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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 67, NO.

10, OCTOBER 2018 9303

Low-Emission Maximum-Efficiency Tracking of an


Intelligent Bi-Fuel Hydrogen–Gasoline Generator
for HEV Applications
Mohamed Rebai, Student Member, IEEE, Sousso Kelouwani , Senior Member, IEEE,
Yves Dubé, and Kodjo Agbossou , Senior Member, IEEE

Abstract—This paper presents a bifuel hydrogen–gasoline inter- are close-to-zero emissions, have re-emerged as a strong alter-
nal combustion engine (ICE) as an effective strategy for extending native for transport [4], [5]. However, this solution is beset with
the electric vehicle’s ranges. The electric power produced by the various challenges in getting closer to the conventional vehicles,
proposed ICE linked with a generator is a nonlinear function of the
engine speed and the proportions of hydrogen and gasoline mixed in terms of storage of electrical energy, autonomy, charging
fuel can be approximated around operating conditions. This non- time and lifespan, and purchase value [6]–[8]. Consequently,
linear function is approximated by the Taylor series and a compar- hybridization of EVs by adding a second energy source under
ative study between the obtained results and the experimental data different systems is considered as a practical way to widen the
showed the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Furthermore, operating range [9]. The architecture of hybrid electric vehicles
we observed that the Taylor series approach can achieve less than
7% error, while the modeling with an artificial neural network or (HEVs) is of three types: serial, parallel and serial-parallel. In
a recursive least square method results in more than 8% error. To serial architecture, the second energy source plays a unique role
enable the ICE operation with maximum efficiency, a nonlinear in the production of electrical energy to charge the battery. In
optimization method is used. The proposed maximum efficiency parallel design, the vehicle is propelled, in most cases, either by
tracking approach is compared with that of the most used indus- an internal combustion engine (ICE) or by a battery pack with
trial methods based on constant speed. The results show that the
proposed approach can result in more than 7% of saving in energy, an electric motor. In serial-parallel arrangement, the serial and
compared to that of the industrial method. parallel architectures are combined to take advantage of each
topology [9], [10].
Index Terms—Hybrid electric vehicle, energy efficiency, hydro-
gen, gasoline, generator, emission.
Fuel cells are considered environmentally efficient because of
their zero emission of polluting gases. Therefore, the efficiency
of fuel cell system can reach up to 50%, compared to other
I. INTRODUCTION machines [11]. Most researches on fuel cells have been carried
EVERAL human activities, which involve the use of fos- out to remedy certain technical difficulties such as cold starting
S sil fuels, result in polluting the environment with gaseous
emissions that are harmful to humans. Canadian statistical study
in temperatures below water freezing point. Second, fuel cell
systems do not withstand rapid changes in charge, which lead
shows that industrial and transportation sectors are the major the lifespan reduction [12]–[15]. A comparative study of fuel
consumers of fossil fuels [1], [2]. Between these two, the trans- cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and internal combustion engine
portation sector is the main producer of greenhouse gas emis- vehicles (ICEV) reveals that the price of a FCEV is 30% more
sions [3]. To address this issue, electrical vehicles (EVs), which than ICEV, despite available discounts on the former. Due to
the fact that, the price of the fuel cell is 24% of the price of
the traditional vehicle, it has undergone marketing difficulties
Manuscript received June 9, 2017; revised November 19, 2017, March 19, [16]. Because of these disadvantages of FCEVs, several studies
2018, and May 30, 2018; accepted June 1, 2018. Date of publication August 15,
2018; date of current version October 15, 2018. This work was supported by
has been carried out on the feasibility of using internal combus-
Bureau de l Efficacité et de l Innovation Énergétiques, Ministère des Ressources tion engine with mixed fuels to increase their usefulness and
Naturelles et de la Faune du Québec and Natural Sciences and Engineering reduce the pollutant emissions generated by their ICEs, espe-
Research Council of Canada. The review of this paper was coordinated by Prof.
M. Benbouzid. (Corresponding author: Sousso Kelouwani.)
cially with a mixture of fossil fuel and hydrogen (H2 ), which is
M. Rebai, S. Kelouwani, and Y. Dubé are with the Hydrogen Research Insti- generated from renewable energies. Indeed, by injecting small
tute, Department of Mechanical Engineering Université du Québec à Trois- particles of H2 into ICE, one can obtain a homogeneous mix-
Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC G9A 5H7 Canada (e-mail:, Mohamed.rebai@
uqtr.ca; Sousso.kelouwani@uqtr.ca; Yves.dube@uqtr.ca).
ture with fossil fuels, because of high coefficient of H2 diffusion
K. Agbossou is with the Hydrogen Research Institute, Department of Elec- [17]–[19]. In addition, the speed of propagation of the ame of
trical and Computer Engineering, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois- such mixture is very high, compared to other fuels, which makes
Rivières, QC G9A 5H7 Canada (e-mail:,Kodjo.agbossou@uqtr.ca).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
the combustion complete [20]. A simple modication of the injec-
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. tion system and the controller part of the ICE converts the engine
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2018.2861902 from a fossil fuel-powered engine to a bi-fuel-powered engine

