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Jul 14, 2019

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Kenneth karane modern physics

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Kenneth karane modern physics

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why?

Thomson modle failed at large scattering angles. In this model the electrons are

embedded in a uniform sphere of positive charge. This model known as the "plum-

pudding" model. The electron can not deflect the projectile since their masses are very

small. So the projectile can only be deflected by the columbic repulsive force due to the

positive charge. Since the positive charge is distributed uniformly throughout the

sphere, this repulsion is very small than it would be if the whole positive charge were at

the center of the atom. Again, we take into account the sphere of radius r<R ( R being

the radium of the atom) to find the repulsive force which also reduces the repulsion.

These cause the small deflection of the projectile.

What principles of physics would be violated if we scattered a beam of alpha particles

with a single impact parameter from a single target atom at rest?

Impact parameter is derived from the law¬¬ of classical mechanics. This depends upon

the angle (θ) and velocity of α -particle. So all particles does not have same impact

parameter. Therefore, law of conservation of energy would be violated if we scattered a

beam of alpha particles with a single impact parameter

Could we use the Rutherford scattering formula to analyze the scattering of (a) protons

incident of iron? (b) Alpha particles incident on lithium (Z=3)? (c) Silver nuclei incident

on gold? (d) Hydrogen atoms incident on gold? (e) Electrons incident on gold?

For the Rutherford scatting to occur the projectile should be a postiviely charged particle

and the target nucleaus is so massive that the projectile that it does not move during the

scattering process. (a) Proton one positively charged particle and have very small mass

compared to the iron nucleus. So it is possible (b) The masses of alpha particle and

lithium nucleus are comparable (little difference) So, we cannot scatter (c) The masses

of silver nuclei and gold are also comparable, no scattering. (d) Hydrogen atoms are

neutral so no scattering (e) Electrons are negatively charged particles so no scattering

What determines the angular range dθ in the alpha-particle scattering experiment

(Figure 6.8) ?

The angular range depends on the impact parameter, the kinetic energy of the

projectile and the atomic number of the target nucleus. The scattering angle θ increases

as b decreases. If k increases, then θ decreases. For large Z, θ, will also be large.

Why didn't Bohr orbit use the concept of de Brogile waves in his theory? What

determines the angular range dθ in the alpha-particle scattering experiment (Figure 6.8) ?

The angular range depends on the impact parameter, the kinetic energy of the projectile and

the atomic number of the target nucleus. The scattering angle θ increases as b decreases. If k

increases, then θ decreases. For large Z, θ, will also be large.

Why didn't Bohr orbit use the concept of de Brogile waves in his theory?

Niles Bohr proposed his postulates in 1913 and the de Brogile proposed the exsistence of

matter waves in 1924. Bohr's quantization rule says, instead of the infinity which is only

possible for in classical mechanics, it is only possible for an electron to move in an orbit for

which its orbital angular momentum L is an integral multiple of ħ. A more physical

interpretation of the bohr quanization rule was given in 1924 by de Broglie. The Bohr

quantization of angular momentm can be written as mvr=Pr〖=nℏ〗=n h/2π where n=1,2,3...

Where P is the linear momentum of an electron in an allowed orbit of the radius r if we

substitute into this equation the expression for P in terms of the corresponding de Broglie wave

length P=h/λ The Bohr equation become(hr)/λ= (nh)/2π or 2πr=n𝜆 Thus the allowed orbits are

those in which the circumference of the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of the

Broglie wave length

In which Bohr orbit does the electron have the largest velocity? Are we justified in

treating the electron non-relativistically in that case

From the Bohr's quantum condition〖 Pr=〗 〖 nℏ〗 now the series of allowed values for

radius r is rn =a0 n2 substitute r in Pr, solve for v - From this equation, we see that v is

maximum for the lowest value of n. Thus the electron has the largest velocity is its

ground state (n=1) (n=1) → for this velocity is quite large, but still less than 1% of light.

V= ħ/ma0

How does an electron in hydrogen get from r=4a0 to to r= a0 with out being anywhere in

between?

