Pr Pp+Pr Pa+Pr+Pp
0 0 0 0
10 69.215 99.377424 99.390552
20 138.43 198.75485 198.85987
30 207.645 298.13227 298.48673
40 276.86 397.50969 398.34989
50 346.075 496.88712 498.52812
60 415.29 596.26454 599.10019
70 484.505 695.64197 700.14487
80 553.72 795.01939 801.74093
90 622.935 894.39681 903.96713
100 692.15 993.77424 1006.9022
110 761.365 1093.1517 1110.625
120 830.58 1192.5291 1215.2143
130 899.795 1291.9065 1320.7487
140 969.01 1391.2839 1427.3072
150 1038.225 1490.6614 1534.9684
160 1107.44 1590.0388 1643.8111
170 1176.655 1689.4162 1753.9141

0
34
0
32
0
30
0
28
0
26
0
24
0
22
0
20
Pr
0
18 Pp+Pr
0 Pa+Pr+Pp
16
0 Pr3 [N]
14
0
12
0
22
0
20
Pr
0
18 Pp+Pr
0 Pa+Pr+Pp
16
0 Pr3 [N]
14
0
12
0
10
80
60
40
20
0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculului pentru α=10 [°]


Va [km/h] Pr Pp+Pr Pa+Pr+Pp
0 0 0 0
10 69.215 129.31029 129.32342
20 138.43 258.62059 258.72561
30 207.645 387.93088 388.28534
40 276.86 517.24117 518.08136
50 346.075 646.55147 648.19247
60 415.29 775.86176 778.69741
70 484.505 905.17205 909.67496
80 553.72 1034.4823 1041.2039
90 622.935 1163.7926 1173.363
100 692.15 1293.1029 1306.2309
110 761.365 1422.4132 1439.8866
120 830.58 1551.7235 1574.4087
130 899.795 1681.0338 1709.876
140 969.01 1810.3441 1846.3673
150 1038.225 1939.6544 1983.9614
160 1107.44 2068.9647 2122.737
170 1176.655 2198.275 2262.7728

230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120 Pr
Pp+Pr
110
Pa+Pr+Pp
100
Pa+Pr+Pp
90
170
160
150
140
130
120 Pr
Pp+Pr
110
Pa+Pr+Pp
100
Pa+Pr+Pp
90 Pr2 [N]
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

Caracteristica de putere a autovehiculului pentru α=18 [°]

Va [km/h] Pr Pp+Pr Pa+Pr+Pp


0 0 0 0
10 69.215 176.15806 176.17118
20 138.43 352.31611 352.42114
30 207.645 528.47417 528.82863
40 276.86 704.63223 705.47242
50 346.075 880.79028 882.43128
60 415.29 1056.9483 1059.784
70 484.505 1233.1064 1237.6093
80 553.72 1409.2645 1415.986
90 622.935 1585.4225 1594.9928
100 692.15 1761.5806 1774.7086
110 761.365 1937.7386 1955.212
120 830.58 2113.8967 2136.5819
130 899.795 2290.0547 2318.8969
140 969.01 2466.2128 2502.236
150 1038.225 2642.3708 2686.6778
160 1107.44 2818.5289 2872.3012
170 1176.655 2994.687 3059.1848

0
34
0
32
0
30
0
28
0
26
0
24
0
22
0
20
Pr
0
30
0
28
0
26
0
24
0
22
0
20
Pr
0
18 Pp+Pr
0 Pa+Pr+Pp
16
0 Pr1 [N]
14
0
12
0
10
80
60
40
20
0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