0018-9545 © 2018 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
9304 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 67, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2018

[21]. Chulyoung et al. [22] studied the efficiency of a generating two models have been described: the generic mean value model
set in emission production, using hydrogen and biogas mixtures, (MVM) and the discrete event model (DEM) [32], [33]. These
through varying the stoichiometric coefficient. They found that two models require several parameters of the engine with a
by adding 15% H2 to the mixture, the efficiency could be in- high precision to converge which is not suitable for this work
creased by 14.7%, compared to the efficiency of a pure biogas ambition of the real-time monitoring of the efficiency. Addi-
mixture. However, their proposition this failed in preventing tionally, the approach followed by the manufacturer of the ICE
the increase in N Ox emission because of the speed of the ame is based on the map of efficiency [34],which does not take into
propagation and the temperature increase in the chamber, which account the dynamics of the system in real time. In fact, aging
favors the production of N Ox . Furthermore, the research at- and wearing of ICEs components influence the power produced
tempted to ascertain the effect of adding H2 to fossil fuels. It by the generator which is not reflected by the static efficiency
has been found that, at the cold start of the ICE, H2 with gaso- map provided by manufacture [35]. The neural network, which
line can reduce the emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon uses a large experimental database, is an efficient method for
monoxide (CO) to 94.7% and 99.5%, respectively. To mitigate modeling the bi-fuel ICE [36]. However, the major disadvantage
these emissions, the performance hes been evaluated at low and of this approach is the collection of data and the convergence
average loads with high H2 -percent fuel mixtures, and at heavy of the method inuenced by training of the network. Kere et al.
loads with gasoline [23]. Moreover, experimental studies have [37], [38] proposed a new approach to monitoring efficiency
been reported on mixtures of H2 with different fossil fuels, such by relying on an adaptive efficiency map that accounts for the
as natural gas, diesel, and gasoline [24]–[27]. The results have behavior of the ICE in real time. As a result, the efficiency of the
demonstrated that the addition of H2 can considerably increase ICE was improves by 7.15%, compared to the control strategy,
the efficiency of the engine. Under leaner operating conditions commonly executed at a constant speed. In order to efficiently
and idling, the engine stabilizes with fuel mixture rich in H2 . extend an electric vehicle range, this study proposes a maximum
In the case of diesel, it has been observed that by adding 42% real-time efficiency tracking approach of a hydrogen-gasoline
H2 , the engine brake thermal efficiency improves by 15.8%. bi-fuel ICE by considering the N Ox emission reduction as a
In addition, H2 can signicantly reduces the emission of carbon requirement (mostly N O and N O2 ). Therefore, the proposed
monoxide CO, and carbon dioxide (CO2 ), despite increasing approach aims to contribute:
N Ox emission. In fact, the formation of N Ox is associated with r A dynamic nonlinear model of a bi-fuel ICE.
the temperature increase in the combustion chamber, the oxygen r An online tracking of the maximum efficiency by taking
concentration and the duration of reaction. The purity of H2 in into account the N Ox and the CO2 emissions.
the ICE is low, compared to fuel cells with 99.99% H2 purity Several algorithms were used to track load profile for electric
which in turn, reduces the cost of H2 for ICEs. Verhelst et al. vehicles which allows to keep the optimal charge level for the
[28] investigated the causes for N Ox emissions corresponding batteries and know the moment to operate the second source to
to an ICE running on H2 . They realized that the stoichiometric charge the batteries. [39], [40].
coefficient (φ),as the fuel to air ratio, is the predominant factor The remainder of paper is organized as follows. Section II
for N Ox emissions. In fact, for low stoichiometric coefficients presents the bi-fuel hydrogen-gasoline ICE with various mod-
i.e. between 0.2 and 0.5, N Ox emissions are negligible. For ications; Section III describes the development of the ICE ef-
the coefficients more than 0.5 N Ox emissions increase expo- ficiency map with a emission projection for different mixtures;
nentially to maximum amount occurred at φ = 0.8. As stated, Section IV presents modeling and optimization of the ICE;
this situation was a consequence the increase in the temperature Section V experimentally validates the proposed method, and
of the combustion chamber, which leaded to the production of provides a comparative study; finally, the conclusion is pre-
nitrogen oxide. With stoichiometrice coefficient more than 0.8, sented in Section VI.
N Ox emissions started to decrease due to the lack of oxygen in
the cylinder. One of the advantages of H2 as a fuel in the ICE II. BI-FUEL HYDROGEN–GASOLINE ICE
is that it operates in lean mode, which is not the case of other
The nonlinearity of the ICE and the presence of the inter-
fossil fuels [29]. The ICE utilized in this study operated with a
nal combustion engine, render the modeling and optimization
H2 -gasoline bi-fuel mixture with the proportions set to generate
problem more complex. In addition, the optimization process
the least polluting emissions, stoichiometric coefficient equal to
becomes more challenging by the thermodynamic model inte-
0.5 for hydrogen. While, gasoline is set at the ideal ration [30].
grating. Accordingly, development of an empirical model, by
As the efficiency of ICE is lower than fuel cells, it is nec-
carrying experimental tests to characterize the optimal condi-
essary to operate the ICE at optimum efficiency to compensate
tions of the ICE, was taken into account.
for such deficiency. Due to the presence of ICE, the behavior
of the ICE is non-linear, which renders the monitoring of the
ICE difficult. In order to account for an applicable approach A. Description of the ICE
of the bi-fuel ICE, it is essential to identify the systems pa- A 5 kW Honda commercial ICE with its generator as de-
rameters in real time, however, this is not possible because of picted in Fig. 1) with characteristics are described in Table I,
the complex thermodynamic factors that control the combus- was modied to operate with gasoline, hydrogen or a mixture
tion of the engine [31]. Concerning the spark-ignition engine, of both the fuels, in different proportions. The system consists
REBAI et al.: LOW-EMISSION MAXIMUM-EFFICIENCY TRACKING OF AN INTELLIGENT BI-FUEL HYDROGEN–GASOLINE GENERATOR 9305

