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net

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HANDBOOK

&

FORMULA BOOK

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GATE, IES, JTO, PSU’s & SSC

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ELECTRONICS

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ENGINEERING rin

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Published by Engineers Institute of India

Downloaded From : www.EasyEngineering.net

herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any

means graphic, electronic, or mechanical & chemical, including but not

limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web

distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval

systems.

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Engineers Institute of India

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28-B/7, Jia Sarai, Near IIT Hauz Khas New Delhi-110016

Tel: 011-26514888

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For publication information, visit www.engineersinstitute.com/publication

ISBN: 978-93-5156-854-4

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Price: Rs. 349/-

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GATE and

GATE and Engineering

Engineering Services Examinations are the

most prestigious

most prestigious competitive

competitive examinations conducted

for graduate

for graduate engineers.

engineers. Over the past few years, they

have become

have become more

more competitive

competitive as more and more

numbers of

numbers of aspirants

aspirants are increasingly becoming

interested in

interested in post

post graduate qualifications &

government jobs

government jobs for

for aa secured

secured and bright career.

This Formula

This Formula Book

Book consists

consists of

of well-illustrated

well-illustrated concepts, important

formulae and

formulae and diagrams,

diagrams, which

which will

will be

be highly

highly beneficial at the last leg of

candidate’s preparation.

candidate’s preparation.

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ItIt includes

includes all

all the

the subjects

subjects of of Electronics

Electronics Engineering, which are

hasw

required for

required

has been

which will

which

for all

been laid

will be

all type

.Ea

laid down

type of

down to

be highly

of competitive

competitive examinations.

to all

all the

the major

highly lucrative

examinations. Adequate emphasis

major topics

lucrative for

topics in the form of Tips / Notes,

for objective

objective and short answer type

questions.

questions.

Proper strategy

Proper strategy and syE

and revision

revision isis aa mandatory

mandatory requirement for clearing

any competitive

any competitive examination.

formulae for

formulae for Electronics

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examination. This This book

Electronics Engineering.

book covers short notes and

Engineering. This book will help in quick

revision before

revision

This book

This

before the

book has

the GATE,

has been

GATE, IES

been designed

IES &

& all

designed after

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all other

other PSUs.

after considering

considering the current demand of

examinations.

examinations. rin

ItIt would

would be

be very

very fruitful

fruitful ifif the

the students

students go

g.n

go through this book every day.

We are

We are presenting

required to

required

presenting this

to get

get success

this book

success in

in the

book by

the competition.

competition.

e

by considering

considering all the facts which is

t

With best

With best wishes

wishes for

for future

future career

career

R. K.

R. K. Rajesh

Rajesh

Director

Director

Engineers Institute

Engineers Institute of

of India

India

eii.rkrajesh@gmail.com

eii.rkrajesh@gmail.com

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This book is dedicated to all

Electronics Engineers

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Preparing for GATE, IES, JTO, SSC

& Public sector examinations. rin

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CONTENTS

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3. DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND CIRCUITS .............. 75-118

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5.

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ELECTRONIC DEVICES & CIRCUITS .................... 137-168

6.

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ANALOG ELECTRONICS ...................................... 169-204

7.

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SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS ..................................... 205-230

8. rin

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS ............................... 231-264

9. g.n

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY ............................. 265-286

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10. MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION ....... 287-308 t

11. MATERIALS SCIENCE .......................................... 309-322

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Why IES?

Indian Engineering Services (IES) constitute of engineers that work under the

govt. of India to manage a large segment of public sector economy which

constitutes of Railroads, Public works, Power, Telecommunications, etc. IES

remain the most sought-after careers for the engineering graduates in India. A

combined competitive examination is conducted by UPSC for recruitment to

the Indian Engineering Services. The exam constitutes of a written exam

followed by an interview for personality test.

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Why GATE?

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In the present competitive scenario, where there is mushrooming of

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universities and engineering colleges, the only yardstick to measure and test

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the calibre of engineering students is the GATE.

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Many public sector undertakings such as BHEL, IOCL, NTPC, BPCL, HPCL, BARC

and many more PSUs are using the GATE score for selecting candidates for

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their organizations. Students who qualify in GATE are entitled to a stipend of

Rs 8,000 per month during their M.Tech. course. Better remuneration is being

t

offered for students of M.Tech./ME as compared to those pursuing B.Tech/B.E.

A good rank assures a good job. After joining M.Tech. at IITs and IISc, one can

look at a salary package ranging from Rs 7lakh to 30lakh per annum depending

upon specialization and performance. Qualifying GATE with good marks is also

an eligibility clause for the award of JRF in CSIR Laboratories.

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1

NETWORK THEORY

CONTENTS

1. NETWORK BASICS ………………………………………………. 02-05

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2. METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND THEOREMS …………….. 06-10

3.

4.

w AC FUNDAMENTALS AND R, L, C CIRCUITS …………..

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RESONANCE ………………………………………………………. 16-18

11-15

5. syE

TRANSIENTS ……………………………………………………… 19-22

7. TWO PORT NETWORKS ………………………………………. nee 27-30

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1. NETWORK BASICS

Current: Electric current is the time rate of change of charge flow.

dq

i (Ampere)

dt

t

Charge transferred between time to and t q idt

to

current of +5A in opposite direction.

Voltage: Voltage or potential difference is the energy required to move a unit

charge through an element, measured in volts.

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Power: It is time rate of expending or absorbing energy.

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Law of conservation of energy must be obeyed in any electric circuit.

Algebraic sum of power in a circuit, at any instant of time, must be zero.

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i.e. P = 0

Circuit Elements:

Resistor: Linear and bilateral (conduct from both direction)

In time domain V(t) = I(t)R

In s domain V(s) = RI(s)

ρl

R= ohm

A

l = length of conductor, = resistivity, A = area of cross section

Extension of wire to n times results in increase in resistance: R ' n2R

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R

Compression of wire results in decrease in resistance: R'

n2

Capacitor: All capacitors are linear and bilateral, except electrolytic capacitor

which is unilateral.

t

Cdv(t) 1

Time Domain: i(t) = v(t) i(t)dt

dt C

1

In s-domain: I(s) = sCV(s) V(s) =

I(s)

sC

Capacitor doesn’t allow sudden change of voltage, until impulse of current is

applied.

It stores energy in the form of electric field and power dissipation in ideal

capacitor is zero.

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Impedance Zc =-jXc & Xc =

1

ωC

; Xc Capacitive reactance ; = 2f

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Inductor: Linear and Bilateral element

di (t )

dt

1

t

i (t ) v(t )dt

L

Impedance syE

Z L jX L & XL L

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1

sL

V(s) I(s) =

Inductor doesn’t allowed sudden change of current, until impulse of voltage is

applied.

It stores energy in the form of magnetic field.

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Power dissipation in ideal inductor is zero.

rin

Transformer: 4 terminal or 2-port devices.

I1 g.n

I2

+ e +

t

Input Output

N1 N2 V2 port

port V1

– –

V1 N1 I1 N 2

V2 N 2 I 2 N1

N1

Where K Turns ratio.

N2

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Transformer doesn’t work as amplifier because current decreases in same amount

power remain constant.

Gyrator:

I1 I2

Ro

V1 V2

R o Coefficient of Gyrator

V1 R o I 2 V2 R o I1

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If load is capacitive then input impedance will be inductive and vice versa.

If load is inductive then input impedance will be capacitive.

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It is used for simulation of equivalent value of inductance.

Voltage Source:

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In practical voltage source, there is small internal resistance, so voltage across the

element varies with respect to current.

Current Source: e t

In practical current source, there is small internal resistance, so current varies with

respect to the voltage across element.

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Ideal Ammeter, Ra 0 (Internal resistance)

Independent Source: Voltage or current source whose values doesn’t depend on

any other parameters. E.g. Generator etc.

Dependent Source: Voltage or current source whose values depend upon other

parameters like current, voltage.

The handling of independent and dependent voltage source is identical except.

Where, (i) All independent voltage sources are short circuited.

(ii) All independent current sources are open circuited.

(iii) All dependent voltage and current sources are left as they are.

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A network in which all network elements are physically separable is known as

lumped network.

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A network in which the circuit elements like resistance, inductance etc, are not

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physically separate for analysis purpose, is called distributed network. E.g.

Transmission line.

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If an element is capable of delivering energy independently, then it is called

active element.

Example: Voltage source, Current source

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If it is not capable of delivering energy, then it is passive element.

Example: Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor

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If voltage and current across an element are related to each other through a

constant coefficient then the element is called as linear element otherwise it is

called as non-linear.

rin

When elements characteristics are independent of direction of current then

g.n

element is called bi-directional element otherwise it is called as unidirectional.

Ex: R, L & C.

Diode is a unidirectional element.

e

Voltage and current sources are also unidirectional elements.

Every linear element should obey the bi-directional property but vice versa as is

t

not necessary.

Internal resistance of voltage source is in series with the source. Internal

resistance of ideal voltage source is zero.

Internal resistance of current source is in parellel with the source. Internal

resistance of ideal current source is infinite.

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(i) Kirchoff’s Points Law or Current Law (KCL): In any electrical network, the

algebric sum of the currents meeting at point (or junction) is zero.

I1+I2 = I3+I4

(ii) Kirchoff’s Mesh Law or Voltage Law (KVL): The algebraic sum of products

of currents and resistance in each of conductor in any closed path in a network plus

the algebraic sum of emf in that path is zero.

i.e. IR emf 0

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It is based on conservation of energy.

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Determination of Voltage Sign

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(a) Sign of Battery E.M.F.:

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(b) Sign of IR Drop: nee

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g.n

Resistors in Series:

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R eq = R1 + R 2 + R 3 +...... R n t

1 1 1 1 1

Resistors in Parallel: .....+

R eq R1 R 2 R 3 Rn

Inductors in Series: Leq = L1 + L2 + L3 ....... Ln

1 1 1 1 1

Inductors in Parallel: = + + +......

Leq L1 L 2 L3 Ln

1 1 1 1 1

Capacitors in Series: = + + +......

Ceq C1 C2 C3 Cn

Capacitor in Parallel: Ceq = C1 + C 2 + C3 +...... C n

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2

CONTROL SYSTEMS

CONTENTS

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1. BLOCK DIAGRAM ………………………………………………… 42-44

2.

