Sunteți pe pagina 1din 13

Tiny, Lens-Free Camera Could Hide in Clothes, Glasses

Tiny, Ultrathin Camera Can Snap Photos Without a Lens


A paper-thin camera can create images without a lens, and researchers say these tiny
devices could transform conventional photography.
A tiny, paper-thin camera that has no lens could turn conventional photography on its
head, according to new research.
The device, a square that measures just 0.04 inches by 0.05 inches (1 by 1.2 millimeters), has the
potential to switch its "aperture" among wide angle, fish eye and zoom instantaneously. And
because the device is so thin, just a few microns thick, it could be embedded anywhere. (For
comparison, the average width of a human hair is about 100 microns.)

It could be embedded in a watch or in a pair of eyeglasses or in fabric, Hajimiri told Live


Science. It could even be designed to launch into space as a small package and then
unfurl into very large, thin sheets that image the universe at resolutions never before
possible, he added.

"There's no fundamental limit on how much you could increase the resolution," Hajimiri
said. "You could do gigapixels if you wanted.” (A gigapixel image has 1 billion pixels, or
1,000 times more than an image from a 1-megapixel digital camera.)
Hajimiri and his colleagues presented their innovation, called an optical phased array, at
the Optical Society's (OSA) Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, which was held
in March. The research was also published online in the OSA Technical Digest.

The proof-of-concept device is a flat sheet with an array of 64 light receivers that can be
thought of as tiny antennas tuned to receive light waves, Hajimiri said. Each receiver in
the array is individually controlled by a computer program.

In fractions of a second, the light receivers can be manipulated to create an image of an


object on the far right side of the view or on the far left or anywhere in between. And this
can be done without pointing the device at the objects, which would be necessary with a
camera.

"The beauty of this thing is that we create images without any mechanical movement,"
he said.

Hajimiri called this feature a "synthetic aperture." To test how well it worked, the
researchers laid the thin arrayover a silicon computer chip. In experiments, the synthetic
aperture collected light waves, and then other components on the chip converted the
light waves to electrical signals that were sent to a sensor.
The resulting image looks like a checkerboard with illuminated squares, but this basic
low-resolution image is just first step, Hajimiri said. The device's ability to manipulate
incoming light waves is so precise and fast that, theoretically, it could capture hundreds
of different kinds of images in any kind of light, including infrared, in a matter of
seconds, he said.

"You can make an extremely powerful and large camera," Hajimiri said.

Achieving a high-power view with a conventional camera requires that the lens be very
big, so that it can collect enough light. This is why professional photographers on the
sidelines of sporting events wield huge camera lenses.

But bigger lenses require more glass, and that can introduce light and color flaws in the
image. The researchers' optical phased array doesn't have that problem, or any added
bulk, Hajimiri said.

For the next stage of their research, Hajimiri and his colleagues are working to make the
device larger, with more light receivers in the array.

"Essentially, there's no limit on how much you could increase the resolution," he said.
"It's just a question of how large you can make the phased array."

Original article on Live Science.

Taste Sensor able to Quantifying Tastes


The human tongue has flavor cells. The surface of these taste cells is protected with lipids. We
postulated that these lipids, appeared as a barrier, are crucial in detecting flavor. while a taste
substance such as bitter or astringent comes in contact with the floor of those flavor cells, the
voltage changes and this is transmitted to the mind. So we evolved a sensor for this method. So now
we’ve five sensors for the 5 simple tastes, plus an astringency sensor, for a complete of six sensors.
We additionally measured aftertaste, namely the aftertaste of sour, astringent, and umami, so we
have created numerical datasets for a total of 9 categories.

