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HANDBOOK
&
FORMULA BOOK
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GATE, IES, JTO, PSU’s & SSC
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ELECTRONICS
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ENGINEERING rin
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Published by Engineers Institute of India

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 2017 By Engineers Institute of India

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright


herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any
means graphic, electronic, or mechanical & chemical, including but not
limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web
distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval
systems.

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Engineers Institute of India

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28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT Hauz Khas New Delhi-110016

Tel: 011-26514888
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For publication information, visit www.engineersinstitute.com/publication

ISBN: 978-93-5156-854-4
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Price: Rs. 349/-
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A WORD TO THE STUDENTS

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GATE and
GATE and Engineering
Engineering Services Examinations are the
most prestigious
most prestigious competitive
competitive examinations conducted
for graduate
for graduate engineers.
engineers. Over the past few years, they
have become
have become more
more competitive
competitive as more and more
numbers of
numbers of aspirants
aspirants are increasingly becoming
interested in
interested in post
post graduate qualifications &
government jobs
government jobs for
for aa secured
secured and bright career.

This Formula
This Formula Book
Book consists
consists of
of well-illustrated
well-illustrated concepts, important
formulae and
formulae and diagrams,
diagrams, which
which will
will be
be highly
highly beneficial at the last leg of
candidate’s preparation.
candidate’s preparation.

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ItIt includes
includes all
all the
the subjects
subjects of of Electronics
Electronics Engineering, which are

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required for
required
has been
which will
which
for all
been laid
will be
all type

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laid down
type of
down to
be highly
of competitive
competitive examinations.
to all
all the
the major
highly lucrative
examinations. Adequate emphasis
major topics
lucrative for
topics in the form of Tips / Notes,
for objective
objective and short answer type
questions.
questions.
Proper strategy
Proper strategy and syE
and revision
revision isis aa mandatory
mandatory requirement for clearing
any competitive
any competitive examination.
formulae for
formulae for Electronics
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examination. This This book
Electronics Engineering.
book covers short notes and
Engineering. This book will help in quick
revision before
revision
This book
This
before the
book has
the GATE,
has been
GATE, IES
been designed
IES &
& all
designed after
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all other
other PSUs.
after considering
considering the current demand of
examinations.
examinations. rin
ItIt would
would be
be very
very fruitful
fruitful ifif the
the students
students go
g.n
go through this book every day.
We are
We are presenting
required to
required
presenting this
to get
get success
this book
success in
in the
book by
the competition.
competition.
e
by considering
considering all the facts which is
t
With best
With best wishes
wishes for
for future
future career
career

R. K.
R. K. Rajesh
Rajesh
Director
Director
Engineers Institute
Engineers Institute of
of India
India
eii.rkrajesh@gmail.com
eii.rkrajesh@gmail.com

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This book is dedicated to all
Electronics Engineers
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Preparing for GATE, IES, JTO, SSC
& Public sector examinations. rin
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CONTENTS

1. NETWORK THEORY .............................................. 01-40

2. CONTROL SYSTEMS.............................................. 41-74

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3. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS .............. 75-118

4. w MICROPROCESSORS ............................................ 119-136


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5.
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ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS .................... 137-168

6.
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ANALOG ELECTRONICS ...................................... 169-204

7.
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SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS ..................................... 205-230

8. rin
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS ............................... 231-264

9. g.n
ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY ............................. 265-286

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10. MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION ....... 287-308 t
11. MATERIALS SCIENCE .......................................... 309-322

12. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION ………………………… 323-336

13. MICROWAVES …………………………………………….. 337-364

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Why IES?

Indian Engineering Services (IES) constitute of engineers that work under the
govt. of India to manage a large segment of public sector economy which
constitutes of Railroads, Public works, Power, Telecommunications, etc. IES
remain the most sought-after careers for the engineering graduates in India. A
combined competitive examination is conducted by UPSC for recruitment to
the Indian Engineering Services. The exam constitutes of a written exam
followed by an interview for personality test.

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Why GATE?
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In the present competitive scenario, where there is mushrooming of

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universities and engineering colleges, the only yardstick to measure and test

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the calibre of engineering students is the GATE.

The GATE Advantage


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Many public sector undertakings such as BHEL, IOCL, NTPC, BPCL, HPCL, BARC
and many more PSUs are using the GATE score for selecting candidates for

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their organizations. Students who qualify in GATE are entitled to a stipend of
Rs 8,000 per month during their M.Tech. course. Better remuneration is being
t
offered for students of M.Tech./ME as compared to those pursuing B.Tech/B.E.
A good rank assures a good job. After joining M.Tech. at IITs and IISc, one can
look at a salary package ranging from Rs 7lakh to 30lakh per annum depending
upon specialization and performance. Qualifying GATE with good marks is also
an eligibility clause for the award of JRF in CSIR Laboratories.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 1. NETWORK THEORY [1]

1
NETWORK THEORY
CONTENTS
1. NETWORK BASICS ………………………………………………. 02-05

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2. METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND THEOREMS …………….. 06-10

3.

4.
w AC FUNDAMENTALS AND R, L, C CIRCUITS …………..

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RESONANCE ………………………………………………………. 16-18
11-15

5. syE
TRANSIENTS ……………………………………………………… 19-22

6. GRAPH THEORY …………………………………………………. 23-26 ngi


7. TWO PORT NETWORKS ………………………………………. nee 27-30

8. MAGNETIC COUPLED CIRCUITS ………………………….. rin 31-32

9. FILTERS ……………………………………………………………. g.n 33-36

10. NETWORK SYNTHESIS ………………………………………. e 37-40


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ECE FORMULA BOOK 1. NETWORK THEORY [2]

1. NETWORK BASICS
Current: Electric current is the time rate of change of charge flow.
dq
i (Ampere)
dt
t
Charge transferred between time to and t q   idt
to

Sign Convention: A negative current of –5A flowing in one direction is same as a


current of +5A in opposite direction.
Voltage: Voltage or potential difference is the energy required to move a unit
charge through an element, measured in volts.

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Power: It is time rate of expending or absorbing energy.

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Law of conservation of energy must be obeyed in any electric circuit.
Algebraic sum of power in a circuit, at any instant of time, must be zero.
t
i.e. P = 0
Circuit Elements:
Resistor: Linear and bilateral (conduct from both direction)
In time domain V(t) = I(t)R
In s domain V(s) = RI(s)
ρl
R= ohm
A
l = length of conductor,  = resistivity, A = area of cross section
 Extension of wire to n times results in increase in resistance: R '  n2R

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 1. NETWORK THEORY [3]

R
 Compression of wire results in decrease in resistance: R' 
n2
Capacitor: All capacitors are linear and bilateral, except electrolytic capacitor
which is unilateral.
t
Cdv(t) 1
Time Domain: i(t) = v(t)   i(t)dt
dt C 

1
In s-domain: I(s) = sCV(s) V(s) =
I(s)
sC
 Capacitor doesn’t allow sudden change of voltage, until impulse of current is
applied.
 It stores energy in the form of electric field and power dissipation in ideal
capacitor is zero.

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 Impedance Zc =-jXc  & Xc =
1
ωC
; Xc  Capacitive reactance ;  = 2f

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Inductor: Linear and Bilateral element

Time Domain: .Ea v(t )  L


di (t )
dt
1
t
i (t )   v(t )dt
L
Impedance syE
Z L  jX L  & XL  L

In s-domain V(s) = sL I(s)


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1
sL
V(s) I(s) =
 Inductor doesn’t allowed sudden change of current, until impulse of voltage is
applied.
 It stores energy in the form of magnetic field.
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 Power dissipation in ideal inductor is zero.
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Transformer: 4 terminal or 2-port devices.
I1 g.n
I2

+ e +
t
Input Output
N1 N2 V2 port
port V1

– –

N1  N 2 : Step down transformer N 2  N1 : Step up transformer


V1 N1 I1 N 2
 
V2 N 2 I 2 N1
N1
Where  K  Turns ratio.
N2

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 1. NETWORK THEORY [4]


Transformer doesn’t work as amplifier because current decreases in same amount
power remain constant.

Gyrator:
I1 I2
Ro

V1 V2

R o  Coefficient of Gyrator
V1  R o I 2 V2   R o I1

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 If load is capacitive then input impedance will be inductive and vice versa.
 If load is inductive then input impedance will be capacitive.

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 It is used for simulation of equivalent value of inductance.

Voltage Source:
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In practical voltage source, there is small internal resistance, so voltage across the
element varies with respect to current.

 Ideal voltmeter, RV   (Internal resistance) g.n


Current Source: e t

In practical current source, there is small internal resistance, so current varies with
respect to the voltage across element.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 1. NETWORK THEORY [5]


 Ideal Ammeter, Ra  0 (Internal resistance)

Dependent and Independent Source:


Independent Source: Voltage or current source whose values doesn’t depend on
any other parameters. E.g. Generator etc.

Dependent Source: Voltage or current source whose values depend upon other
parameters like current, voltage.
The handling of independent and dependent voltage source is identical except.

(i) In Thevenin and Norton Theorem (ii) Superposition Theorem


Where, (i) All independent voltage sources are short circuited.
(ii) All independent current sources are open circuited.
(iii) All dependent voltage and current sources are left as they are.

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 A network in which all network elements are physically separable is known as
lumped network.

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 A network in which the circuit elements like resistance, inductance etc, are not

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physically separate for analysis purpose, is called distributed network. E.g.
Transmission line.

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 If an element is capable of delivering energy independently, then it is called
active element.
Example: Voltage source, Current source
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 If it is not capable of delivering energy, then it is passive element.
Example: Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor
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 If voltage and current across an element are related to each other through a
constant coefficient then the element is called as linear element otherwise it is
called as non-linear.
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 When elements characteristics are independent of direction of current then

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element is called bi-directional element otherwise it is called as unidirectional.
Ex: R, L & C.
 Diode is a unidirectional element.
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 Voltage and current sources are also unidirectional elements.
 Every linear element should obey the bi-directional property but vice versa as is
t
not necessary.
 Internal resistance of voltage source is in series with the source. Internal
resistance of ideal voltage source is zero.
 Internal resistance of current source is in parellel with the source. Internal
resistance of ideal current source is infinite.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 1. NETWORK THEORY [6]

2. METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND THEOREMS


(i) Kirchoff’s Points Law or Current Law (KCL): In any electrical network, the
algebric sum of the currents meeting at point (or junction) is zero.

Incoming current = Outgoing current

I1+I2 = I3+I4

It is based on conservation of charge.

(ii) Kirchoff’s Mesh Law or Voltage Law (KVL): The algebraic sum of products
of currents and resistance in each of conductor in any closed path in a network plus
the algebraic sum of emf in that path is zero.
i.e.  IR   emf  0
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It is based on conservation of energy.

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Determination of Voltage Sign

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(a) Sign of Battery E.M.F.:

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(b) Sign of IR Drop: nee
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g.n
Resistors in Series:
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R eq = R1 + R 2 + R 3 +......  R n t
1 1 1 1 1
Resistors in Parallel:    .....+
R eq R1 R 2 R 3 Rn
Inductors in Series: Leq = L1 + L2 + L3  .......  Ln
1 1 1 1 1
Inductors in Parallel: = + + +...... 
Leq L1 L 2 L3 Ln
1 1 1 1 1
Capacitors in Series: = + + +...... 
Ceq C1 C2 C3 Cn
Capacitor in Parallel: Ceq = C1 + C 2 + C3 +......  C n

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 2. CONTROL SYSTEMS [41]

2
CONTROL SYSTEMS

CONTENTS

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1. BLOCK DIAGRAM ………………………………………………… 42-44

2.