In which Bohr orbit does the electron have the largest velocity? Are we justified in treating the

electron non-relativistically in that case

From the Bohr's quantum condition〖Pr=〗 〖nℏ〗 now the series of allowed values for radius r

is rn =a0 n2 substitute r in Pr, solve for v - From this equation, we see that v is maximum for the

lowest value of n. Thus the electron has the largest velocity is its ground state (n=1) (n=1) → for

this velocity is quite large, but still less than 1% of light. V= ħ/ma0

How does an electron in hydrogen get from r=4a0 to to r= a0 with out being anywhere in

between?

Bohr's model is a semi-classical model. This allowed radius of the orbit obtained from this

model is rn=a0n2 where a is the Bohr radius. From the de Brogile hypothesis, the allowed orbits

are those in which the circumference of the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of de

Brogile wavelengths. So, in the purely quantum mechanical hypothesis, the electron in the Bohr

orbit is considered not a particle. But a wave which is respectively Ψ(r,θ,φ)=

_________________________________________________Where

__________________________________________________________________________ For

the 1s and 2p states, the radical probability density has maxima at respectively r= a0 and r = 4

a0 which agree with the allowed radius rn=a0n2 from Bohr's postulate. So, the fact that an

electron in hydrogen atom get from r=4 a0 to r=a0 without being anywhere in between does

not contradict the quantum mechanical view because we treat the electron by wave mechanics

and can not track it as a particle. The radical probability tells the possible radius of the orbit of

the electron.

How is the quantization of the energy in the hydrogen atom similar to the quantization of

the systems discussed in Chapter 5? How is it different? Do the quantizations originate

from similar causes?

How does an electron in hydrogen get from r=4a0 to to r= a0 with out being anywhere in

between?

Bohr's model is a semi-classical model. This allowed radius of the orbit obtained from this

model is rn=a0n2 where a is the Bohr radius. From the de Brogile hypothesis, the allowed orbits

are those in which the circumference of the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of de

Brogile wavelengths. So, in the purely quantum mechanical hypothesis, the electron in the Bohr

orbit is considered not a particle. But a wave which is respectively Ψ(r,θ,φ)=

_________________________________________________Where

__________________________________________________________________________ For

the 1s and 2p states, the radical probability density has maxima at respectively r= a0 and r = 4

a0 which agree with the allowed radius rn=a0n2 from Bohr's postulate. So, the fact that an

electron in hydrogen atom get from r=4 a0 to r=a0 without being anywhere in between does

not contradict the quantum mechanical view because we treat the electron by wave mechanics

and can not track it as a particle. The radical probability tells the possible radius of the orbit of

the electron.

How is the quantization of the energy in the hydrogen atom similar to the quantization of the

systems discussed in Chapter 5? How is it different? Do the quantizations originate from similar

causes?

Similarity - in the hydrogen atom, the allowed orbits one those in which the circumference of

the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of de Broglie wavelengths. On the other hand,

the solutions for the particle in the box potential, potential barrier, step potential, simple

harmonic potential etc, one also superposition of standing de Broglie wave. In all the cases the

energy of the particle increase with the principal quantum number n. Difference - For the

particle trapped in the box potential, potential barrier, simple harmonic potential etc, the

energies one always postivce (E>0 in the ases discussed in chapter 5). But in the case of

hydrogen atom. The energy of the electron is negative (En=-13.6/n^2). E→0 as n→∞ where the

energy is continuous (classical limit) The quantization of energy in hydrogen atom originates

from the quantum condition (mvr=nħ) of Bohr's postulate. In the other cases, this comes from

the boundary conditions of the problem.

How is the quantization of the energy in the hydrogen atom similar to the quantization of the

systems discussed in Chapter 5? How is it different? Do the quantizations originate from similar

causes?

Similarity - in the hydrogen atom, the allowed orbits one those in which the circumference of

the orbit can contain exactly an integral number of de Broglie wavelengths. On the other hand,

the solutions for the particle in the box potential, potential barrier, step potential, simple

harmonic potential etc, one also superposition of standing de Broglie wave. In all the cases the

energy of the particle increase with the principal quantum number n. Difference - For the

particle trapped in the box potential, potential barrier, simple harmonic potential etc, the

energies one always postivce (E>0 in the ases discussed in chapter 5). But in the case of

hydrogen atom. The energy of the electron is negative (En=-13.6/n^2). E→0 as n→∞ where the

energy is continuous (classical limit) The quantization of energy in hydrogen atom originates

from the quantum condition (mvr=nħ) of Bohr's postulate. In the other cases, this comes from

the boundary conditions of the problem.

