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of car B is –ai. It is assumed that the car can pass each other without collision and

that they are small compared with the radius of the track.

(a) Determine the velocities of the cars A and B at time t.

(b) For each of the following cases, determine the smallest positive value of t,

when

(i) the cars A and B have a relative velocity of maximum magnitude;

(ii) the cars A and B have a relative velocity of minimum magnitude;

(iii) the velocities of A and B are perpendicular;

Figure 1 (iv) the velocities of A and B are parallel.

Two small marbles, A and B, of equal mass, rest at opposite ends of a diameter of 3. (a) If the position of a particle moving in a plane is described by polar coordinates

a horizontal smooth circular groove of radius r (See Figure 1.) Marble A is now (r, T ), determine the components of its acceleration along and perpendicular to

projected tangentially with speed u and, after time T, impinges upon marble B. the radius vector.

The coefficient of restitution is e (0 < e < 1). (b) A particle P moves in a plane, its position being described by polar

(a) (i) Find the speeds of A and B after the first and second impacts. coordinates (r, T ) and its velocity always making an angle T with PO (See

(ii) Show that T and the two time intervals separating the first three Figure 3.)

consecutive impacts are in the ratio

e 2 : 2e : 2 .

(b) Show that, if A and B are of unequal masses, the ratio in (a)(ii) is unaltered.

2.

Figure 3

dr r

.

dT tan T

Solve this equation and verify that its solution represents a straight line

parallel to the polar axis.

Figure 2 (ii) If the particle has constant angular speed T Z and passes through

ʌ

the position Q(2, ), determine the components of its acceleration

Consider a circular track of radius a. Vectors i and j are unit vectors along the x 6

and y axes, respectively, of a cartesian coordinate system with origin at the centre along and perpendicular to the radius vector at Q. Also find the average

of the circular track. Two cars A and B move round the track at constant speeds u speed of the particle during the time interval in which it travels from Q

and ku respectively, where k is a constant (k > 0). Car A moves in an

2 ʌ 5.

to the point ( , ).

3 3

4. (a) Let O be the origin of cartesian coordinates, with the x-axis horizontal and the

y-axis along a downward vertical. A particle is projected from O with an initial

speed u at an angle of depression T with respect to the x-axis. Show that the

equation of the path of the projectile is

gx 2

y x tan T (1 tan 2 T ) .

2u 2

(b) Figure 5

Two particles, A and B, each of mass m are connected by a light spring of natural

2mg

length l and modulus of elasticity 2mg (i.e. force = u extension ). The

l

system is placed on a table with A vertically above B, and the upward

displacement of A from the table is x1 .

(a) Find the value of x1 when the system is in equilibrium.

(b) Particle A is projected vertically upwards from the equilibrium position with

(c)

A bomber flies towards a runway of length b at an angle of depression 45q

with constant speed u. When the bomber is at a vertical height h and

horizontal distance a from the front end of the runway, it drops a bomb which

hits the front end of the runway. s seconds after dropping the first bomb, it

drops a second bomb which hits the far end of the runway. Show that u and s

are related by the equation

s 2 u 2 bu 2

2 (a b) su b(2a b) 0 .

2 g

Hence, or otherwise, show that the following conditions must hold if the above

events are to take place: Figure 6

g

(i) uda ,

b After B has left the table, the table is displaced horizontally so that it does not

interfere with the subsequent motion of the system. In this motion the upward

b 2(2a b)

(ii) st . displacement of particle B from the level of the table is x 2 . Show that

a g

4g

y y, where y = x1 x 2 l .

l

(d) Show that in the subsequent motion as described by the equation in (c) the 1 2

r about a diameter is mr .

minimum length of the spring is 4

(b)

l (u 2 gl )

l .

4g

6.

(a) (b)

Figure 7

Figure 8

Three uniform thin rods AB, BC and CD of equal length l and equal weight w are

hinged smoothly at B and C. Each of the ends A and D is attached to a small ring Consider a uniform solid of mass M, which is half of a right circular cone of

which can slide along a horizontal bar. The rods are suspended at ends A and D height h and base radius R (See Figure 8.)

such that they form three sides of a symmetric trapezium with BC parallel to the h

(i) Given that the centroid of a right circular cone is at a height from

bar (See Figure 7(a).) Suppose that the coefficient of friction between the rings 4

and the bar is P . R

its base, show that the centroid of the given solid is at a distance

(a) Show that, in a position of equilibrium of the system, A and D cannot be ʌ

further apart than a distance d1 , where from axial plane ACD.

(ii) Show that the moment of inertia of the given solid about the base

6P

d1 l (1 ). M

9P 2 4 diameter CD is equal to (3R 2 2h 2 ) .

20

(b) Show that, provided that P is small enough, there is a minimum distance

d 2 between A and D for which equilibrium is possible (See Figure 7(b),) and 8.

hence find d 2 . However, if P is greater than a certain value P 0 , the system

can be in equilibrium with A and D touching each other. Determine the value

P0 .