Fig. 3. An illustration of the bi-fuel ICE and its parts.

Fig. 1. Bi-fuel hydrogen-gasoline ICE. TABLE II


INPUT PARAMETERS SET FOR THE BI-FUEL GENERATOR

TABLE I
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ICE

consumption of each fuel; two sensors on the exhaust pipe to


measure the volume of emissions. The software and hardware
used for this study were based on the Labview / cRIO system,
shown in Fig. 3.

B. Experimental Procedure
The ICE was operated under the best condition to take full
advantage of its optimum efficiency and its characteristic of low
emissions. Depending on the charging level of the batteries and
the trajectory to be traveled, the power that can be delivered
by the generator defined by the energy management system.
In order to enable the generator to deliver the required power,
Fig. 2. The modified bi-fuel ICE: 1-camshaft sensor; 2-hydrogen injector, and the optimal values of the engine speed, torque, and the type of
3-gasoline injector.
mixture were studied. Several tests were carried out on the test
bench, presented in the previous section, to set these parameters
of a single cylinder ICE, with four-stage controlled ignition. In at their optimum levels, by scanning various power regimes i.e.
addition, two 2.5 kW synchronous generators, were coupled to low, medium, and high. Table II explain the input parameters set
the output shaft of the ICE. for the ICE. 1000 W and 2050 W represents the electric power
Figure 2 shows the main modications made in the ICE for this values consmed by the test vehicle for 10 km/h and 20 km/h
study. The carburetor was replaced with an intelligent injection speeds, respectively, with a zero road gradient. 3000W present
system, having two injectors installed on the intake manifold, the maximum power set to be delivered by the generator. The
for gasoline and hydrogen injection. The combustion takes place RPM was set to four levels, corresponding to low, medium,
indirectly from the air-fuel mixture that forms upstream of the high and very high speeds. The percentage of H2 and gasoline
intake valve. The inverter was replaced by a motor controller, in the bi-fuel was controlled through six levels, with 20% step
and a camshaft sensor was installed to control the injection time. changes, as seen in Table II. The testing procedure was practiced
Afterward, the ICE was placed on an electric test vehicle to with regard to electrical power levels, RPM values, and different
convert it into a hybrid electric vehicle, with serial architecture. fuel mixtures based on Table II, to generate the required output
Consequently, two power interfaces were connected between parameters.
the generator and the battery to ensure AC to DC conversion The test results were recorded by a computer system, using the
and subsequently, batteries charging. Moreover, several sen- values measured by the sensors in real time, through detecting
sors were installed: Two ow-meters to measure the real-time changes in the input parameters.
9306 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 67, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2018

Fig. 4. Efficiency maps of the bi-fuel ICE , as a function of P G and RPM, for four different mixtures of the bi-fuel.