3.
w MATHEMATICAL MODELLING ………………………………. 45-46

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TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS ………………………………… 47-52

4. syE
STABILITY …………………………………………………………. 53-55

5. ROOT LOCUS ……………………………………………………… 56-58


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6. FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS …………………………. nee 59-60

7. POLAR PLOTS ……………………………………………………


rin 61-64

8. BODE PLOTS …………………………………………………….. g.n 65-68

9. COMPENSATORS ……………………………………………….. e 69-72


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10. STATE SPACE ANALYSIS ……………………………………. 73-74

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 2. CONTROL SYSTEMS [42]

1. BLOCK DIAGRAM
Open Loop Control System:
 In this system the output is not fedback for comparison with the input.
 Open loop system faithfulness depends upon the accuracy of input calibration.

When a designer designs, he simply design open loop system.


Closed Loop Control System: It is also termed as feedback control system. Here
the output has an effect on control action through a feedback. Ex. Human being
Transfer Function:

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w .Ea C(s) G(s)

syE Transfer function = 


R(s) 1 + G(s)H(s)

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Comparison of Open Loop and Closed Loop control systems:
Open Loop:

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1. Accuracy of an open loop system is defined by the calibration of input.
2. Open loop system is simple to construct and cheap.
3. Open loop systems are generally stable.
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4. Operation of this system is affected due to presence of non-linearity in its
elements.
g.n
Closed Loop:
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1. As the error between the reference input and the output is continuously
measured through feedback. The closed system works more accurately. t
2. Closed loop systems is complicated to construct and it is costly.
3. It becomes unstable under certain conditions.
4. In terms of performance the closed loop system adjusts to the effects of non-
linearity present.

Transfer Function: The transfer function of an LTI system may be defined as the
ratio of Laplace transform of output to Laplace transform of input under the
assumption
Y(s)
G(s) =
X(s)
 The transfer function is completely specified in terms of its poles and zeros and
the gain factor.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 2. CONTROL SYSTEMS [43]


 The T.F. function of a system depends on its elements, assuming initial
conditions as zero and is independent of the input function.
 To find a gain of system through transfer function put s = 0
s4 4
Example: G(s) = 2 Gain =
s  6s  9 9
If a step, ramp or parabolic response of T.F. is given, then we can find Impulse
Response directly through differentiation of that T.F.
d
(Parabolic Response) = Ramp Response
dt
d
(Ramp Response) = Step Response
dt
d
(Step Response) = Impulse Response
dt

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Block Diagram Reduction:
Rule
1. Combining
Original Diagram
X G G
Equivalent Diagram
X1 X 1 G 1 G2

w X1G1 1 1 2
X1 G G
blocks in cascade 1 2

.Ea G1 G2

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2. Moving a
summing point ngi
after a block
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rin
g.n
3. Moving a
summing point
e t
ahead of block

X1 X1 G X1 X1 G
4. Moving a take G G
off point after a
block
X1 1/G
X1

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 2. CONTROL SYSTEMS [44]


X1 X 1G X1 X 1G
G G
5. Moving a take
off point ahead of
a block X 1G
X 1G G

6. Eliminating a X1 X2
feedback loop G
1GH

(GX1 ± X2 )
Signal Flow Graphs:

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 It is a graphical representation of control system.
 Signal Flow Graph of Block Diagram:

w .Ea
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ngi
nee  pk  k
Mason’s Gain Formula:
rin
Transfer function =

pk  Path gain of k forward path
g.n
th

  1 – [Sum of all individual loops] + [Sum of gain products of two non-touching

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loops] – [Sum of gain products of 3 non-touching loops] + ………..
 k  Value of  obtained by removing all the loops touching k forward path as
well as non-touching to each other
th
t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 2. CONTROL SYSTEMS [45]

2. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING
Mechanical System:
Translational System:
Mass:

d 2x dv
Fm m
dt 2 dt

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F = Force on block m
V = Velocity of Block
x = Displacement of block
m = Mass of block

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Damper

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Spring
x1 x2

syE v1
K
v2

d
F  f ( x1  x2 ) ngi by hooke’s law

F  k ( x1  x2 )  k  (v1  v2 ) dt
dt
nee k  Spring constant
Rotational System
Inertia rin
g.n
TJ
d 2
dt 2
J
d
dt
e t
Damper Spring twisted:

d 2
T f  f (1  2 ) T  k   k   dt
dt 2

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 2. CONTROL SYSTEMS [46]


Force Voltage and Force Current Analogy:

Voltage Current Force Torque


(Series RLC) (Parallel RLC) (Translational) (Rotational)
V I F T
q  x 
R 1 f (Damper) f (Damper)
R
1 1 k k
C L
L C M J
I V Linear velocity Angular velocity

Conversion of Translational System to other Systems:

ww
FM
w d 2x
dt 2
 f
dx
 kx
.Ea
dt

Force–Current Analogy: syE


iC
d 2 1 d 
  ngi
iC
dt 2 R dt L
dv v 1
dt R L 
+ + vdt nee
Force–Voltage Analogy: rin
g.n
VL

di
d 2q
dt 2

1
R
dq q

dt C e t
V  L  iR   idt
dt C

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 3. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS [75]

3
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
AND CIRCUITS
ww CONTENTS

1. w .Ea
NUMBER SYSTEM & CODES …………………………………. 76-78

2.
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BINARY AIRTHMETIC ………………………………………….. 79-82

3. LOGIC GATES …………………………………………………….. 83-89


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4. DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS ……………………………………. 90-95
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5. SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS ………………………………………. 96-100
rin
6. SHIFT REGISTERS ………………………………………………
g.n 101-102

7.

8.
COUNTERS …………………………………………………………

DIGITAL LOGIC FAMILY ………………………………………


e 103-105

106-112
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9. ADCs AND DACs ……………………………………………… 113-116

10. MEMORIES ……………………………………………………….. 117-118

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 3. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS [76]

1. NUMBER SYSTEM & CODES


Number System and Codes:

A number system with base ‘r’, contents ‘r’ different digits and they are from 0 to
r – 1.
Decimal to other codes conversions: To convert decimal number into other system
with base ‘r’, divide integer part by r and multiply fractional part with r.

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Other codes to Decimal Conversions: ( x2 x1 x0 . y1 y2 ) r  (A)10
A  x2 r 2  x1 r  x0  y1 r 1  y 2 r 2

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Hexadecimal to Binary: Convert each Hexadecimal digit into 4 bit binary.
(0101 1010 1111) 2
(5 AF )16 
syE 5 A F

 0101   (35.C)16
 .1100 ngi
Binary to Hexadecimal: Grouping of 4 bits into one hex digit.
(110101.11) 2  0011

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Octal to Binary and Binary to Octal: Same procedure as discussed above but here
group of 3 bits is made.

Codes: rin
Binary coded decimal (BCD):
g.n
 In BCD code each decimal digit is represented with 4 bit binary format.


Eg : (943)10  1001
 0100 
 0011
 e t
 9 4 9  BCD
 It is also known as 8421 code
Invalid BCD codes
Total Number possible  2 4  16
Valid BCD codes  10
Invalid BCD codes 16  10  6
These are 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, and 1111

Excess-3 code: (BCD + 0011)


 It can be derived from BCD by adding ‘3’ to each coded number.
 It is unweighted and self-complementing code.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 3. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS [77]


Gray Code:
It is also called minimum change code or unit distance code or reflected code.

Binary code to Gray code:


+ + + +
MSB 1 0 0 1 0 Binary

MSB 1 1 0 1 1 Gray

Gray code to Binary code:

ww
Alpha Numeric codes: EBCDIC (Extended BCD Interchange code)
It is 8 bit code. It can represent 128 possible characters.

w
 Parity Method is most widely used schemes for error detection.

.Ea
 Hamming code is most useful error correcting code.
 BCD code is used in calculators, counters.

syE
Complements: If base is r then we can have two complements.
(i) (r – 1)’s complement.
(ii) r’s complement.
ngi
nee
To determine (r–1)’s complement: First write maximum possible number in the
given system and subtract the given number.
To determine r’s complement: (r–1)’s complement + 1
First write (r–1)’s complement and then add 1 to LSB rin
Example: Find 7’s and 8’s complement of 2456 g.n
7's complement
7777
2456
5321
8's complement
1
5322
e 5321
t
Find 2’s complement of 101.110
1’s complement 010.001
For 2’s complement add 1 to the LSB
010.001
1
2'scomplement
010.010

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 3. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS [78]


Data Representation:

Unsigned Magritude: Range with n bit  0 to 2 n  1  5 101


 5  Not possible
Signed Magritude: Range with n bit   (2 n  1  1) to  (2 n  1  1)
 6  0110
ww 6  1 110



1 0000 110

sign bit


sign bit

w
with 4 bits with 8 bits

1’s complement: Range with n bit   (2  1) to  (2 n  1  1)


n 1

 6  0110
.Ea 6  1 001

syE sign bit 1's complement of 6

2’ complement: With n bits Range  2 n  1 to (2 n  1  1)


 6  0110 6 

ngi
1 010
sign bit 2 's complement of 6

In any representation
nee
+ve numbers are represented similar to +ve number in sign magnitude.

rin
g.n
e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 3. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS [79]

2. BINARY AIRTHMETIC
When both the numbers have same sign then we add only magnitude and use the
sign of MSB.

1’ Complement Addition: When the numbers have different signs, keep one
number as it is and take 1’s complement of the negative number and add them.
If carry occurs:
(a) add carry to LSB
(b) sign of the result is sign of the complemented number.
If carry does not occur:
(a) take 1’s complement of the result
(b) sign of the result is sign of the complemented number.

ww
2’ Complement Addition: When the numbers have different signs, keep the

w
positive number as it is and take 2’s complement of the negative number and add
them.
If carry occurs: .Ea
(a) carry is discarded
If carry does not occur: syE
(a) take 2’s complement of the result
ngi
(b) sign of the result is sign of the complemented number

nee
BCD Addition: Add the BCD numbers as regular true binary numbers.

rin
If the sum is 9(1001) or less, it is a valid BCD answer.
If sum is greater than 9 or if there is carryout of MSB, it is an invalid BCD number.

g.n
If it is invalid, add 6 (0110) to the result to make it valid. Any carry out of the MSB
is added to the next more-significant BCD number.
Repeat steps for each group of BCD bits
76 0111 0110
e t
94  1001 0100
Invalid BCD number
170 1 0000 1010

1 0000 1010
 0110 0110
Add 6 (110) in the result, valid BCD number
1 0111
 0000

1 7 0

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 3. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS [80]


Overflow concept: Overflow may occur when two same sign numbers are added.

