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REVIEWING THE FORMS AND GENRES OF LITERATURE - with such, judgements, opinions, and

commentaries may be framed and expressed in the form of

 Creative and imaginative expression as exhibited in a essays, feature articles, editorials and the like.
literary work can be established and framed in
 Each form differs in terms of features and Greek term “poesis” which means “to create” or “to
conventions. make” is said to be the derivation of the word
 Thus, the way how language is utilized to create a poetry.
certain pattern or style is an indicator of a certain It is indeed a majestic form of literature for it
form of literature that one may consider. manifest aesthetic value relative to how carefully
 Though forms may be different but the attempt to language is used by a certain poet.
showcase a significant human experiences is known This is an art of communicating meanings, emotions,
to be evident in all forms of literature. and values which leave an effect or impact on its
MAJOR FORMS OF LITERATURE Evokes emotions, aspirations, conditions despite its
A. Prose – this prose is mainly ascribe to be composed freely. shortness.
- this form does not have any measurement scheme This can be delivered in both spoken or written
for it is known to have a free-flow of sentences. forms.
- has a greater irregularity and the language used in Considers the rhythmic and other tonal aspects
this form is ordinary for it has a close resemblance to man’s which are perceived to be intricate and complex.
pattern of everyday speech. The creative use of these aspects may help in
establishing the beauty of poetry.
Prose fiction – this is mainly characterized by scholars as
any literary work that is an imaginative recreation and ELEMENTS OF POETRY
reconstruction of life. A. Sense – this elements it involves diction or known as the
- type covers short stories and novels in which these word choice, imagery that can truly appeal to the senses,
are said to be manifestations of the creative and imaginative and lasting, figurative expression.
thinking of a particular writer.
- recounts the flow and development of actions and Sense of Poetry
events involving an identified number of characters who deal 1. Diction -denotative and connotative meanings/ symbols
and react to certain conflicts and human issues.  Denotation - dictionary meaning of the
B. Poetry – it is a form of literature characterized by its  Connotation - suggested or implied meaning
highly controlled manner of choosing and arranging language associated with a word beyond its dictionary
with the use of regulating devices such as for sound and definition.
rhythm to aesthetically convey a meaning which may call for
a specific emotional response. 2. Imagery - otherwise known as “sense of the mind”.
– ascribed as the most economical means of - use of sensory details or descriptions that
expression since it only uses limited number of words. appeal to one or more of the five senses: sight,
- its beauty is mainly forced by the intricate and hearing, touch, taste and smell.
careful use of words, figurative expression, imagery, rhythm
and sound. 3. Figures of Speech - these are specific devices or a kind of
figurative language that uses words, phrases, and
OTHER GENRES OF LITERATURE sentences in a non-literal definition but, rather gives
C. Drama – involves stories involving significant human meanings in abstractions.
encounters which are intended to be performed on stage.
- involve a certain numbers characters who also deal Literal vs. Figurative Language
with some complications and issues. • Literal Language – You say exactly what you mean.
- it presents fictional or imaginative events You make no comparison, and you do not exaggerate
presented or portrayed by actors and actresses before an or understate the situation.
audience. • Figurative Language – You DON’T say exactly what
you mean. You DO compare, exaggerate, and
D. Non- fiction – this genre mainly attempts to present, to understate the situation. You use similes,
interpret, or to describe facts. metaphors, hyperboles, and other figures of speech
to make your writing more exciting.
Seven Types of Figurative Language  Rhyme - is the repetition of the same stressed vowel
• Simile - Comparing two unlike things using the words sounds and any succeeding sounds in two or more
“like” or “as”. words.
• Hyperbole - An exaggeration so dramatic, no one Example: I think that i shall never see
could believe it; overstate to emphasize a point. A poem as lovely as a tree
• Alliteration - The repeating of the same letter or - Trees
sound, especially consonant sounds….Including
tongue twisters. Poetry Devices: 3 Types of Rhyme
• Metaphor - Comparing two unlike things without • End Rhyme: the rhyming of words at the end of
using like or as. Calling one thing, another. Saying a line.
one thing is something else. example: They could not excuse the sin.
• Personification - Giving human characteristics to That was committed by his kin.
things that are not human. • Internal Rhyme: rhyme that occurs within a
• Onomatopoeia - The use of a word to describe or single line of poetry.
imitate a natural sound made by an object or action. example: No, baby, no, you may not go.”
Words that sound like what they mean. • Slant Rhyme: two words sound similar, but do
• Oxymoron - Words or phrases in which not have a perfect rhyme.
contradictory or opposite terms are used together example: The words jackal and buckle.

