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Erickson G. Ollodo

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Table of Contents

I. Book Reviews

Ethical Managing Rules and Results

Business Ethics Ethical Decision Making and Cases

There’s No Such Thing as BUSINESS ETHICS

There’s No Such Thing as BUSINESS ETHICS

There’s No Such Thing as BUSINESS ETHICS

Winners never cheat

Winners never cheat

Winners never cheat

Business Ethics: A Management Approach

Business Ethics: A Management Approach

Business Ethics: A Management Approach

Business Ethics: A Management Approach


II. Cases

Pirates can't be stopped

The Andhra Pradesh e-Government Story

Casa Bahia: Fulfilling a Dream

Professional Ethics, Codes of Conduct, and Moral Responsibility


Jun Lozada

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Integrative Questions

Hindustan Lever Limited

Ethical and social issues in the information age

Intellectual Property Rights and Computer Technology

Jaipur Foot



ITC e-Choupal


III. Quizzes

Ethical Concepts and Ethical Theories

IV. Project

Code of Ethics

Corporate Social Responsibility (Philtop Industries Inc.)

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Book Reviews

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Book Review 1

“Ethical Managing Rules and Results”

By F. Neil Brady
Chapter 2, 3, and 4

In this world that we have right now, a lot of ethical dilemmas or ethical
issues overwhelm every human beings in every corners of the world with
different races, personalities, organization, and social status. Such things that we
do something right or legal with the blessing of the law have some unexpected
consequences that lead to threats in our lives. I realize that ethics does not only
perceive the good side but both the good and the bad sides. It depends on how
our hearts are set to what it desires and prefer. If our hearts are set on improper
things and maladjusted desires, we make ethical mistakes; likewise if we fail to
think clearly about our choices and decisions, we can blunder or commit

When thinking about ethics, there are at least three legitimate approaches
that come to our mind; behavioral science, virtues, and ethical theory. Behavioral
science studies the moral development of a human behavior. Then base on the
studies, it focuses on the individual’s character traits (This is the language of
virtues). And lastly focus to the results and rules (This is the ethical theory).
These are the three ways to talk about ethics. You do what is right (Behavioral
Science), be right (Virtues), and know what is right (Ethical theory). I think these
languages of ethics would probably be helpful in solving ethical issues of different
individuals, groups, and or organizations like in business and politics. It will help
you avoid commit ethical mistake and develop your personality.

“Goodness is defined in terms of pain and pleasures”. I just want to give

emphasis to this thing written in the book because you might think that it is
somehow like sex. But yes it is like sex. I will give a good example to further
understand this quote. Example of a typical student who values his studies, it is
pleasurable to him to get high grades but achieving those high grades will have
to face first many challenges like too much works to be done and short sleeping
hours which are pains in yourself. Another example s a newly elected politician, it
is pleasurable to him to get any votes and win the election but a pain to the
expenses just promoting his agenda to the country and to the people.

“Decisions should achieve the greatest good for the greatest number”. I
want to give emphasis also to this. It means that in every decision that we make
even to ourselves or to others must take in to consideration the good side or
what is better. Deciding the right things returns good results or good outcomes.
Like in a business if you decide right, expect the good return in your business.
However yes you decide the right thing but there are possibilities that you might

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affect someone else lives. Example in the garments industry, if you are aware
right now, the garments industry is experiencing crisis in terms of their sales. Few
people are buying quality apparels in well known malls and store but do patronize
the cheap quality products of china and Thailand which are available on the Flea
Markets where you can haggle for prices. Some garments companies decide to
implement cost cutting which deducts the number of operating hours of there
business to somehow survive to the crisis happening like in the case of our
garments business. Some companies offer 50% off sales just to zero out their
inventory. And some who really can’t stand this crisis decided to shutdown their
business. As you can see, yes we decide the right thing which is right but no all
right decisions gives an acceptable outcome like the total shutdown of the
business. There’s this feeling of regret that arises or in tagalong “saying or

Book Review 2

“Business Ethics Ethical Decision Making and Cases”

By Ferrell and Fraedrich
Chapters 1, 2 and 3

Chapter 1 provides information about business ethics. Business ethics is a

set of moral principles and standards that guide behavior in the world of business.
Studying business ethics is important because it helps the business to be guided
in making decisions. Many businesses fail in the business world because of the
unethical activity they do which also affects their decision making.

Chapter 2 discuss about ethical issue. It also provides information about

understanding the ethical issues in business. Ethical issue is a problem, situation,
or opportunity requiring an individual or organization to choose among several
actions that must be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical. It usually
arises because of conflict between individuals’ philosophies and values, and the
values and attitudes of the organization.

Ethical issues can be classified into four categories: issues of conflict of

interest, issues of fairness and honesty, issues of communications, and issues of
organizational relationships. Ethical issues are best explored in terms of major
participants and functions of business. Example when an employee asked to
carry out assignments, they consider it unethical and later on became an ethical

Chapter 3 discuss about moral philosophies. Moral philosophy refers to

the set of principles or rules that people use to decide what is right or wrong. This
book also provides information on how to apply moral philosophy to business
ethics. Moral philosophy provides guidelines for resolving conflicts of people

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living in groups. Business people are guided by moral philosophies when they
formulate business strategies and when they resolve a specific ethical issue.


Actually upon reading these chapters I don’t find any quotes or sentences
to be quoted. But in exchange the need of that requirement in this book review, I
will share to you an ethical issue happens to me before when buying clothes or
shopping clothes. Do you remember before that clothes are labeled into different
sizes? Size 4, size 5, size 8, size 14 and etc. I remember my mom and I use to
buy Size 8 for me when buying clothes. It does exactly fit to me and no problem
at all. One day I was not with my mom when she goes shopping in Mega Mall.
But before she lives the house I tell her to buy me some clothes for the upcoming
Christmas party in school. When she arrives home, she shows me a beautiful tee
shirt with nice prints. It’s a size 8 T-shirt that must be exactly fit to me. But sad to
say that it doesn’t fit to me and it is very loosely. As you can see, Garment
Manufactures have no standard size for this specific size. How much more to
other countries like America were Americans are consider big people. I’m not
sure if this ethical issue that many people encounter before is the reason why
they make the labels of clothing from numbers to letters, Small (S), Medium (M),
Large (L), Extra Large (XL), and so on.

I think that it is best that those companies who have same line of products
have the same standards in sizes because if one experience what I’ve
experience in clothes sizes destroys trust to a certain brand of a clothing store.

Book Review 3

“There’s No Such Things as BUSINESS ETHICS”

By John C. Maxwell

CHAPTER 1: “Whatever Happened to Business Ethics?”

”Many people believe that embracing ethics would limit their options, their
opportunities, and their very ability to succeed in business”

Many people especially the corrupt people tend to be unethical just to

achieve their personal happiness. They tend to cheat in order to succeed. Ethics
for them is like a wall that blocks their goals. These kinds of things exist mostly in
politics. If you watch news during the 2007 election, you will see a lot of unethical
things like cheating in voting and the counting of votes. Candidates in the
election who have the agenda of winning think of possible way to win even in an
unethical way.

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Chapter 2: Why this rule is golden?

“Ethics is about how we meet the challenge of doing right thing when that will
cost more than we want to pay”

Sometimes what the right things we do may cause a threat in our lives.
Like in a situation of a man who witnesses a certain crime for example murder. If
he tries to speak for the truth, possible consequences may occur to you or to
your love ones. The murderer may kill you or your love ones. This is the reason
why many people who were put in this kind of situation decided to remain calm
and silent for the sake of their lives and the lives of their love ones. It is the right
thing to do what is right or to speak for the truth but try to think of the possible
consequences of doing the right thing.

CHAPTER 3: The Golden Rule Begins with You

“To be trusted is a greater compliment than to be loved”

Trust is one of the ingredients of love. Love is nothing without trust. The
development and lasting of love depends on the trust of both partners. It is nice
to live in a lovely way if there’s trust in the middle of the relationship. It protects
the relationship from any destruction. If trust is ruined, love is gone and
destroyed. It is important to build first trust before entering a serious relationship
with your partner. How to do it? Mostly people start from friendship. And in
friendship, trust is developing. It is a good foundation of love because you know
each other very well and you have trust in yourselves which will lead to a happy
and strong relationship.

Book Review 4

“There’s No Such Thing as BUSINESS ETHICS”

By John C. Maxwell

Chapter 5: Five factors that can “Tarnish” the Golden Rule

“Having power is like drinking salt water. The more you drink, the thirstier you

The abuse of power comes from the hunger for it. People who are given
such power and became successful easily by the help of it do anything just to
remain powerful. But people who abuse power were living in borrowed time.

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Anytime they can say goodbye to the life they have when they are still powerful. I
pity those people who abuse their power whether in politics, business or anything
that exercises their power for service because they may lose a lot of good trusted
friends and living without friends is like death.

Chapter 6: Seizing the Golden Opportunity

“You can’t capitalize on an opportunity you receive on the outside until you’ve
done the groundwork on the inside”

It is like you can’t be good on your next job if you don’t have any
experience in preparation for your next job. Same thing in finding a good job, if
you finish college and holding a degree then you’ll be easy to capitalize
opportunities outside. A golden opportunity comes rarely in every person’s life
and whoever is blessed by this opportunity is like a gift that you will treasure
forever. Learn to be the best in any opportunity you have so that if any
opportunity that will be given by chance to you, it would be easy for you to
capitalize or adapt to it.

Chapter 7: How to develop the “Midas Touch”

“Doing my best at this present moment puts me in the best place for the next

Oprah Winfrey said that people who do the bare minimum never achieve
much in life, for themselves or for others. I agree to that and it is true not only in
work but also in relationships. What you do in this present dictates what kind of
future you have. You train yourself in this present time the best thing you can do
and you will always be use to it being best through the future.

“There’s no traffic jam on the extra mile”

If you always do more than is expected, not only will you rise up above the
crowd, you will help others to rise up with you. If you have this kind of attitude,
you care more than others think is wise, you risk more than others think is safe,
you dream more than others think is practical, you expect more than others think
is possible, and you work more than others think is necessary. You are doing
more than what is expected but it is not always to be like this because sometimes
what is expected should only be the expected. It happens in the corporate world.
What you said in the document must be the only things to follow nothing more
nothing less.

Book Review 5

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“There’s No Such Thing as BUSINESS ETHICS”

By John C. Maxwell

Chapter 4: Living a 24-Karat-Gold Life

“There are really only three kinds of people. Those who don’t succeed, those
who achieve success temporarily, and those who became and remain

No matter how talented or rich or attractive people are, they will not able to
out run their character. Character is more than talk. Action is the true measure of
character. However, anyone who watched his actions closely could have seen
that his talk and walk didn’t line up.

Those people who remain successful in life are those who have faith and
discipline to themselves. These people desire their life to have meaning and not
just live in echo and live a shadow of a life.

People who remain successful make only few key decisions in life and
then manage those decisions one at a time. They rethink those decisions to
come up with a careful decision. In such decisions that a person successfully
decide gives him experience that will further help him when there’s a big decision
to be made which requires more courage.

Chapter 5: Five Factors that can “Tarnish” the Golden Rule

“The disciplined person is the person who can do what needs to be done when it
needs to be done.”

Success in life is the product of a discipline self. One of the best ways to
develop discipline is to delay gratification. Temptation in bad things and able to
say no to that, means you have a good discipline to yourself. Being a disciplined
person, deciding on right decisions is easy for you.

It is also said that, “A discipline person is always punctual, does his work
without being told, and follow rules and regulations without being watch”.

A person who is discipline is a good type of person to work on. You can
give him task that you are sure will return good outputs. Also focus is their in
work and you won’t have a hard time in giving task. The only thing you need to
do is guide that person to the right path.

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Chapter 7: How to Develop the “Midas Touch”

“We make commitments with care, and then live up to them. In all things we do
what we say we are going to do.”

It means that if you could create a business environment where keeping

promises was the norm rather than the exception; you will be significantly ahead
of the competition.

We keep our promise even when it hurts because it will be twice painful to
the person you have promised if you cannot fulfill the promise.

Book Review 6

“Winners never cheat”

By: Jon M. Huntsman

1. Chapter 1: Lesson from the Sandbox “Everything we need for

today’s marketplace we learned as kids.”

“Nice guys really can and do finish first in life”

- Financial ends never justify unethical means. Success comes to

those who possess skills, courage, integrity, decency, and
generosity. Men and women who maintain their universally shared
values tend to achieve their goals. Know happiness in home and
work, and find greater purpose in their lives than simply
accumulating wealth.

2. Chapter 2: Check Your Moral Compass “We know darn well what is
right and wrong.”

“We are not always required to do what is right and proper. Decency and
generosity, for instance, carry no legal mandate. Pure ethics are optional”

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- Laws define courses to which we must legally adhere or avoid.
Ethics are standards of conduct that we ought to follow. There is
some overlap of the two, but virtuous behavior usually is left to
individual discretion. All the professional training in the world does
not guarantee moral leadership. Unlike laws, virtue cannot be
politically mandated, let alone enforced by bureaucrats, but that
doesn’t stop them from trying.

3. Chapter 3: Play by the rules “Compete fiercely and fairly but no

cutting in line”

“It’s okay to negotiate tough business deals, but do it with both hands on
the table and sleeves rolled up.”

- Real winners never sneak to finish lines by compromised routes.

They do it the old fashioned way with talent, hard work, and
honesty. Make it a point to never misrepresent or to take unfair
advantage of someone. That way, you can count on second and
third deals with companies after successfully completing the first
one. Have as a goal both sides feeling they achieved their
respective objectives.

Book Review 7

“Winners never cheat”

By: Jon M. Huntsman

Chapter 4: Setting the Example: Risk, responsibility, reliability, the three RS

of leadership.

“Effective, respected leadership is maintained through mutual agreement.

Leadership demanded is leadership denied.”

Leadership is not just for people at the top. Everyone can learn to lead by
discovering the power that lies within each one of us to make a difference and
being prepared when the call to lead comes.

Albert Einstein once said, "We should take care not to make the intellect our god;
it has, of course, powerful muscles but no personality. It cannot lead; it can only
serve." Leaders know and science has discovered emotionality's deeper

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purpose: the timeworn mechanisms of emotion allow two human beings to
receive the contents of each other's minds.
Emotion is the messenger of love; it is the vehicle that carries every signal from
one brimming heart to another.

Leadership is applicable to all facets of life: a competency that you can learn to
expand your perspective, set the context of a goal, understands the dynamics of
human behavior and takes the initiative to get to where you want to be.

Leadership is not meant to be dominion over others. Rather, it is the composite

of characteristics that earns respect, results and continued following.

Leadership demands decisiveness and that is why it is absolutely critical that

leaders know the facts. To ensure that critical information and solid advice
reaches them, leaders must surround themselves with capable, strong,
competent advisors and then listen.

Chapter 5: Keep Your Word: It’s high time to corral the corporate lawyers.

“Human beings are innately honest, but if you pack legal heat, the other side will
do likewise”

Lawyers lie and therefore other lawyers lie to keep up. It’s not that lawyers are
inherently unethical or evil, certainly no more so than members of any other
profession. It’s a matter of lawyers overriding personal ethics with professional
standards. Lawyers are taught to represent the best interest of their clients even
if that mandate means inflicting unnecessary harm to the other side.

I think this statement careers all over the road - first, I'm not sure most people are
innately honest, but let's say they are. Next, we have to decode what "legal heat"
means - does it mean a thorough knowledge of the applicable law, or does it
mean someone who will warp, intimidate, and fabricate whatever it takes to
prevail legally? Even if we assume the worst, say, the latter, then what kind of
legal heat is meant by the other side doing likewise?

I think a genuinely honest person will respond to "legal heat" in the worst sense
with honesty, and as thorough knowledge of the law as possible. It would make
an honest person vomit to "win" by cheating, even against a cheater.