Overflow condition : If x and y are the MSB’s of two numbers and z is resultant
MSB after adding two numbers then overflow conditions is
x y z  x y z 1

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA
Basic Operations:
AND OR NOT
A.A=A A+A=A
A.0=0 A+0=A A=A
A.1=A A+1=1

ww
Boolean algebra Laws:
A.A=0 A+A=1

w
Commutative Law: A + B = B + A and A.B = B.A
Associative Law:
.Ea
A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C = A + B + C
A.(B.C) = (A.B).C = A.B.C

Distributive Law: syE


A.(B + C) = A.B + A.C
Theorems:
A.(B + C) = A.B + A.C ngi
Distribution theorem: (A + B.C) = (A + B).(A + C)

Example:
nee
 A + AB  = (A + A)(A + B) = (A + B)
A+AB  (A+A)(A+B)  A+B
rin
Transposition Theorem:
g.n
(A + B) . (A + C) = A + B.C

De Morgan’s Law:
e
A1.A 2 .A3 ......A n =A1 +A 2 +....+A n
t
A1 +A 2 +A3 .....+A n =A1.A 2 .....A n
Involution Theorem: A = A
Absorption Theorem: A + AB = A
Dual Expression: It will convert positive logic into negative and negative logic into
positive logic.
Procedure:
1. Change each OR sign by AND and vice-versa.
2. Convert all 1s to 0s and all 0s to 1s.
3. Keep variables as it is.
 If one time dual is as same as function then it is known as self dual expression.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 4. MICROPROCESSORS [119]

4
MICROPROCESSORS

CONTENTS
ww
1. MICROPROCESSOR BASICS …………………………………. 120-124

2. w .Ea
8085 INSTRUCTIONS …………………………………………… 125-132

3.
syE
8086 BASICS ………………………………………………………. 133-136

ngi
nee
rin
g.n
e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 4. MICROPROCESSORS [120]

1. MICROPROCESSOR BASICS
A Microprocessor includes ALU, register arrays and control circuits on a single
chip.
Microcontroller:
A device that includes microprocessor, memory and input and output signal lines on
a single chip, fabricated using VLSI technology.

Architecture of 8085 Microprocessor

ww
w .Ea
syE
ngi
nee
rin
g.n
1. 8085 MPU:
e t
 8 bit general – purpose microprocessor capable of addressing 64 K of memory.
 It has 40 pins, requires a +5V single power supply and can operate with 3 – MHz
single phase clock.

2. 8085 programming model:


It has six general purpose register to store – 8 bit data. These are B, C, D, E, H
and L. It can be combined as BC, DE, and HL to perform 16 bit operations.
B, D, H  high order register and C, E, L  low order register.

Accumulator: Is an 8 bit register that is used to perform arithmetic and logic


functions.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 4. MICROPROCESSORS [121]


Flags: 5 flags
Flag Register:
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
S Z AC P CY

Carry Flag (CY): If an arithmetic operation result in a carry or borrow, the CY flag
is set, otherwise it is reset.
Parity Flag (P):
If the result has au even number of 1s, the flag is set, otherwise the flag is reset.
Auxiliary Carry (AC): In an arithmetic operation
 If carry is generated by D 3 and passed to D 4 flag is set.
 Otherwise it is reset.
Zero Flag (Z): Zero Flag is set to 1, when the result is zero otherwise it is reset.

ww
Sign Flag (S): Sign Flag is set if bit D7 of the result is 1. Otherwise it is reset.
Program counter (PC): It is used to store the l6 bit address of the next byte to be

w
fetched from the memory or address of the next instruction to be executed.

.Ea
Stack Pointer (SP): It is 16 bit register used as a memory pointer. It points to
memory location in Read/Write memory which is called as stack.

8085 Signals:
Address lines:
syE
ngi
There are l6 address lines AD0  AD7 and A8  A15 to identify the memory
locations.
Data lines/ Multiplexed address lines:
nee
Multiplexed address lines: The signal lines AD7  AD0 are bi-directional i.e. they

rin
serve dual purpose. The AD7  AD0 address lines are shared with the data lines.

g.n
The ALE signal is used to distinguish between address lines and data lines.
Control and Status Signals:

and indicates that the AD7  AD0 bits are address bits. e
Address Latch Enable (ALE): This is positive going pulse generated every time

t
RD : This is active low signal indicates that the selected I/O or memory device is to
be read.
WR : Active low signal indicates that data on data bus are to be written into a
selected memory or I/O location.
IO/M:
When this signal is high, it indicates an I/O operation.
When it is low it indicates memory operation.
S1 and S0 : These are status signals.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 4. MICROPROCESSORS [122]


8085 Machine cycle status and control signals
Machine cycle Status Control signals
IO/M S1 So
Opcode Fetch 0 1 1 RD = 0
Memory Read 0 1 0 RD = 0
Memory write 0 0 1
WR = 0
I/O Read 1 1 0
RD = 0
I/O write 1 0 1
WR = 0
Interrupt Acknowledge 1 1 1
Halt Z 0 0 INTA = 0
Hold Z X X
Reset Z X X WR = Z

ww
Note:
INTA = 1

w
Z = Tri state (High Impedance)

.Ea
Externally Initiated Signals Including Interrupts:
X = Unspecified

syE
The 8085 has five Interrupt signals that can be used to interrupt program execution.
(INTR, TRAP, RST 7.5, RST 6.5, RST 5.5).
In addition to the interrupts, three pins – RESET, HOLD & READY accept the
externally initiated signals as inputs.
Power supply and clock frequency ngi
VCC : + 5 power supply
nee
VSS : ground reference
X1, X2: The frequency is internally divided by two. Therefore to operate a system
at 3 MHz the crystal should have a frequency of 6 MHz.
CLK (OUT): Can be used as system clock for other devices.
rin
Serial I/O ports: g.n
and SOD (serial output data).

Interfacing Memory and I/O devices:


e
8085 has two signals to implement the serial transmission: SID (serial input data)

t
It is used so that microprocessor should be able to identify I/O devices with an
8-bit address. It ranges from 00H to FFH.
Input output interfacing: It is used so that microprocessor should be able to
identify input output devices with an 8-bit address. It ranges from 00H to FFH.
Size of memory: 2n  m
n  address lines m  data lines
Absolute and Partial Decoding:
 When all the address lines are decoded to select the memory chip or input device
and no other logic levels can select the chip. This is called absolute decoding.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 4. MICROPROCESSORS [123]


 When some of the address lines may not be decoded, such lines are used as don’t
care. It results in multiple addresses. This technique reduces hardware and also
called fold-back or mirror memory space.
 Instruction cycle is time required to complete the execution of an instruction.
 Machine cycle is the time required to complete one operation of accessing
memory.
 T-state is one sub version of the operation performed in one clock period.

Characteristics Memory-Mapped I/O Peripheral I/O


Device address 16 bit 8 bit
Control signals for MEMR / MEMW IOR / IOW
input/output
Instructions Available Memory Related Instruction IN and OUT

ww
Data transfer
STA, LDA
Between any register and
input/output
Only between
input/output and the

w .Ea
accumulator
Maximum number of The memory map (64 K) is The input/output map is
input/output possible shared between input/output independent of the

Execution speed syE


and system memory
13 – T states (LDA, STA)
memory map
10 – T states

Hardware ngi
7 – T states (MOV M, R)
More hardware is needed to Less hardware is needed
Requirements

Other features
decoded 16 – bit address
nee to be coded 8 – bit
address
Arithmetic or logical operation Not available

rin
can be directly performed with

Instruction word size


input/output data
g.n
word size
1. One – word or 1 – byte instructions
2. Two – word or 2 – byte instructions
e
The 8085 instruction set is classified into the following three groups according to

t
3. Three – word or 3 – byte instructions

One – byte instructions


A 1 – byte instruction includes the op-code and operand in the same byte. Operands
are internal registers and are coded into the instruction.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 4. MICROPROCESSORS [124]


One – byte instructions
Task Op-code Operand Binary – code Hex code
Copy the contents of the MOV C,A 01001111 4FH
accumulator in the
register C.
Add the contents of the ADD B 10000000 80H
register B to the contents
of the accumulator.
Invert (complement) CMA 00101111 2FH
each bit in the
accumulator.
Two – Byte Instructions
In a two – byte instruction, the first byte specifies the op-code and the second byte
specifies the operand. Source operand is a data byte immediately following the op
code.

ww Task
Two – Byte Instructions
Op-code Operand Binary Hex

w
Load an 8 – bit data in
the accumulator
.Ea
MVI A, Data
Code
0011
1110
code
3E First Byte

syE DATA DATA


Second
Byte

ngi
Assume that the data byte is 32H. The assembly language instruction is written as
Mnemonics
MVI A, 32H
Hex Code
3E 32H nee
Three – byte Instructions rin
g.n
In a three byte instruction, the first byte specifies the op-code and the following two
bytes specify the 16 – bits address. Note that, the second byte is the low – order
address and the third byte is the high – order address.
Opcode + data byte + data byte
Three – byte Instructions
e t
Task Op-code Operand Binary Hex Instruction
Code Code Type
Transfer the JMP 2085H 1100 C3 First byte
program 0011 85 Second byte
sequence to 1000 20 Third byte
the memory 0101
location 0010
2085H. 0000

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 5. ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS [137]

5
ELECTRONIC DEVICES &
CIRCUITS
CONTENTS
ww
1. SEMICONDUCTOR BASICS & ENERGY BANDS ………… 138-144

2.
w .Ea
JUNCTION DIODE …………………………………………………. 145-148

3.
syE
VARIOUS SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES ……………………… 149-152

4.
ngi
CLIPPERS AND CLAMPERS ……………………………………. 153-154

5.
nee
BJT (BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR) ……………….. 155-157

6. FET (FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR) ………………………… 158-164


rin
7. FABRICATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS …………….. 165-165 g.n
8. THYRISTOR ………………………………………………………... 166-168 e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 5. ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS [138]

1. SEMICONDUCTOR BASICS & ENERGY


BANDS
Thermal Voltage: VT (Voltage Equivalent of Temperature)
T
VT  volt
11600
Standard room temperature (300 K) VT  0.0256 voltagesVT  26mV
The standard room temperature corresponds to a voltage of 26 mV.

Leakage Current (I o )
 Also called minority carrier current or thermally generated current.
 In silicon it is in nano ampere range and in germanium it is in micro ampere

ww range.
 Io doubles for every 10ºC. For 1ºC, Io increases by 7%.

w
 Io is proportional to the area of the device.

.Ea
 Advantages of smaller Io:
(i) Suitable for high temperature applications
(ii) Good Thermal stability
(iii) No false triggering syE
ngi
Energy Gap: Difference between the lower energy level of conduction band (CB)
E C and upper energy level of valance band (VB) E v is called as energy gap.
Metals: VB and CB are overlap to each other.
 This overlapping increases with temperature.
nee

 e is both in CB and VB.
rin
g.n
Insulators: Conduction band is always empty. Hence no current passes.
Band gap: 5 eV – 15 eV.
Semiconductor: Energy gap is small and it is in range of 1 eV.

