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Does the Thomson model fail at large scattering angles or at small scattering angles?

why?
Thomson modle failed at large scattering angles. In this model the electrons are
embedded in a uniform sphere of positive charge. This model known as the "plum-
pudding" model. The electron can not deflect the projectile since their masses are very
small. So the projectile can only be deflected by the columbic repulsive force due to the
positive charge. Since the positive charge is distributed uniformly throughout the
sphere, this repulsion is very small than it would be if the whole positive charge were at
the center of the atom. Again, we take into account the sphere of radius r<R ( R being
the radium of the atom) to find the repulsive force which also reduces the repulsion.
These cause the small deflection of the projectile.
What principles of physics would be violated if we scattered a beam of alpha particles
with a single impact parameter from a single target atom at rest?
Impact parameter is derived from the law¬¬ of classical mechanics. This depends upon
the angle (θ) and velocity of α -particle. So all particles does not have same impact
parameter. Therefore, law of conservation of energy would be violated if we scattered a
beam of alpha particles with a single impact parameter
Could we use the Rutherford scattering formula to analyze the scattering of (a) protons
incident of iron? (b) Alpha particles incident on lithium (Z=3)? (c) Silver nuclei incident
on gold? (d) Hydrogen atoms incident on gold? (e) Electrons incident on gold?
For the Rutherford scatting to occur the projectile should be a postiviely charged particle
and the target nucleaus is so massive that the projectile that it does not move during the
scattering process. (a) Proton one positively charged particle and have very small mass
compared to the iron nucleus. So it is possible (b) The masses of alpha particle and
lithium nucleus are comparable (little difference) So, we cannot scatter (c) The masses
of silver nuclei and gold are also comparable, no scattering. (d) Hydrogen atoms are
neutral so no scattering (e) Electrons are negatively charged particles so no scattering
What determines the angular range dθ in the alpha-particle scattering experiment
(Figure 6.8) ?
The angular range depends on the impact parameter, the kinetic energy of the
projectile and the atomic number of the target nucleus. The scattering angle θ increases
as b decreases. If k increases, then θ decreases. For large Z, θ, will also be large.
Why didn't Bohr orbit use the concept of de Brogile waves in his theory? What
determines the angular range dθ in the alpha-particle scattering experiment (Figure 6.8) ?
The angular range depends on the impact parameter, the kinetic energy of the projectile and
the atomic number of the target nucleus. The scattering angle θ increases as b decreases. If k
increases, then θ decreases. For large Z, θ, will also be large.
Why didn't Bohr orbit use the concept of de Brogile waves in his theory?
Niles Bohr proposed his postulates in 1913 and the de Brogile proposed the exsistence of
matter waves in 1924. Bohr's quantization rule says, instead of the infinity which is only
possible for in classical mechanics, it is only possible for an electron to move in an orbit for
which its orbital angular momentum L is an integral multiple of ħ. A more physical
interpretation of the bohr quanization rule was given in 1924 by de Broglie. The Bohr
quantization of angular momentm can be written as mvr=Pr⁡〖=nℏ〗=n h/2π where n=1,2,3...
Where P is the linear momentum of an electron in an allowed orbit of the radius r if we
substitute into this equation the expression for P in terms of the corresponding de Broglie wave
length P=h/λ The Bohr equation become(hr)/λ= (nh)/2π or 2πr=n𝜆 Thus the allowed orbits are
those in which the circumference of the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of the
Broglie wave length
In which Bohr orbit does the electron have the largest velocity? Are we justified in
treating the electron non-relativistically in that case

From the Bohr's quantum condition〖 Pr=〗 ⁡〖 nℏ〗 now the series of allowed values for
radius r is rn =a0 n2 substitute r in Pr, solve for v - From this equation, we see that v is
maximum for the lowest value of n. Thus the electron has the largest velocity is its
ground state (n=1) (n=1) → for this velocity is quite large, but still less than 1% of light.
V= ħ/ma0
How does an electron in hydrogen get from r=4a0 to to r= a0 with out being anywhere in
between?