B. Sound – this element is an offshoot of a variety of  Rhyme Scheme - pattern of rhyme form that ends a
elements like tonal patterns, rhythm, and measurements. stanza or a poem.
- is designated by the assignment of
1. Tone Color - it is achieved through repetition. a different letter of the alphabet to each new rhyme.
a. Repetition of Single Sounds
• Alliteration Repetition of Words
• Assonance Example: My dreams are dreams of thee, fair maid.
• Consonance - Rural maid
• Rhyme Repetition of Sentences or Phrases
Example: I dream that one day our voices will be heard
Repetition of Single Sound I dream that one day our hopes become worth
 Alliteration - Is the repetition of similar and - Paraiso
accented sounds at the beginning of words
Example: The fair breeze blew, the white  Rhythm -pattern of beats created by the
foam flew, arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables
The furrow followed free; -the effect is derived from the sounds
We were the first that ever burst employed, the varying pitches, stresses, volumes and
Into that silence sea.” durations.
- The rime of the ancient mariner
C. Structure – this elements pertains to the way how words
 Assonance - Is the repetition of similar accented and lines are organized, sequenced, arranged and formed to
vowel sounds ensure unity of form.
Example: Thou still unravished bride of
quietness. Structure of a Poem
Thou foster child of silence and 1. Word and its Order – Grouping of words and choosing of
slow time. words and verses where more often, poets arrange them in
-Ode on a grecian urn the unnatural order to achieve an effect
2. Syntax – Is an effect achieved where words are fractured
 Consonance - Is the repetition of similar consonant to have a desired effect
sound typically within or at the end of words 3. Ellipsis – Is the omission of words or several words that
Example: “Out of this house” – said rider to clearly identify the understanding of an expression
reader 4. Punctuation – Is the use of meaningful symbols that help
“Yours never will” – said farer to provide meaning clues
“They’re looking for your” – said
hearer to horror,
- O where are you going?
DIFFERENT POETIC FORMS • Theme – this mainly involves the significant truth or
a. Dramatic poetry – this is a lyric work that exhibits dialogue the central idea that the writer attempts to disclose
and characterization which are known to be elements of and to communicate to its readers.
drama. • Appeal – this pertains to your impressions about the
monologue – which is specifically a speech delivered by an poem.
individual in a dramatic performance
soliloquy – which monologue used to develop the character
of a speaker by providing information by the revelation of
the character’s personal thoughts, emotions and feelings
both belong to this type.

b. Lyric poetry – this mainly discloses a poet’s feelings and

emotions which can be perceived to be subjective and
simple lyric – which includes pastorals that describe scenes
and objects of nature
songs – which are emotional verses sung during special
odes – which are extended lyric poems ascribed to be more
serious and complex in form than a simple lyric
sonnets – which are commonly composed of 14 lines,
elegy – which mainly laments of death of a person or group
of individuals

c. Narrative poetry – this is mainly a poem that is non-

dramatic in which the prime goal of the author is to narrate a
- it has a variety of length and of complexity.
- examples of this poems are epics, metrical
tales and romances, and ballads.


Considerations in analyzing a poem
• Author – know who the writer of the poem
• Title of the poem – title bears important information
about a poem.
• The persona and the addressee – persona refers to
the one speaking in the lines of a poem, while the
addressee is the receiver or the one being talked to
by the persona.
• Tone, attitude, motifs and conditions – the
prevailing emotion of the persona towards the
addressee can be discerned and elucidated by
looking into the choice of words of the writer.
• Imagery and symbolism – a poem to the senses,
thus, words may also be effective tools to create
connections between the poem and its readers
making them see, hear, taste, smell, and feel
whatever the poem presents.
• Genre – it is a requisite to know how to classify the
poetic work based on its prevailing features.
• Structure – look whether the poem has regular or
irregular structure. consider the length and measure
of the poem.