3.

w MATHEMATICAL MODELLING ………………………………. 45-46

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TIME RESPONSE ANALYSIS ………………………………… 47-52

4. syE

STABILITY …………………………………………………………. 53-55

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6. FREQUENCY DOMAIN ANALYSIS …………………………. nee 59-60

rin 61-64

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10. STATE SPACE ANALYSIS ……………………………………. 73-74

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1. BLOCK DIAGRAM

Open Loop Control System:

In this system the output is not fedback for comparison with the input.

Open loop system faithfulness depends upon the accuracy of input calibration.

Closed Loop Control System: It is also termed as feedback control system. Here

the output has an effect on control action through a feedback. Ex. Human being

Transfer Function:

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w .Ea C(s) G(s)

R(s) 1 + G(s)H(s)

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Comparison of Open Loop and Closed Loop control systems:

Open Loop:

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1. Accuracy of an open loop system is defined by the calibration of input.

2. Open loop system is simple to construct and cheap.

3. Open loop systems are generally stable.

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4. Operation of this system is affected due to presence of non-linearity in its

elements.

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Closed Loop:

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1. As the error between the reference input and the output is continuously

measured through feedback. The closed system works more accurately. t

2. Closed loop systems is complicated to construct and it is costly.

3. It becomes unstable under certain conditions.

4. In terms of performance the closed loop system adjusts to the effects of non-

linearity present.

Transfer Function: The transfer function of an LTI system may be defined as the

ratio of Laplace transform of output to Laplace transform of input under the

assumption

Y(s)

G(s) =

X(s)

The transfer function is completely specified in terms of its poles and zeros and

the gain factor.

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The T.F. function of a system depends on its elements, assuming initial

conditions as zero and is independent of the input function.

To find a gain of system through transfer function put s = 0

s4 4

Example: G(s) = 2 Gain =

s 6s 9 9

If a step, ramp or parabolic response of T.F. is given, then we can find Impulse

Response directly through differentiation of that T.F.

d

(Parabolic Response) = Ramp Response

dt

d

(Ramp Response) = Step Response

dt

d

(Step Response) = Impulse Response

dt

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Block Diagram Reduction:

Rule

1. Combining

Original Diagram

X G G

Equivalent Diagram

X1 X 1 G 1 G2

w X1G1 1 1 2

X1 G G

blocks in cascade 1 2

.Ea G1 G2

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2. Moving a

summing point ngi

after a block

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3. Moving a

summing point

e t

ahead of block

X1 X1 G X1 X1 G

4. Moving a take G G

off point after a

block

X1 1/G

X1

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X1 X 1G X1 X 1G

G G

5. Moving a take

off point ahead of

a block X 1G

X 1G G

6. Eliminating a X1 X2

feedback loop G

1GH

(GX1 ± X2 )

Signal Flow Graphs:

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It is a graphical representation of control system.

Signal Flow Graph of Block Diagram:

w .Ea

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ngi

nee pk k

Mason’s Gain Formula:

rin

Transfer function =

pk Path gain of k forward path

g.n

th

e

loops] – [Sum of gain products of 3 non-touching loops] + ………..

k Value of obtained by removing all the loops touching k forward path as

well as non-touching to each other

th

t

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2. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING

Mechanical System:

Translational System:

Mass:

d 2x dv

Fm m

dt 2 dt

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F = Force on block m

V = Velocity of Block

x = Displacement of block

m = Mass of block

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Damper

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Spring

x1 x2

syE v1

K

v2

d

F f ( x1 x2 ) ngi by hooke’s law

F k ( x1 x2 ) k (v1 v2 ) dt

dt

nee k Spring constant

Rotational System

Inertia rin

g.n

TJ

d 2

dt 2

J

d

dt

e t

Damper Spring twisted:

d 2

T f f (1 2 ) T k k dt

dt 2

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Force Voltage and Force Current Analogy:

(Series RLC) (Parallel RLC) (Translational) (Rotational)

V I F T

q x

R 1 f (Damper) f (Damper)

R

1 1 k k

C L

L C M J

I V Linear velocity Angular velocity

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FM

w d 2x

dt 2

f

dx

kx

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dt

iC

d 2 1 d

ngi

iC

dt 2 R dt L

dv v 1

dt R L

+ + vdt nee

Force–Voltage Analogy: rin

g.n

VL

di

d 2q

dt 2

1

R

dq q

dt C e t

V L iR idt

dt C

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3

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

AND CIRCUITS

ww CONTENTS

1. w .Ea

NUMBER SYSTEM & CODES …………………………………. 76-78

2.

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BINARY AIRTHMETIC ………………………………………….. 79-82

ngi

4. DIGITAL LOGIC CIRCUITS ……………………………………. 90-95

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5. SEQUENTIAL CIRCUITS ………………………………………. 96-100

rin

6. SHIFT REGISTERS ………………………………………………

g.n 101-102

7.

8.

COUNTERS …………………………………………………………

e 103-105

106-112

t

9. ADCs AND DACs ……………………………………………… 113-116

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Number System and Codes:

A number system with base ‘r’, contents ‘r’ different digits and they are from 0 to

r – 1.

Decimal to other codes conversions: To convert decimal number into other system

with base ‘r’, divide integer part by r and multiply fractional part with r.

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Other codes to Decimal Conversions: ( x2 x1 x0 . y1 y2 ) r (A)10

A x2 r 2 x1 r x0 y1 r 1 y 2 r 2

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Hexadecimal to Binary: Convert each Hexadecimal digit into 4 bit binary.

(0101 1010 1111) 2

(5 AF )16

syE 5 A F

0101 (35.C)16

.1100 ngi

Binary to Hexadecimal: Grouping of 4 bits into one hex digit.

(110101.11) 2 0011

nee

Octal to Binary and Binary to Octal: Same procedure as discussed above but here

group of 3 bits is made.

Codes: rin

Binary coded decimal (BCD):

g.n

In BCD code each decimal digit is represented with 4 bit binary format.

Eg : (943)10 1001

0100

0011

e t

9 4 9 BCD

It is also known as 8421 code

Invalid BCD codes

Total Number possible 2 4 16

Valid BCD codes 10

Invalid BCD codes 16 10 6

These are 1010, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, and 1111

It can be derived from BCD by adding ‘3’ to each coded number.

It is unweighted and self-complementing code.

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Gray Code:

It is also called minimum change code or unit distance code or reflected code.

+ + + +

MSB 1 0 0 1 0 Binary

MSB 1 1 0 1 1 Gray

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Alpha Numeric codes: EBCDIC (Extended BCD Interchange code)

It is 8 bit code. It can represent 128 possible characters.

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Parity Method is most widely used schemes for error detection.

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Hamming code is most useful error correcting code.

BCD code is used in calculators, counters.

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Complements: If base is r then we can have two complements.

(i) (r – 1)’s complement.

(ii) r’s complement.

ngi

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To determine (r–1)’s complement: First write maximum possible number in the

given system and subtract the given number.

To determine r’s complement: (r–1)’s complement + 1

First write (r–1)’s complement and then add 1 to LSB rin

Example: Find 7’s and 8’s complement of 2456 g.n

7's complement

7777

2456

5321

8's complement

1

5322

e 5321

t

Find 2’s complement of 101.110

1’s complement 010.001

For 2’s complement add 1 to the LSB

010.001

1

2'scomplement

010.010

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Data Representation:

5 Not possible

Signed Magritude: Range with n bit (2 n 1 1) to (2 n 1 1)

6 0110

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1 0000 110

sign bit

sign bit

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with 4 bits with 8 bits

n 1

6 0110

.Ea 6 1 001

6 0110 6

ngi

1 010

sign bit 2 's complement of 6

In any representation

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+ve numbers are represented similar to +ve number in sign magnitude.

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2. BINARY AIRTHMETIC

When both the numbers have same sign then we add only magnitude and use the

sign of MSB.

1’ Complement Addition: When the numbers have different signs, keep one

number as it is and take 1’s complement of the negative number and add them.

If carry occurs:

(a) add carry to LSB

(b) sign of the result is sign of the complemented number.

If carry does not occur:

(a) take 1’s complement of the result

(b) sign of the result is sign of the complemented number.

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2’ Complement Addition: When the numbers have different signs, keep the

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positive number as it is and take 2’s complement of the negative number and add

them.

If carry occurs: .Ea

(a) carry is discarded

If carry does not occur: syE

(a) take 2’s complement of the result

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(b) sign of the result is sign of the complemented number

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BCD Addition: Add the BCD numbers as regular true binary numbers.

rin

If the sum is 9(1001) or less, it is a valid BCD answer.

If sum is greater than 9 or if there is carryout of MSB, it is an invalid BCD number.

g.n

If it is invalid, add 6 (0110) to the result to make it valid. Any carry out of the MSB

is added to the next more-significant BCD number.

Repeat steps for each group of BCD bits

76 0111 0110

e t

94 1001 0100

Invalid BCD number

170 1 0000 1010

1 0000 1010

0110 0110

Add 6 (110) in the result, valid BCD number

1 0111

0000

1 7 0

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Overflow concept: Overflow may occur when two same sign numbers are added.

Overflow condition : If x and y are the MSB’s of two numbers and z is resultant

MSB after adding two numbers then overflow conditions is

x y z x y z 1

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

Basic Operations:

AND OR NOT

A.A=A A+A=A

A.0=0 A+0=A A=A

A.1=A A+1=1

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Boolean algebra Laws:

A.A=0 A+A=1

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Commutative Law: A + B = B + A and A.B = B.A

Associative Law:

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A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C = A + B + C

A.(B.C) = (A.B).C = A.B.C

A.(B + C) = A.B + A.C

Theorems:

A.(B + C) = A.B + A.C ngi

Distribution theorem: (A + B.C) = (A + B).(A + C)

Example:

nee

A + AB = (A + A)(A + B) = (A + B)

A+AB (A+A)(A+B) A+B

rin

Transposition Theorem:

g.n

(A + B) . (A + C) = A + B.C

De Morgan’s Law:

e

A1.A 2 .A3 ......A n =A1 +A 2 +....+A n

t

A1 +A 2 +A3 .....+A n =A1.A 2 .....A n

Involution Theorem: A = A

Absorption Theorem: A + AB = A

Dual Expression: It will convert positive logic into negative and negative logic into

positive logic.