Lawyers who say, “yeah but this is the real world here, no place for ideals” - are

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The purpose of packing legal heat is to do what ever it takes to get the outcome
you desire. Of course if you sue some one they will get an attorney and that
attorney will do what ever it takes, such as lie through omission, leave out
important details or even happen to have you conveniently forget what happened.
In other terms when you turn to the law for your solution, you will leave honesty
and the rest of your character behind and the other side will sink to your level.

Chapter 6: Pick Advisory Wisely: Surround yourself with associates who

have the courage to say no.

“Life is not a game of solitaire: people depend on one another”

When one does well, the others are lifted. When one stumbles, others also are

There are no one-man teams either by definition or natural law. Success is a

cooperative effort; it’s dependent upon those who stand beside you.

It has been a source of personal strength for me to be surrounded by people who

hold similar or greater values to mine, who share my passion and vision, which
have capacities greater than my own.

Book Review 8

“Winners never cheat”

By: Jon M. Huntsman

Chapter 8: Graciousness is next to Godliness: Treat competitors,

colleagues, employees, and customers with respect.

“Each of us has a stake in the accomplishments and failures of those around us;
each of us holds an interest in the deeds of others.”

Your stake in the accomplishments and failures of others is that you learn from
others before you make the same mistakes. And our interest in the deeds of
others is so that we can surmise what we are becoming, be it good or bad, and
make changes.

Chapter 9: Your name is on the door: Operate businesses and

organizations as if they’re family owned.

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“It makes no difference where one lives. Everyone wants to feel noticed,
respected, and valued.”

Not everybody wants to be noticed, respected and valued though. Some people
are actually stuck in the exact opposite and are considered sadomasochists,
freaks, or codependent.

These also apply to young children who want always to be the center of attention.
They cry if they feel not valued, noticed, and respected. They act like spoiled brat
when things don’t go right to what they expected to be. It’s an inbuilt human
thingy that compels us to have a self-centered egocentrism. An egocentric
person has no theory of mind, cannot "put himself in other people's shoes," and
believes everyone sees what he sees (or that what he sees in some way
exceeds what others see.)

It appears that this is shown mostly in younger children. They are unable to
separate their own beliefs, thoughts and ideas from others. For example, if a
child sees that there is candy in a box, he assumes that someone else walking
into the room also knows that there is candy in that box. He reasons that "since I
know it, you should too". As stated previously this may be rooted in the limitations
in the child's theory of mind skills. However, it does not mean that children are
unable to put their selves in someone else's shoes. As far as feelings are
concerned, it is shown that children exhibit empathy early on and are able to
cooperate with others and be aware of their needs and wants.
(According to

Chapter 10: The obligation to give back: Nobody is completely self-made;

return the favors and good fortune.

“True giving is doing something for somebody who can never repay you”

Similar to the quote “Helping Hands is better Than Praying Lips.”, even though
when you do something for people, and they can’t do something back for you, it’s
a good thing it feels good or when you do something for people its okay that they
can’t repay you because it’s a good thing. It is also means that giving someone
something or doing something for someone who can't give or do something in
return, is 'true' giving. You're doing it for the right reasons, not because you know
you'll get something in return! Very true!

I can also say, "I love to do random acts of kindness" and you do get repaid by
the feeling you get by doing this.

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It means also that it is noble of the person who helps others that cannot repay
because that person did it for the true meaning of helping and not for the chance
of being repaid. I would rather it be like that because, while some recipients may
not appreciate it, some would be inclined to do the same for somebody else.

A true deed goes unnoticed.

Book Review 9

“Business Ethics: A Management Approach”

By: Jose P. Leveriza

Chapter 1: Scope and Meaning of Business Ethics

“It is strictly up to the individual to do what he believes to be right and he is held

responsible for the exercise of his freedom”

Every individual can decide what ever he wants at his own free will but it
was restricted by the law to give balance to human activities and actions. Every
individual’s choices and decisions have negative and positive consequences this
is why every individual is held responsible for the exercise of his freedom or
freedom of actions. We have freedom, yes, but our freedom must consider the
laws to be free from wrong actions.

In business project, the project manager is somehow the responsible for

the possibility of the project to be made. The project manager must have a right
decision in every decisions he must make in a project because he will be held
responsible for his peoples safety and other innocent people as well.

Chapter 2: Foundation of Business Ethics

“When one overcomes the obstacle in life and begins to exist freely, he is
required to be responsible for his freedom”

In a case of a criminal imprisoned for several years and was freed for
some reasons, now he’s free to begin a new life again. He is required to be
responsible for his freedom in order to not commit a sin again punishable by the
law of the country. Learn from the trials you’ve gone trough to lead you in the
right way. This is like you were given another chance for a change, a change to
be good or to be totally bad.

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Chapter 3: Development of Ethical Standards in business

“Every individual has biases, but the management of organizations does not
understand it very well”

In business there are many companies who recognize an individual’s

talent and knowledge. Having being recognized, the company failed to recognize
others knowledge which many people feel bias for such failure of the company.

Book Review 10

“Business Ethics: A Management Approach”

By: Jose P. Leveriza

Chapter 4: Business and its Environment

“While people develop their own values, some of them avoid ethical questions or
remain neutral”

An individual may have the ability to see merit in changing conditions

which may confuse others. He may succeed if he learns how to adapt to his
environment. His wise judgment in important matters might be quite keen, but,
unfortunately, he may permit his reasoning to be overridden by his environment.
(As noted by Arensbeg and Niehoff, and as said in the book).

People who spend years in work and get use to it. They must have to
learn to adapt if some transitions or changes happens. Like if their companies
working on embrace the good benefits that technology gives.

Chapter 5: Recruitment, Promotion and Discipline

“The failure in the relationship of business with its employees is a failure to

appreciate humanity, and not individuality”

Employees should be understood and accepted not only as individuals,

but as human beings. Business fails to understand them as human beings. It fails
to understand what human character is, what the good life of a human being is.
Oftentimes, business looks at them simply as costs: neither assets nor liabilities
of the organization (As said in the book). That way of thinking is very hard to
overcome among businessmen because business and the money they earn are
very important to them. And their perspective to their employees is very low.

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Chapter 6: Wages and Working Conditions

“People do not work merely for their own satisfaction but need outside

Wages and working conditions are important considerations in business

relations with employees because different people will react differently to the
same situations.

Management process is not complete without the reaction of people

working in it. A condition at the organization which has subjected them to
frustrations can be rectified through earnest discussion of the problem.
(As said in the book)

Book Review 11

“Business Ethics: A Management Approach”

By: Jose P. Leveriza

Chapter 7: Fiduciary Relationship

“No great human achievement has ever been accomplished without trust. Nor
has been able to achieve greatness without trust”

In any relationship like people in business, government, love and etc.,

trust is very important. Trust helps develop relationships to be strong and intact.
Let’s put it in a small group of people, like for example my thesis group. Trust is
very important in any activity we do in our thesis. Such trust to a group mate will
not bring any personal problems that may possibly create destructions in the
progression of our thesis. Thus it makes you more comfortable in giving tasks to
your group mates.

Chapter 8: Business Secrecy and Espionage

“The great question – always - of philosophers concerns the nature of the

individual and the claims which the state may have on the individual.”

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The dilemma of business is become acute. If business must go out and
get support from the government in solving its problems, it should be expected
that government, in the end, will control business. On this matter, James
Schlesinger pointed out: “Power, of course, is equivocal. It can be misused as it
can be well used.” (As said in the book)

Chapter 9: Honesty and Expense Accounts

“Although doubtless not all actions are moral actions, all actions may under
circumstances assume moral significance.”

The importance of honesty in business has remained essentially

unchanged. One way of testing the employee’s honesty is in the use of expense
accounts, such as representation and transportation expenses.
The use of expense accounts might compromise his honesty as a
responsible human being of society. People do what they want to do. As such,
people make many mistakes as individuals since everyone has weaknesses. (As
said in the book)

Honesty is very important in work. It will test a person’s behavior and if a

person exercises honesty, he will have a good future in his work.

Book Review 12

“Business Ethics: A Management Approach”

By: Jose P. Leveriza

Chapter 10: Competition in Business

“Competition is an important characteristic of an economic order of society. It is

the law of all life. It could be either constructive or destructive.”

In any kind of businesses, there are always competitions. Competitions

help the economic order of the society. Money is generated always in a
competition. But in a competition one has the advantage and one has the
disadvantage. The one who has the advantage in the competition gets all the
opportunities, sales, and survive. And the one who has the disadvantage gets the
lease benefits and has few times to survive. We can’t escape the competitions in
business but we can make it fair and square. It is up to the management skills of
the businessman, his knowledge to the business, his risk management control,
and his conflict management.

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Chapter 11: Bribery and Extortion in Business

“Graft comes because public officials are”

Graft, the partner of corruption is the common yet one of the most severe
problems in the Philippines. There is graft because there are many people who
were under paid and forced to steal. The biggest grafters are the rich people or
the powerful people. Usually these are well-paid superiors with better
opportunities to steal. The more wealth they steal, the more encouraged they are
to steal more.

Graft always happens in every project of the Philippine government.

Through graft, projects of the Philippine government became low quality and
prone to accidents.

Graft gets worse and worse because the laws in the Philippines were not
properly implemented and use.

Chapter 12: Counterfeiting and Piracy in Business

Counterfeiting is imitating the genuine with intent to defraud, while piracy

is the unauthorized use of a copyrighted or patented work.

These are very common in the Philippines. It actually embraces by the

Filipino and even patronized it. The Philippine government has no powerful law to
stop these problems of counterfeiting and Piracy. It is really hard to defeat and it
continuously growing.

Book Review 13

“Business Ethics: A Management Approach”

By: Jose P. Leveriza

Page 20 of 106
Chapter 13: Government Supervision and Control of Business

Business is not free from government supervision and control. It operates

under a set of laws made by the government. This is done because some
businesses are illegal and harm the people. We are all aware of the illegal
businesses like illegal drugs, recruitments, and others. The government wants to
have an eye on this kind of business because it affects the business society,
government, people, economy, investors, and the identity of our country to the

Government supervision protects individuals against harm. Though some

people don’t care of the supervisions of the government and tend to violate the
law for personal gain. Why is this happening? It is simply because of poverty and
underpaid individuals.

We can’t blame of what they become because they do not want that to
happen in their lives. Though the government has to do its job to eliminate the
anomalies in the society to preserve and promote peace and order

Chapter 14: Business Participation in Governmental Affairs

Business and government have something in common, that is public

service which is a private need that demands public commitment.

If they get the trust of the public they will make benefits to it. In business
more sales were expected to come while in the government side, people will lend
their support in every decisions and project of the government.

Peoples’ trust is very important for the future of the nation. This is why first
world countries remain and continuously progressing.

Chapter 15: Contribution of Business to Society

In every business there are job opportunities for the people. It serves also
the needs of the people. Business contributes to society’s needs and wants.
Business also helps the economy to be stable and good. People’s interests are
best served if it has a contribution to the societal development.

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Business organizations are agencies of society. They are organized for
the purpose of enabling society to realize some public ends, while maintaining its
private interests. They are instruments to secure efficient management of the
economic resources of society.

Book Review 14


A Professional Perspective
Dellaportas, Gibson, Alagiah, Hutchinson, Leung, Homrigh

Chapter 2: Understanding ethics and moral judgment

“Justice is often described as fairness”

Yes it is true that justice is like fairness but justice can be manipulated and
can be unfair or unjust.

In the Philippines only the rich and powerful receive justice and can
manipulate justice. Justice in the Philippines is not free. Justice here is bought
and not given for free.

Chapter 3: Professional ethics and self-regulation

“Professionals know things that others do not.”

The quality that differentiates a professional from a non-professional is the

trust that clients place their professional advisers due to their superior knowledge,
talent, and expertise. Success requires a good standing with clients and the
public. Although most people strive to work skillfully and up to their very best,
professionalism is more than doing your job well. It denotes a real excellence that
is focused on serving others.

Chapter 5: Corporate governance

“The best practice recommendations are not prescriptions.”

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Good corporate governance is a top management with a mix of skills,
experience, expertise, independence and the integrity for ethical decision making.
The vital components of organizations’ corporate governance are the people
involved in governing the body, and the culture and values of the organization.

The Shareholders rely on the information provided to make decisions

about their investments. The top management structures in which they operate is
the primary providers of information to investors. The importance of corporate
governance is demonstrated by the fact that investors are prepared to pay more
for a well-governed entity.

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Case Study

Pirates can’t be stopped

Company Pirates

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Planted booby trapped versions of (page 1) Ethan starts poking
songs and films to frustrate around on the company’s servers
downloader (MediaDefender). He found folder
after folder labeled with the names
(Commandment number 2): Thou shall of some of the largest media
not interfere with other people’s companies on the planet: News
computer work in forms of sending Corp, Time Warner, Universal.
thoughtless stuffs on the internet
It violates the third commandment:
Thou shall not snoop around in other
peoples’ work.

Saaf try to contain the problem to (page 2) He hands me a flash drive

Napster and will try to block it from containing documents that I was
getting out into the internet later able to independently verify as
internal, unpublished information
(Commandment number 10): Thou belonging to MediaDefender.
shall use computer in ways that ensure
consideration and respect for your
fellow humans It violates the fourth commandment:
Thou shall not use a computer to
(Myth number 9): Business Ethics is steal.
not a matter of good guys pressured by
bad guys—it should pay respect to
everyone and be applicable to
everyone as long as it doesn’t hurt
anyone. In this case, access to the
internet is a privilege of everyone.
Besides, governing oneself is the best
form of government.

The record industry shut down (page 2) Ethan says, he figured out
Napster how to read MediaDefenders’ email.

(Myth number 9): Business Ethics is It violates the seventh commandment:

not a matter of good guys pressured by Thou shall not use other’s computer
bad guys—it should be not bias to any resources without authorization or
of the side. proper compensation.

Trace people who upload files so (page 2) listen to its phone calls.
they can sue them
It violates the tenth commandment:
(Commandment number 3): Thou shall Thou shall use computer in ways that
not snoop around people’s work— ensure consideration and respect for
uploads are still private and tracking it your fellow humans.
will be a form of snooping around files

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(California Bill) Crack down on pre- (page 2) Access just about any of
texting—a practice if using false the company’s computers he
pretenses to get personal wanted to browse.
information about someone
It violates the third commandment:
(Myth number 6): Information is not Thou shall not snoop around in other
neutral and amoral—information is a peoples’ work.
double edged sword that is why they
should use it with care and acquire it in
a proper manner.

(Commandment number 5): Thou shall

not use computer to bear false
witness—though for a good cause,
they shouldn’t lie.

The biggest spear in the neck for the (page 2) He uncovered the salaries
pirates: being vigilant, prosecuting, of the top engineers as well as
and making fun of them. names and contact information
kept by C.E.O. and co-founder
(Commandment number 10) Thou shall Randy Saaf (with notations of who
always use a computer in ways that in the videogame industry is
ensure consideration and respect for an ”asshole” and which venture
your fellow humans—making fun of capitalists didn’t come through
other people though for a good cause, with financing).
still is not a good act.
It violates the second commandment:
thou shall not interfere with other
people’s computer work.

It violates the third commandment:

Thou shall not snoop around in other
peoples’ work.

Holly wood tried lobbying Sweden to (page 2) He also figured out how
do something about the Pirate Bay. the firm’s pirate-fighting software
(Commandment number 4) Thou shall
not use a computer to steal— It violates the third commandment:
information cost a lot nowadays, that is Thou shall not snoop around in other
why stealing it means stealing money peoples’ work.

Police confiscated 186 pieces of (page 6) Sunde then reads the reply
computer equipment and hauled in he is about to post: “For fuck’s
Svartholm and Neji for questioning sake,” it begins, “get your facts

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straight, and become more
(Myth number 9): Business Ethics is insulting from there.
not a matter of good guys pressured by
bad guys—it should be not bias to any It violates the second commandment:
of the side unless it harmed a person’s Thou shall not interfere other peoples
well-being. computer works.