7. (a) (i) Show that the centroid of a uniform semi-circular lamina of radius r is

4r

at a distance from the centre of the circle.

3ʌ

(ii) Show that the moment of inertia of a circular disc of mass m and radius Figure 9

and I is the moment of inertia of the lamina about an axis through the centre of

A uniform circular hoop of mass M and radius a is set spinning with an angular mass and normal to the lamina.

speed Z . It is placed in contact with an inclined plane and allowed to move (b) A circular wheel of radius a has a non-uniform mass distribution such that its

freely under the action of gravity. Initially the centre of the hoop is at rest and the centre of mass, G, is a distance c (c < a) from its centre. The radius of gyration

spinning is in a direction tending to roll up the plane (See Figure 9.) The plane is about an axis through G and perpendicular to the plane of the wheel is k. The

inclined at an angle D to the horizontal and the coefficient of friction between wheel is vertical, resting on a horizontal floor, and is given an angular velocity

the hoop and the inclined plane is P . : at a moment when G is vertically below the centre of the wheel. The wheel

(a) Show that, if P t tan D , the hoop will not move down the plane at first. then rolls without slipping along the horizontal floor. Show that if G is able to

(b) Let P = tan D . reach a position vertically above the centre, then

(i) Determine the lapse of time before the hoop starts to move down the

4 gc

inclined plane. :t .

(a c) 2 k 2

(ii) Obtain the condition that must be satisfied by the coefficient of friction

if it is assumed that when the hoop moves down the plane, it rolls

down without slipping. Hence verify that P tan D satisfies the

condition.

9. (a)

Figure 10

A rigid lamina moving in the x-y plane may be considered as a set of particles

mi at points Pi with coordinates ( xi , y i ) . The centre of mass is at G with

with the direction of the x-axis. Rigidity is assured by assuming that r1 0

and Ti Z , where Z is the angular velocity of the lamina. Show that the

1 1

Mv 2 IZ 2 ,

2 2

where M is the total mass of the lamina, v is the speed of the centre of mass

1. In an environment, a certain species of bacteria has a natural birth rate of two P c( x0 ) f c( x0 )

times its own population per hour. However, due to lack of natural resources, there and P c( x 2 ) f c( x 2 ) ,

is a death rate of 10 4 times the square of its population per hour. At the same show that

time, p of the species would migrate out of the environment per hour. Initially x2 h

there are 3 x 10 4 of the species.

³x0 15

{7 f ( x0 ) 16 f ( x1 ) 7 f ( x 2 ) h[ f c( x0 ) f c( x 2 )]} .

P ( x ) dx

(a) Show that the number N of the species after t hours is given by the solution of Hence estimate the definite integral

the equation: ʌ

dN

I ³0

2 e x sin xdx .

10 4 [( N 10 4 ) 2 10 4 ( p 10 4 )] .

dt (b)The clamped Simpson’s rule states that:

(b) Discuss whether the species would eventually vanish if (6)

If f ( x) is continuous on [ x0 , x n ] where n is even, then

(i) p = 0.75 u 10 4 .

(ii) p = 10 4 . xn

(iii) p = 2 u 10 4 .

³x0

f ( x)dx

x n x0 ° 2

®7[ f ( x0 f ( x n )] 2¦ f ( x 2i 1 )

15n ° i 1

2. (a) Let D be a real root, in an interval [a, b], of the equation ¯

n 1

x x0 ½

x = g(x) 14¦ f ( xi ) n [ f c( x0 ) f c( x n )]¾

i 1 n ¿

where g c( x) d m 1 for any x in [a, b].

( x n x0 ) 7 f ( 6 ) ([ )

If x n 1 g ( x n ) and a d x n d b ( n = 0, 1, 2, …), show that 9450n 6

m where x0 [ x n and

x n 1 D d x n 1 x n .

1 m x n x n 1 x n 1 x n 2 ... x1 x0 .

(b) Let D be a real root of the equation x - e x = 0. (i) Applying the clamped Simpson’s rule to f ( x) e x sin x , show that

(i) Show that D is unique and lies in the interval (0.5, 1). the error in using the approximate value obtained in (a) for I is less

(ii) Using Newton’s method, or otherwise, with x0 0.5 as the initial than 0.0005.

guess, find the third iterate x3 . (ii) If I is to be evaluated by Simpson’s rule, find the least number of

(iii) Find the value of D correct to 7 decimal places. Justify the accuracy sub-intervals required so that the error will be less than 0.0005 in

of your answer by using the result in (a). magnitude.

(iii) What is the advantage of using the clamped Simpson’s rule over

3. (a) Consider x0 x1 x 2 , such that x1 x0 x 2 x1 h , and a polynomial Simpson’s rule in this case?