Procedure:

1. Change each OR sign by AND and vice-versa.

2. Convert all 1s to 0s and all 0s to 1s.

3. Keep variables as it is.

If one time dual is as same as function then it is known as self dual expression.

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4

MICROPROCESSORS

CONTENTS

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1. MICROPROCESSOR BASICS …………………………………. 120-124

2. w .Ea

8085 INSTRUCTIONS …………………………………………… 125-132

3.

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8086 BASICS ………………………………………………………. 133-136

ngi

nee

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g.n

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1. MICROPROCESSOR BASICS

A Microprocessor includes ALU, register arrays and control circuits on a single

chip.

Microcontroller:

A device that includes microprocessor, memory and input and output signal lines on

a single chip, fabricated using VLSI technology.

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w .Ea

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ngi

nee

rin

g.n

1. 8085 MPU:

e t

8 bit general – purpose microprocessor capable of addressing 64 K of memory.

It has 40 pins, requires a +5V single power supply and can operate with 3 – MHz

single phase clock.

It has six general purpose register to store – 8 bit data. These are B, C, D, E, H

and L. It can be combined as BC, DE, and HL to perform 16 bit operations.

B, D, H high order register and C, E, L low order register.

functions.

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Flags: 5 flags

Flag Register:

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

S Z AC P CY

Carry Flag (CY): If an arithmetic operation result in a carry or borrow, the CY flag

is set, otherwise it is reset.

Parity Flag (P):

If the result has au even number of 1s, the flag is set, otherwise the flag is reset.

Auxiliary Carry (AC): In an arithmetic operation

If carry is generated by D 3 and passed to D 4 flag is set.

Otherwise it is reset.

Zero Flag (Z): Zero Flag is set to 1, when the result is zero otherwise it is reset.

ww

Sign Flag (S): Sign Flag is set if bit D7 of the result is 1. Otherwise it is reset.

Program counter (PC): It is used to store the l6 bit address of the next byte to be

w

fetched from the memory or address of the next instruction to be executed.

.Ea

Stack Pointer (SP): It is 16 bit register used as a memory pointer. It points to

memory location in Read/Write memory which is called as stack.

8085 Signals:

Address lines:

syE

ngi

There are l6 address lines AD0 AD7 and A8 A15 to identify the memory

locations.

Data lines/ Multiplexed address lines:

nee

Multiplexed address lines: The signal lines AD7 AD0 are bi-directional i.e. they

rin

serve dual purpose. The AD7 AD0 address lines are shared with the data lines.

g.n

The ALE signal is used to distinguish between address lines and data lines.

Control and Status Signals:

and indicates that the AD7 AD0 bits are address bits. e

Address Latch Enable (ALE): This is positive going pulse generated every time

t

RD : This is active low signal indicates that the selected I/O or memory device is to

be read.

WR : Active low signal indicates that data on data bus are to be written into a

selected memory or I/O location.

IO/M:

When this signal is high, it indicates an I/O operation.

When it is low it indicates memory operation.

S1 and S0 : These are status signals.

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8085 Machine cycle status and control signals

Machine cycle Status Control signals

IO/M S1 So

Opcode Fetch 0 1 1 RD = 0

Memory Read 0 1 0 RD = 0

Memory write 0 0 1

WR = 0

I/O Read 1 1 0

RD = 0

I/O write 1 0 1

WR = 0

Interrupt Acknowledge 1 1 1

Halt Z 0 0 INTA = 0

Hold Z X X

Reset Z X X WR = Z

ww

Note:

INTA = 1

w

Z = Tri state (High Impedance)

.Ea

Externally Initiated Signals Including Interrupts:

X = Unspecified

syE

The 8085 has five Interrupt signals that can be used to interrupt program execution.

(INTR, TRAP, RST 7.5, RST 6.5, RST 5.5).

In addition to the interrupts, three pins – RESET, HOLD & READY accept the

externally initiated signals as inputs.

Power supply and clock frequency ngi

VCC : + 5 power supply

nee

VSS : ground reference

X1, X2: The frequency is internally divided by two. Therefore to operate a system

at 3 MHz the crystal should have a frequency of 6 MHz.

CLK (OUT): Can be used as system clock for other devices.

rin

Serial I/O ports: g.n

and SOD (serial output data).

e

8085 has two signals to implement the serial transmission: SID (serial input data)

t

It is used so that microprocessor should be able to identify I/O devices with an

8-bit address. It ranges from 00H to FFH.

Input output interfacing: It is used so that microprocessor should be able to

identify input output devices with an 8-bit address. It ranges from 00H to FFH.

Size of memory: 2n m

n address lines m data lines

Absolute and Partial Decoding:

When all the address lines are decoded to select the memory chip or input device

and no other logic levels can select the chip. This is called absolute decoding.

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When some of the address lines may not be decoded, such lines are used as don’t

care. It results in multiple addresses. This technique reduces hardware and also

called fold-back or mirror memory space.

Instruction cycle is time required to complete the execution of an instruction.

Machine cycle is the time required to complete one operation of accessing

memory.

T-state is one sub version of the operation performed in one clock period.

Device address 16 bit 8 bit

Control signals for MEMR / MEMW IOR / IOW

input/output

Instructions Available Memory Related Instruction IN and OUT

ww

Data transfer

STA, LDA

Between any register and

input/output

Only between

input/output and the

w .Ea

accumulator

Maximum number of The memory map (64 K) is The input/output map is

input/output possible shared between input/output independent of the

and system memory

13 – T states (LDA, STA)

memory map

10 – T states

Hardware ngi

7 – T states (MOV M, R)

More hardware is needed to Less hardware is needed

Requirements

Other features

decoded 16 – bit address

nee to be coded 8 – bit

address

Arithmetic or logical operation Not available

rin

can be directly performed with

input/output data

g.n

word size

1. One – word or 1 – byte instructions

2. Two – word or 2 – byte instructions

e

The 8085 instruction set is classified into the following three groups according to

t

3. Three – word or 3 – byte instructions

A 1 – byte instruction includes the op-code and operand in the same byte. Operands

are internal registers and are coded into the instruction.

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One – byte instructions

Task Op-code Operand Binary – code Hex code

Copy the contents of the MOV C,A 01001111 4FH

accumulator in the

register C.

Add the contents of the ADD B 10000000 80H

register B to the contents

of the accumulator.

Invert (complement) CMA 00101111 2FH

each bit in the

accumulator.

Two – Byte Instructions

In a two – byte instruction, the first byte specifies the op-code and the second byte

specifies the operand. Source operand is a data byte immediately following the op

code.

ww Task

Two – Byte Instructions

Op-code Operand Binary Hex

w

Load an 8 – bit data in

the accumulator

.Ea

MVI A, Data

Code

0011

1110

code

3E First Byte

Second

Byte

ngi

Assume that the data byte is 32H. The assembly language instruction is written as

Mnemonics

MVI A, 32H

Hex Code

3E 32H nee

Three – byte Instructions rin

g.n

In a three byte instruction, the first byte specifies the op-code and the following two

bytes specify the 16 – bits address. Note that, the second byte is the low – order

address and the third byte is the high – order address.

Opcode + data byte + data byte

Three – byte Instructions

e t

Task Op-code Operand Binary Hex Instruction

Code Code Type

Transfer the JMP 2085H 1100 C3 First byte

program 0011 85 Second byte

sequence to 1000 20 Third byte

the memory 0101

location 0010

2085H. 0000

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5

ELECTRONIC DEVICES &

CIRCUITS

CONTENTS

ww

1. SEMICONDUCTOR BASICS & ENERGY BANDS ………… 138-144

2.

w .Ea

JUNCTION DIODE …………………………………………………. 145-148

3.

syE

VARIOUS SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES ……………………… 149-152

4.

ngi

CLIPPERS AND CLAMPERS ……………………………………. 153-154

5.

nee

BJT (BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTOR) ……………….. 155-157

rin

7. FABRICATION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS …………….. 165-165 g.n

8. THYRISTOR ………………………………………………………... 166-168 e t

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BANDS

Thermal Voltage: VT (Voltage Equivalent of Temperature)

T

VT volt

11600

Standard room temperature (300 K) VT 0.0256 voltagesVT 26mV

The standard room temperature corresponds to a voltage of 26 mV.

Leakage Current (I o )

Also called minority carrier current or thermally generated current.

In silicon it is in nano ampere range and in germanium it is in micro ampere

ww range.

Io doubles for every 10ºC. For 1ºC, Io increases by 7%.

w

Io is proportional to the area of the device.

.Ea

Advantages of smaller Io:

(i) Suitable for high temperature applications

(ii) Good Thermal stability

(iii) No false triggering syE

ngi

Energy Gap: Difference between the lower energy level of conduction band (CB)

E C and upper energy level of valance band (VB) E v is called as energy gap.

Metals: VB and CB are overlap to each other.

This overlapping increases with temperature.

nee

e is both in CB and VB.

rin

g.n

Insulators: Conduction band is always empty. Hence no current passes.

Band gap: 5 eV – 15 eV.

Semiconductor: Energy gap is small and it is in range of 1 eV.

Eg T 0 7.85 eV

Si

1.21 eV

e

At room temperature current can pass through a semi conductor.

Energy Gap Ge Ga As

XX

t

Eg T 300 K 0.72 eV 1.1 eV 1.47 eV

Energy gap at temperature T

For Ge Eg(T) 0.785 7.2 104 T

For Si Eg(T) 1.21 3.6 104 T

Energy gap decreases with temperature.

dv volt

Electric Field Intensity

dx meter

drift velocity v m2

Mobility of charge carriers

electric field intensity sec

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Mobility Vs curve

< 10 3

constant

10 3 10 4 1/ 2

1

10 4

Mobility indicates how quick is the e or hole moving from one place to

another.

Electron mobility > hole mobility

ww

Mobility of charge carriers decreases with the temperature.