Eg T  0 7.85 eV
Si
1.21 eV
e
 At room temperature current can pass through a semi conductor.
Energy Gap Ge Ga As
XX
t
Eg T  300 K 0.72 eV 1.1 eV 1.47 eV
Energy gap at temperature T
For Ge Eg(T)  0.785  7.2  104 T
For Si Eg(T)  1.21  3.6  104 T
Energy gap decreases with temperature.
 dv volt
Electric Field Intensity 
dx meter
drift velocity v m2
Mobility of charge carriers  
electric field intensity  sec

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 5. ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS [139]


Mobility Vs  curve
 < 10 3
  constant
10 3    10 4     1/ 2
1
  10 4 

So drift velocity: V d   Vd   1/ 2 Vd  constant


 Mobility indicates how quick is the e  or hole moving from one place to
another.
 Electron mobility > hole mobility

ww
 Mobility of charge carriers decreases with the temperature.
  T m

w
Mass Action Law: In a semi conductor under thermal equilibrium (at constant

.Ea
temperature) the product of electrons and holes in a semiconductor is always
constant and equal to the square of intrinsic concentration.

syE
[no po  ni2 ]
no  Concentration of e  in conduction band
Po  Concentration of holes in valance band
ngi
ni  Intrinsic concentration at given temperature

Majority carrier concentration =


nee
ni2

rin
Minority carrier concentration

g.n
Eg

Intrinsic concentration ni2  AoT 3e 2 KT

ni is a function of temperature and energy gap.


e
Einstein’s Equation: Relation between diffusion constant, mobility and thermal
voltage. t
Dn D P
  VT  KT
n  P
D
The unit of is volts. Where, D n  e  diffusion constant

D p  Hole diffusion constant
Diffusion and Drift Current:

Diffusion Current: It is defined as migration of charge carriers from higher


concentration to lower concentration due to concentration gradient.
Drift Current: It is flow of current through the material or device under the
influence of voltage or electric field intensity.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 5. ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS [140]


Total current density in a semi conductor

J  Jn  Jp
  

(Total current) (Current carried by e ) (Current carried by holes)
Jn  Jn  Jn
  
current due to e 
e drift current density 
e diffusion current density
dn
For e  J n  nqn  qDn A / cm2
dx
dp
For holes J p  pq p  qDp A / cm2
dx

ww
e – diffusion length Ln  Dn cm

w
Hole diffusion length
Conductivity .Ea
LP  DP  cm

syE
In Metals: Metals are uni-polar, so current is carried only by e 
  nqn

In Semi Conductors ngi


In metal, conductivity decreases with temperature.
  nqn  pq P
n  Concentration of e in CB
e  Concentration of holes in VB
nee
 n ,  p  Mobility of holes and electrons rin
g.n
 Conductivity of pure semi-conductor increases with temperature

In Extrinsic Semi-conductor
For n type   N D q n
e
ND = donor concentration t
For p type   N A q p NA = acceptor concentration
In extrinsic semiconductor (SC) below the room temperature, conductivity
increases. But above the room temperature their conductivity decreases.

Direct Band Gap Semiconductor


 During the re-combinations the falling e  from the conduction band will be
releasing energy in the form of light.
 Momentum and direction of e  will remain same.
Example : GaAs , InP , ZnS
Indirect Band Gap Material
 Most of falling e  will directly releasing energy in the form of heat

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 5. ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS [141]



 Moment of e will change
 Direction of e will change Example : Ge and Si
 Direct band gap materials having higher carrier lifetime and are used for
fabrication for LED, laser, tunnel diode, photodiode.

General Properties of Ge and Si


Properties Ge Si
Atomic number 32 14
Density of atoms 4.42  10 22 5  10 22

Intrinsic concentration 2.5  1013 1.5  1010

n at 300 K cm 2 cm2
3800 1300

ww  p at 300 K
V sec

1800
Vsec
500

w .Ea
Leakage current A nA

Temperature range
Power handling capacity syE 60º to 75º C
Less
60º to 175º C
High
 doubles for
ngi
50º C 75º C

For 1º C conductivity
Cut in voltage nee
Increases by 6%
0.2 V
Increases by 8%
0.7 V
Applications
rin
High conductivity and Switching applications
high frequency
g.n
n
p
ratio
2.1 : 1
e 2.6 : 1

t
 cm 2  99 34
Dn  
 V sec 

 cm2  47 13
Dp  
 V sec 

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 5. ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS [142]


Hall Effect
If a specimen (metal or semi conductor)
carrying the current I is placed in transverse
magnetic field B, an electric field intensity '  '
is induced in a direction perpendicular to both
I and B.
 Force experience by the charge carriers is
always same direction irrespective of their
polarity.
  
Force direction F  q v  B  
(For e  from diagram)
  e( Vy ay  Bz az )e

ww
Direction is in negative y
F = e Vy B z a^x

w
Force is in positive +x direction. So for

.Ea
N Type Material: Plane which is in + x direction should have negative polarity. For
P-type material plane which is in + x direction should have positive polarity.
According to Hall Effect
Hall Voltage VH =
BI syE
B Magnetic field
W
  charge density ngi
W Width of specimen (it is in plane of applied B)
BIRH
nee
or VH 
W
where
rin
R H  hall coefficient =
1

Charge density   nq
g.n
Field intensity 
VH
D
e t
8
By hall experiment, mobility is given by    RH
3
 By polarity of hall voltage we can determine whether the semiconductor is p
type or n type.
 By magnitude of hall voltage we can differentiate between metal and
semiconductor.
 For metal hall voltage VH is less as compared to SC.
 Hall voltage is +ve for N type SC and metals
 Hall voltage is –ve for P type SC.
 Hall voltage is zero for intrinsic SC.
 In metals, R H increases with temperature

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ECE FORMULA
ECE FORMULA BOOK
BOOK 5. ELECTRONIC
5. ELECTRONIC DEVICES
DEVICES &
& CIRCUITS
CIRCUITS [143]
 In
In pure
pure SC,SC, R H decreases
decreases with
with temperature
temperature
 In
In extrinsic
extrinsic SC,
SC, R H increases
increases with
with temperature
temperature
 ItIt can
can be
be used
used in
in finding
finding mobility
mobility of
of charge
charge carriers, concentration of charge
carriers, magnetic
carriers, magnetic field
field intensity.
intensity.
Types of
Types of Semi
Semi Conductors
Conductors
Intrinsic Semi
Intrinsic Semi Conductor:
Conductor: n  p  ni
At 0K
At 0K all valance e  are
all valance are occupied
occupied with
with covalent
covalent bonding and therefore charge
carriers are
carriers are zero
zero and
and the
the semiconductor
semiconductor behave
behave as
as insulator.
insulator.
Extrinsic Semi
Extrinsic Semi Conductor
Conductor
NN Type
Type
 Impurity
Impurity is
is penta-valent
penta-valent (phosphorous,
(phosphorous, arsenic)
arsenic)
 Majority
Majority carriers
carriers are
are electrons
electrons
n  ni 

ww

P-Type
P-Type
p  ni 
for N
for N type
type semiconductor
semiconductor (SC)
(SC)

w
 Impurity
Impurity is
 Majority
is trivalent
trivalent (Boron,

.Ea
Majority carriers
carriers are
p  ni 
(Boron, Aluminium)
are holes.
holes.
Aluminium)


n  ni 
for PP type
for
syE
type semiconductor
semiconductor (SC)
(SC)

ND  p  NA  n
Law of
Law of Electric
Electric Neutrality
Total positive
Total
Neutrality
positive charges
charges =Total
=Total negative
negative charges
charges ngi
Intrinsic SC
Intrinsic
N type
N type SC
SC
SC N D  0,
ND  0
NA  0
p  NA  nnee n=p
p >> n p  NA
N type
N type SC
SC  NA  0
n  ND rin
nn  N DD  p
Since
Since
Fermi Level:
Fermi Level: ItIt is
nn >>
>> pp
is maximum
maximum energy
energy possessed g.n
by e  at absolute 0 of temperature.
possessed by
ItIt isis energy
Fermi
energy state
Fermi Dirac
be occupied
be
state having

occupied by
by an
having probability
Dirac Function:
an electron
probability 1/2
Function: ItIt gives
gives the
electron at
1/2 of
of being
the probability
at absolute
e
being occupied
occupied by an electron.
probability that
absolute temperature
that an available energy state E will
temperature T. t
[1 –– ff (E)]
[1 (E)] gives
gives the
the probability
probability that
that energy
energy state
state E
E will be occupied by hole.

Concentration of
Concentration of e in in conduction
conduction band
band
(E-EFF))
(E-E

nnoo  N
Nccee KT
KT

no  Concentration of e  in
Concentration of in conduction
conduction band
band
EC Conduction
Conduction band
band energy
energy level
level
E F  Fermi
Fermi energy
energy level
level

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 6. ANALOG ELECTRONICS [169]

6
ANALOG ELECTRONICS

CONTENTS
ww
1.

2.
w VOLTAGE REGULATOR & RECTIFIERS …………………….. 170-171

.Ea
BJT & TRANSISTOR BIASING …………………………………. 172-175

3. syE
MULTISTAGE & POWER AMPLIFIERS ……………………… 176-178

4. ngi
SMALL SIGNAL ANALYSIS …......................................... 179-183

5. FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS ………………………………………… 184-187 nee


6. OSCILLATORS ………………………………………………………. 188-191 rin
7. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS …………………………………… 192-204 g.n
e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 6. ANALOG ELECTRONICS [170]

1. VOLTAGE REGULATOR & RECTIFIERS


Voltage Regulator Circuits:
VNL -VFL
% Regulation = ×100%
VFL
V
Full load current = I FL = FL
RL
VNL -No load
VFL -Fullload
Smaller the regulation better is the circuit performance.

Zener Voltage Regulator Circuit:

ww
w .Ea
Since Zener diode is conducting syE
VL  Vz  VBr VL  IL R L
ngi
Vz  I z R z
If Zener current is maximum then load current is minimum and vice versa.
I  I z  IL

I  I z max  I L min
nee I  I z min  I L max

Vi VL
For satisfactory operation of circuit
rin
I  I z min  I L
Rs
I z min IL

The power dissipated by the Zener diode is Pz  Vz I z


g.n
Rectifier: To convert a bi-directional current or voltage into a unidirectional
current or voltage

Ripple factor: r
rms value of AC component
DC value
e t
2
V 
r   rms   1
 Vdc 
rms value Vrms
Form factor: F  r  F2  1
dc value Vdc
Peak value
Crest factor =
RMS value
DC power output
Rectifier Efficiency =  100%
ACpower input

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 6. ANALOG ELECTRONICS [171]


TUF (Transformer utilization factor):
DC power output
TUF =
AC rating of transformer
Half Wave Rectifier: Average value of current and voltage
I V
Idc  m , Vdc  m
 
I V
RMS value of current and voltage: I rms  m , Vrms  m
2 2
Efficiency   40.6% Ripper factor = 1.21
Frequency of ripple voltage = f Form factor = 1.57
Peak inverse voltage = Vm TUF = 0.286
Full Wave Rectifier: Average value of current and voltage:
2I 2V
Idc  m , Vdc  m

ww 
RMS value of current and voltage:

Vrms 
Vm
, I rms 
Im

w Efficiency   81.2%
.Ea
From factor = 1.11
2 2
Ripper factor = 0.48
Crest factor = 2
TUF = 0.692
Frequency of ripple voltage = 2fsyE Peak inverse voltage = 2Vm

Peak inverse voltage = Vm ngi


Bridge Rectifier: All the parameters are same as full wave rectifier except
Transformer utilization factor = 0.812

Advantage of Bridge Rectifier: nee


rin
1. The current in both the primary and secondary of the transformer flows for entire
cycle.

g.n
2. No center tapping is required in the transformer secondary. Hence it is a cheap
device.

two half cycles. Hence net DC current flow is zero.


e
3. The current in the secondary winding of transformer is in opposite direction in

4. As two diode currents are in series, in each of the cycle inverse voltage appear
across diode gets shared. Hence the circuit can be used for high voltage
t
application.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 6. ANALOG ELECTRONICS [172]

2. BJT & TRANSISTOR BIASING

General Equation of Transistor: In CE mode  I C = βI B + (1+ β)I CO


In CB mode  I C   I E  I CO
VBE
VT
I E  I CO e
Typical values for VBE = 0.2 (Ge Transistor)
0.7 (Si Transistor)
1.3 (GaAs Transistor)

ww
w .Ea
syE
(a) Condition to keep transistor in cut off: ngi VBE  0.7V

(b) Condition for transistor under active region: nee


1. VBE  0.7V 2. I C   I B   I E
rin 3. I B 
I c sat

(c) Transistor under saturation region:
g.n
e
To find whether transistor is in active mode or saturation mode
VBE  0.7V
IC   I B   I E
VCEsat  0.2V
t
I. If I C active > I C (saturation)
then transistor is in saturation and Q
point is ( I C (saturation),0.2).
II. If I C (saturation) > I C (active)
then transistor is in active region and Q
point is ( I C (active), VCE ).