13.Caracteristica dinamica a autovehiculelor

Treapta I Treapta II
Va[km/h] FR [N] Ra [N] D Va [Km/h] FR [N] Ra [N] D
5.4706085 135488.88 1.4144004 1.0874928 13.809713 53673 9.013021 0.43073381
6.1544345 151205.59 1.7901005 1.2136402 15.535927 59899 11.407105 0.48068811
6.8382606 165838.38 2.2100006 1.3310873 17.262141 65696 14.082845 0.5271937
7.5220866 179387.27 2.6741007 1.439834 18.988355 71063 17.040243 0.57025058
8.2059127 191852.25 3.1824008 1.5398803 20.714569 76001 20.279297 0.60985874
8.8897388 203233.31 3.734901 1.6312262 22.440783 80509 23.800009 0.6460182
9.5735648 213530.47 4.3316011 1.7138717 24.166997 84588 27.602377 0.67872895
10.257391 222743.71 4.9725013 1.7878169 25.893211 88238 31.686402 0.70799099
10.941217 230873 5.6576015 1.8530616 27.619426 91459 36.052084 0.73380432
11.625043 237918.47 6.3869016 1.909606 29.34564 94250 40.699423 0.75616893
12.308869 243880 7.1604018 1.9574499 31.071854 96611 45.628419 0.77508484
12.992695 248757.58 7.978102 1.9965935 32.798068 98543 50.839072 0.79055204
13.676521 252551.27 8.8400023 2.0270367 34.524282 100046 56.331381 0.80257053
14.360347 255261 9.7461025 2.0487795 36.250496 101120 62.105348 0.81114031
15.044173 256886.91 10.696403 2.061822 37.97671 101764 68.160972 0.81626137
15.727999 257428.86 11.690903 2.066164 39.702924 101978 74.498252 0.81793373
16.411825 256886.91 12.729603 2.0618056 41.429138 101764 81.117189 0.81615738
17.095651 255261 13.812504 2.0487469 43.155352 101120 88.017784 0.81093232

Treapta III Treapta IV


Va[km/h] FR [N] Ra [N] D Va [Km/h] FR [N] Ra [N] D
34.860504 21262.073 57.433914 0.1701995 88 8422.8 365.98765 0.06466818
39.218067 23728.474 72.689797 0.1898736 99 9399.85 463.20313 0.07173015
43.57563 26024.778 89.74049 0.2081681 110 10310 571.85571 0.07815947
47.933193 28150.985 108.58599 0.2250829 121 11152 691.94541 0.08395615
52.290756 30107.096 129.22631 0.240618 132 11927 823.47222 0.08912018
56.648319 31893.11 151.66143 0.2547734 143 12634 966.43615 0.09365156
61.005882 33509.028 175.89136 0.2675491 154 13274 1120.8372 0.0975503
65.363445 34954.849 201.9161 0.2789451 165 13847 1286.6753 0.10081639
69.721008 36230.573 229.73565 0.2889614 176 14352 1463.9506 0.10344983
74.078571 37336.201 259.35002 0.2975981 187 14790 1652.663 0.10545063
78.436134 38271.732 290.75919 0.304855 198 15161 1852.8125 0.10681878
82.793697 39037.167 323.96317 0.3107323 209 15464 2064.3991 0.10755429
87.15126 39632.505 358.96196 0.3152299 220 15700 2287.4228 0.10765714
91.508823 40057.746 395.75556 0.3183477 231 15869 2521.8837 0.10712735
95.866385 40312.891 434.34397 0.3200859 242 15970 2767.7816 0.10596492
100.22395 40397.94 474.72719 0.3204444 253 16003 3025.1167 0.10416984
104.58151 40312.891 516.90522 0.3194233 264 15970 3293.8889 0.10174211
108.93907 40057.746 560.87806 0.3170224 275 15869 3574.0982 0.09868173
113.29664 39632.505 606.64571 0.3132418 286 15700 3865.7446 0.09498871
117.6542 39037.167 654.20817 0.3080816 297 15464 4168.8281 0.09066304
122.01176 38271.732 703.56544 0.3015416 308 15161 4483.3488 0.08570473
126.36933 37336.201 754.71752 0.293622 319 14790 4809.3065 0.08011377
130.72689 36230.573 807.66441 0.2843227 330 14352 5146.7014 0.07389016