In which Bohr orbit does the electron have the largest velocity? Are we justified in treating the
electron non-relativistically in that case

From the Bohr's quantum condition〖Pr=〗 ⁡〖nℏ〗 now the series of allowed values for radius r
is rn =a0 n2 substitute r in Pr, solve for v - From this equation, we see that v is maximum for the
lowest value of n. Thus the electron has the largest velocity is its ground state (n=1) (n=1) → for
this velocity is quite large, but still less than 1% of light. V= ħ/ma0
How does an electron in hydrogen get from r=4a0 to to r= a0 with out being anywhere in
between?
Bohr's model is a semi-classical model. This allowed radius of the orbit obtained from this
model is rn=a0n2 where a is the Bohr radius. From the de Brogile hypothesis, the allowed orbits
are those in which the circumference of the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of de
Brogile wavelengths. So, in the purely quantum mechanical hypothesis, the electron in the Bohr
orbit is considered not a particle. But a wave which is respectively Ψ(r,θ,φ)=
_________________________________________________Where
__________________________________________________________________________ For
the 1s and 2p states, the radical probability density has maxima at respectively r= a0 and r = 4
a0 which agree with the allowed radius rn=a0n2 from Bohr's postulate. So, the fact that an
electron in hydrogen atom get from r=4 a0 to r=a0 without being anywhere in between does
not contradict the quantum mechanical view because we treat the electron by wave mechanics
and can not track it as a particle. The radical probability tells the possible radius of the orbit of
the electron.

How is the quantization of the energy in the hydrogen atom similar to the quantization of
the systems discussed in Chapter 5? How is it different? Do the quantizations originate
from similar causes?
How does an electron in hydrogen get from r=4a0 to to r= a0 with out being anywhere in
between?
Bohr's model is a semi-classical model. This allowed radius of the orbit obtained from this
model is rn=a0n2 where a is the Bohr radius. From the de Brogile hypothesis, the allowed orbits
are those in which the circumference of the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of de
Brogile wavelengths. So, in the purely quantum mechanical hypothesis, the electron in the Bohr
orbit is considered not a particle. But a wave which is respectively Ψ(r,θ,φ)=
_________________________________________________Where
__________________________________________________________________________ For
the 1s and 2p states, the radical probability density has maxima at respectively r= a0 and r = 4
a0 which agree with the allowed radius rn=a0n2 from Bohr's postulate. So, the fact that an
electron in hydrogen atom get from r=4 a0 to r=a0 without being anywhere in between does
not contradict the quantum mechanical view because we treat the electron by wave mechanics
and can not track it as a particle. The radical probability tells the possible radius of the orbit of
the electron.
How is the quantization of the energy in the hydrogen atom similar to the quantization of the
systems discussed in Chapter 5? How is it different? Do the quantizations originate from similar
causes?
Similarity - in the hydrogen atom, the allowed orbits one those in which the circumference of
the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of de Broglie wavelengths. On the other hand,
the solutions for the particle in the box potential, potential barrier, step potential, simple
harmonic potential etc, one also superposition of standing de Broglie wave. In all the cases the
energy of the particle increase with the principal quantum number n. Difference - For the
particle trapped in the box potential, potential barrier, simple harmonic potential etc, the
energies one always postivce (E>0 in the ases discussed in chapter 5). But in the case of
hydrogen atom. The energy of the electron is negative (En=-13.6/n^2). E→0 as n→∞ where the
energy is continuous (classical limit) The quantization of energy in hydrogen atom originates
from the quantum condition (mvr=nħ) of Bohr's postulate. In the other cases, this comes from
the boundary conditions of the problem.
How is the quantization of the energy in the hydrogen atom similar to the quantization of the
systems discussed in Chapter 5? How is it different? Do the quantizations originate from similar
causes?
Similarity - in the hydrogen atom, the allowed orbits one those in which the circumference of
the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of de Broglie wavelengths. On the other hand,
the solutions for the particle in the box potential, potential barrier, step potential, simple
harmonic potential etc, one also superposition of standing de Broglie wave. In all the cases the
energy of the particle increase with the principal quantum number n. Difference - For the
particle trapped in the box potential, potential barrier, simple harmonic potential etc, the
energies one always postivce (E>0 in the ases discussed in chapter 5). But in the case of
hydrogen atom. The energy of the electron is negative (En=-13.6/n^2). E→0 as n→∞ where the
energy is continuous (classical limit) The quantization of energy in hydrogen atom originates
from the quantum condition (mvr=nħ) of Bohr's postulate. In the other cases, this comes from
the boundary conditions of the problem.