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 6. ANALOG ELECTRONICS [173]


Transistor DC Load Line and Q Point

 DC load line is a straight line which joins Ic max and VCC or which joins saturation
and cutoff point.

ww

DC load line is the locus of all possible operating point at which it remains in
active region.


wQ point is called quiescent point or operating point and it is a function of IB, IC,
and VCC.
.Ea
For best performance of amplifier in the BJT the Q point must be located at the
center of D.C. load line.

Stability Factor:
syE
ngi
IC is a function of I C O , V B E ,  (T em perature dependent param eter )
I C
Stability S =
I CO
nee
VBE , 

rin
Smaller the values of S better will be thermal stability.
1 
The general equation for stability factor S:
g.nS
I
1  B
I C
Transistor Biasing Circuits and Their Stability:
A. Fixed Bias Circuit (Base – Bias)
e t
VCC  VCE
IC 
RC
VCC  VBE
IB 
RB

Stability S  1 
Fixed bias circuit is unstable.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 6. ANALOG ELECTRONICS [174]


B. Collector to base bias circuits
VCC  VBE
IB 
(  1) RC  RB
IC   I B
1 
Stability S
RC
1 
RC  RB
The circuit is having good thermal stability.

C. Self bias circuit  (Potential divider bias circuit)


Emitter bias circuit VCC
It is popularly used in biasing circuit.
R1 >> R2 or R1 >> 10 R2

ww
It gives 180º phase shift.

when, R1 Re
VCC

w
Vth 
VCC R 2
R1  R 2
VCC  VCE
R th 

.Ea
R 1R 2
R1  R 2
Vth  BBE ~

Rth
RC

IC 
RC  RE
IE 
syE
 R 
R E   th 
 B  1 R2 Rc
Vth

Re

ngi
S
1 

nee 
Stability factor
1 
RE
Rth  RE

rin
RE
RE  Rth

S  1
Rth g.n
Thermal Runway:
RE
e
 The self destruction of the transistor due to the excess heat produced within the
t
device is called thermal runaway.
 It is due to ICO
 BJT suffers from thermal runway.
 In FET, there is no thermal runway.
VCC PC 1
Conditions to eliminate thermal runway: VCE  & 
2 T j 

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 7. SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS [205]

7
SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

ww
1.
CONTENTS
BASIC PROPERTIES OF SIGNALS ………………………….. 206-209

2.
w .Ea
LTI SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………. 210-212

3.
syE
FOURIER SERIES …………………………………………………. 213-214

4.
ngi
FOURIER TRANSFORM …………………………………………. 215-218

5.
nee
DISCRETE TIME SIGNAL SYSTEMS ……………………….. 219-221

6. LAPLACE TRANSFORM ………………………………………… 222-224


rin
7. Z TRANSFORM ……………………………………………………. 225-228
g.n
8. DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORMS ………………………. 229-230
e t

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ECE FORMULA
ECE FORMULA BOOK
BOOK 7. SIGNALS
7. SIGNALS AND
AND SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS [206]

1. BASIC
1. BASIC PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES OF SIGNALS
Operations on
Operations on Signals:
Signals:
Time Shifting:
Time Shifting: y (t )  x(t  )
 Shift
Shift the
the signal
signal towards
towards right
right side
side by when   0 . This is also called as time
by ||  || when
delay.
delay.
 Shift
Shift the
the signal
signal left
left towards
towards side
side by when   0 . This is also called as time
by ||  || when
advance.
advance.

Time Reversal
Time Reversal yy (t)
(t) == xx (–t)
(–t)
Rotate the
Rotate the signal
signal w.r.t.
w.r.t. y-axis.
y-axis. ItIt is
is mirror
mirror image
image of
of signal.
yy (t)
(t) == –– xx (t)
(t)
Rotate the
Rotate the signal
signal w.r.t.
w.r.t. x-axis.
x-axis.

ww Scaling y(t )  x( t )


Time Scaling
Time
When   1,compress
 When compress the
the signal.
signal.

w
When
When  

Eg.
1, expand
expand

 y(t)
Eg.  .Ea
the
the

y(t) == x(–5t
signal.
signal.

x(–5t ++ 3)
3)
  3 
y (t )  x  5  t   
  5 
Steps: 1.
Steps: 1. First
First rotate
rotate the
2. Compress
2. Compress the the signalsyE
the signal
signal w.r.t.
signal by
w.r.t. y-axis.
y-axis.
by 55 times.
times.
3. Shift
3. Shift the
the signal
signal by
3
by unit
5
unit towards
ngi
towards right
right side.
side.

nee
rin
g.n
e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 7. SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS [207]


Standard Signals: Continuous time signals
Impulse signal (Direct Delta Function)
 , t 0 
 (t )  
0 , t0
&   (t )dt  1


Properties of Impulse Signal


(i) x(t ) (t )  x(0) (t ) (ii) x (t ) (t  to )  x (to ) (t  to )

ww
(iii) [ (t  )] 

1
||
 (t   ) (iv)  (t ) dt  1


(v)
w  x (t )  (t  t


.Ea
o )  x (t o ) (vi) x (t ) * (t  to )  x (t  to )

Unit Step signal:


1, t  0
u (t )  
syE
0, t  0
ngi
nee
Unit Ramp signal:
r (t )  t u (t ) rin
t , t  0
r (t )  
0 , t  0
g.n
e t
Parabolic signal:
At 2
x(t )  u(t )
2
 At 2
 ,t0
x (t )   2
 0 , t0

t2
 , t0
unit parabolic signal x(t )   2
0 t0
 ,

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 7. SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS [208]


Unit Pulse signal:

 1  1
 (t )  u  t    u  t  
 2  2

Triangular signal:

 |t |
1  , | t | a
x(t )   a
 0, | t | a

ww
Signum Signal:

w
x(t )  sgm(t )  
 1, t  0

.Ea
1, t  0
sgn(t )  2u (t )  1
sgn  u (t )  u (t )
syE
ngi
Relationship between u(t), (t ) and r(t): u (t ) 
t

  (t )dt
nee 

r (t ) 
d d
dt   (t )
dt  u (t ) 
r(t) = tu(t)
rin
Even and Odd Signal: Even signal
Odd signal g.n
x(t) = x(–t)
x(–t) = – x(t)

Even part xe (t ) 
x(t )  x(t )
2
e
Impulse is an even signal. An arbitrary signal can be divided into even and odd part:

t
x(t )  x(t )
Odd part xo (t ) 
2
Periodic Signal:
(i) x (t) = x (t + T), T is the time period of signal.
Signal must exist from   to .
 A constant signal is always periodic with fundamental period undefined.
 Complex exponential signals are always periodic.
 Real exponential signals are always aperiodic.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 7. SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS [209]


Power and Energy Signals:

Ex   | x(t) |
2
Energy dt
–
T
1
Power Px  
2T  T
| x(t) |2dt (T  )

Ex
Px  (T  )
2T
(i) When energy is finite; then power is zero (Energy Signal).
(ii) When power is finite, then energy is infinite (Power Signal).
 All periodic signals are power signals but the converse is not true.
 Absolute stable signal is energy signal.
 Unstable signal is neither energy nor power signal.
 Marginally stable signal is power signal.

ww
w .Ea
syE
ngi
nee
rin
g.n
e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 7. SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS [210]

2. LTI SYSTEMS
Static and Dynamic systems
If output depends only on present value of input then it is known as static (memory
less).
e.g. y(t) = x(t)
Otherwise the system is dynamic or having memory.
e.g. y(t) = x(t + 2)

Causal or non-causal systems


Causal: Output at any time depends only on present or past values of input.
Non-causal: Output depends on future.
y(t) = x(t – 2)  causal system y(t) = x(t + 2)  non-causal system

Important
ww
Above mentioned are system definitions. (Causal or non causal system is different
to causal or non causal signals).

w
Causal, non-causal and anti-causal signals:

.Ea
 A signal is said to be causal if it is defined for t  0. Therefore, if x(t) is causal,
then x(t) = 0 for t < 0.

syE
 A signal is said to be non-causal, if it is defined for either t  0 or both t  0 and
t > 0.

ngi
 When x(t) = 0 for t > 0 then it is called as anti-causal.
Linear and non-linear systems

nee
A system is said to be linear if it satisfies the principal of superposition. Principal of
superposition consists of two properties:

(i) Additive property


rin
(ii) Homogeneity property
Otherwise system is non-linear.
g.n
Additive property: The response to x1 (t )  x2 (t ) is y1 (t )  y2 (t )

e
 Homogeneity Property: The response to  x1 ( t ) is  y i ( t )
t
Time Variant and Time Invariant Systems: A system is said to be time invariant
if the time shifts in the input signal results in an identical shift in the output signal.

For Time Invariant System: y ( t  t o )  f [ x ( t  t o )]


i.e. Delayed response = Response to delayed input

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 8. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS [231]

8
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS

ww
1. ANALOG MODULATION ………………………………………. 232-238

2. w .Ea
PULSE MODULATION TECHNIQUES ……………………. 239-244

3.

4.
syE
NOISE ……………………………………………………………….

DIGITAL MODULATION SCHEMES ……………………….


245-246

247-248

5.
ngi
RANDOM PROCESSES ................…………………………. 249-250

6. INFORMATION THEORY ……………………………………..


nee 251-252

rin
7. ANTENNA THEORY .………………………………………….
g.n 253-255

8.

9.
RADAR ……………………………………………………………..

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION ……………………………


e 256-257

258-259 t
10. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION ……………………………… 260-264

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 8. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS [232]

1. ANALOG MODULATION

Modulation is the process of placing the message signal over some carrier signal to
make it suitable for transmission.
Need for Modulation:
1. Size of antenna required for receiving the wave is reduced if signal is transmitted
at high frequency.
2. Many number of signals can be transmitted simultaneously by selecting the
carriers of different frequencies.
3. The interference of noise and other signals can be reduced by changing the
frequency of transmission.
4. Integration of different communication system is possible.

Amplitude Modulation

ww
Amplitude Modulated Signal:
AM may be defined as a system in which the maximum amplitude of the carrier

w
wave is made proportional to the instantaneous value (amplitude) of the modulating
or base band signal.
.Ea
x m ( t )  Am cos  m t
xc ( t )  Ac cos  c t
x(t )  Ac [1  Ka xm (t )]cos ct syE where  = KaAm
x(t )  Ac cos  c t  Ac K a xm (t ) cos  c t
where = modulation index ngi
xm (t )  message signal
nee
x (t )  A c cos  c t   A c cos  m t cos  c t

Frequency spectrum of AM wave: rin


g.n
e t
Bandwidth = 2 f m
 Frequency band from f c to f c  f m is called as upper sideband
 Frequency band from f c  f m to f c is called as lower sideband
Amax  Amin
 Amax  AC [1   ] Amin  AC [1   ]
Amax  Amin
Amax – maximum amplitude
Amin – minimum amplitude

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 8. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS [233]


Power Relations in AM wave:
Ac2  2 Ac2
Ptotal = Pcarrier + PLSB + PUSB Pcarrier  PLSB  PUSB 
2 8
Ac2  2 Ac2  2 Ac2    2
Ptotal    Ptotal  1   Pc
2 8 8  2 
Maximum power dissipated in AM wave is PAM= 1.5 Pc for =1 and this is
maximum power that amplifier can handle without distortion.
Efficiency of Amplitude Modulated System:
PSB  2 
 AM   100%  AM   2   100%
Pt   2

For satisfactory modulation 0    1

ww
Current relations in AM wave:

Pt   1 
2 
 Pc I tIC 1 
2
Ic

w  2 

.Ea
2

Multi-tone Modulation: When carrier is modulated simultaneously by more than


one sinusoidal signal.
syE
Resultant Modulation Index  = 12   22   32 ............