III. EFFICIENCY MAP OF A BI-FUEL GENERATOR AND of H2 , which is about three times greater than gasoline or diesel.
POLLUTING EMISSIONS However, the power of the ICE with H2 is lower than gasoline
because of the low energy density of H2 , compared to other fossil
A. Derivation of Efficiency Map
fuels. On the other hand, more the percentage of gasoline with
The efficiency of the generating set was calculated by equa- H2 increases, higher powers can deliver by the ICE. A mixture
tion (1): of 40% gasoline and 60% H2 can generate high power levels.
This explains the reason of utilizing hydrogen-rich mixtures to
PG
η= × 100 (1) achieve higher power levels.
ṁH 2 LHVH 2 + ṁg asolin e LHVg asolin e

where: B. Nitrogen Oxide N Ox Emission


r ṁH and ṁg asolin e are the ow rates of H2 and gasoline, The production of N Ox emissions is directly related to the
2
respectively. amount of nitrogen entering the combustion chamber from the
r LHVH and LHVg asolin e denote, lower heating values of air. Under high temperature, N2 decomposes into monoatomic
2
H2 and gasoline, respectively. N which combines with oxygen to produce nitrogen oxide.
Fig. 4 shows the evolution of the efficiency of the ICE, with Figure 5(a) illustrates the relation between N Ox emissions and
respect to four different fuel inputs. It can be deduced that,the RPM for three different mixtures, with electrical power of 1000
efficiency of the ICE is signicantly affected by the percentages W; In addition, Fig. 5(b) present the relation between the gas
of gasoline and H2 in the bi-fuel. The efficiency could reach temperature released by the combustion chamber and RPM.
32% for average power regimes where a pure H2 fuel was used From Fig. 5(a) it can be observed that 100% H2 fuel gives the
for combustion. This is higher than the efficiency that can be lowest N Ox emissions which can be explained in two different
attained with a 100% gasoline fuel due to the high caloric value ways: First, using a lean mixture of H2 (φ = 0.5) gives lower
REBAI et al.: LOW-EMISSION MAXIMUM-EFFICIENCY TRACKING OF AN INTELLIGENT BI-FUEL HYDROGEN–GASOLINE GENERATOR 9307

expressed as a function of the electrical power PG , RP M , and


the parameter F , representing the percentage of H2 in the fuel.
The maximum value of F i.e. 100 presents a pure mixture with
hydrogen.
For each timestamp k, the efficiency is presented by equation
(2):
η(i) = θ0 + θ1 PG (i) + θ2 Ω(i) + θ3 F (i)
+ θ4 PG (i)Ω(i) + θ5 PG (i)F (i) + θ6 Ω(i)F (i)
+ θ7 PG2 (i) + θ8 Ω2 (i) + θ9 F 2 (i) (2)
Equation (3) expresses the matrix form of equation (2):
η(i) = ϕ(i)θ(i) (3)
where ϕ(i) represents the regressor vector defined by:
ϕ(i) = [1, PG (i), Ω(i), F (i), PG (i)Ω(i), PG (i)F (i),
Fig. 5. The relation between: (a) N O x emissions and RPM and (b) the tem- T
perature and the RPM of the ICE for different mixtures of bi-fuel. Ω(i)F (i), PG2 (i), Ω2 (i), F 2 (i) (4)
and
θ(i) = [θ0 , θ1 , θ2 , θ3 , θ4 , θ5 , θ6 , θ7 , θ8 , θ9 ] (5)
θ(i) presents the vector of the model parameters that must be
identified online to minimize the error between the model and
the actual value described by equation (6):
N
1
δ= (η(k) − ϕT (i)θ(k − 1))2 (6)
2
k =1