In a Bohr atom, an electron jumps from state n1, with angular momentum n1ħ, to state n2 with
angular momentum n2ħ. How can an isolated system change its angular momentum? Can the
photon carry away the difference in angular momentum? Estimate the maximum angular
momentum, relative to the center of an atom, which the photon can have. Does this suggest
another failure of the Bohr model?
The product Enrn for the hydrogen atom is (1) independent of Planck's constant and (2)
independent of the quantum number n. Does this observation have any significance? Is
this a classical or quantum effect?
In a Bohr atom, an electron jumps from state n1, with angular momentum n1ħ, to state n2 with
angular momentum n2ħ. How can an isolated system change its angular momentum? Can the
photon carry away the difference in angular momentum? Estimate the maximum angular
momentum, relative to the center of an atom, which the photon can have. Does this suggest
another failure of the Bohr model?
In classical physics, a change in angular momentum requires an external torque. The fact that
an electron changes in momentum happens due to the vacuum polarization, the electron is in
an excited states after a life time of 10^-8 seconds after which it makes a transition. The
difference of angular momentum should carry away by the photon. But this theory fails in
explaining the limitation of quantum resuts. As 'n' increases to infinity, the difference in angular
momentum is also infinite. According to uncertainty principle, the infinite value of change in
angular momentum results the angular position of the particle is zero ∆θ∆L> ħ/2 →∆ θ> ħ/2(∞)
Hence the infinite value of change in angular momentum is one of the deficiencies of the Bohr
model. The orbital angular momentum (l) is having values ranging from 0 to n-1. But the only
transitions which satisfy the selection rule ∆l=±1 are allowed. According to the Bohr model, The
maximum angular momentum difference between energy states are ntn and (n+1)th is
∆L=(n+1-1)h-(n-1)h = h. But quantum mechanically, the angular momentum carried by the
photon is √(l(l+1) )h The quantum mechanical results fully different with the classical results of
Bohr model hence another failure.
The product Enrn for the hydrogen atom is (1) independent of Planck's constant and (2)
independent of the quantum number n. Does this observation have any significance? Is this a
classical or quantum effect?

The energy of the electron for Hydrogen in the nth state is En = -(me^4)/(〖32π〗^2 ℇ_0^2 ℏ^2
n^2 ) the radius of Hydrogen atom in the nth state is rn=a0n2 = (〖4π ℏ〗^2 ℇ_0^ )/(me^2 )n2 →
find EnRn. From the above equation EnRn is independent t of Planck's constant (hbar) and
quantum number(n). So all energy states have same EnRn value. Therefore this is a classical
effect.
(a) How does a Bohr atom violate the position-momentum uncertainty relationship?
(b) how does a Bohr atom violate the energy-time uncertainity relationship?
(what is ∆E? what does that imply about ∆t? What do you conclude about
transitions between levels)

The product Enrn for the hydrogen atom is (1) independent of Planck's constant and (2)
independent of the quantum number n. Does this observation have any significance? Is this a
classical or quantum effect?

The energy of the electron for Hydrogen in the nth state is En = -(me^4)/(〖32π〗^2 ℇ_0^2 ℏ^2
n^2 ) the radius of Hydrogen atom in the nth state is rn=a0n2 = (〖4π ℏ〗^2 ℇ_0^ )/(me^2 )n2 →
find EnRn. From the above equation EnRn is independent t of Planck's constant (hbar) and
quantum number(n). So all energy states have same EnRn value. Therefore this is a classical
effect.