Double side Band Suppressed Carrier modulation DSB-SC:


s(t )   Ac cos ct cos mt
ngi
  modulation index nee
A c  carrier amplitude

rin
In DSB-SC the carrier signal is suppressed at the time of modulation. Only side-
bands are transmitted in modulated wave.
Bandwidth = 2 f m Transmitted Power Pt  Pc
2
2 g.n
Power saving = 66.67% (for  = 1)
e
Single Sideband Modulation (SSB): In this technique, along with modulation t
carrier one side band gets suppressed from AM modulated wave.
s (t )  Ac m (t ) cos 2 f c t  Ac mˆ (t ) sin 2 f c t
 ( t ) is Hilbert transform of message signal.
m
2
Bandwidth = f m Transmitter Power Pt  PC
4
Power saving  83.3%
Vestigial Sideband (VSB) modulation: In this modulation one side band and
vestige of another sideband is transmitted.
 It is used for transmission of video signal in television broadcasting.
 It is also used for high speed data signal and facsimile.
 Vocal signal transmission of T.V. via F.M.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 8. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS [234]


AM Modulators:
 For Generation of AM or DSB/Full carrier wave
A. Product Modulator B. Square Law Modulator C. Switching Modulator
 For Generation DSB-SC wave
A. Filter method/frequency discrimination method
B. Phase shift method/Phase discrimination method
C. Third method/Weaver’s method

Demodulation of Amplitude Modulate wave:


A. Synchronous or coherent detection B. Envelop detector
Envelop Detector:

r(t) C R m (t )

ww
w
be selected such as .Ea
r(t) is received signal and m(t) is message signal and for better reception RC must
1
 RC 
1

fc = carrier frequency syE fc W


w is bandwidth of message signal
 m

To avoid diagonal clipping
1
RC

1  2 ngi
Key points:
nee
 Demodulation of AM signal is simpler than DSB-SC and SSB systems,

rin
Demodulation of DSB-SC and SSB is rather difficult and expensive.
 It is quite easier to generate conventional AM signals at high power level as

g.n
compared to DSB-SC and SSB signals. For this reason, conventional AM
systems are used for broad casting purpose.

e
 The advantage of DSB-SC and SSB systems over conventional AM system is
that the former requires lesser power to transmit the same information.
 SSB scheme needs only one half of the bandwidth required in DSB-SC system t
and less than that required in VSB also.
 SSB modulation scheme is used for long distance transmission of voice signals
because it allows longer spacing between repeaters.
Angle Modulation:
 Angle modulation may be defined as the process in which the total phase angle
of a carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of
modulating or message signal while keeping the amplitude of carrier constant.
 Two types of angle modulation schemes:

PM (Phase modulation)
FM (Frequency Modulation)
Phase Modulation: The phase of the carrier signal is varied according to message
signal.
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ECE FORMULA BOOK 8. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS [235]


Single Tone Modulation: Let m(t) = A m cos  m t
PM signal in general form x (t )  A c cos  (t )
where  (t )  wct  K P m(t )
x(t )  Ac cos(ct  k p m  AC cos(wC t   cos wmt )(t ))
x(t )  Ac cos(ct  k p Am cos mt )
Where,   KP Am
d
Instantaneous Frequency: 
dt
d
 (c t   cos mt ) f  fc   f m sin m , t
dt
Frequency deviation of signal f   f m f  K p Am f m

ww
For Phase Modulation:
Phase deviation = K p | m(t ) |max

w Frequency deviation  KP Am fm

.Ea
Frequency Modulation: Frequency of FM wave is varied in direct proportion of
the modulating signal.
t

syE
x (t )  Ac cos(c t  2 k f  m (t ) dt )
0
If m(t )  Am cos mt
x(t )  Ac cos(ct   sin mt
ngi
where f = Frequency Modulation Index
f
nee

k f Am
fm

fm rin
Frequency deviation = K f | m(t ) |max  K f Am g.n
Phase deviation 2 K f  m(t )df |max
Carrier Swing:
e t
The total variation in frequency from the lowest to the highest point is called carrier
swing.
Carrier swing = 2 × f
The amount of frequency deviation depends upon the amplitude of the modulating
signal. This means that louder the sound, greater the frequency deviation and vice –
versa.
Relationship between phase modulation and frequency modulation:
In PM, the phase angle varies linearly with base band signal m(t) whereas in FM,
the phase angle varies with the integral of base band signal m(t).
 To get FM by using PM, we first integrate the base band signal and then apply
to Phase Modulator.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 8. COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS [236]


 PM wave may be generated by using frequency modulator by first
differentiating base band signal m(t) and then applying to the Frequency
Modulator.

Power Carried by FM and PM signals: Since the Amplitude of Frequency and


Phase modulated signal is constant, the power transmitted in FM and PM waves is
independent of modulation index
Ac2
i.e. Pt 
2
 Because of constant Amplitude, Noise level in FM and PM can be kept within
limits. That’s why it is used in Audio Communication.

Classification of FM signals:
(1) Narrow Band FM signals (NBFM)

ww
(2) Wide Band FM signals (WBFM)

w
Narrow Band FM signal (NBFM): For these signals modulation index is less than
unity.
.Ea  (t )   sin 2 f mt
x (t )  A c cos[  c t   (t )]  Ac [cos  c t cos  ( t )  sin  c t sin  ( t )]
syE
{(t ) is small, so cos  (t )  1,sin  (t )   (t )}
x(t )  Ac cos ct  Ac  sin c sin mt
A ngi
 Ac cos c t  c cos c  m  t  cos c  m  t 
2
nee
Above signal is called NBFM signal. It has two bands similar to AM wave and both
have same bandwidth requirements.
rin
The lower side band of NBFM is inverted version of upper side band of AM signal.
It can be detected using Envelop Detector.

WBFM signal: x (t ) 

 Ac J n  ) cos(c  nm )t
g.n
n 
A wideband FM signal has infinite number of side bands. e
Ideally the Bandwidth requirement of Fm signal is infinite because it has infinite
t
number of side bands.
Carson’s Law:
Transmission Bandwidth of FM signal:
BW = 2 f m If   1 (NBFM)
BW = 2( f  f m ) If   1 (WBFM) or BW  2(  1) f m
BW  2(  f m ) or BW  2(  1) f m
FM over AM
It is possible to reduce noise still further by increasing the frequency deviation but
in AM this is not possible.
 Standard frequency allocations provide a guard band between commercial FM
stations. Due to this, there is less adjacent channel interference in FM.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 9. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY [265]

9
ELECTROMAGNETIC
THEORY
CONTENTS
ww
1. COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND VECTOR CALCULUS ….. 266-267

2.
w .Ea
ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS …………………………………….. 268-271

3.
syE
MAGNETO STATIC FIELDS …………………………………… 272-274

4. MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS ……………………………………..


ngi 275-276

5. ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES ………………………………..


nee 277-281

6. TRANSMISSION LINE ………………………………………….. 282-285


rin
7. ANTENNAS …………………………………………………………
g.n 286-286

e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 9. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY [266]

1. COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND VECTOR


CALCULUS
Vector Calculus:
 Gradient: The gradient of scalar V is written as  V and result is vector
quantity.
V V V
For Cartesian: V  aˆ x  aˆ y  aˆ z
x y z
V 1 V V
For Cylindrical: V  aˆ ρ  aˆ   aˆ z
   z
V 1 V 1 V
For Spherical: V  aˆ r  aˆ   aˆ 
r r  r sin  

ww 
 Divergence: The divergence of vector A is written as .A and result is scalar

w
quantity.
For Cartesian:
.Ea

 .A 
A x A y A z
x

y

z

For Cylindrical:

.A 
syE 1 
 
(A ) 
1 A A z
 

z

For Spherical:

.A 
1  2
r r
2 ngi
(r A r ) 
1 
r sin  
(sin  A ) 
1 A 
r sin  

nee
 Curl of vector: The curl of vector A is defined as   A and result is vector

quantity.
aˆ x aˆ y rin
aˆ z
For Cartesian: A
x

y
 
z g.n
Ax

a r
a 
Ay Az

a z
e t
 
   
For Cylinderical: A
  z
A A  Az

a r aθ a 
r 2sinθ r sinθ r
   
For Spherical: A
r  
Ar rA  r sin  A 

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 9. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY [267]



 Laplacian of Scalar: Laplacian of scalar field V is written as  V . It is the
divergence of gradient of V. The result is a scalar quantity.
2 V 2 V 2 V
For Cartesian: 2 V  2  2  2
x y z
1   V  1  2 V  2 V
For Cylinderical: 2V    
     2  2 z 2
1   2 V  1   V  1 2V
For Spherical: 2 V   r    sin   
r 2 r  r  r 2 sin      r 2 sin 2   2
 Laplacian of Vector: It is a vector quantity.
  
 2 A  (.A)      A

 Divergence of a curl of vector is always zero . (  A)  0
 Curl of gradient of a scalar field is always zero   ( V)  0

ww 
 The vector field is said to be solenoidal or divergence less if . A  0

 A vector field is said to be irrotational (or potential) if   A  0
w
 A vector field is said to be harmonic if  2 V  0
.Ea 
     A   ( . A)   2 A

  
syE 
  . (A  B)  B . (  A)  A . (  B)

ngi

Divergence Theorem: It states that total outward flux of vector field A through

 
 A.ds    . A dvnee
closed surface S is the same as volume integral of the divergence of A .

s v
rin 

equal to surface integral of curl of A.



g.n
Stokes’ Theorem: It states that line integral of a vector field A over a closed path is

 
 A . dl   (  A) . ds
l s

e 

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 9. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY [268]

2. ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

Coulomb’s Law: Force between two point charges

 k Q 1Q 2 1
F12  aˆ r12 Where, k   9  109 m/ F
R2 4 o

Electric Field Intensity: Force per unit charge when placed in electric field.

 E
E
Q

Electric Field Intensity due to Infinite long line charge:

ww
w .Ea
syE
ngi
nee

E
L
2o rin
aˆ

â  Unit normal vector to line g.n


  Perpendicular distance of the point from line (minimum distance)
Electric Field Intensity due to Infinite charge sheet:
e t
 s
E aˆn
2 0
s = surface charge density, aˆ n  unit vector Normal to sheet
In parallel plate capacitor, the electric field existing between the two plates having
 
equal and opposite charges; E  aˆn
0

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 9. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY [269]


Electric Field Intensity due to uniformly charged sphere

 r
 3 o aˆ r ;0  r  a

 0
E 3 o = volume charge density, a = radius of sphere
 a  aˆ ;r  a
 3 o r 2 0 r
  
Electric Flux Density ( D ): D  0 E
 
Electric Flux    D . ds
s
Gauss’s Law: The total electric flux  through any closed surface is equal to the
total charge enclosed by surface.
  
Q   D . ds   V dV    . D  V
ww s v

w .Ea
Electric Potential: VAB 
W
Q
B  
   E . dl 
A
Q 1 1
    VB  VA
4o  rB rA 

syE
 Negative sign indicates that the work is being done by external agent.
VAB = potential difference between A and B

V
Q ngi
Potential at any point r due to point charge Q located at origin is

40 r
neeQ 1 1
Potential between two points in the field of point charge VAB 
rin   
4 0  rb ra 

g.n
Work done while moving a charge in electric field is independent of path followed.
It depends only on initial and final paths.
 