0.5

0.4

0.3

D treapta I
D treapta a II-a
D treapta a III-a
D treapta a IV-a
0.2

0.1
D treapta a IV-a
0.2

0.1

0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

Caracteristica de propulsie a drumului

Coeficientul de aderenta
ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ ϕ
Va [hm/h] 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.6 0.8
0 0.057 0.114 0.171 0.1995 0.228 0.342 0.456
10 0.0569621 0.1139621 0.1709621 0.1994621 0.22796 0.3419621 0.45596207
20 0.0568483 0.1138483 0.1708483 0.1993483 0.22785 0.3418483 0.45584826
30 0.0566586 0.1136586 0.1706586 0.1991586 0.22766 0.3416586 0.45565859
40 0.0563931 0.1133931 0.1703931 0.1988931 0.22739 0.3413931 0.45539306
50 0.0560517 0.1130517 0.1700517 0.1985517 0.22705 0.3410517 0.45505165
60 0.0556344 0.1126344 0.1696344 0.1981344 0.22663 0.3406344 0.45463438
70 0.0551412 0.1121412 0.1691412 0.1976412 0.22614 0.3401412 0.45414124
80 0.0545722 0.1115722 0.1685722 0.1970722 0.22557 0.3395722 0.45357223
90 0.0539273 0.1109273 0.1679273 0.1964273 0.22493 0.3389273 0.45292735
100 0.0532066 0.1102066 0.1672066 0.1957066 0.22421 0.3382066 0.4522066
110 0.05241 0.10941 0.16641 0.19491 0.22341 0.33741 0.45140999
120 0.0515375 0.1085375 0.1655375 0.1940375 0.22254 0.3365375 0.45053751
130 0.0505892 0.1075892 0.1645892 0.1930892 0.22159 0.3355892 0.44958916
140 0.0495649 0.1065649 0.1635649 0.1920649 0.22056 0.3345649 0.44856494
150 0.0484649 0.1054649 0.1624649 0.1909649 0.21946 0.3334649 0.44746486
160 0.0472889 0.1042889 0.1612889 0.1897889 0.21829 0.3322889 0.4462889
170 0.0460371 0.1030371 0.1600371 0.1885371 0.21704 0.3310371 0.44503708

0.5

0.4 D
treap
ta I
D
treap
0.3 ta a
II-a
D
treap
ta a
III-a
0.2
D
treap
ta a
IV-a
ϕ=0.
0.1 1
ϕ=0.
2

0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

14.Determinarea vitezei maxime

Sosea din beton in stare buna


Coeficientul rezistentei la rulare "f" 0.018

Viteza maxima
α=0 [°] α=3 [°] α=5 [°] α=10 [°]
Treapta a IV-a Treapta a III-a Treapta a II-a Treapta a I-a
DIV Va [km/h] DIII Va [km/h] DII Va [km/h] DI Va [km/h]
0.018 146 0.0703113 102 0.1050872 60 0.1913747 20

Rezistenta maxima a drumului

Viteza autovehicul Va [hm/h] 30 60 90 120 150


Coef. rezist. totale ψ 0.37 0.22 0.12 0.07 0.05
Viteza autovehicul Va [hm/h] 30 60 90 120 150
Panta maxima p [%] 0.352 0.202 0.102 0.052 0.032
Unghiul de inclinare α [°] 20.609693 11.653938 5.85435 2.9807249 1.833778
Diagrama acceleratiilor autovehiculelor

Momentul de inertie al mecanismului motor, inclusiv volantul J m [kg*m2] 0.04


Momentul de inertie al unei roti a autovehiculului JR 0.4
Numarul de roti ale autovehiculului n 4
Randamentul mecanic global al transmisiei autovehiculului ηtr 0.874
Randamentul total de transmitere al transmisiei autovehiculului i tr 26.2031369
Raportul de transmitere al transmisiei principale i0 1.62894435
Raportul de transmitere corespunzator treptei selectate icvI 16.085962
Raza de rulare a rotilor motoare rr 0.4753
Masa automobilului ma 12700
ξ 0.00055767
Coeficientul de influenta al maselor in miscare de rotatie δ1 1.00892407
λ1 0.0083664

