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Unit 4 Topics

Area of study One- (Changing life due to change over time ?)


1. 1. Population Population Variability – continuous discontinuous
genetics Morphism – Monomorphism polymorphism
Cause of Variation -
Genotype
Phenotype – mono polygenetic
Environmental – Pleiotropy
2. Genes Genome
Gene pool
Alleles – dominant or recessive
Allelic frequency
– changes in Allelic frequency – mating (random vs non random)
Selection – natural or artificial
Gene flow –
Genetic drift and fonder effect and bottle neck
2. 3. Mutations Mutations
Point
Non sense
Frame shifts
Block mutations
- Duplications, insertions, inversions deletions, translocations
- Non disjunctions
-
3. 4. Species Speciation – allopatric,
- Barriers to gene flow
5. Artificial selection
Selective breeding
Genetic manipulation
4. 6. evolution Types - Micro vs Macro evolution
7. Evoevidence Dating – types of rock
- Dating rocks and fossils and artifacts
-Relative vs absolute dating
- C14 or K Ar dating
- electron spin resonance
- Principal of correlation
- Index fossils
5. 8. Other Comparative Anatomy
evoevidence - Homologous structures
- Vestigial structures
- Embryonic comparisons
Fossils – fossilization
Biogeography
9. Types of Divergent vs convergent
Evolution
6. 10. Extinction
11. Examples of Darwins finches – beaks
evo Cichlid fishes
Peppered months –
Master genes - BPM4 gene
7. 12. Phylogeny Phylogeny trees
Phylogenetic trees
13.
14. Genetic Amino acid sequence
technologies DNA Hybridization
in phylogeny
8. 15. Homo Hominid , Hominoid, homonin
Homo Phylogenies and contradictions
16. Key Homos
17. Homo pasts Y chromosome
mtDNA

Area of Study 2 ( Human impact of Biological processes)

9 18. DNA Manipulation Restriction enzymes


Ligase
PCR
Gel Electrophoresis
Recombinant DNA
19. DNA Profiling and Karyotypes
genetic screening Screening
STRs
10 20. Modified genes Transgenic
GMO
Stem cells science
21. Issues in genetic modification
- Biosocial
- Ethical
11 22. Genes and diseases Diagnosing infectious diseases
Cultures – bacterial or viral
ELISA
PCR
Rational drug design
Treatments of disease

Area of Study 3 (Practical Investigation)


12 Experimental design Hypothesis
Variables
control
Results
limitations
Conclusions