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(i) Determine the horizontal range in terms of v and T . horizontal and at a constant speed 4v. To avoid having an accident, the two

(ii) Show that, in a suitably chosen Cartesian coordinates system, the equation aircraft must not be closer than a distance k from each other at any time (See

of the path of the particle is Figure 2.)

gx 2 sec 2 T (a)Find, in terms of v and D , the velocity of B relative to A.

y x tan T .

2v 2 (b)Show that, to avoid having an accident, D must be such that the condition

(b) k

sin T E t

h2 d 2

is satisfied, where

h

T tan 1 ( ) ,

d

4 sin D

and E tan 1 ( ).

1 4 cos D

Figure 1 3 1

(c)If h = d and k h , determine the restriction on D for no accident,

2

A particle is projected with speed v from a point A on horizontal ground so as ʌ

given that D .

to hit an inclined plane, of inclination I to the horizontal, at a point B. The 4

motion takes place in a vertical plane AOB perpendicular to the line of 3 1

[Given: sin 15q .]

intersection (on which O lies) between the inclined plane and the ground. Let 2 2

the distance OA and OB be a and r respectively (See Figure 1.)

(i) Show that the particle cannot strike the inclined plane unless v 2 t ga . 3. Let a, b and c be three non-coplanar unit vectors. The angles between b and c, c

(ii) For a given value of r > 0, show that the point B can be reached only if and a, and a and b are D , E and J respectively.

(a)Let u and v be two vectors defined by

v 2 t g (r sin I r 2 sin 2 I (a r cos I ) 2 ) .

u (a b )c (c a ) b

2.

v b (a b )a

(ii) Prove that both u and v are perpendicular to a.

(iii) Show that, if u and v are perpendicular to each other, then

cos E cos D cos J .

(b)Let d = la + mb + nc,

Figure 2 where l, m and n are given non-zero parameters. In a given frame of reference

with origin O, let A and C be two points such that OA a and OC c . A

An aircraft A is flying due east at a constant speed v and at a constant height h line is drawn through A in a direction parallel to b and a second line is drawn

above the ground on a straight course which will take it directly above the through C in a direction parallel to d. Prove that the two lines meet if and only

east-west runway of an airport. At the instant when A is at a horizontal distance d if

from the west end O of the runway, an aircraft B, taking off from the airport in the ln 0

mg

(i.e. tension u extension) . The other end of the string is attached to a fixed

4. l

point O on the inclined plane. The angle of inclination of the inclined plane is D .

Initially the particle is held so that the string lies unstretched along a line of

greatest slope and is of length l. (See Figure 4.)

(a)Suppose that the inclined plane is smooth and the particle is released from rest.

Set up the equation of motion of the particle and show that the motion is

simple harmonic with an amplitude equal to l sin D .

Figure 3 (b)Suppose that the inclined plane is rough and that the coefficient of friction

between the particle and the plane is P , where P tan D .

Three smooth, identical, small balls A, B, and C, each of mass m, are connected (i) Show that, when the particle is released from rest, the greatest distance

by light inextensible strings AB and BC, each of length a. The balls lie at rests on along the slope that the particle will descend is

a smooth horizontal table with the strings in a straight line (See Figure 3.) A blow 2l (sin D P cos D ) .

is applied to B giving it a speed u in a direction perpendicular to the strings. In the (ii) Hence show that the particle will move up again only if

subsequent motion, the strings remain tight and energy is lost only when A 1

P tan D .

collides with C. Suppose the coefficient of restitution between the balls is equal 3

to e.

u 6. (a) A uniform lamina is in the form of a sector AOB of a circle. The radius of the

(a)Show that the speed of B just before the first collision between A and C is .

3 circle is equal to R and the arc AB subtends an angle of 120q at the centre O.

(b)Show that the loss of energy in the first collision between A and C is From first principles, show that the distance of the centroid of the lamina from

1 3R

mu 2 (1 e 2 ) . O is .

3 ʌ

(c)Find the speed of B when the strings are in a straight line again after the first (b)

collision.

5.

Figure 5

Figure 4 radius R is cut into three equal parts by planes passing through the axis VO of

the cone. Let one of these equal parts be denoted by VOAB (See Figure 5.)

A particle of mass m can slide on a fixed inclined plane. It is attached to one end (i) Given that the centre of mass of the right circular cone lies on the axis VO

of a light elastic of natural length l and modulus of elasticity mg h

and at a distance from the base, deduce, by arguments based on

4

symmetry or otherwise, that the centre of mass of the portion VOAB lies on § 8P (1 P c) ·

I sin 1 ¨¨ ¸¸ .

the line joining V to the centroid of the base OAB, and divides the line © 3(1 PP c) ¹

segment in the ratio 3 : 1.

(ii) Suppose that the portion VOAB is suspended freely under gravity from O. 8. A pendulum is constructed by rigidly attaching a thin uniform rod, of length 2l

Determine the angle D , which the axis VO makes with the horizontal, in and mass m, to a uniform disc, of radius l and mass 4m, so that the rod lies in the

terms of R and h. plane of the disc and one end of the rod is at the centre of the disc. The pendulum

is free to rotate in a vertical plane above a smooth horizontal axis through the

7. other end of the rod perpendicular to the disc.