Fig. 6. The relation between C O 2 emission and RPM for different mixtures
Equation (2) shows that η(i) is linear with respect to the
of bi-fuel. parameter θ(i), and thus the error function (6). Subsequently,
the recursive least squares algorithm can be applied to compute
emissions, in comparison with using pure gasoline. Second, low using equation (7):
temperature does not facilitate production of N Ox emissions, θ = (ΦT Φ)−1 ΦT Υ (7)
it can be seen from the emissions delivered by the ICE with
different electrical powers. where
 T
Φ = ϕT (1), ϕT (2), . . . , ϕT (N − 1), ϕT (N ) (8)
C. CO2 Emissions
and
Figure 6 shows the relation between CO2 emissions and RPM
for three different mixtures. It can be realized that 100% H2 Υ = [η(1), η(2), . . . , η(N − 1), η(N )]T (9)
mixture presents the lowest emissions, because of the absence
The invertible property of the matrix (ΦT Φ) makes it pos-
of carbon in the combustion chamber. Nonetheless, a few CO2
sible to determine the values of θ(i). Through the least square
particles were detected during the test, due to the combustion of
estimate, θ(i) values are identified to develop the bi-fuel ICE
the lubricating oil lm on the cylinder wall.
model and optimize the best-operating conditions that would be
within the allowable range of the system.
IV. BI-FUEL GENERATOR ONLINE MODEL
A. Estimation of the Online Model Parameter B. Genset Optimization
Several tests were carried out on bi-fuel ICE combined wit a Our objective to operate the ICE with an optimal efficiency
generator to assess its efficiency, in terms of polluting emissions. signifies the utilization of an optimization method. First we
The interactions between the input variables of the ICE and their determine the operating space of input parameters defined in
inuence on the output variables can be understood through the the following, given by the generator manufacturer:
analysis of the applied tests. The ICE efficiency for different r The minimum and the maximum electrical powers ex-
H2 -gasoline mixtures, used in the tests, as a function of PG and pressed by PG i n and PG m a x , respectively.
RPM, is manifested locally as smooth surfaces [37]. Using the r The minimummand the maximum speeds of rotation pre-
decomposition of the third-order Taylor series, the efficiency is sented by Ωm in and Ωm ax , respectively.
9308 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 67, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2018

Fig. 7. The efficiency monitoring of the bi-fuel ICE.

r The mixture of fuel which varies between pure gasoline


Fig. 8. (a) ICE of the generator concatenated speed profile. (b) Generator
and pure hydrogen fuels defined by Fm in and Fm ax , re- power profile. (c) Blend of H 2 /gasoline profile.
spectively.
The operating space was decomposed at operating points to
construct a grid. The Line Search algorithm, described in [41], is
employed to identify the optimal conditions for each operating
regim, using the points of the grid as the initial estimation points.
Fig. 7 shows the steps involved in the monitoring of the ICE
efficiency. First, the database, imported from the ICE, is updated.
Second, the parameters of the model are identied online. After-
wards, the optimal operating conditions of the ICE is realized
by identifying: Ω∗ and F ∗ , while PG∗ delivered by the genera-
tor, is defined by the energy management system. The result of
the Line Search algorithm is loaded on the ICE to compare the
efficiency, considering the previous state. All these steps were
performed in closed loops to allow a real-time tracking. The
proposed approach can track the efficiency of the ICE in real-
time, because the power demand dynamic is a slowly varying
signal. The architecture adopted connect the battery with the
generator is serial which means that the battery handles most
of the fast power demand dynamics, whereas the slow ones i.e. Fig. 9. Efficiency comparison between the values obtained from measurement
and those obtained through recursive least squares offline and online models.
fundamental component are imposed on the generator, as power
demand prole.
the utilized approaches can be realized at the level of the param-
V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULT AND DISCUSSION eters of the model. The offline model was based on a database
collected from previous test system, which its parameters do
A. Validation of the Online Model of the Bi-fuel ICE not change during the operation time of the ICE. On the other
To validate the online model of the proposed bi-fuel ICE, hand, the online method was based on an initial database of the
serval tests were executed using the test bench of an ICE, running ICE, collected at the outset of its operation. In order to min-
on gasoline and H2 as show in Fig. 3. During the experiments, imize the error, the database is updated when a difference is
the input parameters of the system, the rotational speed Ω, the observed between the actual efficiency values and the calcu-
electrical power PG , and the fuel mixture proportions F , were lated values during the operation of the ICE. Accordingly, a
varied with time, as presented in Fig. 8. Therefore, all possible maximum relative error of 37.56% was resulted from the offline
regimes of electric power were scanned at different speeds with model, implying that the ICE was rapidly changing its behav-
different percentages of gasoline and H2 in the bi-fuel in order ior, even though the initial database gathereds all the operating
to understand the behavior of the ICE model and target the regimes at the outset. On the other hand, a maximum relative
measured values of efficiency. error of 6.93% was realized by the online method, implying that
Figure 9 shows the comparison between the measured effi- the ICE behavior was along the expected lines.
ciency values, as well as the values estimated by the RLSO n lin e To ascertain the adaptation ability of the proposed model, a
and the the RLSO f f lin e models. Indeed, the difference between comparison was made with the articial neural network (ANN)
REBAI et al.: LOW-EMISSION MAXIMUM-EFFICIENCY TRACKING OF AN INTELLIGENT BI-FUEL HYDROGEN–GASOLINE GENERATOR 9309