Executives sent flurries of emails (page 3) “These guys are not right;
about how to stage-manage product I’m going to destroy them.” Says
demonstrations Ethan

(Myth number 10) Ethics can be

managed—ethics are set and managed It violates the ninth commandment:
through standards given. thou shall think about the social
consequence of the program you are
(Myth number 5): Good business writing or the system you are
doesn’t mean good ethics—best designing.
practices doesn’t mean good ethics, it
may be into good etiquette but not
They run a honey pot to trap pirates (page 3) They grabbed a half-year’s
through a video site called MiiVi worth of internal emails and
published them on the same file
(Commandment number 5): Thou shall sharing prowled by MediaDefender.
not use computer to bear false
witness—it is a form of lying in a sense It violates the eight commandment:
that you did that site for other purposes Thou shall not appropriate other
rather than what is said in the peoples’ intellectual output.

(Commandment number 10) Thou shall

always use a computer in ways that
ensure consideration and respect for
your fellow humans—luring others for
some reason that they are not really
aware of is a disrespect for them.

“The Andhra Pradesh e-Government Story”

Could it be possible to happen in the Philippines?

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Corruption, one of the major problems in the Philippines that exist several
decades ago and until now it does prosper. In the recent issue of the automated
voting during the elections, we all know that it was not approve to be use even
though many people say that it will really help the voters protect their vote and
have accurate results in the number of vote. How come that this system that was
implement in a more corrupt country of India, Andra Pradesh? I was shock that it
does help the country a lot and many people adapt to the changes that was

Implementing the system in the Philippines would be very hard because

our government and the government officials are all close minded to this kind of
things. They all focus on the poor, road projects, building projects, employment
and etc. which are mostly failures. The government feels that if this system for
example is implemented, the money they earn would be affected. The
government doesn’t even care of the lives of the people but only cares for
themselves, their personal happiness and wealth.

We have lots of brilliant people. But this people rather consider working to
other countries because of the kind of government we have and the kind of life
that we have that the government failed to do something to make it good.
Philippines is left behind, the only thing I can say that we can be proud of is our
beautiful sceneries.

I hope that our government starts embracing what is now develop in the
modern world we have because if they does go with the flow of changes, expect
the skyrocket of the good productivity of the country.

“Casa Bahia: Fulfilling a Dream”

Casas Bahia is a retail store chain which primary products are furnitures
and home appliances. It was founded in 1957 by Polish immigrant Samuel Klein,
who began his career by selling blankets, bed linens, and bath towels door to
door in Sao Caetano del Sul.

Casas Bahia makes the majority of its profit by charging interest on

installment plan purchases, making it possible for low income customers to
purchase products which they would not be able to pay off in a single payment.

As you can see both the organization and the consumer benefits in this
type of business. We know that majority of the people living in Brazil are

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considered as people at the bottom of the pyramid or in short poor, they won’t be
able to afford buying products other than their basic needs. Since this kind of
business offers products that targets consumer needs in a considerable price for
their status in life, Casa Bahia would probably get a lot of sales and earn profit.

I think it is a good decision to start a Casa Bahia edition here in the

Philippines because here there are also many people who are poor and can
afford only their basic needs. But take it in to consideration also the number of
possible competitors in putting ay Casa Bahia edition here in the Philippines
because there are also a lot of small retail stores who targets this kind of

“Professional Ethics, Codes of Conduct, and Moral Responsibility”

1. Professional codes of ethics are often designed to motivate members of

an association to behave certain ways; they inspire, guide, educate and
discipline members. For me I think ACM and IEEE-CS have same
understanding and points about professional codes of conduct. It helps the
member of an association to bring out its most knowledge and ability. It is
also some what related to the codes of ethics.

2. In a given issue, computer professionals have different views and

solutions in their minds. It will be hard to unite their minds even you make
a common professional code of conduct. Since in an issue their can
different set of codes to use in deciding.

3. I think the concept about whistle blowing comes in with this one. Since it
would be dangerous and many people could be harmed on this project.
Even though it will affect my career, thinking for the sake of good and
mankind are still important. If they will layoff me to some future projects
and signs of not liking me which is a signal of retiring, there are still good
companies with outstanding goals to work with and has promising career
for a great future. Although the concept of whistle blowing is not that good,
whistle blowing comes in not just a personal issue but also as a command
or requirement.

4. I need to whistle blow again here. What if many people ride on the new
transport system and die. It will not make me sleep and my conscience will
make me crazy because in the first place I know that the project is not
possible and there are many errors on the design. Whistle blowing will
help the people to be in danger.

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5. If it is only for personal gain or for personal satisfaction or for others. I
think in this case whistle blowing is essential. There are exceptions that
whistle blowing will be passed for this issue only.


1. How did CEMEX fundamentally change the way it conducted its


Through CEMEX’s sophisticated information systems and ability to

identify high-growth market opportunities in developing economies,
they acquire the digital evolution which improves and makes efficient in
their production, distribution, and delivery processes. Before CEMEX
sell individual products but now they shifted to selling complete
solutions. They continue innovating their business and they have a
high level of customer service and satisfaction.

2. How does an information system contribute to CEMEX

competitive advantage?

Embracing the power of information systems, CEMEX’s productivity

and operations became more efficient. The company achieved its
competitive cost advantage over other competitors by making up a
distribution infrastructure and centralized, computerizing the delivery
network wherein every truck is monitored in real-time so that deliveries
would be on time.

3. What is social capital? How does CEMEX build social capital?

Patrimonio Hoy is the system behind the social capital. Social capital is
all about helping the lower classes and the CEMEX Company should
maitain their word, honor and reputation. Patrimonio Hoy means
“saving property today”.

4. How is the low-income savings characteristics of Mexican society


The Patrimonio Hoy system will become effective when the families
have money left to save they can join it in the pool once a week or

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intervals. The pool is used for unanticipated family emergencies,
education and housing.

5. How are the entrepreneurial characteristics of the women in

Mexican society tied to the CEMEX BOP strategy?

Women have instinct in business or entrepreneurial instinct in the

family. Usually women develop this instinct when they became the
mother of the family. Women are the ones becoming responsible for all
the savings and budget it for housing purposes and family needs.

6. What did the CEMEX initial market research in Guadalajara


They discovered that the homes in Guadalajara are composed of clay

and limestone. CEMEX find ways for the development of growth in
Guadalajara. They also discover that the economic profile of low
income community is very large.

7. What is the role of socios in the Patrimonio Hoy system? How

important are they in the making the system successful?

These socios are groups of people composed of three members in a

group. It is structured to have only three people so that there is a
discipline in the members and much easier to for payment. Socios are
also helping incase there are emergencies.

8. Why do you think it was important for CEMEX to position itself as

a complete solutions provider vs. just another product provider?

It is important because it is a good strategy to get more customers.

CEMEX will gain competitive advantage against its competitors.

9. How is the social capital of Patrimonio Hoy promoters related to

economic capital?

The promoters invite people to join this saving-credit system and in

return the promoter who is responsible for the new comer will have
commissions. The fewer economic capital you have, the greater you
will be depending on your social capital.

10. What, in brief, is the value of Patrimonio Hoy to a) its promoter b)

its socios & partners c) its suppliers and d) its distributors?

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• Promoters of of Patrimonio Hoy are the ones who are responsible
for recruiting potential customers and they are the one who educate
those who are not yet part of the Patrimonio Hoy system.
• The socios and the partners are the one can be considered as the
much loyal customers or members of the Patrimonio Hoy system. They
are also helping incase of emergency.
• CEMEX is the largest cement provider in Mexico, they have the
bargaining power with their suppliers and their distributors. They
negotiate with their suppliers in their three key factors. First is by
generating a steady demand for materials. Second is they create
consistent revenue stream and third is they are ensuring zero-risk
collection of money.
• For the distributors, they negotiated with the percentage that the
distributor will get but they still compromised that even the percent will
drop by 3%, it will ensure them continuous business because of the
steady demand for orders.

11. What is patrimonio? Why is this important for the marketing

efforts for the Patrimonio Hoy system?

Patrimonio is the capital assets. Patrimonio Hoy is a program that

targets the housing needs of the low-income community or population
by the help of CEMEX, a leading global cement producer in Mexico. Its
innovative approach reduces significantly the cost and time needed by
the poor to improve their housing in lesser time span.

12. How can Patrimonio Hoy offer a slightly higher price than its
competitors and maintain a competitive edge?

Patrimonio Hoy is well developed systems that even if they increase

their price they will still have customers because of the programs that
they are offering. Patrimonio Hoy targets the Bottom of the Pyramid
market. Patrimonio Hoy cannot cover up for the privileges that they are
giving the low income classes if they will just continue lowering their
price and at the same time giving the benefits. They can also add
service to the people so that this will cover for the increase of prices.

13. How does the concept of freezing prices encourage socios to do

more business for Patrimonio Hoy?

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The money that the socios or the people saving will still be enough
when they decide to use it since the price would not change and will be
constant. They would just have to contribute at a given period.

14. Intuitively, doing with business with a low income group would be
riskier than traditional lending models but it is profitable for
Patrimonio Hoy. Why?

They say that the risks are not much high and they even implemented
some things, which made their socios pay in the right time. They
established three important factors. First is the group commitment.
Second is the social capital and third is the penalty fee structure.

15. What is the role of peer/community pressure in the Patrimonio

Hoy lending model?

Patrimonio Hoy will be having two individual or partners in one group if

the partner failed to pay for the amount that he promised then he will
have a fifty percent penalty and the late payments are also having a
hard time of having a credit.

16. How has Patrimonio Hoy changed the consumer behavior in


It helps the people learn how to save money for their future needs.
They gave them hope and chance that even though they have only low
incomes they still have the rights to have a house to have a better life
in living.

17. What are the challenges of the Patrimonio Hoy program?

When people are finished building a part of their homes they will stop
the construction. For them it is enough for a while. It is not always a
100% chance that they will still continue constructing or expanding
their homes. It is a challenge for CEMEX to keep their clients
motivated in building their homes and continuing with the program.

18. What does Construmex take advantage of the existing remittance

market between U.S.A and Mexico?

It allows the Mexicans living in the United States to send their money
directly to cement distributors in Mexico. Distributors are the one
transacting between the company and its consumers. The main
purpose of Construmex is not for profit but for general awareness and
for the education of the people and also for the marketing of the

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19. CEMEX Philippines is exploring the possibility of replicating the
Patrimonio Hoy system in the Philippines. What are the parallels
between the Mexican and the Philippine market?

Philippines and Mexican market are quite the same especially if they
will target the people belonging in the low income society. Many low
income communities especially the poor in the Philippines wants to
have a better place to live. Building such home for them is not that
easy and even not possible because of the low income they have. If
they will be offering the Patrimonio Hoy system here in the Philippines,
they will open new doors for the low-income Filipinos to have their own

20. As an IT practitioner looking at the Construmex business model,

what IT-driven systems can you propose to make CEMEX more
competitive? (Name 10-15)

• Sales and Inventory system

• Customer relationship management system
• Decision support system
• Supply Chain Management
• Human resource information system
• E-commerce website
• Inventory control
• Knowledge management system
• Transaction processing system
• Order tracking system

“Jun Lozada Controversy”

Testifying for truth in exchange for the peaceful life you have is a very
tough decision. Such decision that Jun Lozada did does affect not only his life but
also the lives of his family. Jun Lozada earns my respect to him for speaking the
truth. The kind of decision he did is not ordinary, it requires such courage and
deep thinking. It is goof that he testify for the truth for us Filipinos to be aware of
how severe the corruption existing in our country. Philippines is left behind by
other countries because of this issues and problems never resolved and continue
to develop and increase. Jun Lozada’s testimony is the first step of changes in
our country. I hope that there are many people like him, brave enough to testify
for the truth.

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Another thing is that, I wish to those loyal officials in the government who
have great respect and love for our country to do corrective actions on such
problems like corruption. How will our country develop and improve if such
problems block its success and goals?

“Integrative Questions”

 Cyberspace Law for Non-Lawyers


1. Lesson 1: Introduction

“What is Cyberspace law?”

- is a domain characterized by the use of electronics and the

electromagnetic spectrum to store, modify, and exchange data
via networked systems and associated physical infrastructures.
(According to
- Basically the cyberspace law provides governance and legal rules in the
activities happening in this environment.

2. Lesson 2: Copyright 1: Copyright In Cyberspace

“Why is Copyright law is important?”

- Copyright law gives a copyright owner the exclusive right to control

copying. We don’t want other to modify and totally copy our masterpiece
because it invades our right of ownership of something that originally belongs to

3. Lesson 3: Copyright 2: Pretty Much All Writings Are Copyrighted

“What is Copyright”?

- is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of

an original work exclusive right to it, usually for a limited time. (According to

4. Lesson 4: Copyright 3: Electronic Copying Can Infringe A Copyright

“In what situation does copyright law violated?”

- If a work is COPYRIGHTED (which, as we saw, is an easy hurdle to


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- and you've made a COPY of it (which we'll talk about more below),

- and you weren't authorized to do so -- authorized by the copyright

owner's express permission, by an implied license, or by the fair use
doctrine -

- then you've violated the copyright law. (As said in the text)

5. Lesson 5: Copyright 4: "Copying" Covers Many Kinds Of Copying

“What does copy mean?”

- It is the duplication of information or an artifact. It violates the copyright

law if such duplication of someone’s work is totally duplicated.

6. Lesson 6: Copyright 5: It's OK to Copy Facts and Ideas

“Why are facts considered to be free to everyone to copy?”

- Facts like theories or discoveries are in public domain. Everyone is

allowed to copy it but if the words are use and copied on how those facts are
express violates the copyright law.

7. Lesson 7: Copyright 6:A Copyright Owner's Conduct May *Sometimes*

Create an "Implied License" that Lets Others Copy

“What is meant by Implied License?”

- It is a given permission to someone by the owner of a work who wants to

use his work to whatever purposes.

8. Lesson 8: Copyright 7: Some Copies are OK Because they are "Fair


“What is fair use doctrine?”

- It basically raises questions which is a basis of the legality to copy

someone’s work. Example: Is your use for purposes of criticism, comment,
parody, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research? (This
example is in the text).

9. Lesson 9: Copyright 8: More on "Fair Uses"

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“When is copying fair”?

- If you copy a little bit, use it for commentary, news reporting and parody.

10. Lesson 10: Copyright 9: Still More on "Fair Use"

“When is copying unfair?”

- If you use someone’s work for commercial purposes and you earn
money and definitely without the consent of the owner then it is an unfair
copying and does violate the copyright law.

11. Lesson 11: Copyright 10: Some "Fair Use" Examples

“What does illegal copying probably do to the one who does not want to
copy his work”?

- It depends on how you use his work. If you introduce it in the public
probably the life of the person you copy might be affected because that
person might not want publicity.

12. Lesson12: Copyright 11: The Liability of Service Providers

“When is a person liable for infringement?”

- Copyright Infringement is a strict liable offense. Neither a person who

copy knew nor had reason to know that he was acting unlawfully, he is liable for


13. Lesson 13: Privacy 1: Privacy Law in Cyberspace

“What is privacy?”

- It is the power that protects and controls the information about you that
may be vulnerable to be known by other people.

14. Lesson 14: Privacy 2: Informational Privacy

“Why is information privacy need to be importantly protected?”

- In some cases like information about you, your SSS#, signatures,

address, phone numbers, etc are known by someone else. If this person is
wise enough, he might think opening a credit card under your name but

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everything he purchase is charged to you. This is where information
privacy comes in and this is one of the hundred reasons why it is important.

15. Lesson 15: Privacy 3: Informational Privacy on the Net

“Is their still privacy on the net?”

- I think there are very few because there are many people who are very
good in hacking information no matter how powerful your firewall is.
16. Lesson 16: Privacy 4: Privacy and the Fourth Amendment, Part 1

“What is privacy invasion?”