(a) How does a Bohr atom violate the position-momentum uncertainty relationship? (b) how
does a Bohr atom violate the energy-time uncertainity relationship? (what is ∆E? what does
that imply about ∆t? What do you conclude about transitions between levels)
The radius of the orbit is rn=a0n2 where a0 is the Bohr radius and n=1,2,3... So, the position of
the particle is exactly defined. Again, the quantum condition of Bohr tells that the angular
momentum is nvr=nħ. Therefore, we can get exactly the linear momentum of the electron since
r is a known quantity. But, the uncertainty principle says that we can not get the position and
momentum of the particle simultaneously. Thus the Bohr atom violates the uncertainty
relation. (b) The energy in a sate (for a certain value of n) is exactly defined. Therefore, ∆E = 0
and ∆t=∞ according to the uncertaintiy principle. So, we must observe the particle in a state for
an infinite time. But the electron always makes transition violating the uncertainty principle. So,
Bohr's postulate needs a better treatment. If we solve the time dependent SchrOdinger
equation for the particle, we actually get a series of solution having the amplitude varying with
x and t. This is called the wave packet and the superposition of the waves in this wave packet
represents the wave-behavior of the particle. To construct a wave having a finite extent in
space ( a single group with a definite beginning and end) then we must superpose sinusoidal
waved having a continuous spectrum of wave length with a range ∆λ. The amplitude of such
and extent ∆x. So, in the case, ∆E is not zero (because ∆λ ≠0) and hence every excited state has
a definite lifetime.
List the assumptions made in deriving the Bohr theory. Which of these are a result of
neglecting small quantities? Which of these violate basic principles of quantum
physics.
(a) How does a Bohr atom violate the position-momentum uncertainty relationship? (b) how
does a Bohr atom violate the energy-time uncertainity relationship? (what is ∆E? what does
that imply about ∆t? What do you conclude about transitions between levels)
The radius of the orbit is rn=a0n2 where a0 is the Bohr radius and n=1,2,3... So, the position of
the particle is exactly defined. Again, the quantum condition of Bohr tells that the angular
momentum is nvr=nħ. Therefore, we can get exactly the linear momentum of the electron since
r is a known quantity. But, the uncertainty principle says that we can not get the position and
momentum of the particle simultaneously. Thus the Bohr atom violates the uncertainty
relation. (b) The energy in a sate (for a certain value of n) is exactly defined. Therefore, ∆E = 0
and ∆t=∞ according to the uncertaintiy principle. So, we must observe the particle in a state for
an infinite time. But the electron always makes transition violating the uncertainty principle. So,
Bohr's postulate needs a better treatment. If we solve the time dependent SchrOdinger
equation for the particle, we actually get a series of solution having the amplitude varying with
x and t. This is called the wave packet and the superposition of the waves in this wave packet
represents the wave-behavior of the particle. To construct a wave having a finite extent in
space ( a single group with a definite beginning and end) then we must superpose sinusoidal
waved having a continuous spectrum of wave length with a range ∆λ. The amplitude of such
and extent ∆x. So, in the case, ∆E is not zero (because ∆λ ≠0) and hence every excited state has
a definite lifetime.
List the assumptions made in deriving the Bohr theory. Which of these are a result of neglecting
small quantities? Which of these violate basic principles of quantum physics.
(1) An electron in an atom moves in a circular orbit around the nucleus under the influence of
the coulomb attraction between the electron and the nucleus obeying the laws of classical
mechanics (2) Instead of the infinity orbits which would be possible in classical machines, It is
only possible for an electron to move in an orbit for wich his orbital angular momentum L is an
integral multiple of ħ(nvr=nħ).(3) Despite the fact that it is constantly accelerating an electron
moving in such an allowed orbit does not radiate electromagnetic energy thus, its total energy E
remains constant (4) Electromagnetic radiation is emitted if an electron, initially moving in an
orbit of total energy E discontinuously changes its motion so that it moves in an orbit total
emery Ef the frequency of the emitted radiation V is equal to the quantity (Ei-El) divided by
planks constant h(Ei-Ef) = hv¬¬. assumed that m/M→0. The assumption of only circular orbits
and it cannot explain the origin of the fine structure of spectral lines or make any calculation
about the transmittions of the selection rules which apply to them.
List the assumptions made in deriving the Rutherford scattering formula. Which of
these are a result of neglecting small quantities Which of these violate basic
principles of quantum physics.

List the assumptions made in deriving the Bohr theory. Which of these are a result of
neglecting small quantities? Which of these violate basic principles of quantum physics.