This flavor sensor uses a proprietary approach to degree voltage change and decide taste.
measurement is based on measurement of fluid, so solids are mixed and changed into fluid shape
earlier than measuring. The flavor sensor is first dipped in fluid called a reference method to derive
the membrane electric ability. subsequent, while the taste sensor is dipped into the solution to be
measured for taste, the membrane electric powered ability changes. this transformation represents a
primary taste which includes bitter or salty. next, if the taste sensor is first lightly washed with the
reference answer after which dipped lower back into the reference solution, the membrane electric
ability of a sour or astringent substance adsorbed onto the lipid membrane surface is derived. this
alteration in membrane electric powered ability corresponds to an aftertaste, or to sharpness or body
of aftertaste.

Plastic that turns to clay when heated


Polysis, a specialist developer of polyurethane resins and resin products, markets haplafreely, a
plastic that turns to clay when heated to temperatures above 60°C. When immersed in hot water or
heated with a heat gun, the plastic becomes easy to shape, and hardens again as it cools, starting
from around 40°C and returning to its original hardness by the time it reaches room temperature.
“For instance, engine components need to be placed on a base for stability. haplafreely can be used
to form bases on which to place unstable objects. Motorcycle handlebars sometimes need working
on with a screwdriver, and haplafreely can also be used in large quantities as a protective covering
material.”

Cheap solar cells made from shrimp shells


February 26, 2015
Researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) have successfully created electricity-
generating solar-cells with chemicals found the shells of shrimps and other crustaceans for the first
time.

The materials chitin and chitosan found in the shells are abundant and significantly cheaper to
produce than the expensive metals such as ruthenium, which is similar to platinum, that are currently
used in making nanostructured solar-cells.

Researchers, from QMUL’s School of Engineering and Materials Science, used a process known as
hydrothermal carbonization to create the carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from the widely and cheaply
available chemicals found in crustacean shells. They then coat standard zinc oxide nanorods with
the CQDs to make the solar cells.

Dr Joe Briscoe, one of the researchers on the project, said: “This could be a great new way to make
these versatile, quick and easy to produce solar cells from readily available, sustainable materials.
Once we’ve improved their efficiency they could be used anywhere that solar cells are used now,
particularly to charge the kinds of devices people carry with them every day.

Professor Magdalena Titirici, Professor of Sustainable Materials Technology at QMUL, said: “New
techniques mean that we can produce exciting new materials from organic by-products that are
already easily available. Sustainable materials can be both high-tech and low-cost.”

“We’ve also used biomass, in that case algae, to make the kinds of supercapacitors that can be
used to store power in consumer electronics, in defibrillators and for energy recovery in vehicles.”
Story source: http://www.qmw.ac.uk/

2014 Nobel Prize in Physics: Invention of efficient blue


light-emitting diodes
The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to Isamu Akasaki, of Meijo University in Nagoya
and Nagoya University, Japan; Hiroshi Amano, of Nagoya University, Japan; and Shuji Nakamura of
the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting
diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources."

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel
Prize in Physics for 2014 to Isamu Akasaki, of Meijo University in Nagoya and
Nagoya University, Japan; Hiroshi Amano, of Nagoya University, Japan, and
Shuji Nakamura of the University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA "for
the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright
and energy-saving white light sources."

New light to illuminate the world


This year's Nobel Laureates are rewarded for having invented a new energy-efficient and
environment-friendly light source -- the blue light-emitting diode (LED). In the spirit of Alfred Nobel
the Prize rewards an invention of greatest benefit to humankind; using blue LEDs, white light can be
created in a new way. With the advent of LED lamps we now have more long-lasting and more
efficient alternatives to older light sources.
When Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura produced bright blue light beams from
their semi-conductors in the early 1990s, they triggered a funda-mental transformation of lighting
technology. Red and green diodes had been around for a long time but without blue light, white
lamps could not be created. Despite considerable efforts, both in the scientific community and in
industry, the blue LED had remained a challenge for three decades.
They succeeded where everyone else had failed. Akasaki worked together with Amano at the
University of Nagoya, while Nakamura was employed at Nichia Chemicals, a small company in
Tokushima. Their inventions were revolutionary. Incandescent light bulbs lit the 20th century; the
21st century will be lit by LED lamps.
White LED lamps emit a bright white light, are long-lasting and energy-efficient. They are constantly
improved, getting more efficient with higher luminous flux (measured in lumen) per unit electrical
input power (measured in watt). The most recent record is just over 300 lm/W, which can be
compared to 16 for regular light bulbs and close to 70 for fluorescent lamps. As about one fourth of
world electricity consumption is used for lighting purposes, the LEDs contribute to saving Earth's
resources. Materials consumption is also diminished as LEDs last up to 100,000 hours, compared to
1,000 for incandescent bulbs and 10,000 hours for fluorescent lights.
The LED lamp holds great promise for increasing the quality of life for over 1.5 billion people around
the world who lack access to electricity grids: due to low power requirements it can be powered by
cheap local solar power.
The invention of the blue LED is just twenty years old, but it has already contributed to create white
light in an entirely new manner to the benefit of us all.