4

P( x) ¦ar 0

r ( x x1 ) .

r

x2 2a 4 h 5 2a 2 h 3 numbers y1 , y 2 , y 3 and y 4 , where y1 y 2 y 3 y 4 . These two sets have the

(i) Show that ³ P( x)dx 2a 0 h .

x0 5 3 following characteristics:

(ii) For any continuous function f(x), if P(x) satisfies the three constraints

of Simpson’s rule, namely, Set Mean Median Standard Deviation

P ( xi ) f ( xi ) , i = 0, 1, 2, A 10 10 2

B 45 45 5

plus two additional constraints:

(a) Set C consists of the following eight numbers (d) Determine the 0.95 confidence limits for John’s telepathic power, p.

u1 70 , u 2 7x1 , u 3 7x 2 , u 4 7x3 ,

u 5 2 y1 , u 6 2 y 2 , u 7 2 y 3 , u 8 2 y 4 . 7. The probability of having x particles emitted from a radio-active source in a

Find the mean and standard deviation of the numbers in set C. period t minutes is

(b) Set D consists of the following eight numbers: e Tt (T t ) x

p( x) ( x = 0, 1, 2, …),

v1 x1 y1 , v 2 x1 y 4 , v3 x3 y 2 , v 4 x3 y 3 , x!

v5 x 2 y1 , v6 x 2 y 2 , v7 x 2 y 3 , v8 x 2 y 4 . where T ! 0 is measure of the intensity of the source.

Using the given fact that mean = median for each of the sets A and B, find the (a) Suppose that T 2 and t = 1.

mean and standard deviation of the numbers in set D. (i) Using the recursive relation

[Note: The standard deviation is defined as the square root of the average 2

p( x) p ( x 1) ,

squared deviation.] x

or otherwise, find p(x) for x = 0, 1, …, 8.

5. A, B, and C are three friends who often like to compete with one another. (ii) What is the probability of recording at least two particles?

(a) They are equally skilful in playing table tennis. A plays B first while C waits. (iii) Find the greatest value of k such that the probability of recording more

The winner then plays C while the loser waits. This method of play goes on than k particles is at least 0.1.

until one of them wins two consecutive sets. This person then gets a prize. (b) Given that T 3 , find the minimum period of observation which will ensure,

Find the probability that C gets the prize. with probability 0.99, that at least one particle is recorded.

(b) They are given the same multiple-choice quiz to answer independently. The (c) The intensity of the source T can be varied. Find T if it is required to

quiz has 10 questions, each provided with four possible answers, only one of maximise the probability of recording exactly two particles in two minutes.

which is correct. A knows eight of the correct answers, B knows seven, and C What is this maximum probability?

knows six. All of them then answer the remaining questions by sheer

guesswork. No penalty is imposed on a wrong answer. What is the probability 8. In an attempt to diagnose early a certain metabolic disorder in babies a new

that C beats A and B? screening test has been proposed. This test consists of determining the amount of a

certain steroid in the urine. Extensive study has shown that it can be assumed that

6. A person is said to have telepathic power p ( > 0.5) if he can correctly identify the the distribution of the quantity of the steroid is N(20, 9) for unhealthy babies with

outcome of an unseen experiment with probability p. A company, intending to metabolic disorder.

employ people with such power to perform a certain task, sets a two-stage test for (a) The suggested screening process will classify a baby as healthy if the steroid

its applicants. level is below 24 units, and unhealthy otherwise.

(a) In the preliminary test, the applicant is asked to guess the outcomes of eight (i) What is the probability that a baby will metabolic disorder will be

flipped, but covered, ordinary coins. If he can make seven or eight correct misclassified as healthy?

guesses, he is regarded as having some telepathic power and is selected. What (ii) What is the probability that a healthy baby will be misclassified as

is the probability that the company makes a wrong selection? having metabolic disorder?

(b) Four brothers, without telepathic power at all, go for the test. What is the (b) If medical doctors want to ensure that not more than 3% of the babies with

probability that exactly two of them will be selected in the preliminary test? metabolic disorder will be wrongly classified as healthy, what critical steroid

(c) John, father of the four brothers, believing himself to be unusual, and having level should be used for classification?

passed the preliminary test, is asked to undergo a more extensive final test. He (c) It is known that 10% of all new-born babies have metabolic disorder. What

correctly identifies 156 outcomes of 200 flipped, but covered, ordinary coins. proportion of babies will be misclassified under each of the two criteria

Should he be employed? Why? specified in (a) and (b) above?

[Note: N ( P , V 2 ) denotes the normal distribution with mean P and

variance V 2 .]

9. The sizes of two large batches, A and B, of electrical items produced on two

different machines are in the ratio 6 : 4. The resistances of the items in each batch

are assumed to have a normal distribution, with mean 80 ohms and standard

deviation 5 ohms for batch A, and mean 72.5 ohms and standard deviation 6 ohms

for Batch B. The two batches are combined and thoroughly mixed.

(a) Find the mean ( P ) and standard deviation ( V ) of the resistances of the items.

(b) Any item whose resistance is more than 2V ohms above or below P is

regarded as defective. Find the proportion of defective items in the combined

batch.

(c) A random sample of 10 items is taken. Find the probability that it contains not

more than two defective items

(d) An item is randomly selected and is found to be defective. What is the

probability that it originally belonged to batch B?

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