Treapta a I-a Treapta a II-a


Va [km/h] D a [m/s2] 1/a [s2/m] Va [km/h] D a [m/s2] 1/a [s2/m]
5.4706085 1.0874928 10.398923 0.0961638 13.809713 0.43073 4.0131054 0.24918358
6.1544345 1.2136402 11.625484 0.0860179 15.535927 0.48069 4.4988225 0.22228038
6.8382606 1.3310873 12.767449 0.0783242 17.262141 0.52719 4.951007 0.20197911
7.5220866 1.439834 13.824818 0.0723337 18.988355 0.57025 5.3696589 0.18623157
8.2059127 1.5398803 14.797591 0.0675786 20.714569 0.60986 5.7547782 0.17376864
8.8897388 1.6312262 15.685768 0.0637521 22.440783 0.64602 6.1063649 0.16376355
9.5735648 1.7138717 16.489349 0.0606452 24.166997 0.67873 6.424419 0.1556561
10.257391 1.7878169 17.208335 0.0581114 25.893211 0.70799 6.7089405 0.14905483
10.941217 1.8530616 17.842725 0.0560453 27.619426 0.7338 6.9599294 0.14367962
11.625043 1.909606 18.392518 0.0543699 29.34564 0.75617 7.1773857 0.1393265
12.308869 1.9574499 18.857716 0.0530287 31.071854 0.77508 7.3613094 0.1358454
12.992695 1.9965935 19.238318 0.0519796 32.798068 0.79055 7.5117005 0.13312565
13.676521 2.0270367 19.534325 0.0511919 34.524282 0.80257 7.628559 0.13108636
14.360347 2.0487795 19.745735 0.0506438 36.250496 0.81114 7.711885 0.12966998
15.044173 2.061822 19.872549 0.0503207 37.97671 0.81626 7.7616783 0.12883812
15.727999 2.066164 19.914768 0.050214 39.702924 0.81793 7.777939 0.12856876
16.411825 2.0618056 19.872391 0.0503211 41.429138 0.81616 7.7606671 0.1288549
17.095651 2.0487469 19.745418 0.0506447 43.155352 0.81093 7.7098627 0.129704

Treapta a III-a Treapta a IV-a


Va [km/h] D a [m/s2] 1/a [s /m]
2
Va [km/h] D a [m/s2] 1/a [s2/m]
34.860504 0.1701995 1.4798702 0.6757349 88 0.06467 0.4537654 2.2037819
39.218067 0.1898736 1.6711666 0.5983844 99 0.07173 0.5224306 1.91412999
43.57563 0.2081681 1.8490479 0.5408189 110 0.07816 0.5849443 1.70956437
47.933193 0.2250829 2.0135142 0.4966441 121 0.08396 0.6413068 1.55931619
52.290756 0.240618 2.1645654 0.4619865 132 0.08912 0.6915178 1.44609438
56.648319 0.2547734 2.3022017 0.4343668 143 0.09365 0.7355775 1.3594761
61.005882 0.2675491 2.4264228 0.4121293 154 0.09755 0.7734858 1.29284858
65.363445 0.2789451 2.537229 0.3941308 165 0.10082 0.8052427 1.24186157
69.721008 0.2889614 2.6346201 0.3795614 176 0.10345 0.8308483 1.20358914
74.078571 0.2975981 2.7185961 0.3678369 187 0.10545 0.8503025 1.17605202
78.436134 0.304855 2.7891572 0.3585312 198 0.10682 0.8636054 1.1579363
82.793697 0.3107323 2.8463031 0.3513329 209 0.10755 0.8707568 1.14842624
87.15126 0.3152299 2.8900341 0.3460167 220 0.10766 0.8717569 1.14710872
91.508823 0.3183477 2.92035 0.3424247 231 0.10713 0.8666057 1.15392734
95.866385 0.3200859 2.9372509 0.3404544 242 0.10596 0.8553031 1.16917621
100.22395 0.3204444 2.9407367 0.3400508 253 0.10417 0.8378491 1.19353238
104.58151 0.3194233 2.9308075 0.3412029 264 0.10174 0.8142437 1.22813352
108.93907 0.3170224 2.9074632 0.3439424 275 0.09868 0.784487 1.2747184
113.29664 0.3132418 2.8707039 0.3483466 286 0.09499 0.7485789 1.33586454
117.6542 0.3080816 2.8205296 0.3545433 297 0.09066 0.7065194 1.41538923
122.01176 0.3015416 2.7569402 0.362721 308 0.0857 0.6583086 1.5190444
126.36933 0.293622 2.6799358 0.3731433 319 0.08011 0.6039464 1.65577604
130.72689 0.2843227 2.5895164 0.3861725 330 0.07389 0.5434329 1.84015375