Story Source:
Materials provided by Nobel Foundation. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

3D Printing

ou may have heard of 3D printing being heralded as the future of manufacturing.


And with the way the technology has advanced and spread commercially, it may
very well make good on the hype surrounding it. So, what is 3D printing? And
who came up with it?
The best example to describe how 3D printing works comes from the TV
series Star Trek: The Next Generation. In that fictional futuristic universe, the
crew aboard a spaceship uses a small device called a replicator to create virtually
anything, as in anything from food and drinks to toys. Now while both are
capable of rendering three-dimensional objects, 3D printing isn’t nearly as
sophisticated. Whereas a replicator manipulates subatomic particles to produce
whatever small object comes to mind, 3D printers “print” out materials in
successive layers to form the object.

Early Development
Historically speaking, the development of the technology began in the early
1980s, even predating the aforementioned TV show. In 1981, Hideo Kodama of
the Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute was the first to publish an
account of how materials called photopolymers that hardened when exposed to
UV light can be used to rapidly fabricate solid prototypes. Though his paper laid
the groundwork for 3D printing, he wasn’t the first to actually build a 3D printer.

That prestigious honor goes to engineer Chuck Hull, who designed and created
the first 3D printer in 1984. He had been working for a company that used UV
lamps to fashion tough, durable coatings for tables when he hit on the idea to
take advantage of ultraviolet technology to make small prototypes. Fortunately,
Hull had a lab to tinker with his idea for months.

The key to making such a printer work were the photopolymers that were stayed
in a liquid state until they reacted to ultraviolet light. The system that Hull would
eventually develop, known as stereolithography, used a beam of UV light to
sketch out the shape of the object out of a vat of liquid photopolymer. As the light
beam hardened each layer along the surface, the platform would move down so
that the next layer can be hardened.

He filed a patent on the technology in 1984, but it was three weeks after a team of
French inventors, Alain Le Méhauté, Olivier de Witte, and Jean Claude André,
filed a patent for a similar process. However, their employers abandoned efforts
to further develop the technology due to “lack of business perspective.” This
allowed Hull to copyright the term “Stereolithography.” His patent, titled
“Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimensional Objects by Stereolithography”
was issued on March 11, 1986. That year, Hull also formed 3D systems in
Valencia, California so he could begin rapid prototyping commercially.
Expanding to Different Materials and Techniques
While Hull’s patent covered many aspects of 3D printing, including the design
and operating software, techniques and a variety of materials, other inventors
would build upon the concept with different approaches. In 1989, a patent was
awarded to Carl Deckard, a University of Texas graduate student who developed a
method called selective laser sintering. With SLS, a laser beam was used to
custom-bind powdered materials, such as metal, together to form a layer of the
object. Fresh powder would be added to the surface after each successive layer.
Other variations such as direct metal laser sintering and selective laser melting
are also used for crafting metal objects.