In a Bohr atom, an electron jumps from state n1, with angular momentum n1ħ, to state n2 with

angular momentum n2ħ. How can an isolated system change its angular momentum? Can the

photon carry away the difference in angular momentum? Estimate the maximum angular

momentum, relative to the center of an atom, which the photon can have. Does this suggest

another failure of the Bohr model?

The product Enrn for the hydrogen atom is (1) independent of Planck's constant and (2)

independent of the quantum number n. Does this observation have any significance? Is

this a classical or quantum effect?

In a Bohr atom, an electron jumps from state n1, with angular momentum n1ħ, to state n2 with

angular momentum n2ħ. How can an isolated system change its angular momentum? Can the

photon carry away the difference in angular momentum? Estimate the maximum angular

momentum, relative to the center of an atom, which the photon can have. Does this suggest

another failure of the Bohr model?

In classical physics, a change in angular momentum requires an external torque. The fact that

an electron changes in momentum happens due to the vacuum polarization, the electron is in

an excited states after a life time of 10^-8 seconds after which it makes a transition. The

difference of angular momentum should carry away by the photon. But this theory fails in

explaining the limitation of quantum resuts. As 'n' increases to infinity, the difference in angular

momentum is also infinite. According to uncertainty principle, the infinite value of change in

angular momentum results the angular position of the particle is zero ∆θ∆L> ħ/2 →∆ θ> ħ/2(∞)

Hence the infinite value of change in angular momentum is one of the deficiencies of the Bohr

model. The orbital angular momentum (l) is having values ranging from 0 to n-1. But the only

transitions which satisfy the selection rule ∆l=±1 are allowed. According to the Bohr model, The

maximum angular momentum difference between energy states are ntn and (n+1)th is

∆L=(n+1-1)h-(n-1)h = h. But quantum mechanically, the angular momentum carried by the

photon is √(l(l+1) )h The quantum mechanical results fully different with the classical results of

Bohr model hence another failure.

The product Enrn for the hydrogen atom is (1) independent of Planck's constant and (2)

independent of the quantum number n. Does this observation have any significance? Is this a

classical or quantum effect?

The energy of the electron for Hydrogen in the nth state is En = -(me^4)/(〖32π〗^2 ℇ_0^2 ℏ^2

n^2 ) the radius of Hydrogen atom in the nth state is rn=a0n2 = (〖4π ℏ〗^2 ℇ_0^ )/(me^2 )n2 →

find EnRn. From the above equation EnRn is independent t of Planck's constant (hbar) and

quantum number(n). So all energy states have same EnRn value. Therefore this is a classical

effect.

(a) How does a Bohr atom violate the position-momentum uncertainty relationship?

(b) how does a Bohr atom violate the energy-time uncertainity relationship?

(what is ∆E? what does that imply about ∆t? What do you conclude about

transitions between levels)

The product Enrn for the hydrogen atom is (1) independent of Planck's constant and (2)

independent of the quantum number n. Does this observation have any significance? Is this a

classical or quantum effect?

The energy of the electron for Hydrogen in the nth state is En = -(me^4)/(〖32π〗^2 ℇ_0^2 ℏ^2

n^2 ) the radius of Hydrogen atom in the nth state is rn=a0n2 = (〖4π ℏ〗^2 ℇ_0^ )/(me^2 )n2 →

find EnRn. From the above equation EnRn is independent t of Planck's constant (hbar) and

quantum number(n). So all energy states have same EnRn value. Therefore this is a classical

effect.

(a) How does a Bohr atom violate the position-momentum uncertainty relationship? (b) how

does a Bohr atom violate the energy-time uncertainity relationship? (what is ∆E? what does

that imply about ∆t? What do you conclude about transitions between levels)

The radius of the orbit is rn=a0n2 where a0 is the Bohr radius and n=1,2,3... So, the position of

the particle is exactly defined. Again, the quantum condition of Bohr tells that the angular

momentum is nvr=nħ. Therefore, we can get exactly the linear momentum of the electron since

r is a known quantity. But, the uncertainty principle says that we can not get the position and

momentum of the particle simultaneously. Thus the Bohr atom violates the uncertainty

relation. (b) The energy in a sate (for a certain value of n) is exactly defined. Therefore, ∆E = 0

and ∆t=∞ according to the uncertaintiy principle. So, we must observe the particle in a state for

an infinite time. But the electron always makes transition violating the uncertainty principle. So,