(a)Find the moment of inertia of the pendulum about the axis of rotation.

(b)(i) If the pendulum is released from rest with the rod horizontal, show that,

when the rod makes an angle T with the downward vertical, the angular

velocity T is given by

27 g cosT

T 2 .

29l

(ii) Find the magnitude of the force exerted by the pendulum on the axis of

rotation when T 0.

Figure 6

9.

A solid homogeneous hemisphere, of radius r, rests with its base inclined at an

angle T to the horizontal and its curved surface leaning against a vertical wall

and supported on a rough horizontal floor (See Figure 6.) The centre of gravity of

3

the hemisphere is at a distance r from the base. The coefficient of friction

8

between the hemisphere and the floor is P .

(a)Suppose that the vertical wall is smooth.

3

(i) Show that, if P t , equilibrium is possible for any value of T between

8 Figure 7

ʌ

0 and .

2 A certain mechanism is mounted on a racing car. It consists of a smooth uniform

3 rod AB, of mass M and length 2l, smoothly hinged about a horizontal axis at A. It

(ii) Show that, if P , the maximum angle, T max , that the base can make

8 24

rests on a horizontal edge S at an angle D sin 1 ( ) to the horizontal and can

with the horizontal is given by 25

8P rotate freely above S in a vertical plane. The axis at A and the edge S are both

T max sin 1 ().

3 fixed to the racing car (See Figure 7.) The racing car then starts moving

(b)Suppose that the vertical wall is also rough and that the coefficient of friction horizontally with a constant acceleration in a direction perpendicular to the axis at

between the hemisphere and the wall is P c . Show that, in a position of A.

limiting equilibrium, which is assumed to exist, the base of the hemisphere (a)Determine the constant acceleration f of the racing car in order that the

would be inclined to the horizontal at an angle I given by reaction of the edge on the rod should just vanish.

(b)If the racing car moves with an acceleration 2f instead, show that the rod will 1. (a) (i) The following values of f(x) are given:

turn with an angular velocity T given by

3 g 337 7 x 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

T 2 ( cosT sin T ) , f(x) 1.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 1.6 2.4 0.6

2l 300 12

where T is the inclination of the rod to the horizontal while it is turning.

Based on the above values, approximate the integral

1.2

³0

f ( x)dx

(ii) Calculate a bound for the error in part (a) if it is given that

f ( 4 ) ( x) d 1 for 0 d x d 1.2 .

(b) (i) It is given that g(x) is twice differentiable and g cc( x) d M for all x in

[ a, b] .

By considering a first-order Taylor expansion of g(x) at the midpoint of

[a, b] , show that

b ab

³a

g ( x ) dx (b a ) g (

2

)E

(b a ) 3

where E d M.

24

b

(ii) Hence find a bound for the error when ³ a

g ( x)dx is approximated by

N

§ x xk · ba

h¦ g ¨ k 1 ¸ , where N is some positive integer, h , and

k 1 © 2 ¹ N

x k a kh for k = 0, 1, …, N.

(a) Given that

(1) D is a root of the equation x = g(x) and g c(D ) 0,

(2) the root D and the sequence x0 , x1 , x 2, ... obtained from the iteration

M 2

Prove that x n 1 D d x n D for all n = 0, 1, 2, …

2

(b) Show that if J is a double root of a polynomial f(x), then J is also a root of

the equation x = h(x), where

f ( x) less than 0.10.

h( x ) x2 .

f c( x) (d) If N = 20 and c = 12, use the normal approximation to determine the

Also show that h c(J ) 0 . maximum value of p if the probability that at least one employee cannot find a

f ( x) parking space for his car on a weekday is less than 0.14.

(You may assume that in the quotient , all common factors have been

f c( x)

cancelled.) 5. A man is going to a meeting in a distant town. One method of transport is by bus;

(c) It is known that f ( x) x 3 0.9 x 2 3.36 x 1.6 has a double root J in another is by taxi followed by train. The time required by each mode of transport

[1, 0] . for the respective journey (including the time required for walking and waiting) is

(i) With h(x) defined as in part (b), take x0 1 and iterate normally distributed with mean and standard deviation given in the table below:

x n 1 h( x n ) twice to get an approximation of J .

(ii) Using Newton’s method with x0 1 , iterate twice to get another Vehicle Time in minutes Fare

approximation of J . Symbol Mean S.D. $

Bus X 60 15 10

(iii) Which of the two approximation is more accurate?

Taxi Y1 10 4 40

3. The differential equation Train Y2 20 5 5

2 1 n 1

d y dy

nx 2 x K x n n (a) If the man goes by bus and starts 70 minutes before the beginning of the

dx 2 dx

meeting, what is the probability that he will be late?

arises in a certain model of ‘pursuit and evasion’, where n z 0 or 1, and K is a

(b) If the man goes by taxi and train and starts 35 minutes before the beginning of

positive constant.

the meeting, what is probability that he will be late? You may assume that Y1

(a) Show that the above equation can be transformed into a second-order

and Y2 are independent, and that the total time Y1 Y2 is normally

differential equation of constant coefficients by setting x e z .

distributed.