The most popular and most recognizable form of 3D printing is called fused
deposition modeling. FDP, developed by inventor S. Scott Crump lays down the
material in layers directly onto a platform. The material, usually a resin, is
dispensed through a metal wire and, once released through the nozzle, hardens
immediately. The idea came to Crump in 1988 while he was trying to make a toy
frog for his daughter by dispensing candle wax through a glue gun.

In 1989, Crump patented the technology and with his wife co-founded Stratasys
Ltd. to make and sell 3D printing machines for rapid prototyping or commercial
manufacturing. They took their company public in 1994 and by 2003, FDP
became the top-selling rapid prototyping technology.

ou may have heard of 3D printing being heralded as the future of manufacturing.


And with the way the technology has advanced and spread commercially, it may
very well make good on the hype surrounding it. So, what is 3D printing? And
who came up with it?

The best example to describe how 3D printing works comes from the TV
series Star Trek: The Next Generation. In that fictional futuristic universe, the
crew aboard a spaceship uses a small device called a replicator to create virtually
anything, as in anything from food and drinks to toys. Now while both are
capable of rendering three-dimensional objects, 3D printing isn’t nearly as
sophisticated. Whereas a replicator manipulates subatomic particles to produce
whatever small object comes to mind, 3D printers “print” out materials in
successive layers to form the object.

Early Development
Historically speaking, the development of the technology began in the early
1980s, even predating the aforementioned TV show. In 1981, Hideo Kodama of
the Nagoya Municipal Industrial Research Institute was the first to publish an
account of how materials called photopolymers that hardened when exposed to
UV light can be used to rapidly fabricate solid prototypes. Though his paper laid
the groundwork for 3D printing, he wasn’t the first to actually build a 3D printer.

That prestigious honor goes to engineer Chuck Hull, who designed and created
the first 3D printer in 1984. He had been working for a company that used UV
lamps to fashion tough, durable coatings for tables when he hit on the idea to
take advantage of ultraviolet technology to make small prototypes. Fortunately,
Hull had a lab to tinker with his idea for months.

The key to making such a printer work were the photopolymers that were stayed
in a liquid state until they reacted to ultraviolet light. The system that Hull would
eventually develop, known as stereolithography, used a beam of UV light to
sketch out the shape of the object out of a vat of liquid photopolymer. As the light
beam hardened each layer along the surface, the platform would move down so
that the next layer can be hardened.

He filed a patent on the technology in 1984, but it was three weeks after a team of
French inventors, Alain Le Méhauté, Olivier de Witte, and Jean Claude André,
filed a patent for a similar process. However, their employers abandoned efforts
to further develop the technology due to “lack of business perspective.” This
allowed Hull to copyright the term “Stereolithography.” His patent, titled
“Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimensional Objects by Stereolithography”
was issued on March 11, 1986. That year, Hull also formed 3D systems in
Valencia, California so he could begin rapid prototyping commercially.

Expanding to Different Materials and Techniques


While Hull’s patent covered many aspects of 3D printing, including the design
and operating software, techniques and a variety of materials, other inventors
would build upon the concept with different approaches. In 1989, a patent was
awarded to Carl Deckard, a University of Texas graduate student who developed a
method called selective laser sintering. With SLS, a laser beam was used to
custom-bind powdered materials, such as metal, together to form a layer of the
object. Fresh powder would be added to the surface after each successive layer.
Other variations such as direct metal laser sintering and selective laser melting
are also used for crafting metal objects.

The most popular and most recognizable form of 3D printing is called fused
deposition modeling. FDP, developed by inventor S. Scott Crump lays down the
material in layers directly onto a platform. The material, usually a resin, is
dispensed through a metal wire and, once released through the nozzle, hardens
immediately. The idea came to Crump in 1988 while he was trying to make a toy
frog for his daughter by dispensing candle wax through a glue gun.

In 1989, Crump patented the technology and with his wife co-founded Stratasys
Ltd. to make and sell 3D printing machines for rapid prototyping or commercial
manufacturing. They took their company public in 1994 and by 2003, FDP
became the top-selling rapid prototyping technology.