- It is simply invading someone else right of privacy against any of his act
inside his property without physical harm.

17. Lesson 17: Privacy 5: Privacy and the Fourth Amendment, Part 2

“Do you believe that privacy can 100% be protected?”

- For me I don’t believe because in this modern world we have right now, a
lot of new technologies are invented and one of these technologies can be use
for such invasion of privacy.

18. Lesson 18: Privacy 6: Privacy and the Fourth Amendment, Part 3

“In what cases does privacy invasion is legal?”

- If it has go signal by the court and if the one being invaded is suspected
to involve in a crime.

19. Lesson 19: Privacy 7: Statutory Protections for Privacy

“Why is privacy invasion is done to an individual?”

- If in some cases it is for the sake of the truth. Like the early controversy
in the Philippines, the ZTE deal, star witness Jun Lozada is wire tapped by
someone on his calls. The one who done this kind of invasion just want to
know the truth because it does affect the entire people of the country, there lives,
future lives, food, shelter, job and etc.

20. Lesson 20: Privacy 8: Exceptions to ECPA Protection

“What are the exceptions to ECPA Protection?”

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First there are exceptions to protect the service provider (AOL,
Compuserve, etc.). These allow the service provider to protect itself
against the harm that a user might cause, or against illegality that the user
might be engaged in. To this end, it is not a violation of ECPA for the service
provider to:

(1) keep a log of the messages sent and received, for example, to protect
against fraud or abuse; (2) assist an authorized law enforcement official to
intercept a message; (3) intercept messages when necessary to assure the
continuation of service or to protect the rights of the service provider.

Second, consent can be a basis of the interception. If one of the parties to

the communication has given consent, prior to the interception, then:

1. a police officer, or someone acting as if they have the authority of law

behind them, can intercept an electronic message;
2. any private citizen can intercept the message, so long as the purpose of
that interception is not to commit some crime, or other wrong protected by
the law;
3. Publicity can be the basis of a lawful interception. If you are posting a
message to a public bulletin board, or to USENET, then it is not a violation
of ECPA for someone to intercept or disclose your message;
4. Finally, you may have waived you rights to protection under ECPA. If the
contract with your electronic service provider, for example, says that the
service provider can intercept your messages, then you can't complain if
the provider does. The same may be true with your employer - but that is
a topic we discuss later.
(This is said in the text)

21. Lesson 21: Privacy 9: ECPA: Material You Might Have Stored on Your

“What are hackers?”

- Hackers are computer experts that tend to access information which they
were not allowed to or authorized to do so.

22. Lesson 22: Privacy 10: Self-Help: Encryption

“What is Encryption?”

- It is a technique that protects your important file. In Computer, encryption

hides your files, folders, etc and the only thing to access it is by your password.

23. Lesson 23: Privacy 11: Privacy: Self-Help: Anonymity, Part 1

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“What is Anonymity”?

- Similar to Pseudonym, Anonymity is like when you post a message and

you put your screen name on it. The next time you post a message you
may use a different name again. That’s Anonymity.

24. Lesson 24: Lesson 24 - Privacy 12: Privacy: Self-Help: Anonymity,

Part 2

“Why are Aliases important when posting a message?”

- It simply protects your identity. People will not know who post the

25. Lesson 25: Privacy 13: Private Spaces

“What is Private Space?”

- It is a boundary that between you and the one you are invading privacy.


“What is the EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation)?”

- EFF is the leading civil liberties group defending your rights in the digital

“Who is Lawrence Lessig?”

- Lawrence Lessig (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic. He is a

professor of law at Stanford Law School and founder of its Center for
Internet and Society. He is founder and CEO of the Creative Commons
and a board member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation and of the
Software Freedom Law Center, launched in February 2005. He is best
known as a proponent of reduced legal restrictions on copyright,
trademark and radio frequency spectrum, particularly in technology

“What is creative commons?”

- “Creative Commons defines the spectrum of possibilities between full

copyright — all rights reserved — and the public domain — no rights
reserved. Our licenses help you keep your copyright while inviting certain

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uses of your work — a “some rights reserved” copyright.”

“Who is Bruce Schneier?”

- Bruce Schneier (born 15 January 1963) is an American cryptographer,

computer security specialist, and writer. He is the author of several books
on computer security and cryptography, and is the founder and chief
technology officer of BT Counterpane, formerly Counterpane Internet
Security, Inc.

The latest Crypto-Gram Newsletter (15 February 2008) via Counterpane

“What can you say in this case?”

- Right now I think privacy and securities were seen not to be protected.
There are technologies available in the market that can pass through the
walls of privacy and securities.

University Networks and Data Breaches White Paper via Counterpane


“What can you say about the theft protection issue of Ohio University?”

- They should provide certain actions in order to secure their files. These
file are confidential and delicate and must have a necessary protection
against unauthorized individual who want to access it.

“What is Advance Encryption Standard?”

- In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known

as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the
U.S. government. It has been analyzed extensively and is now used
worldwide, as was the case with its predecessor,[3] the Data Encryption
Standard (DES). AES was announced by National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST) as U.S. FIPS PUB 197 (FIPS 197) on November
26, 2001 after a 5-year standardization process (see Advanced Encryption
Standard process for more details). It became effective as a standard May
26, 2002. As of 2006, AES is one of the most popular algorithms used in
symmetric key cryptography. It is available by choice in many different
encryption packages.

“What is PGP?”

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- Pretty Good Privacy is a computer program that provides cryptographic
privacy and authentication. PGP is often used for signing, encrypting and
decrypting e- mails to increase reliability for e-mail communications. It was
originally created by Philip Zimmermann in 1991.

“Who is Phil Zimmerman?”

- Philip R. "Phil" Zimmermann Jr. (born February 12, 1954) is the creator
of Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), the most widely used email encryption
software in the world [citation needed]. He is also known for his work in
VoIP encryption protocols, notably ZRTP and Zfone.

He was born in Camden, New Jersey. His father was a concrete mixer
truck driver. He received a B.S. degree in computer science from Florida
Atlantic University in Boca Raton in 1978.

Hindustan Lever Limited Case Study

1. What is the innovation that HLL introduced in the area of diarrheal

disease prevention?

- Hindustan Lever Limited provides education to the people especially to

the poor about the hand washing with soap. It provides preventive measures for
diarrheal disease. Washing hands with soap reduce the incident of infection of
bacteria that cause diarrhea.

2. Why is hand washing an excellent preventive measure against diarrheal


- Hand washing with soap is an excellent preventive measure against

diarrheal disease because our hands are the one mostly expose to germs. We
often use our hands in getting something, using something or getting something
to someone else. The hands serves as the bridge of germs to enter in our body
which causes different kinds of diseases preferably diarrhea.

3. Why is an MNC in the best position to influence behavioral change in

combating diarrheal disease?

- MNC being a soap manufacturer is knowledgeable about the good

benefits that hand washing with soap is very important in preventing diarrheal
disease. Here the people of India can easily believe the campaign for the
benefits of hand washing with soap.

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4. According to Yuri Jain of HLL, what is the connection between diarrheal
disease prevention and HLL products?

- Hindustan Lever Limited is the largest soap manufacturer in India. If it is

proven that hand washing with soap is good, consumption of soap will increase
and HLL will have to manufacture more soaps which increases demand on their
product and increase sales.

5. According to Harpreet Singh Tibb, what is the connection for HLL

between economy, beauty and health?

- Hindustan Lever Limited being the largest soap manufacturer increases

the demand of consumer of their soap product which affects the economy.
People tend to buy their product as for prevention for diarrhea. Also HLL shift the
position of their soap to beauty and health platform to encourage more

6. What was the impact of the Central American Hand washing Initiative to
its beneficiaries?

- The Initiative developed hand washing education messages that each

private partner incorporated into its own marketing campaigns. (As said in the

7. What was the reason for Dr. Vedana Shiva's opposition to the PPP? Is it

- She believes that Kerela has the highest knowledge of prevention

diarrhea because of high female literacy and local health practice than PPP.
Findings have shown that sanitation coverage in Kerela is 51.36% in urban areas
and 44% in rural areas. Shiva believes that Kerela cleanliness and hygiene
knowledge should be the one exported to the rest of the world.

8. If you were in a position to decide how to go ahead with PPP while

knowing the opposition how would you go about it?

- Well I would rather decide to believe to the side who will give me a
convincing study they have about health and hygiene.

9. How did Lifebuoy re-brand itself? Do you agree with HLL Chairman
Marvinder Sing Banga's decision? Why/

- Before Lifebuoy target market are the men engage in sports, the athletes.
Now they target the entire family and this reassure the existing consumer that
Lifebuoy is health soap.

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10. What is Chairman Banga's approach to costing Lifebuoy? Do you agree
with this approach?

- Yes I agree that Lifebuoy is affordable to the masses. The approach is

good because the people in the bottom of the pyramid budget their money
carefully and Lifebuoy soap has a promising effectiveness in killing germs.

11. What is the key to sustained community behavioral change according

to Harpreet Singh Tibb?

- To sustained community behavioral change their must be programs that

have multiple contacts, low in cost, scalable and is sustainable. It also must be
interactive because community participation is very important.

12. The Lifebuoy Swasthya Cheetna program decided to go through the

local school system, would this approach work in the Philippines?

- This approach will surely work in the Philippines because many Filipino
people are unaware of the danger that diarrhea might cause and they also do not
value cleanliness, especially in the rural areas. So it is good that in their early
ages, they have the knowledge about this situation and so they can prevent it.

13. What is the Lifebuoy Swasthya Cheetna's process for creating

behavioral change?

- Structured communication process is the key that Lifebuoy Swasthya

Cheetna in creating behavioral change. Each one relies on a five key
communication tactics, education, involvement, shock, reiteration and reward.

14. Each exposure in the behavioral change process involved 5 key

communication tactics, can you add or subtract to these tactics? Would
these tactics work in the Philippines?

- Yes I think these tactics will work and I also think that this is enough for
the Filipino people who belongs in the bottom of the pyramid level. These tactics
will help these people to be educated about good health.

15. Explain the germ-glow demonstration. Do you think it was effective?

Are there any alternatives?

- The germ-glow demonstration tells us that visual clean doesn’t mean

safe clean. Yes this is effective because it will help the children at their young
and innocent minds to clearly understand how deadly germs are.

16. How did you think the Swasthya Chetna program impact HLL? Was it a

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- HLL, through its innovative campaigns, has developed a link to use soap
to promote a healthy means of behavioral change and this increased the sales of
its low-cost mass-market soap. Educating about health benefits can also benefit
the company because they can create a higher perceived value for money and
thus increasing the customer’s demands. I think it was a success because of
increasing sales while decreasing cost of their company. (As said in the case)

17. How can wealthier Indian populations benefit from the health and
hygiene messages?

- They can benefit from these health hygiene and messages because
some wealthier Indians were busy on their work which gives them the lack of
information about health and the good benefits of hand washing.

18. Is the PPP scalable? What about the Swasthya Chetna program?

- PPP is scalable because PPP’s network and resources have allowed it

to immediately expand globally with project planning is underway in five nations.
Swasthya Cherna is also scalable because the company has been able to design
and implement programs quickly. (As said in the case)

19. Yuri Jain claims that PPP has scale. Do you agree with him?

- Yes, because PPP engage in partnership with the government and other
big companies that can help sustain the needs of the program.

20. Why do you think PPP was slowed down while the Swathsya Chetna
program pushed through?

- Although scalability seems to be greater with the PPP, direct benefits to

corporate sales lies with Swasthya Cherna. Through strategic selection of
villages, Swathsya Chetna maximized the use of limited funds to reach targete
demographics to increase Lifebuoy sals. PPP encounters some political
problems that slowed down the program and it impacted HLL’s plans to deliver
health education and expand the soap market. (As said in the case)

“Ethical and social issues in the information age texts in computer


1. Define security and privacy. Why are both important in the

information age?

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- Security prevents unauthorized access to access to information. Privacy
is the right of individual to cover or hide his information from the public. Both
privacy and security is important in the information age because it helps protect
our important information against the public and unauthorized access by other

2. What is anonymity? Discuss two forms of anonymity.

- Anonymity is like hiding an individual’s true identity and information from

the public. There are two forms of anonymity; Pseudo Identity is hiding a
person’s identity and that person is only known by a certain pseudonym.
Untraceable Identity is like hiding an individual’s identity and has no pseudonym.

3. Discuss the importance of anonymity on the Internet.

- The importance of anonymity is that you can hide your identity and
protect yourself from individuals that do unnecessary things to your information,
but for just a minimum amount of time because there are technologies today that
can still access to your information even you are in anonymous state.

4. Is total anonymity possible? Is it useful?

- In today’s age, I think no because of the rapidly evolving of information

technology. Anonymity of an individual in the internet has both advantage and
disadvantage to the public. One advantage of being anonymous is that your
information is protected from the public’s abuse. One disadvantage is, because
of curiosity, people, especially crackers, might want to get information about you
and they will try to hack into your system.

5. Develop two scenarios—one dealing with ethical issues involving

security, and the other dealing with ethical issues involving privacy.

- A suspected criminal is being wire tapped by authority. This is an

example of a privacy issue but legal.

The recent Ultra stampede made ABS-CBN learn a lot. There’s a concert
conducted by ABS-CBN again in Ultra. They make sure that the securities were
tight and highly alert. The people who want to watch the concert were all tired
because of the long line in the ticket boot because of the security. This is an
example of security issues.

6. Is personal privacy dead? Discuss.

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- No personal privacy is not dead because the law gives every individual
the right for their privacy and protected by it. Though the right of privacy is
invaded if a person is suspected for a crime.

7. List and discuss the major threats to individual privacy.

- Evolution of surveillance technology – technologies available in the

market right now are threats to individual privacy. Some of these technologies
can help invade someone privacy.

- Curiosity – whenever how protective you are in your personal

information; there are still people who try to invade your privacy.

- Recklessness of financial institutions – like the government institutions

we have which have our information and have no protection against anyone who
try to get that information for some reasons like no budget, individual privacy is in
great danger.

- Poor information security – this what our government institution lacks.

They don’t have budgets for this so there’s a big change that our information can
be easily stole by someone.

- Unknowledgeable to information hacking – Our country is the

development stage but still lacks information like hacking and the good benefits
of embracing technology in business.

8. Identity theft is the fastest growing crime. Why?

- As how technology rapidly growing same with identity theft. There are
technologies that can prevent identity theft but there are also technology that can
be use to steal someone’s identity.

9. Why is it so easy to steal a person’s identity?

- Aside from the advance technologies today, people have also poor
knowledge on how to protect their privacy.

10. Suggest steps necessary to protect personal identity.

Apply and understand these protection policies to help you protect your

- Technical- Use software that can protect your privacy.

- Contractual – Determine of how and which information is distributed.

Know to protect it against unauthorized access of someone.

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- Legal – Be knowledgeable about the laws that protect the individual’s
privacy to help protect your information.

11. Governments are partners in the demise of personal privacy.


- Even though the government provides laws that protect individuals’

privacy, they still want to invade it for some reasons like politics.

12. Anonymity is a doubly edged sword. Discuss.

- In the internet, people will not know your identity so you can do what
ever unethical activities you want. This is how anonymity works.

13. Are the steps given in Section 5.4.5 enough to prevent identity theft?
Can you add more?

- I think I will add another step which is self governance. Self governance
helps decrease curiosity of the people who try to access someone’s information.

14. What role do special relationships play in identity theft?

- A friend for example. He thinks that he is close enough to have access to

your information without your consent which leads to broken relationship.

15. Modern day information mining is as good as gold! Why or why not?

- In America, information is gold. They were all desperate to protect it

because of identity theft. These information for example can be use to open a
credit card under your name but a different person is using it.
16. How do consumers unknowingly contribute to their own privacy

- Consumers are unaware of the limitation in giving information that’s why

they experience privacy theft or their privacy is invaded.

17. How has the Financial Services Modernization Act helped

companies in gathering personal information?