Bohr's postulate needs a better treatment. If we solve the time dependent SchrOdinger

equation for the particle, we actually get a series of solution having the amplitude varying with

x and t. This is called the wave packet and the superposition of the waves in this wave packet

represents the wave-behavior of the particle. To construct a wave having a finite extent in

space ( a single group with a definite beginning and end) then we must superpose sinusoidal

waved having a continuous spectrum of wave length with a range ∆λ. The amplitude of such

and extent ∆x. So, in the case, ∆E is not zero (because ∆λ ≠0) and hence every excited state has

a definite lifetime.

List the assumptions made in deriving the Bohr theory. Which of these are a result of

neglecting small quantities? Which of these violate basic principles of quantum

physics.

(a) How does a Bohr atom violate the position-momentum uncertainty relationship? (b) how

does a Bohr atom violate the energy-time uncertainity relationship? (what is ∆E? what does

that imply about ∆t? What do you conclude about transitions between levels)

The radius of the orbit is rn=a0n2 where a0 is the Bohr radius and n=1,2,3... So, the position of

the particle is exactly defined. Again, the quantum condition of Bohr tells that the angular

momentum is nvr=nħ. Therefore, we can get exactly the linear momentum of the electron since

r is a known quantity. But, the uncertainty principle says that we can not get the position and

momentum of the particle simultaneously. Thus the Bohr atom violates the uncertainty

relation. (b) The energy in a sate (for a certain value of n) is exactly defined. Therefore, ∆E = 0

and ∆t=∞ according to the uncertaintiy principle. So, we must observe the particle in a state for

an infinite time. But the electron always makes transition violating the uncertainty principle. So,

Bohr's postulate needs a better treatment. If we solve the time dependent SchrOdinger

equation for the particle, we actually get a series of solution having the amplitude varying with

x and t. This is called the wave packet and the superposition of the waves in this wave packet

represents the wave-behavior of the particle. To construct a wave having a finite extent in

space ( a single group with a definite beginning and end) then we must superpose sinusoidal

waved having a continuous spectrum of wave length with a range ∆λ. The amplitude of such

and extent ∆x. So, in the case, ∆E is not zero (because ∆λ ≠0) and hence every excited state has

a definite lifetime.

List the assumptions made in deriving the Bohr theory. Which of these are a result of neglecting

small quantities? Which of these violate basic principles of quantum physics.

(1) An electron in an atom moves in a circular orbit around the nucleus under the influence of

the coulomb attraction between the electron and the nucleus obeying the laws of classical

mechanics (2) Instead of the infinity orbits which would be possible in classical machines, It is

only possible for an electron to move in an orbit for wich his orbital angular momentum L is an

integral multiple of ħ(nvr=nħ).(3) Despite the fact that it is constantly accelerating an electron

moving in such an allowed orbit does not radiate electromagnetic energy thus, its total energy E

remains constant (4) Electromagnetic radiation is emitted if an electron, initially moving in an

orbit of total energy E discontinuously changes its motion so that it moves in an orbit total

emery Ef the frequency of the emitted radiation V is equal to the quantity (Ei-El) divided by

planks constant h(Ei-Ef) = hv¬¬. assumed that m/M→0. The assumption of only circular orbits

and it cannot explain the origin of the fine structure of spectral lines or make any calculation

about the transmittions of the selection rules which apply to them.

List the assumptions made in deriving the Rutherford scattering formula. Which of

these are a result of neglecting small quantities Which of these violate basic

principles of quantum physics.

List the assumptions made in deriving the Bohr theory. Which of these are a result of

neglecting small quantities? Which of these violate basic principles of quantum physics.