Diagrama variatiei acceleratiei

25

Acceleratia
in treapta I

Acceleratia
in treapta a
II a
20
Acceleratia
in treapta a
III a

Acceleratia
in treapta a
IV a
15
III a

Acceleratia
in treapta a
IV a
15

10

3
Incersul
acceleratiei
in treapta I
Inversul
acceleratiei
2.5 in treapta a
II-a
Inversul
acceleratiei
in treapta a
III-a
Inversul
2 acceleratiei
in treapta a
IV-a
II-a
Inversul
acceleratiei
in treapta a
III-a
Inversul
2 acceleratiei
in treapta a
IV-a

1.5

0.5

15.Timpul si spatiul de demarare al autovehiculelor

Timpul de demarare pentru drum (orizontal/inclinat) din asfalt in stare (uscata/umeda)

Va i/ai i/ai+1 dv ΔTi td


[km/h] [m2/s] [m2/s] [km/h] [s] [s]
5.4706085 0.0961638 0.0860179 0.6838261 0.0173 0.0173029
6.1544345 0.0860179 0.0783242 0.6838261 0.01561 0.0329114
6.8382606 0.0783242 0.0723337 0.6838261 0.01431 0.0299174
7.5220866 0.0723337 0.0675786 0.6838261 0.01329 0.0275971
8.2059127 0.0675786 0.0637521 0.6838261 0.01247 0.0257615
8.8897388 0.0637521 0.0606452 0.6838261 0.01181 0.024288
9.5735648 0.0606452 0.0581114 0.6838261 0.01128 0.0230937
10.257391 0.0581114 0.0560453 0.6838261 0.01084 0.0221211
10.941217 0.0560453 0.0543699 0.6838261 0.01049 0.0213289
11.625043 0.0543699 0.0530287 0.6838261 0.0102 0.020687
12.308869 0.0530287 0.0519796 0.6838261 0.00997 0.0201735
12.992695 0.0519796 0.0511919 0.6838261 0.0098 0.0197721
13.676521 0.0511919 0.0506438 0.6838261 0.00967 0.0194707
14.360347 0.0506438 0.0503207 0.6838261 0.00959 0.0192611
15.044173 0.0503207 0.050214 0.6838261 0.00955 0.0191376
15.727999 0.050214 0.0503211 0.6838261 0.00955 0.0190968
16.411825 0.0503211 0.0506447 0.6838261 0.00959 0.0191377
17.095651 0.0506447 0.1393265 12.249988 0.32321 0.3328038
29.34564 0.1393265 0.1358454 1.7262141 0.06597 0.3891875
31.071854 0.1358454 0.1331256 1.7262141 0.06449 0.1304593
32.798068 0.1331256 0.1310864 1.7262141 0.06335 0.1278317
34.524282 0.1310864 0.12967 1.7262141 0.06252 0.1258622
36.250496 0.12967 0.1288381 1.7262141 0.06198 0.1244947
37.97671 0.1288381 0.1285688 1.7262141 0.06171 0.1236916
39.702924 0.1285688 0.1288549 1.7262141 0.06172 0.1234316
41.429138 0.1288549 0.129704 1.7262141 0.06199 0.1237078
43.155352 0.129704 0.3678369 30.923218 2.13688 2.1988742
74.078571 0.3678369 0.3585312 4.357563 0.43961 2.5764946
78.436134 0.3585312 0.3513329 4.357563 0.42962 0.8692323
82.793697 0.3513329 0.3460167 4.357563 0.42205 0.8516698
87.15126 0.3460167 0.3424247 4.357563 0.41666 0.8387044
91.508823 0.3424247 0 -91.50882 -4.3521 -3.93541
[km/h]
20
18
16
14
12 [km/h]
10
8
6
4
2
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