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- The Act aims to limit financial institutions such as banks and brokerages
from sharing customers’ personal information with third parties. The Act also tries
in some way to protect the customer through three requirements that the
institutions must disclose to us:

- Privacy Policy - through which the institution is bound to tell us the types
of information the institution collects and has about us and how it uses that

- Right to Opt-Out - through which the institution is bound to explain our

recourse to prevent the transfer of our data to third party beneficiaries.

- Safeguards - through which the institution must put in place policies to

prevent fraudulent access to confidential financial information.
(As said in the text)


1. Discuss the problems faced by software developers trying to apply

for protection under trade secret statutes.

- Software developers is having a problem in protecting the blueprint and

flowchart of their computer program because once these blueprints and
flowchart is known outside the design circle, many people can copy it and
create one for their own.

2. Why is it difficult to apply patent laws to software?

- It is costly and there are many requirements needed to comply and the
risk of piracy when sold in public.

3. Why is it possible to apply patent law to software?

- Like inventions, software is also an invention and therefore qualified for

protection of the patent law.

4. Is it possible to trademark software?

- Yes because this separates the difference of the original software from
fake because of the label.

5. Discuss the ethical and legal issues surrounding software ownership.

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- Common issue is piracy. A customer buys software and the customer
makes copies of it.

- Computer software has no guidelines so one can use to claim that

because software is considered a source of an algorithm, it is, therefore,

6. There is a move to do away with the current copyright law. Why?

- I forgot the title of that movie I’ve watch, but there’s this quote said their,
that I still keep in mind “Human knowledge belongs to the world”. Similar to
software inventions, they believe that it is for the public and will help
communities or people to make their lives easier.
7. Why is the copyright law, in its present form, considered to be

- People violate this law for their personal interest. Some of them are
unaware of the copyright law. Others also were not aware that they are
violating the copyright law. And some also were unable to tract by authorities.

8. What changes would you suggest in the current copyright laws to

make it enforceable in cyberspace?

- People have different views about the copyright law. It is better that
these views are well gathered, planned, and modify to come up with a
universal law that everyone agrees.

9. Has the Internet made software protection easier or more difficult?

Why or why not?

- The internet is a source of pool of information. It makes software

protection difficult because I just make it prone to hackers or unauthorized
access to information.

10. There is a movement (that includes hackers) that is advocating for

free software! Discuss the merits of this idea, if any.

- It will affect the survival of the companies offering good software. Many
companies would probably experience low sales of their software products. It
will also affect the consumers in choosing effective software products.

11. Because of income disparities between north and south, and have
and have-nots, fair pricing of computer products is impossible.

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- Yes I do agree because each country in the globe has different economic
status. Software companies should consider the situation and provides
strategic ways on how they will capitalize their products.

12. Most copyright violations are found in developing, usually, poor

countries. Why?

- Yes true because they first value their basic needs and they want a
cheaper products so they tend to embrace piracy. I can say that companies
producing original products get low sales in the poor countries because their
products were being pirated.

13. Does the high price of software marketing in developing countries

justify the high rate of software piracy in those countries? Why?

- Yes because people want to buy cheap products in order to save money
for more important uses.

14. What do you think is the cause of the rising cost of software?

- The immeasurable quality

- Much diverse specs among the pirated one
- Cost of materials
- Cost of Manufacturing

15. Is globalization a means through which the developed, usually

northern countries, will enforce the copyright laws?

- Yes because the opinions of other countries will be heard. Globalization

will also identify the proper laws to be enforced with considerations of the
economic status of every country.


Kizza, Joseph Migga(2007). Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age.
Third Edition. Springer-Verlag London Limited. 2007.

Jaipur Foot Case Study Guide Questions

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1. What is the innovation of Jaipur Foot?

Jaipur foot is design base on the active lifestyle of the poor. This product gives
hope for the poor amputee people who can’t afford prosthetic products. The price
is not like the usual price of other prosthetic products. Jaipur foot is more
affordable and can be afford by the poor people.

2. What is the business of Jaipur Foot?

Jaipur foot sells prosthetic products that are affordable by the poor amputees.
They target the poor amputee people for them to continue their normal lives.

3. Who are the main beneficiaries of Jaipur Foot's products?

Jaipur Foot’s main beneficiaries are those amputees that are poor.

4. Why is Afghanistan one of the markets of Jaipur Foot?

We are all aware of the war in Afghanistan. There are so many bombs and
landmines in the country. In fact there are so many victims of landmines which
cause to have more amputees in Afghanistan. Jaipur foot target this country
because there are many poor people here who can’t afford expensive prosthetic

5. How does Jaipur Foot's product pricing compare with the West?

Jaipuf Foot’s products are cheap yet high quality than the western prosthetic

6. What is the Gait Cycle?

Gait cycle is an activity that happen when the heel strike of a limb and the
succeeding heel strike of the same limb. It is also as the rhythmic alternating
movements of the two lower extremities.

7. How was the first Jaipur Foot artificial limb developed?

The first Jaipur Foot artificial limb is not flexible enough and doesn’t allow normal
range of motion. It is limited to few movements. Then the developers came up
the idea of making an artificial limb that is flexible and motions like a normal foot.
He applies rubber in the artificial limb in order for the user to walk easily.

8. What are the design considerations in the Jaipur Foot Design


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Jaipur Foot’s process products must be capable of squatting, sitting cross-legged,
walking on uneven ground and can use to walk barefooted.

9. What are the constraints in the development for Jaipur Foot?

The constraints in the development of Jaipur Foot is the consideration of the

customers status like poverty, closed economy, work lifestyle and limited trained

10. How can you compare the raw materials for Jaipur Foot vs. other

Jaipur Foot’s raw materials are locally available and it does not require special
procurement agreements.

11. Explain a typical fitting day for a Jaipur Foot? How does it compare
with the West?

Jaipur foot designs each of their patients with prosthetic leg and fit it in one day.
They serve their patients with free meals and accommodation of the patient’s
family members. In the west, customers tend to have many schedule in
examinations of their needed prosthetics and because of that, it increases the
cost by the customers. It also makes the customers to experience exhaustion of

12. What is the BMVSS? How does Jaipur Foot conduct community

BMVSS is an organization with an operating system which could have the Jaipur
Foot available to as many amputees as possible. BMVSS emphasizes an
approach to address the problems of the amputees including medical, financial
and social problems.

13. Compare Jaipur Foot with Ossur - which one is more competitive?

The Jaipur foot has a greater cost in creating its products and Ossur have a
greater cost in the administrative and operation cost. I think that Jaipur Foot is
more competitive because even though the price is design for the amputees of
the poor, it does have good quality and Jaipur foot focus their products of their on
quality and not in promotion like other products do.

14. Is the Jaipur Foot model scalable? Explain.

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Jaipur Foot model is scalable because they have successful operations in other

15. What is the significance of Jaipur Foot's cooperation with ISRO?

It reduces the cost of manufacturing a Jaipur Foot product. It also decreases the
weight of the product and it will become more durable and comfortable to use.


1. Who is Barack Obama?

Barack Hussein Obama, Jr. is a senator in America in the state of Illinois.

He is also a candidate for presidency in the upcoming 2008 U.S. presidential
election. Since announcing his presidential campaign in February 2007, Obama
has emphasized ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and
providing universal health care as his top three priorities. He has written two
bestselling books: a memoir of his youth titled Dreams from My Father, and The
Audacity of Hope, a personal commentary on U.S. politics.

2. Transcript of Barack Obama’s speech about race in Philadelphia,


The following is a transcript of the remarks of Democratic Illinois Sen. Barack

Obama, delivered March 18, 2008, in Philadelphia at the Constitution Center. In it,
Obama addresses the role race has played in the presidential campaign. He also
responds to criticism of the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, an unpaid campaign adviser
and pastor at Obama's Chicago church. Wright has made inflammatory remarks
about the United States and has accused the country of bringing on the Sept. 11
attacks by spreading terrorism.

"We the people, in order to form a more perfect union ..." — 221 years ago, in a
hall that still stands across the street, a group of men gathered and, with these
simple words, launched America's improbable experiment in democracy.
Farmers and scholars, statesmen and patriots who had traveled across an ocean
to escape tyranny and persecution finally made real their declaration of
independence at a Philadelphia convention that lasted through the spring of 1787.

The document they produced was eventually signed but ultimately unfinished. It
was stained by this nation's original sin of slavery, a question that divided the
colonies and brought the convention to a stalemate until the founders chose to
allow the slave trade to continue for at least 20 more years, and to leave any final
resolution to future generations.

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Of course, the answer to the slavery question was already embedded within our
Constitution — a Constitution that had at is very core the ideal of equal
citizenship under the law; a Constitution that promised its people liberty and
justice and a union that could be and should be perfected over time.

And yet words on a parchment would not be enough to deliver slaves from
bondage, or provide men and women of every color and creed their full rights
and obligations as citizens of the United States. What would be needed were
Americans in successive generations who were willing to do their part — through
protests and struggles, on the streets and in the courts, through a civil war and
civil disobedience, and always at great risk — to narrow that gap between the
promise of our ideals and the reality of their time.

This was one of the tasks we set forth at the beginning of this presidential
campaign — to continue the long march of those who came before us, a march
for a more just, more equal, more free, more caring and more prosperous
America. I chose to run for president at this moment in history because I believe
deeply that we cannot solve the challenges of our time unless we solve them
together, unless we perfect our union by understanding that we may have
different stories, but we hold common hopes; that we may not look the same and
we may not have come from the same place, but we all want to move in the
same direction — toward a better future for our children and our grandchildren.

This belief comes from my unyielding faith in the decency and generosity of the
American people. But it also comes from my own story.

I am the son of a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. I was
raised with the help of a white grandfather who survived a Depression to serve in
Patton's Army during World War II and a white grandmother who worked on a
bomber assembly line at Fort Leavenworth while he was overseas. I've gone to
some of the best schools in America and lived in one of the world's poorest
nations. I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of
slaves and slaveowners — an inheritance we pass on to our two precious
daughters. I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins of
every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I
live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible.

It's a story that hasn't made me the most conventional of candidates. But it is a
story that has seared into my genetic makeup the idea that this nation is more
than the sum of its parts — that out of many, we are truly one.

Throughout the first year of this campaign, against all predictions to the contrary,
we saw how hungry the American people were for this message of unity. Despite
the temptation to view my candidacy through a purely racial lens, we won
commanding victories in states with some of the whitest populations in the

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country. In South Carolina, where the Confederate flag still flies, we built a
powerful coalition of African-Americans and white Americans.

This is not to say that race has not been an issue in this campaign. At various
stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either "too black"
or "not black enough." We saw racial tensions bubble to the surface during the
week before the South Carolina primary. The press has scoured every single exit
poll for the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in terms of white and
black, but black and brown as well.

And yet, it has only been in the last couple of weeks that the discussion of race in
this campaign has taken a particularly divisive turn.

On one end of the spectrum, we've heard the implication that my candidacy is
somehow an exercise in affirmative action; that it's based solely on the desire of
wide-eyed liberals to purchase racial reconciliation on the cheap. On the other
end, we've heard my former pastor, Jeremiah Wright, use incendiary language to
express views that have the potential not only to widen the racial divide, but
views that denigrate both the greatness and the goodness of our nation, and that
rightly offend white and black alike.

I have already condemned, in unequivocal terms, the statements of Reverend

Wright that have caused such controversy and, in some cases, pain. For some,
nagging questions remain. Did I know him to be an occasionally fierce critic of
American domestic and foreign policy? Of course. Did I ever hear him make
remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in the church? Yes.
Did I strongly disagree with many of his political views? Absolutely — just as I'm
sure many of you have heard remarks from your pastors, priests, or rabbis with
which you strongly disagreed.

But the remarks that have caused this recent firestorm weren't simply
controversial. They weren't simply a religious leader's efforts to speak out against
perceived injustice. Instead, they expressed a profoundly distorted view of this
country — a view that sees white racism as endemic, and that elevates what is
wrong with America above all that we know is right with America; a view that
sees the conflicts in the Middle East as rooted primarily in the actions of stalwart
allies like Israel, instead of emanating from the perverse and hateful ideologies of
radical Islam.

As such, Reverend Wright's comments were not only wrong but divisive, divisive
at a time when we need unity; racially charged at a time when we need to come
together to solve a set of monumental problems — two wars, a terrorist threat, a
falling economy, a chronic health care crisis and potentially devastating climate
change — problems that are neither black or white or Latino or Asian, but rather
problems that confront us all.

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Given my background, my politics, and my professed values and ideals, there will
no doubt be those for whom my statements of condemnation are not enough.
Why associate myself with Reverend Wright in the first place, they may ask?
Why not join another church? And I confess that if all that I knew of Reverend
Wright were the snippets of those sermons that have run in an endless loop on
the television sets and YouTube, or if Trinity United Church of Christ conformed
to the caricatures being peddled by some commentators, there is no doubt that I
would react in much the same way.

But the truth is, that isn't all that I know of the man. The man I met more than 20
years ago is a man who helped introduce me to my Christian faith, a man who
spoke to me about our obligations to love one another, to care for the sick and lift
up the poor. He is a man who served his country as a United States Marine; who
has studied and lectured at some of the finest universities and seminaries in the
country, and who for over 30 years has led a church that serves the community
by doing God's work here on Earth — by housing the homeless, ministering to
the needy, providing day care services and scholarships and prison ministries,
and reaching out to those suffering from HIV/AIDS.

In my first book, Dreams From My Father, I describe the experience of my first

service at Trinity:

"People began to shout, to rise from their seats and clap and cry out, a forceful
wind carrying the reverend's voice up into the rafters. And in that single note —
hope! — I heard something else: At the foot of that cross, inside the thousands of
churches across the city, I imagined the stories of ordinary black people merging
with the stories of David and Goliath, Moses and Pharaoh, the Christians in the
lion's den, Ezekiel's field of dry bones. Those stories — of survival and freedom
and hope — became our stories, my story. The blood that spilled was our blood,
the tears our tears, until this black church, on this bright day, seemed once more
a vessel carrying the story of a people into future generations and into a larger
world. Our trials and triumphs became at once unique and universal, black and
more than black. In chronicling our journey, the stories and songs gave us a
meaning to reclaim memories that we didn't need to feel shame about —
memories that all people might study and cherish, and with which we could start
to rebuild."

That has been my experience at Trinity. Like other predominantly black churches
across the country, Trinity embodies the black community in its entirety — the
doctor and the welfare mom, the model student and the former gang-banger.
Like other black churches, Trinity's services are full of raucous laughter and
sometimes bawdy humor. They are full of dancing and clapping and screaming
and shouting that may seem jarring to the untrained ear. The church contains in
full the kindness and cruelty, the fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance,
the struggles and successes, the love and, yes, the bitterness and biases that
make up the black experience in America.

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And this helps explain, perhaps, my relationship with Reverend Wright. As
imperfect as he may be, he has been like family to me. He strengthened my faith,
officiated my wedding, and baptized my children. Not once in my conversations
with him have I heard him talk about any ethnic group in derogatory terms, or
treat whites with whom he interacted with anything but courtesy and respect. He
contains within him the contradictions — the good and the bad — of the
community that he has served diligently for so many years.

I can no more disown him than I can disown the black community. I can no more
disown him than I can disown my white grandmother — a woman who helped
raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for me, a woman who loves
me as much as she loves anything in this world, but a woman who once
confessed her fear of black men who passed her by on the street, and who on
more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me

These people are a part of me. And they are part of America, this country that I

Some will see this as an attempt to justify or excuse comments that are simply
inexcusable. I can assure you it is not. I suppose the politically safe thing to do
would be to move on from this episode and just hope that it fades into the
woodwork. We can dismiss Reverend Wright as a crank or a demagogue, just as
some have dismissed Geraldine Ferraro, in the aftermath of her recent
statements, as harboring some deep-seated bias.