(1) An electron in an atom moves in a circular orbit around the nucleus under the
influence of the coulomb attraction between the electron and the nucleus obeying the
laws of classical mechanics (2) Instead of the infinity orbits which would be possible in
classical machines, It is only possible for an electron to move in an orbit for wich his
orbital angular momentum L is an integral multiple of ħ(nvr=nħ).(3) Despite the fact that
it is constantly accelerating an electron moving in such an allowed orbit does not radiate
electromagnetic energy thus, its total energy E remains constant (4) Electromagnetic
radiation is emitted if an electron, initially moving in an orbit of total energy E
discontinuously changes its motion so that it moves in an orbit total emery Ef the
frequency of the emitted radiation V is equal to the quantity (Ei-El) divided by planks
constant h(Ei-Ef) = hv¬¬. assumed that m/M→0. The assumption of only circular orbits
and it cannot explain the origin of the fine structure of spectral lines or make any
calculation about the transmittions of the selection rules which apply to them.
List the assumptions made in deriving the Rutherford scattering formula. Which of these
are a result of neglecting small quantities Which of these violate basic principles of
quantum physics.
(1) The alpha particles and the nucleus are point charge (2) The scattering is due to the
electrostatic repulsion between the alpha particle and the positive change Ze of the
nucleus (3) The alpha particles do not penetrate the nuclear region and strong
interaction of nuclear forces is not considered. The calculation was concerned only with
scattering at angles greater than several degrees. Hence scattering due to atomic
electron can be ignored. The scattering is then due to the repulsive Coulomb force
acting between the positively charged alpha particle the calculation considered only the
scattering from heavy atom to permit the assumption that the mass of the nucleus is so
large compared to that of the alpha particle that the nucleus does not recoil appreciably
(remains fixed in space) during of alpha particles form the lighter nuclei, we need to
correct for the finite nuclear mass we also ignored the relativistic approach in this case.
For the alpha particle v/c = 1/20 then the classical equations used in calculation should
be handed with relativistic machines the result also fact to explain scattering from the
lighter nuclei. In the calculation we need the angular momentum conservation for which
we had to know the linear momentum at some position but this violates the uncertainty
principle in quantum machines, which tell that we cannot know precisely the momentum
and position simultaneously
In both Rutherford theory and the Bohr theory, we used the classical expression for
kinetic energy. Estimate the velocity of an electron in the Bohr atom and of an alpha
particle in a typical scattering experiment and decide weather the use of the classical
formula is justified.
The velocity of the alpha particle in Rutherford scattering experiment is v=
√(q1q2/(2πE_0 mb))(for alpha) b is the impact parameter - Rutherford's use of
classical formula to study the scattering of an alpha particle by the nucleon of an
atom was justified since the collision is similar in many ways to a simplified atom-
atom collision where is it known that classical and semi-classical approximation
works well. V=(nh)/mr (r = radius) Bohr assumed that the orbits are quantized while
jumping from one orbital to another and emit the radiation. It is a semi-classical
approximation of the Schrodinger equation.
In both the Rutherford theory and the Bohr theory, we neglected any wave
properties of the particles. Estimate the de Broglie wavelength of an electron in a
Bohr atom and compare it with the size of the atom. Estimate the de Broglie
wavelength of an alpha particle and compare it with the size of the nucleus. Is the
wave behavior expected to be important in either case?
In both Rutherford theory and the Bohr theory, we used the classical expression for kinetic
energy. Estimate the velocity of an electron in the Bohr atom and of an alpha particle in a
typical scattering experiment and decide weather the use of the classical formula is justified.
The velocity of the alpha particle in Rutherford scattering experiment is v= √(q1q2/(2πE_0
mb))(for alpha) b is the impact parameter - Rutherford's use of classical formula to study the
scattering of an alpha particle by the nucleon of an atom was justified since the collision is
similar in many ways to a simplified atom-atom collision where is it known that classical and
semi-classical approximation works well. V=(nh)/mr (r = radius) Bohr assumed that the orbits
are quantized while jumping from one orbital to another and emit the radiation. It is a semi-
classical approximation of the Schrodinger equation.
In both the Rutherford theory and the Bohr theory, we neglected any wave properties of the
particles. Estimate the de Broglie wavelength of an electron in a Bohr atom and compare it with
the size of the atom. Estimate the de Broglie wavelength of an alpha particle and compare it
with the size of the nucleus. Is the wave behavior expected to be important in either case?
λ=h/p, K=p^2/2m=(p^2 c^2)/〖2mc〗^2 , solve for pc →which is ≈ 6.4 fm compared to nuclear
dimension ≈1fm Thus, once again, we should think in terms of waves because the wave
behavior is important in both cases.