100
90
80
70
60
50
40 Column B
30
20
10
0
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

t [s] vi [km/h] vi+1 dt [s] Δ Si Sd


0.0173029 5.4706085 6.1544345 0.0156085 0.0252 0.0252014
0.0329114 6.1544345 6.8382606 -0.002994 -0.0054 0.0197986
0.0299174 6.8382606 7.5220866 -0.00232 -0.0046 -0.010031
0.0275971 7.5220866 8.2059127 -0.001836 -0.004 -0.008638
0.0257615 8.2059127 8.8897388 -0.001474 -0.0035 -0.007509
0.024288 8.8897388 9.5735648 -0.001194 -0.0031 -0.006561
0.0230937 9.5735648 10.257391 -0.000973 -0.0027 -0.005741
0.0221211 10.257391 10.941217 -0.000792 -0.0023 -0.005011
0.0213289 10.941217 11.625043 -0.000642 -0.002 -0.004344
0.020687 11.625043 12.308869 -0.000514 -0.0017 -0.003719
0.0201735 12.308869 12.992695 -0.000401 -0.0014 -0.003118
0.0197721 12.992695 13.676521 -0.000301 -0.0011 -0.002527
0.0194707 13.676521 14.360347 -0.00021 -0.0008 -0.001932
0.0192611 14.360347 15.044173 -0.000124 -0.0005 -0.001321
0.0191376 15.044173 15.727999 -4.079E-05 -0.0002 -0.000679
0.0190968 15.727999 16.411825 4.094E-05 0.00018 8.433E-06
0.0191377 16.411825 17.095651 0.3136661 1.45974 1.4599272
0.3328038 17.095651 29.34564 0.0563837 0.36368 1.8234293
0.3891875 29.34564 31.071854 -0.258728 -2.1711 -1.807386
0.1304593 31.071854 32.798068 -0.002628 -0.0233 -2.19438
0.1278317 32.798068 34.524282 -0.001969 -0.0184 -0.041725
0.1258622 34.524282 36.250496 -0.001368 -0.0134 -0.031858
0.1244947 36.250496 37.97671 -0.000803 -0.0083 -0.021721
0.1236916 37.97671 39.702924 -0.00026 -0.0028 -0.011084
0.1234316 39.702924 41.429138 0.0002762 0.00311 0.0003073
0.1237078 41.429138 43.155352 2.0751663 24.3787 24.381847
2.1988742 43.155352 74.078571 0.3776204 6.1486 30.527335
2.5764946 74.078571 78.436134 -1.707262 -36.164 -30.01565
0.8692323 78.436134 82.793697 -0.017563 -0.3933 -36.55753
0.8516698 82.793697 87.15126 -0.012965 -0.306 -0.699307
0.8387044 87.15126 91.508823 -4.774115 -118.46 -118.7704
-3.93541 91.508823 0 3.9354105 50.0173 -68.44708
0 0 0 0 0 50.01733
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0