But race is an issue that I believe this nation cannot afford to ignore right now.
We would be making the same mistake that Reverend Wright made in his
offending sermons about America — to simplify and stereotype and amplify the
negative to the point that it distorts reality.

The fact is that the comments that have been made and the issues that have
surfaced over the last few weeks reflect the complexities of race in this country
that we've never really worked through — a part of our union that we have not yet
made perfect. And if we walk away now, if we simply retreat into our respective
corners, we will never be able to come together and solve challenges like health
care or education or the need to find good jobs for every American.

Understanding this reality requires a reminder of how we arrived at this point. As

William Faulkner once wrote, "The past isn't dead and buried. In fact, it isn't even
past." We do not need to recite here the history of racial injustice in this country.
But we do need to remind ourselves that so many of the disparities that exist
between the African-American community and the larger American community
today can be traced directly to inequalities passed on from an earlier generation
that suffered under the brutal legacy of slavery and Jim Crow.

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Segregated schools were and are inferior schools; we still haven't fixed them, 50
years after Brown v. Board of Education. And the inferior education they provided,
then and now, helps explain the pervasive achievement gap between today's
black and white students.

Legalized discrimination — where blacks were prevented, often through violence,

from owning property, or loans were not granted to African-American business
owners, or black homeowners could not access FHA mortgages, or blacks were
excluded from unions or the police force or the fire department — meant that
black families could not amass any meaningful wealth to bequeath to future
generations. That history helps explain the wealth and income gap between
blacks and whites, and the concentrated pockets of poverty that persist in so
many of today's urban and rural communities.

A lack of economic opportunity among black men, and the shame and frustration
that came from not being able to provide for one's family contributed to the
erosion of black families — a problem that welfare policies for many years may
have worsened. And the lack of basic services in so many urban black
neighborhoods — parks for kids to play in, police walking the beat, regular
garbage pickup, building code enforcement — all helped create a cycle of
violence, blight and neglect that continues to haunt us.

This is the reality in which Reverend Wright and other African-Americans of his
generation grew up. They came of age in the late '50s and early '60s, a time
when segregation was still the law of the land and opportunity was systematically
constricted. What's remarkable is not how many failed in the face of
discrimination, but how many men and women overcame the odds; how many
were able to make a way out of no way, for those like me who would come after

For all those who scratched and clawed their way to get a piece of the American
Dream, there were many who didn't make it — those who were ultimately
defeated, in one way or another, by discrimination. That legacy of defeat was
passed on to future generations — those young men and, increasingly, young
women who we see standing on street corners or languishing in our prisons,
without hope or prospects for the future. Even for those blacks who did make it,
questions of race and racism continue to define their worldview in fundamental
ways. For the men and women of Reverend Wright's generation, the memories of
humiliation and doubt and fear have not gone away; nor has the anger and the
bitterness of those years. That anger may not get expressed in public, in front of
white co-workers or white friends. But it does find voice in the barbershop or the
beauty shop or around the kitchen table. At times, that anger is exploited by
politicians, to gin up votes along racial lines, or to make up for a politician's own

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And occasionally it finds voice in the church on Sunday morning, in the pulpit and
in the pews. The fact that so many people are surprised to hear that anger in
some of Reverend Wright's sermons simply reminds us of the old truism that the
most segregated hour of American life occurs on Sunday morning. That anger is
not always productive; indeed, all too often it distracts attention from solving real
problems; it keeps us from squarely facing our own complicity within the African-
American community in our condition, and prevents the African-American
community from forging the alliances it needs to bring about real change. But the
anger is real; it is powerful. And to simply wish it away, to condemn it without
understanding its roots, only serves to widen the chasm of misunderstanding that
exists between the races.

In fact, a similar anger exists within segments of the white community. Most
working- and middle-class white Americans don't feel that they have been
particularly privileged by their race. Their experience is the immigrant experience
— as far as they're concerned, no one handed them anything. They built it from
scratch. They've worked hard all their lives, many times only to see their jobs
shipped overseas or their pensions dumped after a lifetime of labor. They are
anxious about their futures, and they feel their dreams slipping away. And in an
era of stagnant wages and global competition, opportunity comes to be seen as a
zero sum game, in which your dreams come at my expense. So when they are
told to bus their children to a school across town; when they hear an African-
American is getting an advantage in landing a good job or a spot in a good
college because of an injustice that they themselves never committed; when
they're told that their fears about crime in urban neighborhoods are somehow
prejudiced, resentment builds over time.

Like the anger within the black community, these resentments aren't always
expressed in polite company. But they have helped shape the political landscape
for at least a generation. Anger over welfare and affirmative action helped forge
the Reagan Coalition. Politicians routinely exploited fears of crime for their own
electoral ends. Talk show hosts and conservative commentators built entire
careers unmasking bogus claims of racism while dismissing legitimate
discussions of racial injustice and inequality as mere political correctness or
reverse racism.

Just as black anger often proved counterproductive, so have these white

resentments distracted attention from the real culprits of the middle class
squeeze — a corporate culture rife with inside dealing, questionable accounting
practices and short-term greed; a Washington dominated by lobbyists and
special interests; economic policies that favor the few over the many. And yet, to
wish away the resentments of white Americans, to label them as misguided or
even racist, without recognizing they are grounded in legitimate concerns — this
too widens the racial divide and blocks the path to understanding.

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This is where we are right now. It's a racial stalemate we've been stuck in for
years. Contrary to the claims of some of my critics, black and white, I have never
been so naïve as to believe that we can get beyond our racial divisions in a
single election cycle, or with a single candidacy — particularly a candidacy as
imperfect as my own.

But I have asserted a firm conviction — a conviction rooted in my faith in God

and my faith in the American people — that, working together, we can move
beyond some of our old racial wounds, and that in fact we have no choice if we
are to continue on the path of a more perfect union.

For the African-American community, that path means embracing the burdens of
our past without becoming victims of our past. It means continuing to insist on a
full measure of justice in every aspect of American life. But it also means binding
our particular grievances — for better health care and better schools and better
jobs — to the larger aspirations of all Americans: the white woman struggling to
break the glass ceiling, the white man who has been laid off, the immigrant trying
to feed his family. And it means taking full responsibility for our own lives — by
demanding more from our fathers, and spending more time with our children, and
reading to them, and teaching them that while they may face challenges and
discrimination in their own lives, they must never succumb to despair or cynicism;
they must always believe that they can write their own destiny.

Ironically, this quintessentially American — and yes, conservative — notion of

self-help found frequent expression in Reverend Wright's sermons. But what my
former pastor too often failed to understand is that embarking on a program of
self-help also requires a belief that society can change.

The profound mistake of Reverend Wright's sermons is not that he spoke about
racism in our society. It's that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no
progress had been made; as if this country — a country that has made it possible
for one of his own members to run for the highest office in the land and build a
coalition of white and black, Latino and Asian, rich and poor, young and old — is
still irrevocably bound to a tragic past. But what we know — what we have seen
— is that America can change. That is the true genius of this nation. What we
have already achieved gives us hope — the audacity to hope — for what we can
and must achieve tomorrow.

In the white community, the path to a more perfect union means acknowledging
that what ails the African-American community does not just exist in the minds of
black people; that the legacy of discrimination — and current incidents of
discrimination, while less overt than in the past — are real and must be
addressed, not just with words, but with deeds, by investing in our schools and
our communities; by enforcing our civil rights laws and ensuring fairness in our
criminal justice system; by providing this generation with ladders of opportunity
that were unavailable for previous generations. It requires all Americans to

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realize that your dreams do not have to come at the expense of my dreams; that
investing in the health, welfare and education of black and brown and white
children will ultimately help all of America prosper.

In the end, then, what is called for is nothing more and nothing less than what all
the world's great religions demand — that we do unto others as we would have
them do unto us. Let us be our brother's keeper, scripture tells us. Let us be our
sister's keeper. Let us find that common stake we all have in one another, and let
our politics reflect that spirit as well.

For we have a choice in this country. We can accept a politics that breeds
division and conflict and cynicism. We can tackle race only as spectacle — as we
did in the O.J. trial — or in the wake of tragedy — as we did in the aftermath of
Katrina — or as fodder for the nightly news. We can play Reverend Wright's
sermons on every channel, every day and talk about them from now until the
election, and make the only question in this campaign whether or not the
American people think that I somehow believe or sympathize with his most
offensive words. We can pounce on some gaffe by a Hillary supporter as
evidence that she's playing the race card, or we can speculate on whether white
men will all flock to John McCain in the general election regardless of his policies.

We can do that.

But if we do, I can tell you that in the next election, we'll be talking about some
other distraction. And then another one. And then another one. And nothing will

That is one option. Or, at this moment, in this election, we can come together and
say, "Not this time." This time, we want to talk about the crumbling schools that
are stealing the future of black children and white children and Asian children and
Hispanic children and Native American children. This time, we want to reject the
cynicism that tells us that these kids can't learn; that those kids who don't look
like us are somebody else's problem. The children of America are not those kids,
they are our kids, and we will not let them fall behind in a 21st century economy.
Not this time.

This time we want to talk about how the lines in the emergency room are filled
with whites and blacks and Hispanics who do not have health care, who don't
have the power on their own to overcome the special interests in Washington,
but who can take them on if we do it together.

This time, we want to talk about the shuttered mills that once provided a decent
life for men and women of every race, and the homes for sale that once belonged
to Americans from every religion, every region, every walk of life. This time, we
want to talk about the fact that the real problem is not that someone who doesn't

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look like you might take your job; it's that the corporation you work for will ship it
overseas for nothing more than a profit.

This time, we want to talk about the men and women of every color and creed
who serve together and fight together and bleed together under the same proud
flag. We want to talk about how to bring them home from a war that should have
never been authorized and should have never been waged. And we want to talk
about how we'll show our patriotism by caring for them and their families, and
giving them the benefits that they have earned.

I would not be running for President if I didn't believe with all my heart that this is
what the vast majority of Americans want for this country. This union may never
be perfect, but generation after generation has shown that it can always be
perfected. And today, whenever I find myself feeling doubtful or cynical about this
possibility, what gives me the most hope is the next generation — the young
people whose attitudes and beliefs and openness to change have already made
history in this election.

There is one story in particularly that I'd like to leave you with today — a story I
told when I had the great honor of speaking on Dr. King's birthday at his home
church, Ebenezer Baptist, in Atlanta.

There is a young, 23-year-old white woman named Ashley Baia who organized
for our campaign in Florence, S.C. She had been working to organize a mostly
African-American community since the beginning of this campaign, and one day
she was at a roundtable discussion where everyone went around telling their
story and why they were there.

And Ashley said that when she was 9 years old, her mother got cancer. And
because she had to miss days of work, she was let go and lost her health care.
They had to file for bankruptcy, and that's when Ashley decided that she had to
do something to help her mom.

She knew that food was one of their most expensive costs, and so Ashley
convinced her mother that what she really liked and really wanted to eat more
than anything else was mustard and relish sandwiches — because that was the
cheapest way to eat. That's the mind of a 9-year-old.

She did this for a year until her mom got better. So she told everyone at the
roundtable that the reason she joined our campaign was so that she could help
the millions of other children in the country who want and need to help their
parents, too.

Now, Ashley might have made a different choice. Perhaps somebody told her
along the way that the source of her mother's problems were blacks who were on

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welfare and too lazy to work, or Hispanics who were coming into the country
illegally. But she didn't. She sought out allies in her fight against injustice.

Anyway, Ashley finishes her story and then goes around the room and asks
everyone else why they're supporting the campaign. They all have different
stories and different reasons. Many bring up a specific issue. And finally they
come to this elderly black man who's been sitting there quietly the entire time.
And Ashley asks him why he's there. And he does not bring up a specific issue.
He does not say health care or the economy. He does not say education or the
war. He does not say that he was there because of Barack Obama. He simply
says to everyone in the room, "I am here because of Ashley."

"I'm here because of Ashley." By itself, that single moment of recognition

between that young white girl and that old black man is not enough. It is not
enough to give health care to the sick, or jobs to the jobless, or education to our

But it is where we start. It is where our union grows stronger. And as so many
generations have come to realize over the course of the 221 years since a band
of patriots signed that document right here in Philadelphia, which is where the
perfection begins.


3. Why can’t Obama disown his pastor Jeremiah Wright?

Americans doesn’t care of the relationship of Obama with Jeremiah Wright

or anyone. Americans care most of what he believes, his plans, and who he is.

4. How did Singapore come to existence, do you agree with Malaysian’s

decision? Why?

I do not agree with the Malaysians because they can solve the issue
without doing this separation from Singapore. Now I can see that Malaysia made
a mistake on their decision in separating Singapore. As you can see Singapore’s
development is very astonishing and this small country became successful
compare to large countries.

ICICI Bank Case Study

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1. What is ICICI Bank's innovation?

ICICI Bank’s innovation is to empower the poor people. ICICI

experience provides insights on how formal banking can convert the poor
people into customers. Poor people represent the bottom of the pyramid
and they are not considered as viable market because of their miniscule
purchasing power. ICICI sees the poor as a lucrative customer class critical to
the future of the company.

2. What is special about RBI's pilot project with NABARD in 1991?

The pilot project purveys micro credit to the rural poor by linking
self-help groups (SHGs) with banks. The pilot project was initiated because
in the 1981 RBI survey found out that 36% of the rural poor still utilized informal
sources of credit.

3. According to Mahajan, why are the transaction costs of savings in

formal institutions as high as 10% for the rural poor?

This was because of the small average size of transactions and

distance of the branches from the villages. Even those institutions that
provide financial services to the poor are limited in scale. (As said in the

4. What are some of the problems of MFIs in India?

They focus on access to credit. They have small loans which the
key to sustainability becomes scale. Achieving such scale is very labor-intensive
and takes many years.

5. What are the two innovative BOP models of the ICICI?

First is the direct access, bank-led model which was catalyzed by

the merger with the rural banking institution. Second is the indirect channel
partnership model leverages the relationships, knowledge, and rural
network of organization in the field to avoid costly brick-and-mortar expansion
process. (As said in the case)

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6. What is the connection between Grameen Bank and Bank of

The Bank of Madura wanted to have an increase in profit on their

rural branches but in order for them to achieve that goal, they have realized that
they need to create a plausible image to the public and trustworthiness to
the people. This goal is similar to Grameen Bank. They lend loans to
the people below the poverty line. This is the connection of Grameen Bank
and Bank of Madura.

7. Describe ICICI's three-tier system. Discuss why it is three-tiered.

ICICI's three-tier system, the highest level was a bank employee

called the project manager; the project managers are overseeing the activities of
the coordinators, the promoters are responsible in forming a new group, the
social service consultant are being tasked to form groups of 20 for 12 months.

8. What are the 3 essential steps in the SHG process? Comment on

why each step is necessary.

The first step is learning to save. This step is necessary because it

gives the people knowledge of the importance of saving money for future use.
The second step is learning to lend what you have saved. This is necessary
because your money is earning when it is invested. The third step is learning
to borrow responsibility. This step is also necessary because people must be
knowledgeable to give back what they borrow in a given time.

9. Discuss the NABARD checklist for SHG's. Comment on why each

item on the checklist is necessary.

NABARD checklist for SHG’s tests the capability of a person who

wants to loan. This is necessary because the SHG wanted an assurance of
the person’s capabilities and responsibilities in handling his money and
responsibilities of his loans.

10. What is the impact of micro lending in a household according to a

NABARD study?

It will give the poor people a chance to uplift their life. Micro lending
helps the poor people to have a chance to achieve future initiatives in life and to
their family.

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11. Discuss the possible implementation of a smart-card based payment
system? Would it work? Why?

Smart-card based payment system gives assurance that the poor

people who use it will pay. I think it will work because it is reusable and it is
better than a credit card that when misuse it became a big burden of problem to
the user.

12. Discuss the quote: "Banking with the pooer has undergone a
paradigm shift. It is no longer viewed as a mere social obligation. It is
financially viable as well". Do you think this quote can be applied in
the Philippines? Discuss.