Fig. 10. Efficiency comparison between the recursive least squares online Fig. 11. Scenario for a hybrid electric vehicle based on a bi-fuel ICE.
model, articial neural network model and the model obtained by measured (a) Driving cycle based on US06. (b) Electrical traction power. (c) Distribu-
values. tion of electrical power.

approach. ANN applicable in different domains allows the mod-


eling of a system by collecting the data of the inputs and the
outputs. In this study, the tests performed in the mapping sec-
tion were used for training, validation, and testing of the ANN.
Seven hidden layers with PG , RPM and F inputs, and an output
layer representing the efficiency of the ICE were used. Fig. 10
illustrates the difference between RLSon lin e and ANN with
the measured values. Both models tracked the efficiency of the
ICE correctly for the same loading cycle regarding Fig. 8. The
maximum relative error of the ANN model is 8.76%, which is
close to that obtained from the online RLS model. However,
the main reason prefer the RLSon lin e model is its promise of
online applications. Indeed, the change in the behavior of the
ICE renders the ANN method more challenging. Scince the
database used in train the model was taken under such operating
conditions, different from those of the system, the database was
affected. Fig. 12. Optimal conditions for ICE. (a) ICE and its generator reference power.
(b) Optimal rotational speed. (c) Optimal percentages of H 2 and gasoline in the
mixed fuel.

B. Search for Optimal Efficiency


using equation (11).
In order to monitor the efficiency of the ICE, a comparison
was made between the approaches analyzed in this study and Pe (k) − PG (k − 1)
PG (k) = PG (k − 1) + (10)
the industrial method utilizing constant speed. A hybrid elec- k
tric vehicle was adopted to investigate the behavior of the ICE PB (k) = Pe (k) − PG (k) (11)
as a function of the electric power required for the powertrain.
The selected driving cycle was based on the well-known United The algorithm begins with the database provieded by the
States Environmental Protection Agency (US06), as shown in mapping of the ICE. At each increment, the efficiency moni-
Fig. 11(a). This driving cycle was modified to be applied to the toring algorithm searches for optimal conditions of RPM and
physical parameters of the experimental hybrid electric vehi- F as a function of the power required to maximize the effi-
cle regarding Fig. 1 in order to determine the electric traction ciency, whilst reducing, simultaneously, the N Ox and the CO2
power Pe shown in Fig. 11(b). Pe was divided into two parts emissions. Fig. 12(a) depicts the power delivered by the ICE
accounting for the power given by the battery pack PB and the and its generator when the power reference represented by the
power delivered by the ICE and its generator PG as illustrated green curve of Fig. 11(c) has been used. Fig. 12(a) and (b) show
in Fig. 11(c). Indeed, using the cumulative moving average of the variations in the optimal rotational speed of the engine and
Pe , we can obtain the delivered PG at each timestamp (k) by the optimal percentages of gasoline and H2 in the bi-fuel, re-
applying equation (10). Consequently, the PB can be computed spectively, which maximize the efficiency, while reducing the
9310 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 67, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2018

through supplying a fuel mixture of H2 and gasolin. In addition,


experimental evaluation of the ICE performance demonstrated
that, pure H2 fuel is the best choice for low and medium electric
power demands by the vehicle powertrain. However, for high
power demands, a fuel mixture of H2 and gasoline gives better
results than a pure H2 fuel. The comparative study between the
proposed efficiency tracking approach and the most common
used approach in the industry based on constant speed con-
trol, suggests that the proposed approach can achieve 7% more
energy saving.