What is the distinction between binding energy and ionization energy? Between
binding energy and excitation energy? If you were given the value of the binding
energy of a level in hydrogen, could you find its excitation energy without knowing
which level it is?
Binding energy is the enrgy gained from the chemical binding. It is the energy
between the electrons and nucleus. The elctrons can be in any orbital. The binding
energy is also berween proton and neutrons. The ionization energy is the energy
required to remove and electron from the uttermost orbital of an atom. Exicatino
energy is the energy added to the atom or molecule such that it changes its state
from lowery energy (ground state) to one of the higher energy states. Yes we can
find the excitation energy of a level in hydrogen without knowing which level it is in.
Why are the decreases in current in the Frank-Hertz experiment not sharp?
If V is only slightly more than 4.9V, excitation process must occur just in front of the grid G, and
after the process the electron can not gain enough kinetic energy to overcome the retarding
potential Vknot and can not reach P. At somewhat larger V, The electron can gain enough
kinetic energy after the excitation process to overcome Vknot and reach P. Therefore the
decrease in current in the Franck-Hertz experiment is not sharp.
As indicated by the Franck-Hertz experiment, the first excited state of mercury is at an energy
level of 4.9eV. Do you expect merurty to show absorption lines in the visible spectrum?
Why are the decreases in current in the Frank-Hertz experiment not sharp?
If V is only slightly more than 4.9V, excitation process must occur just in front of the grid G, and
after the process the electron can not gain enough kinetic energy to overcome the retarding
potential Vknot and can not reach P. At somewhat larger V, The electron can gain enough
kinetic energy after the excitation process to overcome Vknot and reach P. Therefore the
decrease in current in the Franck-Hertz experiment is not sharp.
As indicated by the Franck-Hertz experiment, the first excited state of mercury is at an energy
level of 4.9eV. Do you expect merurty to show absorption lines in the visible spectrum?
A certain minimum energy is required to extinct an electron from metal and its called as "work
function" The work function of anode is higher than that of cathode resulting so called "contact
potential difference", between anode and cathode its effect is to shift the current voltage
curve. Lets take Hg gas in Franck-Hertz expirament and take excitation energy E(ex)=4.9 eV then
kinetic enrgy of electrons should be more than excitation energy, for an inelastic scattering
accerlating potential eV, contact potential difference ∆w →(eV-∆w)>E(ex) →V>4.9 volts. The
wavelength for 4.9 eV energy is 254 nm. This wavelength belongs to ultraviolet region. The
formula for wavelength is λ=(hc)/eV as the potential between the plates it increases the
wavelength of light it decreases. But wavelength of the visible light is greater than the
wavelength of the ultraviolet region, therefore we cannot expect to see any absorption in the
visible region for the Mercury
Is the correspondence principle a necessary part of quantum physics or is it merely
an accidental agreement of two formulas? Where do we draw the line between the
world of quantum physics and the world of classical non-quantum physics?
As indicated by the Franck-Hertz experiment, the first excited state of mercury is at an energy
level of 4.9eV. Do you expect merurty to show absorption lines in the visible spectrum?
A certain minimum energy is required to extinct an electron from metal and its called as "work
function" The work function of anode is higher than that of cathode resulting so called "contact
potential difference", between anode and cathode its effect is to shift the current voltage
curve. Lets take Hg gas in Franck-Hertz expirament and take excitation energy E(ex)=4.9 eV then
kinetic enrgy of electrons should be more than excitation energy, for an inelastic scattering
accerlating potential eV, contact potential difference ∆w →(eV-∆w)>E(ex) →V>4.9 volts. The
wavelength for 4.9 eV energy is 254 nm. This wavelength belongs to ultraviolet region. The
formula for wavelength is λ=(hc)/eV as the potential between the plates it increases the
wavelength of light it decreases. But wavelength of the visible light is greater than the
wavelength of the ultraviolet region, therefore we cannot expect to see any absorption in the
visible region for the Mercury.
Is the correspondence principle a necessary part of quantum physics or is it merely an
accidental agreement of two formulas? Where do we draw the line between the world of
quantum physics and the world of classical non-quantum physics?
Correspondence principle a necessary part of quantum physics. It is not an accidental
agreement of two formulas. The applications of the correspondence principle go far beyond the
Bohr atom, and this principle is important in understanding how we get the law of quantum
physics are valid.