T m

w

Mass Action Law: In a semi conductor under thermal equilibrium (at constant

.Ea

temperature) the product of electrons and holes in a semiconductor is always

constant and equal to the square of intrinsic concentration.

syE

[no po ni2 ]

no Concentration of e in conduction band

Po Concentration of holes in valance band

ngi

ni Intrinsic concentration at given temperature

nee

ni2

rin

Minority carrier concentration

g.n

Eg

Intrinsic concentration ni2 AoT 3e 2 KT

e

Einstein’s Equation: Relation between diffusion constant, mobility and thermal

voltage. t

Dn D P

VT KT

n P

D

The unit of is volts. Where, D n e diffusion constant

D p Hole diffusion constant

Diffusion and Drift Current:

concentration to lower concentration due to concentration gradient.

Drift Current: It is flow of current through the material or device under the

influence of voltage or electric field intensity.

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Total current density in a semi conductor

J Jn Jp

(Total current) (Current carried by e ) (Current carried by holes)

Jn Jn Jn

current due to e

e drift current density

e diffusion current density

dn

For e J n nqn qDn A / cm2

dx

dp

For holes J p pq p qDp A / cm2

dx

ww

e – diffusion length Ln Dn cm

w

Hole diffusion length

Conductivity .Ea

LP DP cm

syE

In Metals: Metals are uni-polar, so current is carried only by e

nqn

In metal, conductivity decreases with temperature.

nqn pq P

n Concentration of e in CB

e Concentration of holes in VB

nee

n , p Mobility of holes and electrons rin

g.n

Conductivity of pure semi-conductor increases with temperature

In Extrinsic Semi-conductor

For n type N D q n

e

ND = donor concentration t

For p type N A q p NA = acceptor concentration

In extrinsic semiconductor (SC) below the room temperature, conductivity

increases. But above the room temperature their conductivity decreases.

During the re-combinations the falling e from the conduction band will be

releasing energy in the form of light.

Momentum and direction of e will remain same.

Example : GaAs , InP , ZnS

Indirect Band Gap Material

Most of falling e will directly releasing energy in the form of heat

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Moment of e will change

Direction of e will change Example : Ge and Si

Direct band gap materials having higher carrier lifetime and are used for

fabrication for LED, laser, tunnel diode, photodiode.

Properties Ge Si

Atomic number 32 14

Density of atoms 4.42 10 22 5 10 22

n at 300 K cm 2 cm2

3800 1300

ww p at 300 K

V sec

1800

Vsec

500

w .Ea

Leakage current A nA

Temperature range

Power handling capacity syE 60º to 75º C

Less

60º to 175º C

High

doubles for

ngi

50º C 75º C

For 1º C conductivity

Cut in voltage nee

Increases by 6%

0.2 V

Increases by 8%

0.7 V

Applications

rin

High conductivity and Switching applications

high frequency

g.n

n

p

ratio

2.1 : 1

e 2.6 : 1

t

cm 2 99 34

Dn

V sec

cm2 47 13

Dp

V sec

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Hall Effect

If a specimen (metal or semi conductor)

carrying the current I is placed in transverse

magnetic field B, an electric field intensity ' '

is induced in a direction perpendicular to both

I and B.

Force experience by the charge carriers is

always same direction irrespective of their

polarity.

Force direction F q v B

(For e from diagram)

e( Vy ay Bz az )e

ww

Direction is in negative y

F = e Vy B z a^x

w

Force is in positive +x direction. So for

.Ea

N Type Material: Plane which is in + x direction should have negative polarity. For

P-type material plane which is in + x direction should have positive polarity.

According to Hall Effect

Hall Voltage VH =

BI syE

B Magnetic field

W

charge density ngi

W Width of specimen (it is in plane of applied B)

BIRH

nee

or VH

W

where

rin

R H hall coefficient =

1

Charge density nq

g.n

Field intensity

VH

D

e t

8

By hall experiment, mobility is given by RH

3

By polarity of hall voltage we can determine whether the semiconductor is p

type or n type.

By magnitude of hall voltage we can differentiate between metal and

semiconductor.

For metal hall voltage VH is less as compared to SC.

Hall voltage is +ve for N type SC and metals

Hall voltage is –ve for P type SC.

Hall voltage is zero for intrinsic SC.

In metals, R H increases with temperature

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ECE FORMULA

ECE FORMULA BOOK

BOOK 5. ELECTRONIC

5. ELECTRONIC DEVICES

DEVICES &

& CIRCUITS

CIRCUITS [143]

In

In pure

pure SC,SC, R H decreases

decreases with

with temperature

temperature

In

In extrinsic

extrinsic SC,

SC, R H increases

increases with

with temperature

temperature

ItIt can

can be

be used

used in

in finding

finding mobility

mobility of

of charge

charge carriers, concentration of charge

carriers, magnetic

carriers, magnetic field

field intensity.

intensity.

Types of

Types of Semi

Semi Conductors

Conductors

Intrinsic Semi

Intrinsic Semi Conductor:

Conductor: n p ni

At 0K

At 0K all valance e are

all valance are occupied

occupied with

with covalent

covalent bonding and therefore charge

carriers are

carriers are zero

zero and

and the

the semiconductor

semiconductor behave

behave as

as insulator.

insulator.

Extrinsic Semi

Extrinsic Semi Conductor

Conductor

NN Type

Type

Impurity

Impurity is

is penta-valent

penta-valent (phosphorous,

(phosphorous, arsenic)

arsenic)

Majority

Majority carriers

carriers are

are electrons

electrons

n ni

ww

P-Type

P-Type

p ni

for N

for N type

type semiconductor

semiconductor (SC)

(SC)

w

Impurity

Impurity is

Majority

is trivalent

trivalent (Boron,

.Ea

Majority carriers

carriers are

p ni

(Boron, Aluminium)

are holes.

holes.

Aluminium)

n ni

for PP type

for

syE

type semiconductor

semiconductor (SC)

(SC)

ND p NA n

Law of

Law of Electric

Electric Neutrality

Total positive

Total

Neutrality

positive charges

charges =Total

=Total negative

negative charges

charges ngi

Intrinsic SC

Intrinsic

N type

N type SC

SC

SC N D 0,

ND 0

NA 0

p NA nnee n=p

p >> n p NA

N type

N type SC

SC NA 0

n ND rin

nn N DD p

Since

Since

Fermi Level:

Fermi Level: ItIt is

nn >>

>> pp

is maximum

maximum energy

energy possessed g.n

by e at absolute 0 of temperature.

possessed by

ItIt isis energy

Fermi

energy state

Fermi Dirac

be occupied

be

state having

occupied by

by an

having probability

Dirac Function:

an electron

probability 1/2

Function: ItIt gives

gives the

electron at

1/2 of

of being

the probability

at absolute

e

being occupied

occupied by an electron.

probability that

absolute temperature

that an available energy state E will

temperature T. t

[1 –– ff (E)]

[1 (E)] gives

gives the

the probability

probability that

that energy

energy state

state E

E will be occupied by hole.

–

Concentration of

Concentration of e in in conduction

conduction band

band

(E-EFF))

(E-E

nnoo N

Nccee KT

KT

no Concentration of e in

Concentration of in conduction

conduction band

band

EC Conduction

Conduction band

band energy

energy level

level

E F Fermi

Fermi energy

energy level

level

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6

ANALOG ELECTRONICS

CONTENTS

ww

1.

2.

w VOLTAGE REGULATOR & RECTIFIERS …………………….. 170-171

.Ea

BJT & TRANSISTOR BIASING …………………………………. 172-175

3. syE

MULTISTAGE & POWER AMPLIFIERS ……………………… 176-178

4. ngi

SMALL SIGNAL ANALYSIS …......................................... 179-183

6. OSCILLATORS ………………………………………………………. 188-191 rin

7. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS …………………………………… 192-204 g.n

e t

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Voltage Regulator Circuits:

VNL -VFL

% Regulation = ×100%

VFL

V

Full load current = I FL = FL

RL

VNL -No load

VFL -Fullload

Smaller the regulation better is the circuit performance.

ww

w .Ea

Since Zener diode is conducting syE

VL Vz VBr VL IL R L

ngi

Vz I z R z

If Zener current is maximum then load current is minimum and vice versa.

I I z IL

I I z max I L min

nee I I z min I L max

Vi VL

For satisfactory operation of circuit

rin

I I z min I L

Rs

I z min IL

g.n

Rectifier: To convert a bi-directional current or voltage into a unidirectional

current or voltage

Ripple factor: r

rms value of AC component

DC value

e t

2

V

r rms 1

Vdc

rms value Vrms

Form factor: F r F2 1

dc value Vdc

Peak value

Crest factor =

RMS value

DC power output

Rectifier Efficiency = 100%

ACpower input

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TUF (Transformer utilization factor):

DC power output

TUF =

AC rating of transformer

Half Wave Rectifier: Average value of current and voltage

I V

Idc m , Vdc m

I V

RMS value of current and voltage: I rms m , Vrms m

2 2

Efficiency 40.6% Ripper factor = 1.21

Frequency of ripple voltage = f Form factor = 1.57

Peak inverse voltage = Vm TUF = 0.286

Full Wave Rectifier: Average value of current and voltage:

2I 2V

Idc m , Vdc m

ww

RMS value of current and voltage:

Vrms

Vm

, I rms

Im

w Efficiency 81.2%

.Ea

From factor = 1.11

2 2

Ripper factor = 0.48

Crest factor = 2

TUF = 0.692

Frequency of ripple voltage = 2fsyE Peak inverse voltage = 2Vm

Bridge Rectifier: All the parameters are same as full wave rectifier except

Transformer utilization factor = 0.812

rin

1. The current in both the primary and secondary of the transformer flows for entire

cycle.

g.n

2. No center tapping is required in the transformer secondary. Hence it is a cheap

device.

e

3. The current in the secondary winding of transformer is in opposite direction in

4. As two diode currents are in series, in each of the cycle inverse voltage appear

across diode gets shared. Hence the circuit can be used for high voltage

t

application.

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In CB mode I C I E I CO

VBE

VT

I E I CO e

Typical values for VBE = 0.2 (Ge Transistor)

0.7 (Si Transistor)

1.3 (GaAs Transistor)

ww

w .Ea

syE

(a) Condition to keep transistor in cut off: ngi VBE 0.7V

1. VBE 0.7V 2. I C I B I E

rin 3. I B

I c sat

(c) Transistor under saturation region:

g.n

e

To find whether transistor is in active mode or saturation mode

VBE 0.7V

IC I B I E

VCEsat 0.2V

t

I. If I C active > I C (saturation)

then transistor is in saturation and Q

point is ( I C (saturation),0.2).