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the efficiency and pollutant reduction, a comparative study was logical overview of hybrid electric and fuel cell vehicular power system
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Fig. 13 shows the evolution of the ICE efficiency achieved by [11] F. Martel, S. Kelouwani, Y. Dubé, and K. Agbossou, “Optimal economy-
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all the powers investigated by the test scenario. The results show [13] J. Ko and H. Ju, “Comparison of numerical simulation results and ex-
perimental data during cold-start of polymer electrolyte fuel cells,” Appl.
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reduction (particularly, when k ≥ 300 s) is superior to th indus- mediate cells in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack,” Solid State
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This paper was proposed a new adaptive control strategy for a pp. 981–989, 2012.
bi-fuel (hydrogen-gasoline) ICE, which enabled tracking max- [17] S. Dawei and L. Fushui, “Research on the performance and emission of
imum efficiency and minimizing the pollutant emissions CO, a port fuel injection hydrogen internal combustion engine,” in Proc. Int.
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[19] H. Li and G. A. Karim, “Exhaust emissions from an SI engine operating Mohamed Rebai received the B.S. degree in elec-
on gaseous fuel mixtures containing hydrogen,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, tromechanical engineering from the École Nationale
vol. 30, no. 1314, pp. 1491–1499, 2005. d Ingénieurs de Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia, in 2013 and
[20] G. A. Karim, “Hydrogen as a spark ignition engine fuel,” Int. J. Hydrogen the M.S. degree in mechanical engineering from the
Energy, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 569–577, 2003. Université du Québec Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières,
[21] D. Sáinz et al., “Conversion of a gasoline engine-generator set to a bi-fuel QC, Canada, in 2017. During 2013–2015, he was
(hydrogen/gasoline) electronic fuel-injected power unit,” Int. J. Hydrogen a Production and Design Engineer with SPM-SUD,
Energy, vol. 36, no. 21, pp. 13 781–13 792, 2011. Tunisia. His current research interests include mod-
[22] C. Jeong, T. Kim, K. Lee, S. Song, and K. M. Chun, “Generating ef- eling and optimization of the operating conditions of
ficiency and emissions of a spark-ignition gas engine generator fuelled the bi-fuel hydrogen–gasoline generator with respect
with biogashydrogen blends,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, no. 23, to efficiency and polluting emissions as a hybridiza-
pp. 9620–9627, 2009. tion solution of electric vehicles.
[23] C. Ji, S. Wang, and B. Zhang, “Performance of a hybrid hydrogen gasoline
engine under various operating conditions,” Appl. Energy, vol. 97, pp. 584–
589, 2012.
[24] C. Park, C. Kim, Y. Choi, S. Won, and Y. Moriyoshi, “The influences of
hydrogen on the performance and emission characteristics of a heavy duty Sousso Kelouwani (M’00–SM’17) received the B.S.
natural gas engine,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 3739–3745, and the M.Sc.A. degrees from the Université du
2011. Québec Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada,
[25] N. Saravanan and G. Nagarajan, “Performance and emission studies on in 2000 and 2002, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree
port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with diesel as an ignition (automation and systems) from the École Polytech-
source,” Appl. Energy, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 2218–2229, 2010. nique de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada, in 2010,
[26] S. Verhelst, P. Maesschalck, N. Rombaut, and R. Sierens, “Efficiency com- all in electrical engineering.
parison between hydrogen and gasoline, on a bi-fuel hydrogen/gasoline During 2002–2005, he was a Software Engineer
engine,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 2504–2510, 2009. with Open-wave Inc, and during 2005–2006 with
[27] K. V. Shivaprasad, S. Raviteja, P. Chitragar, and G. N. Kumar, “Ex- Cylis 53 Inc. During 2011–2012, he was a Scien-
perimental investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on com- tist with the Hydrogen Research Institute. He is cur-
bustion performance and emissions characteristics of a spark ignition rently a Professor with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Université
high speed gasoline engine,” Procedia Technol., vol. 14, pp. 141–148, du Québec Trois-Rivières. His current research interests include fuel cell con-
2014. trol and optimization, optimal energy management for hybrid electric vehicles,
[28] S. Verhelst et al., “Electricity powering combustion: Hydrogen engines,” electric genset, dynamic control of mobile robots, and intelligent vehicles. He is