W   Q  E . dl  0
Electro static field is conservative or irrotational.
e 
E0
t
Energy density of Electro static field
1   1 1 D2
WE = D.E WE   E2 
2 2 2 
The gradient of potential field gives the electric field intensity. The electric field
intensity in terms of potential is given by

E   V

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 9. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY [270]


 Electric flux line is an imaginary path or line drawn in such a way that its
direction at any point is the direction of the electric field at that point connection
 
current density J  v u

 v  Charge density u  charge velocity
  ne 2 
Conduction current density J  E where  
m
A perfect conductor cannot contain an electrostatic field within it.

Inside a conductor E = 0, v  0, Vab  0
Dielectric constant and polarization:
  
D   0 (1   e ) E   0  r E
    
D  0 E  P where P   e e0 E

ww 
r  1  e 
0
 e  Electric susceptibility

w
 Dielectric strength is maximum electric field that a dielectric can tolerate to

.Ea
withstand breakdown.
 v
. J  
Continuity Equation
syE 
t

v  vo et / Tr
Relaxation Time Tr 

ngi
Boundary Conditions:
Dielectric – Dielectric Boundary Conditions: nee
Tangential Component Relation

E1t  E 2t
D1t D2t
 rin
or
1 2
g.n
Normal Component Relation:
 s  Free charge density placed at boundary.

e
D1n  D 2 n   s

The tangential component Et is continuous across the boundary and tangential


t
component D t is discontinuous at boundary.
 
 The normal component of D is continuous while that of E is discontinuous at
boundary.
tan 1 r1

tan 2 r 2
This is the law of refraction of the electric field at a boundary free of charge.
Conductor – Dielectric Boundary:
D t   o  r E t  0, D n   o  r E n   s

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 10. MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION [287]

10
MEASUREMENTS
&
INSTRUMENTATION
ww
w .Ea
1.
syE CONTENTS

MEASURING INSTRUMENT CHARACTERISTICS ……. 288-289

2.
ngi
CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS… 290-295

3. AC BRIDGES ……………………………………………………… 296-298


nee
rin
4. MEASUREMENT OF POWER & WATTMETERS ……….. 299-301
g.n
5.

6.
MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE ……………………….. 302-302

Q-METER ………………………………………………………….. 303-303


e t
7. TRANSDUCERS ………………………………………………… 304-306

8. CRO (CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE) ………………… 307-308

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 10. MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION [288]

1. MEASURING INSTRUMENT
CHARACTERISTICS
Generalized Measuring Instrument: The block diagram of generalized measuring
system may be represented as:

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS:
Accuracy: Closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value
of the variable being measured. It can be improved by recalibration.
Precision: It is a measure of the degree to which successive measurement differ

ww
from one another.
 It is design time characteristic.

w
High precision does not mean high accuracy. A highly precise instrument may be
inaccurate.
.Ea
Ex: If reading are 101, 102, 103, 104, 105. Most precise value is 103
Resolution: The smallest change in measured value to which the instrument will

syE
respond. It is improved by re-calibrating the instrument.
Sensitivity: It is ratio of change in output per unit change in input quantity of the
instrument. It is design time characteristic.
ngi
Drift: It means deviation in output of the instrument from a derived value for a
particular input.
nee
Reproducibility: It is degree of closeness with which a given value may be
measured repeatedly for a given period of time.
rin
Repeatability: It is degree of closeness with which a given input is repeatably
indicated for a given set of recordings.
Errors: g.n
1. Absolute Error/Static Error/Limiting Error:
 A  Am  AT
A m  Measured value of quantity of actual value
e t
A T  True value of quantity or nominal value
 A Am  AT
2. Relative Error: r   
AT AT
A
3. Percent Error: % r   100
AT
Instrument Error is generally given in percent error.

4. Percentage Error at reading ‘x’:


 Full Scale Reading 
% r , x     [%  r , Full scale]
 x

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 10. MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION [289]


Error due to combination of quantities:
1. Error due to Sum/Difference of quantities
X  x1  x2
X  x  x  x  x  
% r     1  1   2  2 
X  X  x1  X  x2  
2. Error due to product or quotient of quantities
x1 1
X  x1 x 2 x3 Or or
x2 x3 x1 x2 x3
X  x x x 
 1  2  3 
X  x1 x2 x3 
X  x x 
3. Composite factors X  x1n . x2m   n 1  m 2 
X  x1 x2 

ww CLASSIFICATION OF ERRORS:

w .Ea
syE
ngi
nee
Standards of EMF: rin
g.n
(a) Saturated Weston cell is used for Primary standard of emf.
Its emf is 1.01864 volt, maximum current drawn is 100  A . It contains

e
CdSO 4 crystal and its internal resistance is 600  to 800 .
(b) Unsaturated Weston cell is used for secondary standards. Its emf is 1.0180
to 1.0194 volt and does not have CdSO 4 crystal.
t
Standard of Resistance:
Maganin (Ni + Cu + Mn)
Nickel 4%
Magnese 12% [High Resistivity and low temperature coefficient]
Copper 84%
Inductive effect of resistance can be eliminated, using Bifilar winding.
Standard of Time and Frequency:
Atomic clock is used as primary standard of time and frequency. Quartz, Rubidium
crystal is used as secondary standard of time and frequency. Example: Cesium 133,
hydrogen maser etc.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 10. MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION [290]

2. CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL
INSTRUMENTS

ww
Absolute Instrument: It gives the value of parameters under measurement in terms
of the physical constant of the instrument.

w
e.g. Transient Galvanometer, Rayleigh current balance etc.

.Ea
Secondary Instrument:

syE
It gives the value of parameter for directly under measurement.
e.g. voltmeter, thermometer, pressure gauge etc.
Note: Absolute instruments are highly accurate than secondary instrument as they
ngi
contain less number of moving mechanical parts resulting in a lower operational of
power consumption.

Classification of analog instruments nee


1. Indicating type: Voltmeter, Ammeter, Wattmeter .
2. Recording type: Recorders. rin
3. Integrating type: Energy meter.
g.n
4. Comparison type: Potentiometer and bridges or null deflection.
5. Deflecting type: PMMC
e
Note: Null deflecting instruments are highly accurate as compression to deflecting
instrument as their operational power consumption at zero deflection is zero. t
Principle of Operation of Analog Instruments:
Magnetic effect: Moving Iron, PMMC, Dynamometer
Induction effect: Energy meter
Heating effect: Thermocouple and Hotwire type, Bolometer
Electro static effect: Electro static type voltmeter
Hall Effect: Poynting vector type voltmeter, Flux-meter
Damping system used in indicating instruments:
It is provided in the instrument which helps the moving system of the instrument to
reach to final position at earliest.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 10. MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTATION [291]


Electromagnetic damping: Galvanometer and moving coil type
Eddy current damping: PMMC voltmeter and energy meter
Air frictional damping: Moving iron and dynamometer
Fluid friction damping: Electrostatic type voltmeter
 PMMC Instruments are used only for DC measurements.
 Induction type instruments are used only for AC measurements.
 Hotwire and Thermal type instruments measure RMS value of input.
 Electrostatic type instruments are used to measure high voltages in kV.
 Rectifier type instruments responds to average value.

Permanent Magnet Moving Coil instruments:


 These are also called self shielding instruments.
 Aluminium former is used to provide eddy current damping.
 Magnetic field in these is in range of 0.1 to 1wb/ m which is strong field.
2

ww
 Control spring which is made of phosphor-bronze material in these instruments
provides a control force and also provides a path for current entering to moving

w
coil.

.Ea
 If control spring is broken, current through the coil is zero and instrument reads
zero.
 It is used for measurement of DC only.
syE
 Material used for magnet in PMMC is Alnico and Alcomax (Al + Co +Ni).
 Torque to weight ratio of the moving system should be high and equal to 0.1,
T
weight ngi
 0.1 ; It decides sensitivity which is high in PMMC

 It can sense a current upto 50 A.


 Deflecting torque (Td) = NBAI
nee
 Controlling torque (Tc) = k
rin
At balance Td = Tc
g.n
N  Number of turns

G
K
I
NBA
K
I
e
A  Area of cross section of vowing coil t
B  Magnetic flux I  Current through coil
Key points:
The control spring in PMMC have dual utility, they not only produce controlling
torque but also used to lead the current into the system.

Source of Errors:
 Ageing effect of the permanent magnet (can be reduced by using a pre-edged
magnet)
 Temperature effect of coil and the control spring.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 11. MATERIALS SCIENCE [309]

11
MATERIALS SCIENCE

ww CONTENTS

1.

2.
w STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS …………………………… 310-311

.Ea
ELECTRIC MATERIALS & PROPERTIES ……………. 312-315

3. syE
CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS ……………………………… 316-318

4. MAGNETIC MATERIALS ………………………………….


ngi 319-322

nee
rin
g.n
e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 11. MATERIALS SCIENCE [310]

1. STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS

1. Simple Cubic (SC):


 Distance between adjacent atoms d SC  a  2 r
 Coordination number = 6
1
 No of atoms per unit cell = 8 corners  part  1
8
 Packing efficiency = 52%
Example Polonium, Fluorspar
2. Body Centered Cubic (BCC):
3
 Distance between adjacent atom d BCC  2r  a
2

ww  Coordination number = 8
 No of atoms per unit cell = 8 
1
1 2
w .Ea
 Packing efficiency = 68%
8

3.
Example 
syE
Fe, Cr, Na
Face Centered Cubic (FCC):

ngi
 Distance between adjacent atoms d FCC  2r 
a
2
 Coordination number = 12
 No of atoms per unit cell = 8 
1nee
 3 4
 Packing efficiency = 74%
8
rin
Example  Cu, Silver, Gold
g.n
Hexagonal Closed Pack (HCP):
 Coordination number = 12
 No of atoms per unit cell = 12 
1
3 4
e t
12
 Packing efficiency = 74%
Example  Cd, Mg

Different types of unit cell


Type of unit cell Volume of unit cell
Cubic a3
Tetragonal a 2c
Orthorhombic abc
Hexagonal 3 3a 2 c
2

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 11. MATERIALS SCIENCE [311]

Crystallographic Plane and Miller Indices:


Miller indices are used to specify directions
and planes and it could be in lattices or in
crystals.
Miller Indices for plane A  B  C 
OA OB OC
h ,k  ,
OA  OB  OC 

Example:
1.
OA
h 2
OA

ww k
2
OB

0

w 
OC
 .Ea
0
( h, k ,  )  (2, 0, 0)
syE
2.
h
OA
1 ngi
k
OA
OB
1
nee
OB
OC rin

OC
1
( h, k ,  )  (1, 1, 1)
g.n
3.
OA
e t
h 1
OA
OB
k 0

OC
l 0

(h, k , l )  (1, 0, 0)

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 11. MATERIALS SCIENCE [312]

2. ELECTRIC MATERIALS & PROPERTIES


Dielectric Constant:
D
 D: Electric flux density, E: Electric field Intensity
E
  o r : permittivity of the medium (farad rpemeter)

109
o  F/ m r :Relative permittivity
36
Dipole Moment: Product of either of two charges and separation between charges.

 
p  q r Coulomb-meter

ww
Polarization:

w
It is defined as electric dipole moment per unit volume. It is denoted by P .
 