II. If I C (saturation) > I C (active)

then transistor is in active region and Q

point is ( I C (active), VCE ).

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Transistor DC Load Line and Q Point

DC load line is a straight line which joins Ic max and VCC or which joins saturation

and cutoff point.

ww

DC load line is the locus of all possible operating point at which it remains in

active region.

wQ point is called quiescent point or operating point and it is a function of IB, IC,

and VCC.

.Ea

For best performance of amplifier in the BJT the Q point must be located at the

center of D.C. load line.

Stability Factor:

syE

ngi

IC is a function of I C O , V B E , (T em perature dependent param eter )

I C

Stability S =

I CO

nee

VBE ,

rin

Smaller the values of S better will be thermal stability.

1

The general equation for stability factor S:

g.nS

I

1 B

I C

Transistor Biasing Circuits and Their Stability:

A. Fixed Bias Circuit (Base – Bias)

e t

VCC VCE

IC

RC

VCC VBE

IB

RB

Stability S 1

Fixed bias circuit is unstable.

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B. Collector to base bias circuits

VCC VBE

IB

( 1) RC RB

IC I B

1

Stability S

RC

1

RC RB

The circuit is having good thermal stability.

Emitter bias circuit VCC

It is popularly used in biasing circuit.

R1 >> R2 or R1 >> 10 R2

ww

It gives 180º phase shift.

when, R1 Re

VCC

w

Vth

VCC R 2

R1 R 2

VCC VCE

R th

.Ea

R 1R 2

R1 R 2

Vth BBE ~

–

Rth

RC

IC

RC RE

IE

syE

R

R E th

B 1 R2 Rc

Vth

Re

ngi

S

1

nee

Stability factor

1

RE

Rth RE

rin

RE

RE Rth

S 1

Rth g.n

Thermal Runway:

RE

e

The self destruction of the transistor due to the excess heat produced within the

t

device is called thermal runaway.

It is due to ICO

BJT suffers from thermal runway.

In FET, there is no thermal runway.

VCC PC 1

Conditions to eliminate thermal runway: VCE &

2 T j

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7

SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

ww

1.

CONTENTS

BASIC PROPERTIES OF SIGNALS ………………………….. 206-209

2.

w .Ea

LTI SYSTEMS ………………………………………………………. 210-212

3.

syE

FOURIER SERIES …………………………………………………. 213-214

4.

ngi

FOURIER TRANSFORM …………………………………………. 215-218

5.

nee

DISCRETE TIME SIGNAL SYSTEMS ……………………….. 219-221

rin

7. Z TRANSFORM ……………………………………………………. 225-228

g.n

8. DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORMS ………………………. 229-230

e t

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ECE FORMULA

ECE FORMULA BOOK

BOOK 7. SIGNALS

7. SIGNALS AND

AND SYSTEMS

SYSTEMS [206]

1. BASIC

1. BASIC PROPERTIES

PROPERTIES OF SIGNALS

Operations on

Operations on Signals:

Signals:

Time Shifting:

Time Shifting: y (t ) x(t )

Shift

Shift the

the signal

signal towards

towards right

right side

side by when 0 . This is also called as time

by || || when

delay.

delay.

Shift

Shift the

the signal

signal left

left towards

towards side

side by when 0 . This is also called as time

by || || when

advance.

advance.

Time Reversal

Time Reversal yy (t)

(t) == xx (–t)

(–t)

Rotate the

Rotate the signal

signal w.r.t.

w.r.t. y-axis.

y-axis. ItIt is

is mirror

mirror image

image of

of signal.

yy (t)

(t) == –– xx (t)

(t)

Rotate the

Rotate the signal

signal w.r.t.

w.r.t. x-axis.

x-axis.

Time Scaling

Time

When 1,compress

When compress the

the signal.

signal.

w

When

When

Eg.

1, expand

expand

y(t)

Eg. .Ea

the

the

y(t) == x(–5t

signal.

signal.

x(–5t ++ 3)

3)

3

y (t ) x 5 t

5

Steps: 1.

Steps: 1. First

First rotate

rotate the

2. Compress

2. Compress the the signalsyE

the signal

signal w.r.t.

signal by

w.r.t. y-axis.

y-axis.

by 55 times.

times.

3. Shift

3. Shift the

the signal

signal by

3

by unit

5

unit towards

ngi

towards right

right side.

side.

nee

rin

g.n

e t

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Standard Signals: Continuous time signals

Impulse signal (Direct Delta Function)

, t 0

(t )

0 , t0

& (t )dt 1

(i) x(t ) (t ) x(0) (t ) (ii) x (t ) (t to ) x (to ) (t to )

ww

(iii) [ (t )]

1

||

(t ) (iv) (t ) dt 1

(v)

w x (t ) (t t

.Ea

o ) x (t o ) (vi) x (t ) * (t to ) x (t to )

1, t 0

u (t )

syE

0, t 0

ngi

nee

Unit Ramp signal:

r (t ) t u (t ) rin

t , t 0

r (t )

0 , t 0

g.n

e t

Parabolic signal:

At 2

x(t ) u(t )

2

At 2

,t0

x (t ) 2

0 , t0

t2

, t0

unit parabolic signal x(t ) 2

0 t0

,

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Unit Pulse signal:

1 1

(t ) u t u t

2 2

Triangular signal:

|t |

1 , | t | a

x(t ) a

0, | t | a

ww

Signum Signal:

w

x(t ) sgm(t )

1, t 0

.Ea

1, t 0

sgn(t ) 2u (t ) 1

sgn u (t ) u (t )

syE

ngi

Relationship between u(t), (t ) and r(t): u (t )

t

(t )dt

nee

r (t )

d d

dt (t )

dt u (t )

r(t) = tu(t)

rin

Even and Odd Signal: Even signal

Odd signal g.n

x(t) = x(–t)

x(–t) = – x(t)

Even part xe (t )

x(t ) x(t )

2

e

Impulse is an even signal. An arbitrary signal can be divided into even and odd part:

t

x(t ) x(t )

Odd part xo (t )

2

Periodic Signal:

(i) x (t) = x (t + T), T is the time period of signal.

Signal must exist from to .

A constant signal is always periodic with fundamental period undefined.

Complex exponential signals are always periodic.

Real exponential signals are always aperiodic.

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Power and Energy Signals:

Ex | x(t) |

2

Energy dt

–

T

1

Power Px

2T T

| x(t) |2dt (T )

Ex

Px (T )

2T

(i) When energy is finite; then power is zero (Energy Signal).

(ii) When power is finite, then energy is infinite (Power Signal).

All periodic signals are power signals but the converse is not true.

Absolute stable signal is energy signal.

Unstable signal is neither energy nor power signal.

Marginally stable signal is power signal.

ww

w .Ea

syE

ngi

nee

rin

g.n

e t

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2. LTI SYSTEMS

Static and Dynamic systems

If output depends only on present value of input then it is known as static (memory

less).

e.g. y(t) = x(t)

Otherwise the system is dynamic or having memory.

e.g. y(t) = x(t + 2)

Causal: Output at any time depends only on present or past values of input.

Non-causal: Output depends on future.

y(t) = x(t – 2) causal system y(t) = x(t + 2) non-causal system

Important

ww

Above mentioned are system definitions. (Causal or non causal system is different

to causal or non causal signals).

w

Causal, non-causal and anti-causal signals:

.Ea

A signal is said to be causal if it is defined for t 0. Therefore, if x(t) is causal,

then x(t) = 0 for t < 0.

syE

A signal is said to be non-causal, if it is defined for either t 0 or both t 0 and

t > 0.

ngi

When x(t) = 0 for t > 0 then it is called as anti-causal.

Linear and non-linear systems

nee

A system is said to be linear if it satisfies the principal of superposition. Principal of

superposition consists of two properties:

rin

(ii) Homogeneity property

Otherwise system is non-linear.

g.n

Additive property: The response to x1 (t ) x2 (t ) is y1 (t ) y2 (t )

e

Homogeneity Property: The response to x1 ( t ) is y i ( t )

t

Time Variant and Time Invariant Systems: A system is said to be time invariant

if the time shifts in the input signal results in an identical shift in the output signal.

i.e. Delayed response = Response to delayed input

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8

COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

CONTENTS

ww

1. ANALOG MODULATION ………………………………………. 232-238

2. w .Ea

PULSE MODULATION TECHNIQUES ……………………. 239-244

3.

4.

syE

NOISE ……………………………………………………………….

245-246

247-248

5.

ngi

RANDOM PROCESSES ................…………………………. 249-250

nee 251-252

rin

7. ANTENNA THEORY .………………………………………….

g.n 253-255

8.

9.

RADAR ……………………………………………………………..

e 256-257

258-259 t

10. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION ……………………………… 260-264

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1. ANALOG MODULATION

Modulation is the process of placing the message signal over some carrier signal to

make it suitable for transmission.

Need for Modulation:

1. Size of antenna required for receiving the wave is reduced if signal is transmitted

at high frequency.

2. Many number of signals can be transmitted simultaneously by selecting the

carriers of different frequencies.

3. The interference of noise and other signals can be reduced by changing the

frequency of transmission.

4. Integration of different communication system is possible.

Amplitude Modulation

ww

Amplitude Modulated Signal:

AM may be defined as a system in which the maximum amplitude of the carrier

w

wave is made proportional to the instantaneous value (amplitude) of the modulating

or base band signal.

.Ea

x m ( t ) Am cos m t

xc ( t ) Ac cos c t

x(t ) Ac [1 Ka xm (t )]cos ct syE where = KaAm

x(t ) Ac cos c t Ac K a xm (t ) cos c t

where = modulation index ngi

xm (t ) message signal

nee

x (t ) A c cos c t A c cos m t cos c t

g.n

e t

Bandwidth = 2 f m

Frequency band from f c to f c f m is called as upper sideband

Frequency band from f c f m to f c is called as lower sideband

Amax Amin

Amax AC [1 ] Amin AC [1 ]

Amax Amin

Amax – maximum amplitude

Amin – minimum amplitude

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Power Relations in AM wave:

Ac2 2 Ac2

Ptotal = Pcarrier + PLSB + PUSB Pcarrier PLSB PUSB

2 8

Ac2 2 Ac2 2 Ac2 2

Ptotal Ptotal 1 Pc

2 8 8 2

Maximum power dissipated in AM wave is PAM= 1.5 Pc for =1 and this is

maximum power that amplifier can handle without distortion.