Proc. IEEE, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 427–439, Feb. 2012. a Professional Engineer and a member of the Ordre des Ingénieurs du Québec.
[29] Z. y. Zhao and F. s. Liu, “Experimental study of air-fuel ratio control
strategy for a hydrogen internal combustion engine,” in Proc. Int. Conf.
Optoelectron. Image Process., 2010, vol. 1, pp. 530–533.
[30] Y. Kilagiz, A. Baran, Z. Yildiz, and M. Çetin, “A fuzzy diagnosis and Yves Dubé received the B.Sc. degree in physical en-
advice system for optimization of emissions and fuel consumption,” Expert gineering, the M.Sc. degree in mechanical engineer-
Syst. Appl., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 305–311, 2005. ing, and the Ph.D. degree in simulation and control
[31] S. Verhelst and T. Wallner, “Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion en- from the Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada, in
gines,” Prog. Energy Combustion Sci., vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 490–527, 2009. 1977, 1979, and 1985, respectively.
[32] M. A. Rizvi, A. I. Bhatti, and Q. R. Butt, “Hybrid model of the gasoline He is currently a Professor with the Department
engine for misfire detection,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 8, of Mechanical Engineering, Université du Québec
pp. 3680–3692, Aug. 2011. Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada. He au-
[33] Q. R. Butt and A. I. Bhatti, “Estimation of gasoline-engine parameters thored or coauthored more than 30 publications and
using higher order sliding mode,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, holds one patent. His present research activities are in
no. 11, pp. 3891–3898, Nov. 2008. the area of renewable energy, hydrogen-combustion
[34] M. Neve, G. D. Nicolao, G. Prodi, and C. Siviero, “Estimation of en- engine development, and control of mechanical systems. He has been a member
gine maps: A regularized basis-function networks approach,” IEEE Trans. of the Ordre des Ingénieurs du Québec and a Professional Engineer since 1977.
Control Syst. Technol., vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 716–722, May 2009.
[35] P. K. Wong, L. M. Tam, K. Li, and C. M. Vong, “Engine idle-speed
system modelling and control optimization using artificial intelligence,”
Proc. Institution Mech. Eng., Part D, J. Automobile Eng., vol. 224, no. 1, Kodjo Agbossou (M’98–SM’01) received the B.S.,
pp. 55–72, 2010. M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electronic measurements
[36] M. Rebai, S. Kelouwani, Y. Dubé, and K. Agbossou, “Intelligent blended from the Université de Nancy I, Nancy, France, in
hydrogen-gasoline generator emission/efficiency characterization in con- 1987, 1989, and 1992, respectively. He is currently
text of EV range extension,” in Proc. IEEE Veh. Power Propulsion Conf., the Head of the Engineering School, Université du
2016, pp. 1–5. Québec Trois-Rivières (UQTR), Trois-Rivières, QC,
[37] L. J. Kere, S. Kelouwani, K. Agbossou, Y. Dubé, N. Henao, and Canada. He was a Postdoctoral Researcher (1993–
R. Courteau, “Tracking maximum efficiency of hydrogen genset used 1994) and a Lecturer (1997–1998) with the Depart-
as electric vehicle range extender,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, vol. 39, no. 7, ment of Electrical Engineering, UQTR. Since 1998,
pp. 3433–3443, 2014. he has been an Associate Professor and a Full Profes-
[38] L. J. Kere, S. Kelouwani, K. Agbossou, Y. Dube, and F. Martel, “Internal sor with the Department of Electrical and Computer
model control of a hydrogen-fueled genset for HEV applications,” in Proc. Engineering, UQTR since 2004. He was also the Head of the department and the
IEEE Veh. Power Propulsion Conf., 2015, pp. 1–5. Director of Graduate Studies in Electrical Engineering. He authored more than
[39] A. Malhotra, G. Binetti, A. Davoudi, and I. D. Schizas, “Distributed power 150 publications and has 4 patents. His research interests include renewable
profile tracking for heterogeneous charging of electric vehicles,” IEEE energy, integration of hydrogen production, storage and electrical energy gen-
Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 2090–2099, Sep. 2017. eration systems, hybrid electrical vehicles, and control and measurements. He
[40] N. Y. Soltani, S.-J. Kim, and G. B. Giannakis, “Real-time load elasticity is a member of the Hydrogen Research Institute and Research group GREI of
tracking and pricing for electric vehicle charging,” IEEE Trans. Smart UQTR. He is also a member of the IEEE Power and Energy, Industry Applica-
Grid, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1303–1313, May 2015. tions, Communications Societies, as well as the Industrial Electronics Society
[41] C. Grosan and A. Abraham, “Modified line search method for global op- Technical Committee on Renewable Energy Systems. He was formerly the
timization,” in Proc. 1st Asia Int. Conf.s Modelling Simul., 2007, pp. 415– Chair of the IEEE Section Saint Maurice, QC, Canada. He joined the Ordre des
420. Ingénieurs du Québec in 1998 and serves as a Professional Engineer.