(1) An electron in an atom moves in a circular orbit around the nucleus under the

influence of the coulomb attraction between the electron and the nucleus obeying the

laws of classical mechanics (2) Instead of the infinity orbits which would be possible in

classical machines, It is only possible for an electron to move in an orbit for wich his

orbital angular momentum L is an integral multiple of ħ(nvr=nħ).(3) Despite the fact that

it is constantly accelerating an electron moving in such an allowed orbit does not radiate

electromagnetic energy thus, its total energy E remains constant (4) Electromagnetic

radiation is emitted if an electron, initially moving in an orbit of total energy E

discontinuously changes its motion so that it moves in an orbit total emery Ef the

frequency of the emitted radiation V is equal to the quantity (Ei-El) divided by planks

constant h(Ei-Ef) = hv¬¬. assumed that m/M→0. The assumption of only circular orbits

and it cannot explain the origin of the fine structure of spectral lines or make any

calculation about the transmittions of the selection rules which apply to them.

List the assumptions made in deriving the Rutherford scattering formula. Which of these

are a result of neglecting small quantities Which of these violate basic principles of

quantum physics.

(1) The alpha particles and the nucleus are point charge (2) The scattering is due to the

electrostatic repulsion between the alpha particle and the positive change Ze of the

nucleus (3) The alpha particles do not penetrate the nuclear region and strong

interaction of nuclear forces is not considered. The calculation was concerned only with

scattering at angles greater than several degrees. Hence scattering due to atomic

electron can be ignored. The scattering is then due to the repulsive Coulomb force

acting between the positively charged alpha particle the calculation considered only the

scattering from heavy atom to permit the assumption that the mass of the nucleus is so

large compared to that of the alpha particle that the nucleus does not recoil appreciably

(remains fixed in space) during of alpha particles form the lighter nuclei, we need to

correct for the finite nuclear mass we also ignored the relativistic approach in this case.

For the alpha particle v/c = 1/20 then the classical equations used in calculation should

be handed with relativistic machines the result also fact to explain scattering from the

lighter nuclei. In the calculation we need the angular momentum conservation for which

we had to know the linear momentum at some position but this violates the uncertainty

principle in quantum machines, which tell that we cannot know precisely the momentum

and position simultaneously

In both Rutherford theory and the Bohr theory, we used the classical expression for

kinetic energy. Estimate the velocity of an electron in the Bohr atom and of an alpha

particle in a typical scattering experiment and decide weather the use of the classical

formula is justified.

The velocity of the alpha particle in Rutherford scattering experiment is v=

√(q1q2/(2πE_0 mb))(for alpha) b is the impact parameter - Rutherford's use of

classical formula to study the scattering of an alpha particle by the nucleon of an

atom was justified since the collision is similar in many ways to a simplified atom-

atom collision where is it known that classical and semi-classical approximation

works well. V=(nh)/mr (r = radius) Bohr assumed that the orbits are quantized while

jumping from one orbital to another and emit the radiation. It is a semi-classical

approximation of the Schrodinger equation.

In both the Rutherford theory and the Bohr theory, we neglected any wave

properties of the particles. Estimate the de Broglie wavelength of an electron in a

Bohr atom and compare it with the size of the atom. Estimate the de Broglie

wavelength of an alpha particle and compare it with the size of the nucleus. Is the

wave behavior expected to be important in either case?

In both Rutherford theory and the Bohr theory, we used the classical expression for kinetic

energy. Estimate the velocity of an electron in the Bohr atom and of an alpha particle in a

typical scattering experiment and decide weather the use of the classical formula is justified.

The velocity of the alpha particle in Rutherford scattering experiment is v= √(q1q2/(2πE_0

mb))(for alpha) b is the impact parameter - Rutherford's use of classical formula to study the

scattering of an alpha particle by the nucleon of an atom was justified since the collision is

similar in many ways to a simplified atom-atom collision where is it known that classical and

semi-classical approximation works well. V=(nh)/mr (r = radius) Bohr assumed that the orbits

are quantized while jumping from one orbital to another and emit the radiation. It is a semi-

classical approximation of the Schrodinger equation.

In both the Rutherford theory and the Bohr theory, we neglected any wave properties of the

particles. Estimate the de Broglie wavelength of an electron in a Bohr atom and compare it with

the size of the atom. Estimate the de Broglie wavelength of an alpha particle and compare it

with the size of the nucleus. Is the wave behavior expected to be important in either case?

λ=h/p, K=p^2/2m=(p^2 c^2)/〖2mc〗^2 , solve for pc →which is ≈ 6.4 fm compared to nuclear

dimension ≈1fm Thus, once again, we should think in terms of waves because the wave

behavior is important in both cases.