I think this quote cannot be applied in the Philippines because there

are many poor people who know only are to scam. It will only give the banks in
the Philippines headache and investment lost.

ITC e-Choupal Case Study

1. What is the innovation of the e-Choupal?

e-Choupal provides the use of internet to give farmers connection

to different farmers with large firms. It also provides current information
regarding agricultural research, and the world market.

2. Discuss the paradox of Indian Agriculture?

The Indian Agriculture contributes 23% of India’s GDP, feeds a

billion people, and it employs 66% of their workforce.

3. Why is soya an important innovation in the Indian oilseed complex?

Soya represents an important innovation in the Indian oilseed

complex because it results to better utilization of inadequate resources
and greater cropping intensity.

4. Describe the marketing processes before the introduction of e-


There are three commercial channels for the products: manis,

traders, or eventual resale to crushers, and producer-run cooperative
societies for crushing in cooperative mills. The farmers traditionally keep
a small amount for their personal consumption and get the produce
processed in a small-scale job-shop crushing-plant called ghanti. (As said
in the case)

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5. Why is the mandi not an optimal procurement channel?

Mandi is not an optimal procurement channel because every

process in the mandi operations are always sources of inefficiency.

6. What were the advantages of ITC's competitors? How did ITC

address them?

When ITC entered the industry, produce was brought and crushed
by small crushers who were also traders. ITC began with buying and
exporting DOC in product dynamics. ITC then began renting processing
plant time and buying soya from mandis. ITC’s procurement has grown
rapidly since, and its initiative has seen the introduction of professional
practices, transparency, and formal contractual relationships between
agents and buyers. (As said in the case)

7. How did ITC "re-engineer as opposed to reconstruct"?

ITC gets all the good things about the failed system and dispose
those that made it wrong.

8. How did ITC "address the whole, not just a part"?

The farmer’s universe consists of many activities, ranging from

procuring inputs to selling produce. Today the village trader services the
spectrum of the farmer’s needs. He is a centralized provider of cash,
seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, and marketing. (As said in the case)

9. Was it wise for ITC to install an IT-driven solution where most people
would not?

No because it might just cause them to spend for nothing were

people wouldn’t even want to have it install.

10. Why does the ITC insist that the sanchalaks NOT give up farming?

ITC insists that at no time should the sanchalaks give up farming,

for this would compromise the trust the sanchalak commands. The fact
that the sanchalak works on commission could undermine hi credibility.
(As said in the case)

11. Why did the samyojaks introduce the ITC to the sanchalaks?

It will give them positive feedback and good image. Also by helping
the sanchalaks they will earn money.

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12. Describe the new ITC value chain. How different is it from the former
value chain?

ITC value chain is reduced by one. From six processes, it is now

only five. There are also no sources of inefficiency indicated.

13. What is the social impact of the e-Choupals?

e-Choupals’ social inpact in the society made them improve in

agriculture, have a better way of living, and have a brighter future.

14. Describe Wave 6 of the e-Choupal. Do you think it is feasible?

The first wave tells about acquiring the right crops. The 2 nd wave
tells about the preservation of identity through the chain. The third wave
tells about traceability into the supply chain. The fourth tells about creating
institutions. The fifth tells about marketing strategy and distribution
strategy. And the sixth and last tells about the other services. It is
feasible because it is taken one at a time and in step by step procedure
from the identification of crops to the additional services it can offer.

15. Can something similar to an e-Choupal be implemented in the


Yes. Chain management and procurement system is in demand

here in the Philippines.

Voxiva Case Study

1. What is the innovation of Voxiva?

Voxiva’s innovation is to provide communication from rural areas

and have immediate response from the outside world (Urban areas or
areas capable of lending help).

2. What are the 3 ingredients of an effective system of disease

surveillance and response?

 Real-time collection of critical information from a distributed network

of people, in this case, health workers with new cases of disease to
 Rapid analysis of data to drive decision-making and allocation of
 Communication back to the field to coordinate response
(As said in the case)

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3. According to Meyer, what are his findings regarding ICT projects?

The projects are deployed in a pilot basis and were fundamentally

not scalable. Projects were overwhelmingly focused on connectivity and
devices. There’s also too much focus on internet and computer as a
solution in challenges of electricity, hardware and maintenance, costs,
training, and literacy.

4. What is Meyer's observations regarding the use of telephones


It has sufficient reach from rural areas.

5. What was the problem that Voxiva was originally designed to solve?

They design a disease surveillance application to flow directly from

health clinics into national-level system so that information is accessible to
those at all levels simultaneously

6. What are Alerta Pilot's benefits?

It hastens the response between the users from their supervisors. It

also increases communication with their colleagues and supervisors

7. How can Voxiva help eradicate diseases?

By the information it gathers, health clinics, hospitals, and other

health organization will be alarmed about the diseases of the people. It will
be easier for them to eradicate it base on the information gathered by

8. How can Voxiva be used for bioterrorism preparedness?

Voxiva has monitoring capabilities that monitor’s patients status like

diseases, blood shortages, and etc. its monitoring capabilities can also be
use for homeland defense and bioterrorism preparedness.

9. What are some of the lessons learned in Voxiva's deployment in

other countries?

 Forster two-way information flows. Information systems should not

just collect data, but also provide feedback and support to health
workers in the field.
 Leverage existing infrastructure. It is not necessary to have PCs
everywhere to have a robust information system.

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 Avoid stovepipes. Information systems should be integrated across
 Software is not a system. Deploying PCs and clinic-level software
does not produce an integrated national system.
 Technology alone will fail. Change management and capacity
building are keys.
(As said in the case)

10. What are some of Voxiva's challenges?

 Ensures that its capacity to win new business does not outpace its
ability to deliver quality service
 Focus on key opportunities and avoiding distraction
 Deal with the challenges and long sales cycles of selling services to
governments and international development agencies.
 Develop recurring revenue of business models that generate
revenue from local economies.
 Foster continuing innovation
(As said in the case)

11. What is Meyer's beliefs regarding diversity? What is its connection to


He believes that Voxiva is the new way to communicate the people

from hospitals or health clinics for faster communication and immediate
response for their inquiries or problems.

12. Can this system be implemented in the Philippines? What target

disease would you recommend?

Definitely yes because there are many kinds of diseases that

Filipino people suffers like dengue, disease cause by contaminated water,
and others. I would recommend all the primary diseases that the Filipino
suffers. And lets also include cancer because this year many people were
found to have cancer.

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Chapter 2: Ethical Concepts and Ethical Theories: Establishing and
Justifying a Moral System

Review Questions:

1. What is ethics, and how can it be distinguished from morality?

- Ethics encompasses right conduct and good life. It is significantly

broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong. A
central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life that is
satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than
moral conduct. Ethics is the study of morality.

- Morality means a code of conduct held to be authoritative in matters of

right and wrong, whether by society, philosophy, religion, or individual
conscience. Morality is synonymous with ethics, the systematic
philosophical study of the moral domain. Also morality can be defined as a
system of rules for guiding human conduct and principles evaluating those

2. What is meant by a moral system? What are some of the key

differences between the “rule of conduct” and the “principles of
evaluation” that comprise a moral system?

- Moral System aims at promoting human flourishing. Rule of conduct is

an action guiding rules, in the form of either directives or social policies. It
has two types, Rules for guiding actions of individuals (microlevel ethical
rules), and Rules for establishing social policies (macrolevel ethical rules).

- A principle of evaluation is an evaluative standard used to justify rules of


3. What does Bernard Gert mean when he describes morality in terms

of a “public system”? Why is the notion of “personal morality” an

- He describes moral system as a public system because he believes that

everyone must know what the rules are defines the moral system.

- Personal morality has to do with narrating values that would best help
each of us make sense of our lives, to be good persons, realize a valuable
selfhood and/or live a good life. The values at stake in personal morality
need not be strictly moral. The goodness of our lives could be measured
in terms of our being happy, worthwhile or successful as well as the
traditional, moral, sense of the word. Defining what it is to be a good

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person, and to live a good life, is one of the questions that personal
morality must address. The function of personal morality is to help each of
us realize the meaning of our life in the world through being a person and
living the personal life of a self in the world. All persons can do and must
input values just in the process of being persons. Meaning is an output
value 'pointed at' by input values. So persons realize a meaning from
those values. That is why there are values in this and any other world
containing persons. And that is why what persons do in a world just is the
whole and only meaning of that world. Because we do and must live by
values, our lives do and must have meaning. And, because our personal
morality just is the sum of our input values, the meaning of our lives just is
a function of our personal morality in our personal circumstances.

4. Why does Gert believe that morality is an “informal” system? How is

a moral system both similar to, and different from, a game?

- Gert points out that moral system has no formal authoritive judges
presiding over it. Moral system is similar to a game because everyone
must know the rules to follow.

5. Describe how the ideals of “rationality” and “impartiality” function in

Gert’s moral system.

- The ideals of rationality, morality cannot involve special knowledge than

can only be understood by privileged individuals or groups. The rules in a
moral system must be available to all rational persons who in turn, are
moral agents, bound by the system of moral rules. Moral agents are nor
responsible for the actions of nonmoral agents (pets, young children, and
mentally challenged persons) but often have responsibility to certain
nonmoral agents. They should guide the nonmoral agents to act well.

The ideals of impartiality, morality is also rational, you will want to ensure
against the prospect of ending up in a group that is treated unfairly. Gert
invokes the “blindfold of justice” principle. It is like when you are put in a
situation where you need to decide which rules must be done but you
don’t have any idea because you can’t see the rules. The key here is you
will create your own rule where everyone will be treated fairly of that rule.

6. What are values, and what are some of the key differences between
moral values and nonmoral values?

- Values are an ambiguous concept that governs human behavior.

- Values can be conceived as objects of our desires or interests.

- Morals and values are not necessarily identical.

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-Values can be either moral or non-moral.

-Reason informs us that it is in our interest to promote values that promote

our own survival, happiness, and flourishing as individuals.

- When used to further only our own self-interests, these values are not
necessarily moral values.

- Once we bring in the notion of impartiality, we begin to take the "moral

point of view."

- When we frame the rules of conduct in a moral system, we articulate a

system of values having to do with notions such as autonomy, fairness,
justice, etc., which are moral values.

- Our core moral values are, in turn derived from certain core non-moral

7. How do religion, law, and philosophy each provide different grounds

for justifying a moral principle?

- They have different basis of justifying moral principle. In religion, moral

principle is justified by the commands of the divine authority. Whenever it
offends God or violates some of the commandments, religion justifies it
from the divine authority. The law follows the State’s constitution. Moral
principle is judge of what is stated in the constitution. In philosophy,
regardless of what is obeyed by religion and the law or what’s right or
wrong to the both party, it is what philosophy also followed and obeyed.

8. What is the method of philosophical ethics, and what is a

“philosophical study”? How is a philosophical study used in an
analysis of moral issues?

- The method of philosophical ethics is that if someone violates the divine

authority or civil law it also violates the law of philosophy.

- Philosophical study requires a consistent methodological scheme be

used to verify hypotheses and theories, and these verification schemes
must satisfy criteria of rationality and impartiality.

- It is use by the help of rules of argumentation. These rules are both

rational and impartial.

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9. How does a philosophical study differ from a descriptive study? Why
are sociological and anthropological studies of morality usually
descriptive rather than normative in nature?

- Descriptive ethics, also known as comparative ethics, is the study of

people's beliefs about morality. It contrasts with prescriptive or normative
ethics, which is the study of ethical theories that prescribe how people
ought to act, and with meta-ethics, which is the study of what ethical terms
and theories actually refer to. The following examples of questions that
might be considered in each field illustrate the differences between the

Descriptive ethics: What do people think is right?

Normative (prescriptive) ethics: How should people act?
Applied ethics: How do we take moral knowledge and put it into practice?
Meta-ethics: What does 'right' even mean?

- Sociological and anthropological studies of morality usually descriptive

because descriptive ethics involves empirical investigation.

10. Summarize the four different kinds of “discussion stoppers” in

ethical discourse that we examined.

Discussion stoppers can be articulated in terms of the following four


1. People disagree about morality; so how can we reach agreement on

moral issues?

- People who hold this view fail to recognize:

a. Experts in other fields of study, such as science and math., also
disagree on what the correct answers to certain questions are.
b. There is common agreement about answers to some moral
c. People do not always distinguish between "disagreements
about factual matters" and "disagreements on general principles" in
disputes involving morality.

2. Who am I/who are we to judge others and to impose my/our values on


- We need to distinguish between:

a. “Persons Making Judgments” and “Persons Being
Judgmental, “and
b. “Judgments Involving Condemnations” vs. “Judgments Involving

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Also, we are sometimes required to make judgments about others.

3. Isn't morality simply a private matter?

- Many people assume that morality is essentially personal in

nature and that morality must therefore be simply a private matter.
- “Private morality" is essentially an oxymoron or contradictory
- Morality is a public phenomenon (Gert).

4. Isn't morality simply a matter that different cultures and groups should
determine for themselves?

- According to this view, a moral system is dependent on, or relative

to, a particular culture or group.
- There are some very serious problems with this view, which is
called ethical relativism.
- To understand the problems inherent in this position, it is useful to
distinguish between two positions involving relativism: cultural
relativism and moral relativism.

11. Why are these discussion stoppers problematic for the advancement
of dialogue and debate about ethical issues?

Stopper #1

People disagree on solutions to moral issues.

1. Fails to recognize that experts in many areas disagree on key issues in

their fields.
2. Fails to recognize that there are many moral issues on which people
3. Fails to distinguish between disagreements about principles and
disagreements about facts.

Stopper #2

Who am I to judge others?

1. Fails to distinguish between the act of judging and being a judgmental

2. Fails to distinguish between judging as condemning and judging as
3. Fails to recognize that sometimes we are required to make judgments

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Stopper #3

Ethics is implying a private matter.

1. Fails to recognize that morality is essentially a public system.

2. Fails to note that personally-based morality can cause major harm to
3. Confuses moral choices with individual or personal preferences.

Stopper #4

Morality is simply a matter for individual cultures to decide.

1. Fails to distinguish between descriptive and normative claims about

2. Assumes that people can never reach common agreement on some
moral principles.
3. Assumes that a system is moral because a majority in a culture decides
it is moral.

12. What is moral relativism? How is it different from cultural relativism?

- Moral relativism asserts that no universal standard of morality is possible

because different people have different beliefs about what is right and
wrong. From this inference, relativists appear to further suggest that, in
matters of morality, anything goes. But this principle of reasoning is
problematic because it is essentially incoherent and inconsistent.

- Cultural relativism is the principle that one's beliefs and activities should
be interpreted in terms of one's own culture.

13. What is ethical theory, and what important functions do ethical

theories play in the analysis of moral issues?

- An essential feature of theory in general is that it guides us in our

- In science, theory provides us with some general principles and
structures to analyze our data.
- The purpose of ethical theory, like scientific theory, is to provide us with a
framework for analyzing moral issues.
- Ideally, a good theory should be coherent, consistent, comprehensive,
and systematic.

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14. What are the distinguishing features of consequence-based ethical

- Some argue that the primary goal of a moral system is to produce

desirable consequences or outcomes for its members.
- On this view, the consequences of actions and policies that provide the
ultimate standard against which moral decisions must be evaluated.
- So if choosing between acts A or B, the morally correct action will be the
one that produces the most desirable outcome.

15. Describe some of the key differences between act utilitarianism and
rule utilitarianism.

- Act utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics which states that the

morally right action is the one which produces the greatest amount of
happiness for the greatest number of people. Act utilitarianism is opposed
to rule utilitarianism, which states that the morally right action is the one
that is in accordance with a moral rule whose general observance would
create the most happiness. Act utilitarianism makes no appeals to general
rules, but instead demands that the agent evaluate individual

- Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism which states that moral

actions are those which conform to the rules which lead to the greatest
good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a
function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance."[1] For
rule utilitarian, the correctness of a rule is determined by the amount of
good it brings about when it is followed. In contrast, act utilitarian judge
actions in terms of the goodness of their consequences without reference
to rules of action.