Efficiency of Amplitude Modulated System:

PSB 2

AM 100% AM 2 100%

Pt 2

ww

Current relations in AM wave:

Pt 1

2

Pc I tIC 1

2

Ic

w 2

.Ea

2

one sinusoidal signal.

syE

Resultant Modulation Index = 12 22 32 ............

s(t ) Ac cos ct cos mt

ngi

modulation index nee

A c carrier amplitude

rin

In DSB-SC the carrier signal is suppressed at the time of modulation. Only side-

bands are transmitted in modulated wave.

Bandwidth = 2 f m Transmitted Power Pt Pc

2

2 g.n

Power saving = 66.67% (for = 1)

e

Single Sideband Modulation (SSB): In this technique, along with modulation t

carrier one side band gets suppressed from AM modulated wave.

s (t ) Ac m (t ) cos 2 f c t Ac mˆ (t ) sin 2 f c t

( t ) is Hilbert transform of message signal.

m

2

Bandwidth = f m Transmitter Power Pt PC

4

Power saving 83.3%

Vestigial Sideband (VSB) modulation: In this modulation one side band and

vestige of another sideband is transmitted.

It is used for transmission of video signal in television broadcasting.

It is also used for high speed data signal and facsimile.

Vocal signal transmission of T.V. via F.M.

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AM Modulators:

For Generation of AM or DSB/Full carrier wave

A. Product Modulator B. Square Law Modulator C. Switching Modulator

For Generation DSB-SC wave

A. Filter method/frequency discrimination method

B. Phase shift method/Phase discrimination method

C. Third method/Weaver’s method

A. Synchronous or coherent detection B. Envelop detector

Envelop Detector:

r(t) C R m (t )

ww

w

be selected such as .Ea

r(t) is received signal and m(t) is message signal and for better reception RC must

1

RC

1

w is bandwidth of message signal

m

To avoid diagonal clipping

1

RC

1 2 ngi

Key points:

nee

Demodulation of AM signal is simpler than DSB-SC and SSB systems,

rin

Demodulation of DSB-SC and SSB is rather difficult and expensive.

It is quite easier to generate conventional AM signals at high power level as

g.n

compared to DSB-SC and SSB signals. For this reason, conventional AM

systems are used for broad casting purpose.

e

The advantage of DSB-SC and SSB systems over conventional AM system is

that the former requires lesser power to transmit the same information.

SSB scheme needs only one half of the bandwidth required in DSB-SC system t

and less than that required in VSB also.

SSB modulation scheme is used for long distance transmission of voice signals

because it allows longer spacing between repeaters.

Angle Modulation:

Angle modulation may be defined as the process in which the total phase angle

of a carrier wave is varied in accordance with the instantaneous value of

modulating or message signal while keeping the amplitude of carrier constant.

Two types of angle modulation schemes:

PM (Phase modulation)

FM (Frequency Modulation)

Phase Modulation: The phase of the carrier signal is varied according to message

signal.

Published by: ENGINEERS INSTITUTE OF INDIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED www.engineersinstitute.com

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Single Tone Modulation: Let m(t) = A m cos m t

PM signal in general form x (t ) A c cos (t )

where (t ) wct K P m(t )

x(t ) Ac cos(ct k p m AC cos(wC t cos wmt )(t ))

x(t ) Ac cos(ct k p Am cos mt )

Where, KP Am

d

Instantaneous Frequency:

dt

d

(c t cos mt ) f fc f m sin m , t

dt

Frequency deviation of signal f f m f K p Am f m

ww

For Phase Modulation:

Phase deviation = K p | m(t ) |max

w Frequency deviation KP Am fm

.Ea

Frequency Modulation: Frequency of FM wave is varied in direct proportion of

the modulating signal.

t

syE

x (t ) Ac cos(c t 2 k f m (t ) dt )

0

If m(t ) Am cos mt

x(t ) Ac cos(ct sin mt

ngi

where f = Frequency Modulation Index

f

nee

k f Am

fm

fm rin

Frequency deviation = K f | m(t ) |max K f Am g.n

Phase deviation 2 K f m(t )df |max

Carrier Swing:

e t

The total variation in frequency from the lowest to the highest point is called carrier

swing.

Carrier swing = 2 × f

The amount of frequency deviation depends upon the amplitude of the modulating

signal. This means that louder the sound, greater the frequency deviation and vice –

versa.

Relationship between phase modulation and frequency modulation:

In PM, the phase angle varies linearly with base band signal m(t) whereas in FM,

the phase angle varies with the integral of base band signal m(t).

To get FM by using PM, we first integrate the base band signal and then apply

to Phase Modulator.

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PM wave may be generated by using frequency modulator by first

differentiating base band signal m(t) and then applying to the Frequency

Modulator.

Phase modulated signal is constant, the power transmitted in FM and PM waves is

independent of modulation index

Ac2

i.e. Pt

2

Because of constant Amplitude, Noise level in FM and PM can be kept within

limits. That’s why it is used in Audio Communication.

Classification of FM signals:

(1) Narrow Band FM signals (NBFM)

ww

(2) Wide Band FM signals (WBFM)

w

Narrow Band FM signal (NBFM): For these signals modulation index is less than

unity.

.Ea (t ) sin 2 f mt

x (t ) A c cos[ c t (t )] Ac [cos c t cos ( t ) sin c t sin ( t )]

syE

{(t ) is small, so cos (t ) 1,sin (t ) (t )}

x(t ) Ac cos ct Ac sin c sin mt

A ngi

Ac cos c t c cos c m t cos c m t

2

nee

Above signal is called NBFM signal. It has two bands similar to AM wave and both

have same bandwidth requirements.

rin

The lower side band of NBFM is inverted version of upper side band of AM signal.

It can be detected using Envelop Detector.

WBFM signal: x (t )

Ac J n ) cos(c nm )t

g.n

n

A wideband FM signal has infinite number of side bands. e

Ideally the Bandwidth requirement of Fm signal is infinite because it has infinite

t

number of side bands.

Carson’s Law:

Transmission Bandwidth of FM signal:

BW = 2 f m If 1 (NBFM)

BW = 2( f f m ) If 1 (WBFM) or BW 2( 1) f m

BW 2( f m ) or BW 2( 1) f m

FM over AM

It is possible to reduce noise still further by increasing the frequency deviation but

in AM this is not possible.

Standard frequency allocations provide a guard band between commercial FM

stations. Due to this, there is less adjacent channel interference in FM.

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9

ELECTROMAGNETIC

THEORY

CONTENTS

ww

1. COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND VECTOR CALCULUS ….. 266-267

2.

w .Ea

ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS …………………………………….. 268-271

3.

syE

MAGNETO STATIC FIELDS …………………………………… 272-274

ngi 275-276

nee 277-281

rin

7. ANTENNAS …………………………………………………………

g.n 286-286

e t

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CALCULUS

Vector Calculus:

Gradient: The gradient of scalar V is written as V and result is vector

quantity.

V V V

For Cartesian: V aˆ x aˆ y aˆ z

x y z

V 1 V V

For Cylindrical: V aˆ ρ aˆ aˆ z

z

V 1 V 1 V

For Spherical: V aˆ r aˆ aˆ

r r r sin

ww

Divergence: The divergence of vector A is written as .A and result is scalar

w

quantity.

For Cartesian:

.Ea

.A

A x A y A z

x

y

z

For Cylindrical:

.A

syE 1

(A )

1 A A z

z

For Spherical:

.A

1 2

r r

2 ngi

(r A r )

1

r sin

(sin A )

1 A

r sin

nee

Curl of vector: The curl of vector A is defined as A and result is vector

quantity.

aˆ x aˆ y rin

aˆ z

For Cartesian: A

x

y

z g.n

Ax

a r

a

Ay Az

a z

e t

For Cylinderical: A

z

A A Az

a r aθ a

r 2sinθ r sinθ r

For Spherical: A

r

Ar rA r sin A

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Laplacian of Scalar: Laplacian of scalar field V is written as V . It is the

divergence of gradient of V. The result is a scalar quantity.

2 V 2 V 2 V

For Cartesian: 2 V 2 2 2

x y z

1 V 1 2 V 2 V

For Cylinderical: 2V

2 2 z 2

1 2 V 1 V 1 2V

For Spherical: 2 V r sin

r 2 r r r 2 sin r 2 sin 2 2

Laplacian of Vector: It is a vector quantity.

2 A (.A) A

Divergence of a curl of vector is always zero . ( A) 0

Curl of gradient of a scalar field is always zero ( V) 0

ww

The vector field is said to be solenoidal or divergence less if . A 0

A vector field is said to be irrotational (or potential) if A 0

w

A vector field is said to be harmonic if 2 V 0

.Ea

A ( . A) 2 A

syE

. (A B) B . ( A) A . ( B)

ngi

Divergence Theorem: It states that total outward flux of vector field A through

A.ds . A dvnee

closed surface S is the same as volume integral of the divergence of A .

s v

rin

g.n

Stokes’ Theorem: It states that line integral of a vector field A over a closed path is

A . dl ( A) . ds

l s

e

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2. ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

k Q 1Q 2 1

F12 aˆ r12 Where, k 9 109 m/ F

R2 4 o

Electric Field Intensity: Force per unit charge when placed in electric field.

E

E

Q

ww

w .Ea

syE

ngi

nee

E

L

2o rin

aˆ

Perpendicular distance of the point from line (minimum distance)

Electric Field Intensity due to Infinite charge sheet:

e t

s

E aˆn

2 0

s = surface charge density, aˆ n unit vector Normal to sheet

In parallel plate capacitor, the electric field existing between the two plates having

equal and opposite charges; E aˆn

0

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Electric Field Intensity due to uniformly charged sphere

r

3 o aˆ r ;0 r a

0

E 3 o = volume charge density, a = radius of sphere

a aˆ ;r a

3 o r 2 0 r

Electric Flux Density ( D ): D 0 E

Electric Flux D . ds

s

Gauss’s Law: The total electric flux through any closed surface is equal to the

total charge enclosed by surface.