16.Parametrii capacitatii de franare ai autovehiculului

Coeficientul de influenta al maselor in miscare de rotatie δ1 1.00041826


ξ 0.00041826
Momentul de inertie al unei roti a autovehiculului JR 0.3
Acceleratia gravitationala g 9.81
Unghiul de inclinare al drumului α 0.08726646
Coeficientul de rezistenta la rulare f 0.013071
Coeficientul de rezistenta aerodinamica frontala k 0.5
Greutatea totala a autovehiculului Ga [kg] 12700
Unghiul de inclinare al drumului:drum orizontal α1=0 [°]
Va (dv/dt)max tfmin
Modul de franare Starea caii de rulare [km/h] [m/s2] [s]
60 2.38357365
beton uscat ϕ= 0.7 100 6.864129 3.9583391
168 6.60706427
Cu toate rotile pana la 60 4.68133574
limita de aderenta, beton umed ϕ= 0.35 100 3.4320645 7.74747041
fara blocare
168 12.8538992
60 10.4228051
polei ϕ= 0.15 100 1.4708848 17.1040204
168 27.9761041
60 3.03510223
beton uscat μ= 0.56 100 5.4913032 4.92104562
168 8.20125842
60 6.07020445
Cu toate rotile blocate beton umed μ= 0.28 100 2.7456516 9.58200273
168 15.8521114
60 14.1638104
polei μ= 0.12 100 1.1767078 20.8886218
168 33.9785267

Unghiul de inclinare al drumului:drum orizontal α2=5 [°]


Va (dv/dt)max tfmin
Modul de franare Starea caii de rulare [km/h] [m/s2] [s]
60 2.42808178
beton uscat ϕ=

Cu toate rotile pana la


limita de aderenta,
beton uscat ϕ= 0.7 100 7.7198551 3.52811299
168 6.25463192
Cu toate rotile pana la 60 4.85616356
limita de aderenta, beton umed ϕ= 0.35 100 4.2877906 11.2012455
fara blocare
168 18.4846816
60 11.3310483
polei ϕ= 0.15 100 2.3266109 4.27322281
168 7.12903309
60 3.03510223
beton uscat μ= 0.56 100 6.3470293 4.27322281
168 7.12903309
60 6.07020445
Cu toate rotile blocate beton umed μ= 0.28 100 3.6013777 7.39809718
168 12.2809999
60 14.1638104
polei μ= 0.12 100 2.0324339 12.7089951
168 20.9245989

Unghiul de inclinare al drumului:drum Unghiul de inclinare al drumului:drum


orizontal α1=0 [°] orizontal α2=5 [°]
Ff 88839.377 Ff 99711.643
Ff 45233.927 Ff 56106.193
Ff 20316.527 Ff 31188.793
Ff 71397.197 Ff 82269.463
Ff 36512.837 Ff 47385.103
Ff 16578.917 Ff 27451.183

Spatiul minim de franare [m]


Felul suprafetei de rulare Coeficientul de aderenta/frecare
ϕ= 0.7
Drum de beton cu suprafata uscata
μ= (pentru toate rotile franate) 0.56
ϕ= 0.35
Drum de beton cu suprafata umeda
μ= (pentru toate rotile franate) 0.28
Drum de beton cu suprafata acoperita cu ϕ= 0.15
polei μ= (pentru toate rotile franate) 0.12

Viteza initiala Vai [km/h]


Rotile franate
20 30 40 60 80 90
toate rotile ϕ=0,7 1.5645404 3.5202159 6.2581616 19.3887 34.417874 43.521076
ale puntii fata ϕ=0,7 3.3802062 7.6054639 13.520825 30.4219 54.083299 68.4491752
ale puntii spate ϕ=0,7 4.4807384 10.081661 17.922954 40.3266 71.691815 90.7349531
toate rotile μ =0,56 1.5653972 3.5221438 6.2615889 24.1141 42.790777 54.0967742
toate rotile ϕ=0,35 1.5666842 3.5250396 6.266737 38.0097 67.377456 85.1254519
ale puntii fata ϕ=0,35 7.3106785 16.449027 29.242714 40.3266 71.691815 90.7349531
ale puntii spate ϕ=0,35 8.4112107 18.925224 33.644843 75.7009 134.57937 170.327017
toate rotile μ =0,28 1.5671137 3.5260059 6.2684549 47.0464 83.339258 105.248437
toate rotile ϕ=0,15 1.5679119 3.5278019 6.2716478 84.2422 148.81188 187.618384
ale puntii fata ϕ=0,15 17.791938 40.03186 71.167752 160.127 284.67101 360.286744
ale puntii spate ϕ=0,15 18.89247 42.508058 75.569881 170.032 302.27952 382.572522
toate rotile μ =0,12 1.5680963 3.5282166 6.2723851 103.043 181.76706 228.975771
Spatiul de franare pentru toate rotile
600 Spatiul de
franare
550 pentru
ϕ=0.7
500 Spatiul de
franare
450 pentru
μ=0.56
400 Spatiul de
franare
350
pentru
300 ϕ=0.35
Spatiul de
250 franare
pentru
200 μ=0.28
Spatiul de
150 franare
pentru
100 ϕ=0.15
Spatiul de
50
franare
0 pentru
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 μ=0.12
0

