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pH, WATER ACTIVITY, AND PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF MORCILLA OF LEÓN, A TRADITIONAL EUROPEAN BLOOD SAUSAGE

OF MORCILLA OF LEÓN , A TRADITIONAL EUROPEAN BLOOD SAUSAGE Cabeza, E.A. 1 , Zumalacárregui, J.M.

Cabeza, E.A. 1 , Zumalacárregui, J.M. 2 , Antiduelo, A. 2 , Mateo, J. 2 1 Department of Food Microbiology. Faculty of Basics Science. University of Pamplona, Pamplona, Colombia. 2 Department of Hygiene and Food Technology. Faculty of Veterinary Science. University of León. Campus de Vegazana, s/n. 24071, León, Spain, dhtjmo@unileon.es

BACKGROUND

s/n. 24071, León, Spain, dhtjmo@unileon.es BACKGROUND Among the diverse types of meat products in the world,

Among the diverse types of meat products in the world, there are some typical products made with blood; these are denominated as “Blood sausages”, and they are made (besides blood) with ingredients such as fat, offal, onion, cereals, spices, etc., existing a great diversity of ingredients as well as ways of processing and preparation. The Morcilla of León is a typical product from “Castilla y León” (Spain), being onion (65%75%), pork and/or beef fat (10%20%), pork and/or beef blood (10%20%), rice (2%5%), salt (1%1.5%) and spices the main ingredients in its composition. Process usually consists on precooking the mixture of ingredients, which are then stuffed into a pork casing and cooked in hot water (80-100ºC). Finally, Morcilla of León is consumed fried or boiled.

OBJECTIVE

Table 2. Proximate composition of Morcilla of León expressed as

The purpose of this study is to know the proximate composition of the Morcilla of León and to compare Morcilla of León with different blood sausages of the world (European Union and Latin American).

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Samples

of

Morcilla

of

León

were

purchased

from

the

retail

market

coming

from nine different

meat

industries,

which

were

located

in

León

City.

pH

was

measured

pHmeter.

by

a

percentage of fresh matter.

pH was measured pHmeter. by a percentage of fresh matter. Fig. 2. Morcilla of León. Moisture

Fig. 2. Morcilla of León.

Moisture Fat Total protein Ash Digestible carbohydrates # * Fiber

Moisture

Fat

Total protein

Ash

Digestible

carbohydrates #

*

Fiber

Mean

S.D.

Min.

Max.

66.2

4.8

59.8

75.0

14.2

3.0

9.0

17.2

5.7

0.8

4.4

7.0

1.9

0.2

1.7

2.1

9.0

1.8

6.4

10.8

3.0

---

---

---

# Expressed as % of glucose. * Estimated by difference.

1. Morcilla of Burgos 2. Morcilla of Asturias 3. Morcela of Asar 4. Morcilla of
1. Morcilla of Burgos
2. Morcilla of Asturias
3. Morcela of Asar
4. Morcilla of Extremadura
5. Morcela of Monchique

Fig. 1. Different blood sausages from the Iberian Peninsula (1, 2 and 4 from Spain, 3 and 5 from Portugal.

Regarding to moisture content, it was also similar to that of Morcilla of Burgos but 11% lower than a blood sausage from Chile, and 21% and 25% higher than the moisture of Morcela of Assar from Portugal and the German Blutwurst, respectively. The reason for this variability can be explained by differences in the types and ingredients used in the formulation of each kind of blood sausages. The fat content on dry matter found in different blood sausages had a range between 28% of Morcilla of Burgos to 70% of Blutwurst, while the fat content on dry matter of our product was intermediate. In the same way, protein percentage on dry matter of Morcilla of León was slightly higher than that found in Morcilla of Burgos, and lower than those of other blood sausages. Table 3. Proximate composition of Morcilla de León expressed as percentage of dry matter.

 

Mean

S.D.

Min.

Max.

Fat

42.1

6.6

32.1

51.3

Total protein

17.1

2.8

13.0

20.8

Ash

6.6

1.4

4.9

8.6

Digestible carbohydrates #

27.0

6.1

20.1

38.8

Fiber*

7.2

---

---

---

# Expressed as % of glucose. * Estimated by difference.

Content of DC in Morcilla of León was rather lower than in Morcilla

of Burgos 51% on dry matterbecause more rice (20% to 35%) is added to make the last sausage while the amount of rice or bread that is added to the Morcilla of León is up to 10%. The presence of fiber (more than 1%) in the Morcilla of León as well as in other blood sausages are due to the addition of vegetables as ingredients, such as the onion, which, as it was said before, is the principal ingredient of Morcilla of León fiber content of cooked onion is approximately 1.5%. Finally, ash content of Morcilla of León was in the higher part of the range observed for other blood

sausages (4.3% a 8.4% on dry matter).

Water activity (a w ) was measured by a dewdrop point method

(Decagon Devices). Moisture was determined in a dry oven.

Fat content of the dehydrated sample was measured according to Official Method 960.39 (AOAC-1999). Total protein was determined by the Kjeldahl according to Official Method 965.09 (AOAC-1999), by using 6.25 as conversion factor. Ash content was measured by incineration of the sample at 550ºC. Digestible carbohydrates (DC) extraction was carried out with 52% perchloric acid following a national official method and quantification was made with the phenolsulphuric technique. Data were expressed as percentage on fresh and dry matter.

RESULTS AND DISCUSION

Table 1. Mean, standard deviation (S.D.), maximum and minimum values of pH and a w of Morcilla of León.

 

Mean

S.D.

Min.

Max.

a

w

0.972

0.003

0.969

0.977

pH

6.1

0.4

6.0

7.1

pH and a w values for Morcilla of León are shown in table 1, in which it is indicated that the pH averages c.a. 6 and the a w averages 0.97. These parameters, which depend mainly on the ingredients used in the sausage, i.e. onion, blood, fat and salt, were similar to those found in the Morcilla of Burgos, another typical blood sausage from Spain made mainly with rice, blood, fat and onion. Due to the high pH and a w of the sausage and the absence of preservatives, this product is susceptible to early spoilage, its shelf-life depends on the initial microbial population of the mixture, heat treatment intensity in the boiling stage, handling conditions after boiling, and storage temperature. Proximate composition of Morcilla of León is shown in tables 2 and 3.

CONCLUSIONS

Morcilla of León is a cooked product subject to easy microbial spoilage which needs chilled storage. It represents a nutritional source of fat, carbohydrates, fiber and protein mainly from blood; nonetheless it has less protein than meat and most of meat products.