Q D . ds V dV . D V

ww s v

w .Ea

Electric Potential: VAB

W

Q

B

E . dl

A

Q 1 1

VB VA

4o rB rA

syE

Negative sign indicates that the work is being done by external agent.

VAB = potential difference between A and B

V

Q ngi

Potential at any point r due to point charge Q located at origin is

40 r

neeQ 1 1

Potential between two points in the field of point charge VAB

rin

4 0 rb ra

g.n

Work done while moving a charge in electric field is independent of path followed.

It depends only on initial and final paths.

W Q E . dl 0

Electro static field is conservative or irrotational.

e

E0

t

Energy density of Electro static field

1 1 1 D2

WE = D.E WE E2

2 2 2

The gradient of potential field gives the electric field intensity. The electric field

intensity in terms of potential is given by

E V

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Electric flux line is an imaginary path or line drawn in such a way that its

direction at any point is the direction of the electric field at that point connection

current density J v u

v Charge density u charge velocity

ne 2

Conduction current density J E where

m

A perfect conductor cannot contain an electrostatic field within it.

Inside a conductor E = 0, v 0, Vab 0

Dielectric constant and polarization:

D 0 (1 e ) E 0 r E

D 0 E P where P e e0 E

ww

r 1 e

0

e Electric susceptibility

w

Dielectric strength is maximum electric field that a dielectric can tolerate to

.Ea

withstand breakdown.

v

. J

Continuity Equation

syE

t

v vo et / Tr

Relaxation Time Tr

ngi

Boundary Conditions:

Dielectric – Dielectric Boundary Conditions: nee

Tangential Component Relation

E1t E 2t

D1t D2t

rin

or

1 2

g.n

Normal Component Relation:

s Free charge density placed at boundary.

e

D1n D 2 n s

t

component D t is discontinuous at boundary.

The normal component of D is continuous while that of E is discontinuous at

boundary.

tan 1 r1

tan 2 r 2

This is the law of refraction of the electric field at a boundary free of charge.

Conductor – Dielectric Boundary:

D t o r E t 0, D n o r E n s

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10

MEASUREMENTS

&

INSTRUMENTATION

ww

w .Ea

1.

syE CONTENTS

2.

ngi

CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS… 290-295

nee

rin

4. MEASUREMENT OF POWER & WATTMETERS ……….. 299-301

g.n

5.

6.

MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE ……………………….. 302-302

e t

7. TRANSDUCERS ………………………………………………… 304-306

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1. MEASURING INSTRUMENT

CHARACTERISTICS

Generalized Measuring Instrument: The block diagram of generalized measuring

system may be represented as:

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS:

Accuracy: Closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value

of the variable being measured. It can be improved by recalibration.

Precision: It is a measure of the degree to which successive measurement differ

ww

from one another.

It is design time characteristic.

w

High precision does not mean high accuracy. A highly precise instrument may be

inaccurate.

.Ea

Ex: If reading are 101, 102, 103, 104, 105. Most precise value is 103

Resolution: The smallest change in measured value to which the instrument will

syE

respond. It is improved by re-calibrating the instrument.

Sensitivity: It is ratio of change in output per unit change in input quantity of the

instrument. It is design time characteristic.

ngi

Drift: It means deviation in output of the instrument from a derived value for a

particular input.

nee

Reproducibility: It is degree of closeness with which a given value may be

measured repeatedly for a given period of time.

rin

Repeatability: It is degree of closeness with which a given input is repeatably

indicated for a given set of recordings.

Errors: g.n

1. Absolute Error/Static Error/Limiting Error:

A Am AT

A m Measured value of quantity of actual value

e t

A T True value of quantity or nominal value

A Am AT

2. Relative Error: r

AT AT

A

3. Percent Error: % r 100

AT

Instrument Error is generally given in percent error.

Full Scale Reading

% r , x [% r , Full scale]

x

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Error due to combination of quantities:

1. Error due to Sum/Difference of quantities

X x1 x2

X x x x x

% r 1 1 2 2

X X x1 X x2

2. Error due to product or quotient of quantities

x1 1

X x1 x 2 x3 Or or

x2 x3 x1 x2 x3

X x x x

1 2 3

X x1 x2 x3

X x x

3. Composite factors X x1n . x2m n 1 m 2

X x1 x2

ww CLASSIFICATION OF ERRORS:

w .Ea

syE

ngi

nee

Standards of EMF: rin

g.n

(a) Saturated Weston cell is used for Primary standard of emf.

Its emf is 1.01864 volt, maximum current drawn is 100 A . It contains

e

CdSO 4 crystal and its internal resistance is 600 to 800 .

(b) Unsaturated Weston cell is used for secondary standards. Its emf is 1.0180

to 1.0194 volt and does not have CdSO 4 crystal.

t

Standard of Resistance:

Maganin (Ni + Cu + Mn)

Nickel 4%

Magnese 12% [High Resistivity and low temperature coefficient]

Copper 84%

Inductive effect of resistance can be eliminated, using Bifilar winding.

Standard of Time and Frequency:

Atomic clock is used as primary standard of time and frequency. Quartz, Rubidium

crystal is used as secondary standard of time and frequency. Example: Cesium 133,

hydrogen maser etc.

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2. CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRICAL

INSTRUMENTS

ww

Absolute Instrument: It gives the value of parameters under measurement in terms

of the physical constant of the instrument.

w

e.g. Transient Galvanometer, Rayleigh current balance etc.

.Ea

Secondary Instrument:

syE

It gives the value of parameter for directly under measurement.

e.g. voltmeter, thermometer, pressure gauge etc.

Note: Absolute instruments are highly accurate than secondary instrument as they

ngi

contain less number of moving mechanical parts resulting in a lower operational of

power consumption.

1. Indicating type: Voltmeter, Ammeter, Wattmeter .

2. Recording type: Recorders. rin

3. Integrating type: Energy meter.

g.n

4. Comparison type: Potentiometer and bridges or null deflection.

5. Deflecting type: PMMC

e

Note: Null deflecting instruments are highly accurate as compression to deflecting

instrument as their operational power consumption at zero deflection is zero. t

Principle of Operation of Analog Instruments:

Magnetic effect: Moving Iron, PMMC, Dynamometer

Induction effect: Energy meter

Heating effect: Thermocouple and Hotwire type, Bolometer

Electro static effect: Electro static type voltmeter

Hall Effect: Poynting vector type voltmeter, Flux-meter

Damping system used in indicating instruments:

It is provided in the instrument which helps the moving system of the instrument to

reach to final position at earliest.

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Electromagnetic damping: Galvanometer and moving coil type

Eddy current damping: PMMC voltmeter and energy meter

Air frictional damping: Moving iron and dynamometer

Fluid friction damping: Electrostatic type voltmeter

PMMC Instruments are used only for DC measurements.

Induction type instruments are used only for AC measurements.

Hotwire and Thermal type instruments measure RMS value of input.

Electrostatic type instruments are used to measure high voltages in kV.

Rectifier type instruments responds to average value.

These are also called self shielding instruments.

Aluminium former is used to provide eddy current damping.

Magnetic field in these is in range of 0.1 to 1wb/ m which is strong field.

2

ww

Control spring which is made of phosphor-bronze material in these instruments

provides a control force and also provides a path for current entering to moving

w

coil.

.Ea

If control spring is broken, current through the coil is zero and instrument reads

zero.

It is used for measurement of DC only.

syE

Material used for magnet in PMMC is Alnico and Alcomax (Al + Co +Ni).

Torque to weight ratio of the moving system should be high and equal to 0.1,

T

weight ngi

0.1 ; It decides sensitivity which is high in PMMC

Deflecting torque (Td) = NBAI

nee

Controlling torque (Tc) = k

rin

At balance Td = Tc

g.n

N Number of turns

G

K

I

NBA

K

I

e

A Area of cross section of vowing coil t

B Magnetic flux I Current through coil

Key points:

The control spring in PMMC have dual utility, they not only produce controlling

torque but also used to lead the current into the system.

Source of Errors:

Ageing effect of the permanent magnet (can be reduced by using a pre-edged

magnet)

Temperature effect of coil and the control spring.

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11

MATERIALS SCIENCE

ww CONTENTS

1.

2.

w STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS …………………………… 310-311

.Ea

ELECTRIC MATERIALS & PROPERTIES ……………. 312-315

3. syE

CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS ……………………………… 316-318

ngi 319-322

nee

rin

g.n

e t

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1. STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS

Distance between adjacent atoms d SC a 2 r

Coordination number = 6

1

No of atoms per unit cell = 8 corners part 1

8

Packing efficiency = 52%

Example Polonium, Fluorspar

2. Body Centered Cubic (BCC):

3

Distance between adjacent atom d BCC 2r a

2

ww Coordination number = 8

No of atoms per unit cell = 8

1

1 2

w .Ea

Packing efficiency = 68%

8

3.

Example

syE

Fe, Cr, Na

Face Centered Cubic (FCC):

ngi

Distance between adjacent atoms d FCC 2r

a

2

Coordination number = 12

No of atoms per unit cell = 8

1nee

3 4

Packing efficiency = 74%

8

rin

Example Cu, Silver, Gold

g.n

Hexagonal Closed Pack (HCP):

Coordination number = 12

No of atoms per unit cell = 12

1

3 4

e t

12

Packing efficiency = 74%

Example Cd, Mg

Type of unit cell Volume of unit cell

Cubic a3

Tetragonal a 2c

Orthorhombic abc

Hexagonal 3 3a 2 c

2

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Miller indices are used to specify directions

and planes and it could be in lattices or in

crystals.

Miller Indices for plane A B C

OA OB OC

h ,k ,

OA OB OC

Example:

1.

OA

h 2

OA

ww k

2

OB

0

w

OC

.Ea

0

( h, k , ) (2, 0, 0)

syE

2.

h

OA

1 ngi

k

OA

OB

1

nee

OB

OC rin

OC

1

( h, k , ) (1, 1, 1)

g.n

3.

OA

e t

h 1

OA

OB

k 0

OC

l 0

(h, k , l ) (1, 0, 0)

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Dielectric Constant:

D

D: Electric flux density, E: Electric field Intensity

E

o r : permittivity of the medium (farad rpemeter)

109

o F/ m r :Relative permittivity

36

Dipole Moment: Product of either of two charges and separation between charges.

p q r Coulomb-meter

ww

Polarization:

w

It is defined as electric dipole moment per unit volume. It is denoted by P .