Spatiul de franare pentru ϕ=0,7


600
550
500
Spatiul de
450 franare cu
toate rotile
400
Spatiul de
350
franare cu
300 rotile puntii
fata
250
Spatiul de
200 franare cu
rotile puntii
150 spate
100
50
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0
Spatiul de franare pentru μ =0,56
600
550
500
450
400
350
Spatiul de
300 franare cu
toate rotile
250
200
150
100
50
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0

Spatiul de franare pentru ϕ=0,35


650
600
550
Spatiul de
500 franare cu
450 toate rotile

400 Spatiul de
350 franare cu
rotile puntii
300 fata
250 Spatiul de
200 franare cu
rotile puntii
150 spate
100
50
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0
50
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0

Spatiul de franare pentru μ =0,28


600
550
500
450
400
350
Spatiul de
300 franare cu
toate rotile
250
200
150
100
50
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0

Spatiul de franare pentru ϕ=0,15


1500
1400
1300
1200 Spatiul de
1100 franare cu
toate rotile
1000
900 Spatiul de
franare cu
800 rotile puntii
700 fata
600
Spatiul de
500 franare cu
400 rotile puntii
spate
300
200
100
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0
spate
300
200
100
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0

Spatiul de franare pentru μ =0,12


600

550

500

450

400

350
Spatiul de
300 franare cu
toate rotile
250

200

150

100

50

0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 10
0
Spatiul de oprire

Variatia deceleratiei in timpul procesului de franare

Timpul intarzierilor fiziologice t1 0.5


Timpul intarzierilor mecanice t2 0.3
Timpul de initiere a franarii t3 0.1

Modul de Viteza initiala Vai [km/h]


franare al
rotilor
10 60 80 100 120 168
Ss [m] 2.3611111 14.166667 18.888889 23.6111 28.333333 39.6666667
cu toate Sfmin [m] 1.5645404
rotile 3.5202159 6.2581616 19.3887 34.417874 43.521076
Sopr [m] 3.9256515 17.686883 25.14705 43 62.751207 83.1877427
Ss [m] 2.3611111 14.166667 18.888889 23.6111 28.333333 39.6666667
numai cu
rotile p. Sfmin [m] 3.3802062 7.6054639 13.520825 30.4219 54.083299 68.4491752
fata Sopr [m] 5.7413173 21.772131 32.409714 54.033 82.416632 108.115842
Ss [m] 2.3611111 14.166667 18.888889 23.6111 28.333333 39.6666667
numai cu
rotile p. Sfmin [m] 4.4807384 10.081661 17.922954 40.3266 71.691815 90.7349531
spate Sopr [m] 6.8418495 24.248328 36.811843 63.9378 100.02515 130.40162

Spatiul de oprire
600

550 Spatiul de
oprire cu
500 toate rotile
Spatiul de
450
oprire
numai cu
400
rotile puntii
fata
350
Spatiul de
300 oprire
numai cu
250 rotile puntii
spate
200

150

100
350
Spatiul de
300 oprire
numai cu
250 rotile puntii
spate
200

150

100

50

0
0 20 40 60 80 10 12 14 16 18
0 0 0 0 0

17.Stabilitatea miscarii autovehiculelor cu roti