What is the distinction between binding energy and ionization energy? Between

binding energy and excitation energy? If you were given the value of the binding

energy of a level in hydrogen, could you find its excitation energy without knowing

which level it is?

Binding energy is the enrgy gained from the chemical binding. It is the energy

between the electrons and nucleus. The elctrons can be in any orbital. The binding

energy is also berween proton and neutrons. The ionization energy is the energy

required to remove and electron from the uttermost orbital of an atom. Exicatino

energy is the energy added to the atom or molecule such that it changes its state

from lowery energy (ground state) to one of the higher energy states. Yes we can

find the excitation energy of a level in hydrogen without knowing which level it is in.

Why are the decreases in current in the Frank-Hertz experiment not sharp?

If V is only slightly more than 4.9V, excitation process must occur just in front of the grid G, and

after the process the electron can not gain enough kinetic energy to overcome the retarding

potential Vknot and can not reach P. At somewhat larger V, The electron can gain enough

kinetic energy after the excitation process to overcome Vknot and reach P. Therefore the

decrease in current in the Franck-Hertz experiment is not sharp.

As indicated by the Franck-Hertz experiment, the first excited state of mercury is at an energy

level of 4.9eV. Do you expect merurty to show absorption lines in the visible spectrum?

Why are the decreases in current in the Frank-Hertz experiment not sharp?

If V is only slightly more than 4.9V, excitation process must occur just in front of the grid G, and

after the process the electron can not gain enough kinetic energy to overcome the retarding

potential Vknot and can not reach P. At somewhat larger V, The electron can gain enough

kinetic energy after the excitation process to overcome Vknot and reach P. Therefore the

decrease in current in the Franck-Hertz experiment is not sharp.

As indicated by the Franck-Hertz experiment, the first excited state of mercury is at an energy

level of 4.9eV. Do you expect merurty to show absorption lines in the visible spectrum?

A certain minimum energy is required to extinct an electron from metal and its called as "work

function" The work function of anode is higher than that of cathode resulting so called "contact

potential difference", between anode and cathode its effect is to shift the current voltage

curve. Lets take Hg gas in Franck-Hertz expirament and take excitation energy E(ex)=4.9 eV then

kinetic enrgy of electrons should be more than excitation energy, for an inelastic scattering

accerlating potential eV, contact potential difference ∆w →(eV-∆w)>E(ex) →V>4.9 volts. The

wavelength for 4.9 eV energy is 254 nm. This wavelength belongs to ultraviolet region. The

formula for wavelength is λ=(hc)/eV as the potential between the plates it increases the

wavelength of light it decreases. But wavelength of the visible light is greater than the

wavelength of the ultraviolet region, therefore we cannot expect to see any absorption in the

visible region for the Mercury

Is the correspondence principle a necessary part of quantum physics or is it merely

an accidental agreement of two formulas? Where do we draw the line between the

world of quantum physics and the world of classical non-quantum physics?

As indicated by the Franck-Hertz experiment, the first excited state of mercury is at an energy

level of 4.9eV. Do you expect merurty to show absorption lines in the visible spectrum?

A certain minimum energy is required to extinct an electron from metal and its called as "work

function" The work function of anode is higher than that of cathode resulting so called "contact

potential difference", between anode and cathode its effect is to shift the current voltage

curve. Lets take Hg gas in Franck-Hertz expirament and take excitation energy E(ex)=4.9 eV then

kinetic enrgy of electrons should be more than excitation energy, for an inelastic scattering

accerlating potential eV, contact potential difference ∆w →(eV-∆w)>E(ex) →V>4.9 volts. The

wavelength for 4.9 eV energy is 254 nm. This wavelength belongs to ultraviolet region. The

formula for wavelength is λ=(hc)/eV as the potential between the plates it increases the

wavelength of light it decreases. But wavelength of the visible light is greater than the

wavelength of the ultraviolet region, therefore we cannot expect to see any absorption in the

visible region for the Mercury.

Is the correspondence principle a necessary part of quantum physics or is it merely an

accidental agreement of two formulas? Where do we draw the line between the world of

quantum physics and the world of classical non-quantum physics?

Correspondence principle a necessary part of quantum physics. It is not an accidental

agreement of two formulas. The applications of the correspondence principle go far beyond the

Bohr atom, and this principle is important in understanding how we get the law of quantum

physics are valid.

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