.Ea

P N p coulomb/m2 N Number of dipoles per unit volume

Polarizability: P E

syE Polarizability, F m2

ngi

E Electrical Field Intensity, V/m,

nee

p Dipole moment, coulomb-m

Electric flux density: When an electric field is applied

D o E P o E o e E

rin

Polarization P o e E o ( r 1) E

g.n

Polarization:

e r 1

e t

(a) Electronic/Induced Polarization: It is found in materials like inert gases in

which there is no reaction among individual molecules.

Pe N e E e Electronic polarizability

(b) Ionic Polarization: It is found in materials possessing ionic bonds between

two dissimilar atoms like NaCl, HCl.

These materials have permanent dipole moment in absence of external field

and exhibits both electronic and ionic polarization.

P Pi Pe N( i e ) E i Ionic polarizability

(c) Orientational Polarization: Occurs in materials having partly ionic bonds like

H 2 O, CO 2 .

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N pp 2 E pp 2

P N o E where orientation polarization o

3kT 3kT

1 k Boltzman

P

T T Temperature

Total polarization PT Pi Pe Po Ps Ps Interfacial polarization

of frequency and at frequency about visible/optical ranges 51014Hz material

possesses only electronic polarization.

Langevin-Debyes generalization of the Clausius-mossotti equation

N e r 1

ww 3o r 2

N Number of molecules per unit volume e Electronic Polarizability

.Ea N n2 1 M

Lorentz Equation:

syE

3o n2 2 P

ngi

It is applicable only for electronic polarization i e at optical frequencies.

Piezoelectric Materials: If mechanical stress is applied to a dielectric material,

nee

material gets polarized because of applied stress and vice versa. These types of

materials are called piezoelectric materials.

rin

Example: Quartz crystal, Rochelle salt, Barium Titanate (Ba TiO 3 ), Lead Zirconate

(PbZr O 3 ).

g.n

Applications: Gramophone, Accelerometer.

e

Some dielectric materials get strained when they are subjected to an electric field

but reverse effect is not found. Then this property is Electrostriction. t

Expression of voltage sensitivity:

e F Q

V gt P t

o r A C

d

g = voltage sensitivity = volt-meter/Newton; t Thickness

o r

F

P= stress applied; A Area of cross section of crystal

A

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12

COMPUTER ORGANIZATION

CONTENTS

ww

1. PROGRAMMING BASICS ………………………………………. 324-328

2.

w .Ea

MEMORY ACCESS AND DMA ………………………………… 329-334

3.

syE

DATA STRUCTURES ……………………………………………. 335-336

ngi

nee

rin

g.n

e t

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1. PROGRAMMING BASICS

Computer cannot execute a program written in assembly or high level language.

The program first must need to be translated to machine language (machine

language program is nothing more than sequence of 0s and 1s) which the computer

can understand.

into assembly language program.

Assembler: Assembler is a program that translates assembly language program into

machine language (sequence of 0s and 1s) program.

Linker: Linker is a computer program that takes one or more object files generated

by a compiler and combine them into a single executable program.

Loader: Loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading

programs. It places programs into memory and prepares them for execution.

ww

Data types in C:

w

Data type Size (in bytes)

char

int

1

2 .Ea

float

double

4

8 syE

int i = 10;

This declaration tells the C compiler to: ngi

nee

(a) Reserve space (2B) in memory to hold the integer value.

(b) Associate the name i with this memory location.

(c) Store that value of i at this location

rin

i

10

Location name

Value at location g.n

1000

main ( )

Address

e t

{

int i = 10;

printf (“%u”, &i);

printf (“%d”, i);

printf (“%d”, * (&i));

}

Output:

/*printf (“%u”, &i); */ 1000

/*printf(“%d”, i); */ 10

/*printf(“%d”, * (&i)); *(1000) = 10

* is called “value at address” operator.

Pointer: Pointers are variables which holds the address of another variable.

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Example:

main( )

{

int x = 5;

int * y = &x;

int**z = &y;

prin tf("%u",&x);

prin tf("%u",y);

prin tf("%u",z);

printf("%d",x);

printf("%d",*y);

printf("%d",**z);

ww

}

Solution:

xw

5

syE

1000

y ngi

2000 2001

nee

2000 rin

z

g.n

3000 3001

printf("%u",&x);

printf("%u",y);

1000

1000

e t

printf("%u",z); 2000

printf("%d",x); 5

printf("%d",*y); *1000=5

printf("%d",**z); **2000=*1000=5

Note: Every pointer variable takes 2 byte

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Parameter Passing Techniques:

1. Call by value

2. Call by reference

Call by value:

Actual values of the parameter are passed to the called function.

Example: What is the output of the following program using Call by value as

parameter passing technique?

main( ) swap(int c, int d)

{ {

int a=10; int t;

int b=20; t=c;

printf ("%d%d",a,b); c=d;

ww swap(a,b);

printf ("%d%d",a,b); }

d=t;

w }

Solution:

.Ea

Execution of program always starts from main ( )

syE

ngi

nee

rin

g.n

Here, the changes will not reflect because we are passing the value of parameter to

the function.

Call by reference:

e t

In Call by reference, addresses of variables are passed as parameter to the called

function.

Example: What is the output of above program, if compiler uses call by reference

as parameter passing technique?

Solution: If compiler uses call by reference parameter passing technique, following

changes are made to the program by the compiler.

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13

MICROWAVES

CONTENTS

ww

1. MICROWAVE BASICS AND TRANSMISSION LINES …. 338-340

2. w .Ea

WAVEGUIDES ……………………………………………………. 341-344

3.

syE

MICROWAVE HYBRID CIRCUITS …………………………. 345-347

ngi 348-348

nee 349-353

rin 354-360

g.n 361-364

e t

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LINES

Microwaves are electromagnetic waves of which frequency ranges from 1 GHz

to 1000 GHz.

Microwaves behave more like rays of light than ordinary radio waves.

Microwave frequency cannot be used for ground wave communication.

Advantages of Microwaves:

1. Increased bandwidth availability 2. Improved directive properties

3. Low fading effect and low power requirements

IEEE bands For microwave

L 1.1 – 1.7 GHz

ww Ls

S

C

1.7 – 2.6 GHz

2.6 – 3.9 GHz

3.9 – 8 GHz

w X

Ku

K .Ea

8 – 12.5 GHz

12.5 – 18 GHz

18 – 26 GHz

Band

Ka

Frequency

syE

Wavelength

26 – 40 GHz

Propagation characteristics and applications of various bands:

Propagation Applications

Penetration into earth Communication with

nee and sea.

Surface wave up to

1000 km. Sky wave in

submarines.

Long distance point to

point communication,

rin

the night extends

range. Low attenuation

Sonar navigation.

LF 30 – 300 kHz 10 – 1 km

g.n

during day and night.

Surface wave and sky Point-to-point marine

e

wave at night. Surface communication, Time

wave attenuation

greater than VHF.

Ground wave in day

and sky wave in night.

standard frequency

broadcast.

AM broadcasting,

direction finding,

t

Attenuation is high in coastguard and marine

day and low in night. communication.

HF 3 – 30 MHz 100 – 10 m Reflection from Moderate and long

ionosphere. distance communication

of all types: telephone,

telegraph, radio.

VHF 30 – 300 MHz 10 – 1 m Space wave, line of Television FM service,

sight. aviation and police.

UHF 300–3000 MHz 100 –10 cm Same as VHF, affected Short distance

by tall objects like communication,

hills. including radar, T.V,

satellite communication.

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Microwave Transmission Lines

Multi-conductor lines:

Coaxial cable: It is used upto 3GHz and it behaves like a LPF.

Coaxial cables support TEM wave and has no cut off frequency.

There is high radiation loss in coaxial cable at high frequencies.

1 1 1

Coaxial cable resistance: R / m

2 c a b

Skin depth c Conductivity

a Inner conductor radius b Outer conductor radius

μ b

Inductance: L = ln H/m

2π a

2

ww

Capacitance: C

ln

b

a

F/m

w .Ea

Characteristic Impedance: Zo

L

C 2

1

b

n

a

syE Zo

60

r

ln

b

a

ngib

Breakdown power in coaxial cable: Pbd 3600 a 2 ln KW

a

Strip Lines:

nee

These are modifications of coaxial lines and used at frequency from 100 MHz to

100 GHz.

rin

The dominant mode is TEM mode and has no radiation losses.

g.n

These have higher isolation between adjacent circuits and no fringing fields after

a certain distance from the edges of a conductor.

e

It is difficult to mount active components on strip lines (i.e. line diode,

circulators). t

Characteristic Impedance:

60 4b

Zo ln

r d

d Diameter of circular conductor

b Thickness between ground plates

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Micro strip lines:

Cost is lower than strip line, coaxial cable or waveguide.

Open structure of microstrip line leads to greater coupling and it is large to

mount passive or active components.

Open structure also leads to higher radiation losses and interference due to

nearby conductors.

Due to this interference a discontinuity in electric and magnetic field presents

and this leads to impure TEM or quasi TEM modes.

Characteristic Impedance:

60 4h

Zo n If h >> d

r d

377 h

Zo If w >> h

r w

h distance between the line and ground plane.

w .Ea

syE

ngi

nee

rin

g.n

e t

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2. WAVEGUIDES

Waveguides (single conductor lines)

At frequencies higher than 3 GHz, there are more losses in Transmission lines.

A hollow metallic tube used to transmit EM waves by successive reflections

from inner walls of tube is called waveguide.

In waveguides, only waves having frequencies greater than cut off frequency f c

will be propagated that is why waveguide act as a HPF.

Waveguide is one conductor transmission line.

Rectangular waveguide:

TM11 is dominant mode for TM waves.

ww

TE10 is dominant mode for TE wave and it is also overall dominant mode

w

(when a > b).

.Ea

In this TM10 or TM01 does not exist.

fc

1

2

m

2

n

a b

2

ngi

Phase constant :

f

1 c nee 2

f

rin

Phase velocity: vp

1 g.n

f

1 c

f

e

2

t

2

1 f

Group velocity: vg 1 c

f

In waveguide: v p c vg

i.e. v p vg c 2

In vacuum: v p c vg

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ww

w.Ea

syE

ngi

nee

rin

g.n

e t

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