(b) Find the solution of the equation satisfying the initial conditions:

(c) Suppose that a fine of $500 will be charged for arriving at the meeting late. By

dy

y = 0 and 0 when x = K. taking the fares and the expected fine into consideration, which of the two

dx

methods of going to the meeting is more economical?

(c) Show that, under the initial conditions given in (b),

(d) Suppose the man plans his journey so that he has a chance of at least 0.90 of

nK

y when x = 0. not being late for the meeting. How many minutes before the commencement

n2 1

of the meeting must he start the journey if he goes (i) by bus, (ii) by taxi and

train?

4. An organization has c parking spaces for its employees. N of its employees own

cars, and, on a weekday, each of them independently has a probability p of driving

6. (a) In a public examination with a large number of candidates, the scores in one of

to the office.

the examination papers follow a normal distribution N 1 with mean P1 and

(a) If c = 10, N = 12 and p = 0.6, find the probability that all parking spaces will

standard deviation V . Of the scores, 95% are below 620 while 9% are below

be full on a weekday.

420. Find P1 and V .

(b) If c = 10, N = 20 and p = 0.6, use the normal approximation to find the

(b) In the following year, a school used the same examination paper to test its 200

probability that all parking spaces will be full on a weekday.

students and obtained a mean score of 495.

(c) If N = 20 and p = 0.6, use the normal approximation to determine the

(i) Assuming that the scores of the 200 students could be considered as a

minimum number of parking spaces in order that on any weekday the

random sample from a normal population N 2 with mean P 2 and the

probability that at least one employee cannot find a parking space for his car is

same standard deviation as for N 1 , find a 95% confidence interval for

P2 . concluded that the machine has gone wrong. Otherwise, it is concluded that

(ii) Use a significance test at the 5% level to determine if N 2 can be the machine has been working correctly.

regarded as having the same mean as N 1 . (i) It is required that, when the machine is working correctly, the

(iii) Let p be the proportion of scores in N 2 higher than 620. If P 2 lies probability of concluding that the machine has gone wrong should be

in the 95% confidence interval determined in part (b)(i), find the less than 5%. Determine the minimum value of d in terms of n.

interval of values of p. (ii) It is further required that, when the machine has gone wrong, the

(c) It is desired to convert the scores X in (a) to “comparable scores” X c with probability of concluding that the machine is working correctly should

mean 50 and standard deviation 16 by the transformation be less than 10%. Determine the minimum value of n.

X c aX b . (b) Rods produced are packed into boxes of 1120 rods each and the cost is $10 per

What should be the values of a and b? box. If the mean length of the rods in a box is between P 0.22 and

P 0.22 cm, then the box can be sold at $16. Otherwise the box of rods can

only be sold at $2.

7. (a) Let x1 , x 2 , ..., x n be n given numbers with mean x and standard deviation

Find the expected profit per box of rods

1 n (i) when the machine is working correctly, and

V , where V 2

¦ ( xi x) 2 . Show that for any number a, we have

ni1 (ii) when the machine has gone wrong.

n

¦ (x

i 1

i a) 2 nV 2 C ,

9. In an experiment, three cards numbered 1, 2 and 3 are placed on a table. Four fair

where C is an expression involving x , n and a. Find C. coins are tossed together and the number of heads is counted. The card bearing the

same number as the number of heads is then removed from the table, but no action

1 n 2

(b) Prove that x d ¦ xi .

ni1

is taken if no card on the table bears the same number. The tossing of coins is

repeated and each time the card satisfying the above rule is removed.

(a) Find the probabilities that, after having tossed the four coins once,

(c) If y1 , y 2 , ..., y m is another set of m numbers with mean y and standard

(i) the card numbered 1 is removed, and

deviation U , find the mean of the combined set of numbers (ii) no cards are removed.

x1 , x 2 , ..., x n , y1 , y 2 , ..., y m and show that the standard deviation of the set is (b) Find the probability that the card numbered 1 is removed before the card

given by numbered 2.

1 (c) Find the probabilities that, after having tossed the four coins three times and

nV 2 mU 2 mn ½2

® ( x y) 2 ¾ . removed the cards accordingly,

¯ mn ( m n) 2 ¿ (i) both cards numbered 1 and 2 are still on the table, and

(ii) both cards numbered 1 and 2 have been removed.

8. A machine is designed to produce rods whose lengths are normally distributed

with mean length P cm and standard deviation 1.00 cm. Occasionally the

machine goes wrong, in which case the lengths of the rods are still normally

distributed with the same standard deviation but the mean length becomes

P 0.20cm .

(a) In order to check whether the machine is working correctly, the lengths of a

sample of n rods produced are measured and the sample mean x is

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