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1.1. A lake with a surface area of 525 acres was monitored over a period of time. During a one-month

period the inflow was 30 cfs, the outflow was 27 cfs, and a 1,5 in. seepage loss was measured.

During the same month, the total precipitation was 4,25 in. Evaporation loss was estimated as 6,0

in. Estimate the storage change for this lake during the month.

1.2. Clear lake has a surface area 708.000 m2. For a given month the lake has an inflow of 1,5 m3/s and

an outflow 1,25 m3/s. A storage change of +708.000 m3 was recorded. If a precipitation gage

recorded a total of 22,5 cm for this month. Determine the evaporation loss (in cm) for the lake.

Assume that seepage loss is negligible.

1.3. Figure P1.3 lists rainfall data recorded by the USGS for the storm of September 1, 1979, at the gage

on the Hummingbird Street Ditch. Using these data, develop a rainfall hyetograph. What time period

had the highest-intensity rainfall?

1.4. A small urban watershed has four rainfall gages as located in Fig. P1.4 on page 58. Total rainfall

recorded at each gage during a storm event is listed. Compute the mean areal rainfall for this storm

using (a) arithmetic averaging and (b) the Thiessen method.

Gage Rainfall (in)

A 3,26

B 2,92

C 3,01

D 3,05

1.5. Mud Creek has the watershed boundaries shown in Fig. P1.5. There are seven rain gages in and near

watershed, and the amount of rainfall at each one a storm is given in the accompanying table. Using

10-square-to-the-inch graph paper and a scale of 1 in = 1000 m, determine the mean rainfall of

given storm using

Thiessen method. Compare the result to the mean rainfall found using arithmetic averaging.

Gage number Rainfall (cm)

1 25,15

2 21,34

3 26,80

4 24,38

5 20,70

6 25,10

7 23,75

Figure P1.4 Figure P1.5

1.6. a) Using the ideal gas law (P=ρRT), find the density of dry air at 25oC with a pressure of 950 mb. The

gas constant R has the value 2,786 x 106 cm2/s2oK for of dry air, when pressure in mb.

b) Find the density of moist air at the same pressure and temperature if the relative humidity is 65%.

1.7. The following question refer to Fig. 1.4.

a) Which state has the point with the highest average annual precipitation?

b) Compare the average annual rainfall of the lower West Coast with that of the upper West Coast.

c) What is the average annual precipitation for your city?

1.8. The mass curve in Fig. P1.8 represents the weighted precipitation reported for Brays Bayou at

Gessner Drive for November 29-30, 1981.

a) What time period has the highest-intensity rainfall?

b) What the intensity for the time period of part (a)?

c) What was the total precipitation from hours 0 to 24 (on November 29)?

d) What was the total precipitation from hours 24 to 48 (on November 30)?

Figure P1.8

1.9. Using Fig 1.12, find the daily evaporation from a small lake with the following characteristics:

Mean daily temperature = 25,6oC

Daily solar radiation = 550 cal/cm2

Mean daily dew point = 4,4oC

Wind movement (6 in, above pan) = 5,5 ft/s

1.10. A class a pan is maintained near a small lake to determine daily evaporation. The level in the pan

is observed every day and water is added if the level falls near 7 in. determine the daily lake

evaporation if the pan coefficient is 0.70.

Day Rainfall (in) Water Level (in)

1 0 8,00

2 0,23 7,92

3 0,56 7,78

4 0,05 7,85

5 0,01 7,76

6 0 7,58

7 0,02 7,43

8 0,01 7,32

9 0 7,25

10 0 7,19

11 0 7,08*

12 0,01 7,91

13 0 7,86

14 0,02 7,80

*Refilled at this point

1.11. Given an initial rate of infiltration equal to 1,25 in/hr and equilibrium capacity of 0,25 in/hr. Use

Horton’s equation (Eq. 1.18) to find the infiltration capacity at times t = 10 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr,

2hr, 4 hr, and 6 hr. Assume at time constant k = 0,25 hr-1.

1.12. A sketch of the infiltration curve obtained using Horton’s equation is shown in Fig. P1.12. Prove

that k-(fo-fc)/F’ if F’ is area between the curve and the fc line.

Figure P1.12

1.13. The incremental rainfall data in the table were recorded at a recording rainfall gage on a small

urban watershed

a) Plot the rainfall hyetograph

b) Determine the total storm rainfall volume

c) If the net rainfall for the storm was 30,5 cm. Find the Ө index (cm/hr).

Time (hr) Rainfall (cm)

0 0

0,5 5,0

1,0 5,5

1,5 10,0

2,0 12,0

2,5 10,0

3,0 4,5

2,5 3,0

4,0 2,5

4,5 0

1.14. Determine the Ө index for November 29, 1981 storm described in Problem 1.8. The cumulative

runoff recorded for that day in 1,37 cm.

1.15. a) How many calories of heat would it take to evaporate 8 liters of water at 15oC?

b) the amount of heat required to raise a unit mass of any substance by 1o is defined as the specific

heat of the substance. How many grams of ice would be melted by the amount of heat found in part

(a) if the ice were at -9oC? (specific heat of ice = 0,5 cal/goK.)

1.16. The following question refer to Fig. 1.8

(a) What is the return period of a storm that recorded 3.1 in./hr for 2 hr in Houston, Texas ?

(b) What amount of rain (in.) would have to fall in ya 6-hr period to be considered a 100-yr storm

Houston?

(c) What is the return period of a storm that lasts 1 hr and records 3.5 in. of rainfall ?

Problem 1.17-1.19 refer to the Hummingbird Street Ditch data used in Problem 1.3.

1.18. Sebuah danau dengan luas permukaan 525 acre persatuan waktu. Selama 1 bulan Inflow = 30

cfs, outflow=27 cfs dan 1,5 in. Rembesan diabaikan. Selama beberapa bulan, total presipitasi=4,25

in. kehilangan evaporasi sekitar 6.0 in. Berapa perkiran simpanan danau untuk beberapa bulan?

1.19. Danau dengan luas permukaan 708.000 m2, untuk beberapa bulan mempunyai inflow = 1,5

m3/s dan outflow = 1,25 m3/s. Simpanan +708.000m3 total presipitasi 22,5 cm di bulan ini. Hitunglah

evaporasi (dalam cm) dari danau. Abaikan resapan.

1.20. Pada gambar P1.3 adalah daftar curah hujan dari USGS karena badai pada 1 September 1979 di

Hummingbird Street Ditch. Data tersebut dikembangkan oleh hyetograph curah hujan. Kapan

terjadinya hujan tertinggi?

1.21.

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