16. Which features distinguish duty-based ethical theories from

alternative types of theories?

- Duty-based stresses the role of duty and respect for persons.

- Consequence-based stresses promotion of happiness and utility.

- Contract-based provides a motivation for morality.

- Character-based stresses moral development and moral education.

17. Describe some of the main differences between act deontology and
rule deontology.

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- Rule Deontology act always on that maxim or principle (or rule) which
ensures that all individuals will be treated as ends-in-themselves and
never merely as a means to an end.

- Act Deontology:

Ross argues that when two or more moral duties clash, we have to
look at individual situations to seewhich duty is overriding.

Like act utilitarians, Ross stresses the importance of analyzing

individual actions and situations to determine the morally
appropriate course of action to take.

18. What is meant by expression “contract-based” ethical theories?

- From the perspective of social-contract theory, a moral system comes

into being by virtue of certain contractual agreements between individuals.

- It is in our individual self-interest to develop a moral system with rules.

- This type of motivation for establishing a moral system is absent in both

the utilitarian or deontological theories.

- So a contract-based ethical theory would seem to have one advantage

over them.

19. What features distinguish “character-based” (or “virtue-based”)

ethical theories from alternative scheme of morality?

- Virtue ethics (also sometimes called "character ethics") ignores the roles
that consequences, duties, and social contracts play in moral systems in
determining the appropriate standard for evaluating moral behavior.
- Virtue ethics focuses on criteria having to do with the character
development of individuals and their acquisition of good character traits
from the kinds of habits they develop.

20. How does James Moor’s “Just Consequentialist” theory incorporate

aspects of utilitarian and deontological theories into one
comprehensive framework?

1. Deliberate over various policies from an impartial point of view to

determine whether they meet the criteria for being ethical policies. A policy
is ethical if it:

a. Does not cause any unnecessary harm to individual groups.

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b. Supports individual rights, the fulfilling of duties, etc.

2. Select the best policy from the set of just policies arrived at the
deliberation stage by ranking ethical policies in terms of benefits and
justifiable (harms). In doing this, be sure to:

a. Weigh carefully between the good consequences and the bad

consequences in the ethical policies and

b. Distinguish between disagreements about facts and disagreements

about principles and values, when deciding which particular ethical policy
should be adopted. (Knowledge about the facts surrounding a
particular case should inform the decision-making process.)

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Professor Paul Pajo Jr. II

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The Code applies to all IM PIONEERS. That this code is to promote the growth
of ethically responsible students and future professionals in the IT industry and
other fields through devotion to the premier standards of academic integrity and
overall ethical conduct, this will also develop a sense of individual responsibility
and also to become familiar with the policies and practices related to academic
dishonesty and to strengthen the boundary of this group.


1. Incorporated
1.1. United. All for one and one for all. Consider your team as your family. A
broom cannot function without each and every parts working together.
1.2. A problem of one is should not be neglected unless given the consent of the
person. If you have the chance to help, then do it.

2. Modest
2.1. Do not be overconfident.
2.2. If you ever had fault, admit and apologize.
2.3. Clients are always right. They provide the information and specifications of
the job to be done, if you feel adding something, be polite enough and suggest.

3. Professional
3.1. Separate personal problems from work related task. If ever it is necessary
for experience, use it as reference only
3.2. Focus and keep your mind on your work.
3.3. Be serious. When working, be serious but not uptight.

4. Innovative
4.1. Aim to create new things, find ways to make work a lot easier
4.2. Traditional is not that bad. Use it as the basis for creating something better
than the traditional
4.3. Use what exist and create new things from the combined existing

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5. Optimistic
5.1. There is always a reason for everything, be positive.
5.2. Never-ends truth: At everything, every point, every way, there will always be
only one truth, the truth of reality.

6. Nifty
6.1. Aim for zero defects and variance, aim for perfection. Do not be contented
on what exist and do something to make it better.
Perfection may not be possible but at least it will lessen the defects and variance
and as time goes, it will lessen until it reaches zero.
6.2. Always have back-up for every work done. If ever something happens, then
you still have a back-up
6.3. Think before you act, there are many consequences and be ready to face it
as to what you have decided
6.4. Mistakes are inevitable, minimizing it is a goal. Chances are given for every
mistake; use it as the basis for improvement. Make sure to test each of your
works before release.
6.5 Risk is an aspect of life, a challenge: Life exists because of challenges,
challenges exist because of risk.

7. Enthusiastic
7.1. Application of what is learned is required. Exercise it everyday.
7.2. Do not rely much on what is there, experience is the best teacher
7.3. Do not be shy on giving your suggestions or sharing your ideas. There is no
wrong idea, only innovative ones.
7.4. Hope for the best and expect the worst. Don’t expect anything!

8. Entrepreneurs
8.1. Think of having profit in every product you have and its impact on the society
8.2. Always let your clients see the whole picture based on how you define it
8.3. Products are useless if there are no clients using it, be friendly enough to let
them know about what you have provided for them

9. Respecting/Responsible
9.1. Each one is unique, respect of each diversity and learns from them
9.2. Be responsible for your own actions. Think first before deciding and prepare
for the consequences that lie ahead.
9.3. Respect is given, not asked. Give respect to others, for them to return it to
9.4. Pick your words wisely
9.5. Respect privacy of other people.
9.6. Respect other’s beliefs and other’s words.
9.7. Respect all people in authority.

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10. Sensitive/Social
10.1. Be sensitive to other’s needs. Use it to build what is necessary
10.2. Be friendly and reach out to others. Don’t be afraid to socialize
10.3. Do not use this project for social purposes. Let it be a tool to ease man’s
10.4. If in case you see something wrong that would affect majority of the people,
ask your direct supervisor for that matter before taking further

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Philtop Industries, Incorporated
Corporate Social Responsibility

Elinor Joy Antonio

Stephen Sze
Vicente Mayamaya
Erickson Ollodo

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Philtop Industries, Incorporated
Corporate Social Responsibility
Company Overview
Phil-Top Industrial Incorporated was established on 1988 with its initial location at
Malabon City. It first started in small business with 3 installed machines operating
to produce hanger, water dipper and clothes grip – the primary products of the
company. Winning customer’s attention and trust were two of their difficulties.

The Innovation…
It took the owner a lot of guts, hard work, patience, and determination to be able
to reach the company’s present standing. He himself went to Divisoria to promote
their products and attract more customers. With its uniquely innovated products,
the company was led to an unexpected success. Gradually, the company
expanded and was resettled to a larger space to accommodate more machines,
machine shop, recycling and mixer area, packaging area, and parking space for
loading. As years pass, customers and products continued to multiply so the
need for expansion had once again arise. That’s the time they bought two more
lots near the vicinity as warehouses. Presently, their products consists of kitchen
and house wares. The company offers different kinds of products that has many
stylish designs that cover various types such as house ware, kitchenware, even
school and office organizers; all to indulge the varied needs of each customer. All
through their operation, they offer goods to a very different market, which
includes wholesale and retail shops, department stores, supermarkets, and
promotional enterprises all over the country. The company’s service also
manufactures made-to-order molds for clients with particular needs.


Phil-Top and its quality products will be recognized and respected as the best
and most sought after plastic houseware products not just in the Philippines but
also internationally.


In order to realize our Vision, our Mission must be to exceed the expectations of
our clients. We will accomplish this by providing product quality management and
quality assurance in design, development, production, and even in transactions.
In this way we will ensure that our profit, quality, and ethical goals are met.

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Brief History
Phil-Top Industrial Incorporated was established on 1988 with its initial location at
Malabon City. It first started in small business with 3 installed machines operating
to produce hanger, water dipper and clothes grip – the primary products of the
company. Winning customer’s attention and trust were two of their difficulties. It
took the owner a lot of guts, hard work, patience, and determination to be able to
reach the company’s present standing. He himself went to Divisoria to promote
their products and attract more customers. With its uniquely innovated products,
the company was led to an unexpected success. Gradually, the company
expanded and was resettled to a larger space to accommodate more machines,
machine shop, recycling and mixer area, packaging area, and parking space for
loading. As years pass, customers and products continued to multiply so the
need for expansion had once again arise. That’s the time they bought two more
lots near the vicinity as warehouses. Presently, our products consists of kitchen
and house wares.

Inside the Organization…

PhilTop Industry Incorporated Organizational Structure

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Major Client’s Profile

1. ABS-CBN a Philippine multi-media conglomerate, is the largest integrated

media and entertainment company in the Philippines with an asset base of more
than PHP28 billion (US$613 million) as of current 2007. ABS-CBN is principally
involved in television and radio broadcasting, as well as the production of
television programming for domestic and international audiences and other
related businesses.

2. SM Supermarket has become the most dominant player in the retail industry.
Having a national chain and housing over 3,000 employees, we maintain a
constant hiring, training and development process to meet the highest level of
competency and customer expectations.

3. Alaska Milk products were first manufactured in the Philippines in 1972

through Holland Milk Products, Inc. (HOMPI), a partnership between AMC’s
former parent company, General Milling Corporation (GMC), an industrial foods
company with interests in flour, feed and soy bean milling, and a Dutch dairy
company, Holland Canned Milk International B.V. HOMPI initially manufactured
liquid canned filled milk products, (evaporated and sweetened condensed milk)
and eventually expanded to manufacture powdered filled milk and UHT milk
products division up until AMC’s spin-off and incorporation as a separate and
independent corporate entity in 1994. Shortly after its incorporation, Alaska Milk
shares were listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange in 1995.

4. Star Paper Corporation (SPC) is a Filipino-owned corporation engaged in

primarily in the distribution of quality goods from the United States, England,
Japan, Sweden and ither parts of the world. While we focus on supplying
materials to the printing industry, our charter allows us to engage in trading and
other business activities as well.

5. Republic Biscuit Corporation (Rebisco) is one of the pioneers in the biscuit

industry and a leader in the fast moving consumer goods industry in the
Philippines. From a basic portfolio of biscuits such as the famous and pioneering
Rebisco Cracker Sandwiches that generations of Filipinos have loved, Rebisco
now carries a wide variety of snack food ranging from nuts and seeds, cakes,
wafer sticks, chips, curls, candies and gums.

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Competitive Profile Matrix Explanation:

The Competitive Profile Matrix shows three aggressive companies, including the
PhilTop Industrial Inc. The group also included top two companies who produce
plastic products which are the Orocan and the Tupperware Company. The table
shows different critical success factors for the three companies. It has Product
Marketing, Resource Management, Product Quality, Machine Productivity and
Advertisement. Orocan has the highest total score which has 3.25, the
Tupperware placed second and the last, which is PhilTop that has 2.60. This
shows that PhilTop has poor advertising skills compared to other companies.

Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses…


Product Trend Competitiveness

- The company always updates their product designs by finding new

and unique products from other countries


- The company offers product customization

Financial Stability

- PhilTop Company is already stable because they have been in the

industry for a long time and has a good revenue

Cost Leadership

- The company recycles products that are rejected by crashing and

reusing it as a raw material

Employee Motivation

- The company provides excursion and trips for their employees

once a year.


Production Management

- Over production of products because there is no inventory system.

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Manual Inventory

- The company cannot monitor their inventories correctly.

Quality of raw materials

- Recycled raw materials are reused.

Time Management

- PhilTop merges deliveries from two batches into one and it results
late delivery to other customers


- The company only advertises their business in PLDT yellow pages.

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Internal Factor Evaluation
The company strives to be competitive and flexible in making their products
through their innovative designs and customizable product. Having a good
financial stability gives the company an advantage to buy and adapt new
technologies, and can fund employee motivation. Despite of the strength of the
company, the company has poor production management resolving poor quality
of product. The company is having a hard time monitoring their inventory and
there is always an excess in production because they don’t have an inventory
system to support their processes. The company also has a poor quality in
product, because they use recycled raw materials to produce the product again
to lessen the cost.

The External Environment…

Competitors Profile


Produced by the Ashlar Industrial Corporation in the 1990s, the name 'Orocan'
actually stands for their entire line of plastic products; which includes not just
their trademark plastic drum, but also laundry basins, coolers, jugs, pitchers,
utility storage, etc.


Alatone Plastics Inc. was founded year 1969; emerge as one of the first
companies in the Philippine industry of manufacturing plastic products. Its
humble beginnings started by manufacturing only two items, pails and basins.
Today, Alatone Plastics is engage in producing various types of items such as
utility cans in different sizes, baskets, chairs, and drawer and multi-purpose
heavy-duty crates. The company is known for quality and durable plastic


Sanko Plastics Philippines is an affiliate of Manly Plastics Inc. Our businesses

include Manly Plastics Inc., an experienced manufacturer of soft drink crates,
original parts for major manufacturers of automobiles, electronics, home
appliances and furnishings. They also pioneered the plastic pails that feature the
double lock lid system ensuring a drip free and tamper evident seal for storing
both dry and liquid items. Sentinel Plastics Manufacturing Corporation, which
manufactures 400 pound load, tested plastic tables and chairs, Filpet Inc.
specializing in the blow-molding of PET bottles and jars and First Pinnacle

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Trading Corporation engaged in providing warewashing, handling and transport
solutions to the restaurant, catering and hospital industry.

Ashlar Industrial Corp

Ashlar is an international private company that manufactures plastic products

that is located at 143 Darlucio Compound, Panghulo Rd., Malabon City, ,
Philippines. Its’ primary products are plastics; Plastic Pipe and Pipe Fitting


PANAMA PLASTIC PRODUCTS, INC. is one of the leading plastic houseware

manufacturers in the country. Our products are popularly known in the
nationwide market under the brands PANAWARE and EZSTORE. Panama
Plastic Products, Inc. is located at 65 Simoun Street, Acacia, Malabon City,
National Capital Reg.

Amazon Manufacturing Inc

Amazon Manufacturing Corporation has received recognition in the 2004

National Shopper's Choice Annual Awards given by the Asia-Pacific Shopper's
Choice Institute and its partners. These include the award for being the No.1
Makers of PE Screen, No. 1 Aquaculture Supplies (National), and No. 1
Agriculture Supplies (National), respectively. These awards are given to
manufacturers who have proven their excellence in product quality, their strength
in company reputation, brand recognition and consumer service.

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Identifying Opportunities and Threats


Development of new technology

Development of new technology because technology now days are becoming

more innovative and so to remain competitive in the market they have to consider
new options for information technology. (References)

Increased tax for imported products

The company considers this as an opportunity because once the taxes for
imported products are high; china products have a lower chance for getting into
the Philippine market.

People switching to plastic products

Some consumers really prefer using plastic products for easy soring and easy to

Advertising and promotion of companies

The company would be known all over the country once they have advertised
their different products in other advertising mediums.

Increased GDP level (NSO)

The company would have an increase of sales.


China Imports

Clone products being produced by china and because of their low price it would
greatly affect the company.

Fuel Inflation

The company will shoulder the gasoline of the delivery trucks for product delivery
and so, if there is an increase in petroleum, it will affect the company by having
an increase in the cost.

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Raw material prices

It is a threat for the company because the pricing of raw materials may or may
not increase.

Peso Fluctuation (BSP)

If the Philippine currency is low, it is a threat for the company because it will
affect their sales.

Single location of business

The company just has one factory in the country, since they just distribute
products through delivery and walk in.

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EFE Explanation:

This table shows us that the company has a great opportunity in developing new
technology since that’s one of their advantages towards other companies out
there. With this, the company can invest more to it since they can see opportunity
in that certain part; and when they have invested to it is also important for them
to maximize the given opportunity. Despite the opportunity of the company;
PhilTop Industries Inc., is worried on the threat that could affect their sales and
the company itself. And one threat is the entrance of China imports here in our
country. Another threat would be the Peso Fluctuation; the company uses the
peso as the mode of payment. Once there is a decrease in peso value, the
company is greatly affected on that.

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