.Ea
P  N p coulomb/m2 N  Number of dipoles per unit volume


Polarizability: P   E

syE   Polarizability, F m2

ngi
E  Electrical Field Intensity, V/m,

nee
p  Dipole moment, coulomb-m
Electric flux density: When an electric field is applied
   
D   o E  P   o E   o e E

rin
 
Polarization P  o e E  o ( r  1) E

g.n
Polarization:
 e  r  1
e t
(a) Electronic/Induced Polarization: It is found in materials like inert gases in
which there is no reaction among individual molecules.
 
Pe  N  e E  e  Electronic polarizability
(b) Ionic Polarization: It is found in materials possessing ionic bonds between
two dissimilar atoms like NaCl, HCl.
These materials have permanent dipole moment in absence of external field
and exhibits both electronic and ionic polarization.
   
P  Pi  Pe  N( i   e ) E  i  Ionic polarizability
(c) Orientational Polarization: Occurs in materials having partly ionic bonds like
H 2 O, CO 2 .

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 11. MATERIALS SCIENCE [313]



 N pp 2 E  pp 2
P  N o E where orientation polarization  o 
3kT 3kT
1 k  Boltzman
P
T T  Temperature

(d) Interfacial polarization: It is the result of lattice vacancies in the dielectrics.


Total polarization PT  Pi  Pe  Po  Ps Ps  Interfacial polarization

 When alternating fields is applied, relative dielectric constant become function


of frequency and at frequency about visible/optical ranges 51014Hz material
possesses only electronic polarization.
 Langevin-Debyes generalization of the Clausius-mossotti equation
N e  r  1

ww 3o r  2
N  Number of molecules per unit volume  e  Electronic Polarizability

wIt is applicable for gaseous states only.

.Ea N  n2  1 M
 Lorentz Equation:
syE 
3o n2  2 P

ngi
It is applicable only for electronic polarization  i   e at optical frequencies.
Piezoelectric Materials: If mechanical stress is applied to a dielectric material,

nee
material gets polarized because of applied stress and vice versa. These types of
materials are called piezoelectric materials.

rin
Example: Quartz crystal, Rochelle salt, Barium Titanate (Ba TiO 3 ), Lead Zirconate
(PbZr O 3 ).
g.n
Applications: Gramophone, Accelerometer.
e
 Some dielectric materials get strained when they are subjected to an electric field
but reverse effect is not found. Then this property is Electrostriction. t
Expression of voltage sensitivity:
e F Q
V  gt P  t 
o  r A C
d
g = voltage sensitivity = volt-meter/Newton; t  Thickness
o r
F
P= stress applied; A  Area of cross section of crystal
A

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 12. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION [323]

12
COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

CONTENTS

ww
1. PROGRAMMING BASICS ………………………………………. 324-328

2.
w .Ea
MEMORY ACCESS AND DMA ………………………………… 329-334

3.
syE
DATA STRUCTURES ……………………………………………. 335-336

ngi
nee
rin
g.n
e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 12. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION [324]

1. PROGRAMMING BASICS
Computer cannot execute a program written in assembly or high level language.
The program first must need to be translated to machine language (machine
language program is nothing more than sequence of 0s and 1s) which the computer
can understand.

Compiler: Compiler is a translator, which converts high level language program


into assembly language program.
Assembler: Assembler is a program that translates assembly language program into
machine language (sequence of 0s and 1s) program.
Linker: Linker is a computer program that takes one or more object files generated
by a compiler and combine them into a single executable program.
Loader: Loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading
programs. It places programs into memory and prepares them for execution.

ww
Data types in C:

w
Data type Size (in bytes)
char
int
1
2 .Ea
float
double
4
8 syE
int i = 10;
This declaration tells the C compiler to: ngi
nee
(a) Reserve space (2B) in memory to hold the integer value.
(b) Associate the name i with this memory location.
(c) Store that value of i at this location
rin
i
10
Location name
Value at location g.n
1000

main ( )
Address
e t
{
int i = 10;
printf (“%u”, &i);
printf (“%d”, i);
printf (“%d”, * (&i));
}
Output:
/*printf (“%u”, &i); */ 1000
/*printf(“%d”, i); */ 10
/*printf(“%d”, * (&i)); *(1000) = 10
* is called “value at address” operator.
Pointer: Pointers are variables which holds the address of another variable.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 12. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION [325]


Example:
main( )
{
int x = 5;
int * y = &x;
int**z = &y;
prin tf("%u",&x);
prin tf("%u",y);
prin tf("%u",z);
printf("%d",x);
printf("%d",*y);
printf("%d",**z);

ww
}
Solution:

xw
5

1000 1001 .Ea



syE
1000
y ngi
2000 2001

nee
2000 rin
z
g.n
3000 3001
printf("%u",&x);
printf("%u",y);
1000
1000
e t
printf("%u",z); 2000
printf("%d",x); 5
printf("%d",*y); *1000=5
printf("%d",**z); **2000=*1000=5
Note: Every pointer variable takes 2 byte

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 12. COMPUTER ORGANIZATION [326]


Parameter Passing Techniques:
1. Call by value
2. Call by reference
Call by value:
Actual values of the parameter are passed to the called function.

Example: What is the output of the following program using Call by value as
parameter passing technique?
main( ) swap(int c, int d)
{ {
int a=10; int t;
int b=20; t=c;
printf ("%d%d",a,b); c=d;

ww swap(a,b);
printf ("%d%d",a,b); }
d=t;

w }
Solution:
.Ea
Execution of program always starts from main ( )

syE
ngi
nee
rin
g.n
Here, the changes will not reflect because we are passing the value of parameter to
the function.

Call by reference:
e t
In Call by reference, addresses of variables are passed as parameter to the called
function.

Example: What is the output of above program, if compiler uses call by reference
as parameter passing technique?
Solution: If compiler uses call by reference parameter passing technique, following
changes are made to the program by the compiler.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 13. MICROWAVES [337]

13
MICROWAVES

CONTENTS

ww
1. MICROWAVE BASICS AND TRANSMISSION LINES …. 338-340

2. w .Ea
WAVEGUIDES ……………………………………………………. 341-344

3.
syE
MICROWAVE HYBRID CIRCUITS …………………………. 345-347

4. MICROWAVE MEASUREMENT DEVICES ……………….


ngi 348-348

5. MICROWAVE TUBES AND CIRCUITS …………………..


nee 349-353

6. MICROWAVE SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES ……………


rin 354-360

7. MICROWAVE COMMUNICATIONS ……………………….


g.n 361-364

e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 13. MICROWAVES [338]

1. MICROWAVE BASICS AND TRANSMISSION


LINES
 Microwaves are electromagnetic waves of which frequency ranges from 1 GHz
to 1000 GHz.
 Microwaves behave more like rays of light than ordinary radio waves.
 Microwave frequency cannot be used for ground wave communication.

Advantages of Microwaves:
1. Increased bandwidth availability 2. Improved directive properties
3. Low fading effect and low power requirements
IEEE bands For microwave
L 1.1 – 1.7 GHz

ww Ls
S
C
1.7 – 2.6 GHz
2.6 – 3.9 GHz
3.9 – 8 GHz

w X
Ku
K .Ea
8 – 12.5 GHz
12.5 – 18 GHz
18 – 26 GHz

Band
Ka

Frequency
syE
Wavelength
26 – 40 GHz
Propagation characteristics and applications of various bands:
Propagation Applications

ELF 30 – 300 Hz 10 – 1 Mm ngi characteristics


Penetration into earth Communication with

VLF 3 – 30 kHz 100 –10 km


nee and sea.
Surface wave up to
1000 km. Sky wave in
submarines.
Long distance point to
point communication,

rin
the night extends
range. Low attenuation
Sonar navigation.

LF 30 – 300 kHz 10 – 1 km
g.n
during day and night.
Surface wave and sky Point-to-point marine

e
wave at night. Surface communication, Time

MF 300–3000 kHz 1000–100m


wave attenuation
greater than VHF.
Ground wave in day
and sky wave in night.
standard frequency
broadcast.
AM broadcasting,
direction finding,
t
Attenuation is high in coastguard and marine
day and low in night. communication.
HF 3 – 30 MHz 100 – 10 m Reflection from Moderate and long
ionosphere. distance communication
of all types: telephone,
telegraph, radio.
VHF 30 – 300 MHz 10 – 1 m Space wave, line of Television FM service,
sight. aviation and police.
UHF 300–3000 MHz 100 –10 cm Same as VHF, affected Short distance
by tall objects like communication,
hills. including radar, T.V,
satellite communication.

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 13. MICROWAVES [339]


Microwave Transmission Lines
Multi-conductor lines:
Coaxial cable: It is used upto 3GHz and it behaves like a LPF.
 Coaxial cables support TEM wave and has no cut off frequency.
 There is high radiation loss in coaxial cable at high frequencies.

1  1 1
Coaxial cable resistance: R     / m
2 c a b
  Skin depth c  Conductivity
a Inner conductor radius b  Outer conductor radius

μ b
Inductance: L = ln H/m
2π a
2
ww
Capacitance: C 
ln
b
a
F/m

w .Ea
Characteristic Impedance: Zo 
L

C 2
1 

b
n   
a

syE Zo 
60
r
ln
b
a

ngib
Breakdown power in coaxial cable: Pbd  3600 a 2 ln   KW
a
Strip Lines:
nee
 These are modifications of coaxial lines and used at frequency from 100 MHz to
100 GHz.
rin
 The dominant mode is TEM mode and has no radiation losses.
g.n
 These have higher isolation between adjacent circuits and no fringing fields after
a certain distance from the edges of a conductor.
e
 It is difficult to mount active components on strip lines (i.e. line diode,
circulators). t
Characteristic Impedance:
60  4b 
Zo  ln  
r   d 
d  Diameter of circular conductor
b  Thickness between ground plates

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 13. MICROWAVES [340]


Micro strip lines:
 Cost is lower than strip line, coaxial cable or waveguide.
 Open structure of microstrip line leads to greater coupling and it is large to
mount passive or active components.
 Open structure also leads to higher radiation losses and interference due to
nearby conductors.
 Due to this interference a discontinuity in electric and magnetic field presents
and this leads to impure TEM or quasi TEM modes.
Characteristic Impedance:
60  4h 
Zo  n   If h >> d
r  d 
377 h
Zo  If w >> h
r w

ww w  strip line width t  thickness


h  distance between the line and ground plane.

w .Ea
syE
ngi
nee
rin
g.n
e t

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ECE FORMULA BOOK 13. MICROWAVES [341]

2. WAVEGUIDES
Waveguides (single conductor lines)
 At frequencies higher than 3 GHz, there are more losses in Transmission lines.
 A hollow metallic tube used to transmit EM waves by successive reflections
from inner walls of tube is called waveguide.

Difference with transmission line:


 In waveguides, only waves having frequencies greater than cut off frequency f c
will be propagated that is why waveguide act as a HPF.
 Waveguide is one conductor transmission line.

Rectangular waveguide:
 TM11 is dominant mode for TM waves.
ww
 TE10 is dominant mode for TE wave and it is also overall dominant mode

w
(when a > b).

.Ea
In this TM10 or TM01 does not exist.

Cut off frequency: syE


fc 
1
2 
 m
2
 n
    
a b
2

ngi
Phase constant :
f 
    1   c  nee 2

 f 
rin
Phase velocity: vp 


1 g.n
 f 
 1   c 
 f 
e
2

t
2
 1 f 
Group velocity: vg   1  c 
   f 

In waveguide: v p  c  vg

i.e. v p vg  c 2
In vacuum: v p  c  vg

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