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Government of Nepal u
Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and l
y
l Transport
Singh durbar, Kathmandu
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0
1
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FINAL REPORT
Data Collection Survey of Water Transport
Facilities in Nepal
GRID

Submitted By

GRID Consult (P) Ltd.


New Baneshwor, Kathmandu
Tel: 01-5172695, 9851126782
Government of Nepal
Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport
Singh durbar, Kathmandu

DATA COLLECTION SURVEY OF WATER TRANSPORT FACILITIES IN NEPAL

July, 2019

This document is a final report of work, for the project “Data Collection Survey of Water
Transport Facilities in Nepal” undertaken by the Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and
Transport, Singh durbar, Kathmandu. This document provides all expected output as per ToR.
PROJECT INFORMATION

Name of the Project Data Collection Survey of Water Transport Facilities in


Nepal
Project Executing Agency Government of Nepal
Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport
Singh durbar, Kathmandu
Implementing Agency Government of Nepal
Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport
Singh durbar, Kathmandu
Country Project Title Nepal
Name of the Consultant GRID Consult (P) Ltd.
Baneshwor, Kathmandu
Tel: 01-5172695, 9851125412
Email: gridconsult.consult@gmail.com
Project Commencement Date June 2019
Expected Date of Project July 2019
Completion

SUBMISSION INFORMATION

Name of the Report Final Report


Nos. of Volumes 1(One)
Version No 1
Date of Submission July 2019
Submission Type Hard Copy
Copies Produced For Client : 3 (Three) For Consultant : 1 (One)
Prepared By Project Team
Checked By
Reviewed By
Official Stamp

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This report is prepared by GRID Consult Pvt. Ltd. for Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and
Transport (MoPIT), after the completion of the consulting service on 'Data collection Survey of
water Transport Facilities in Nepal'. This report includes the most of the existing water transport
services in major rivers corridors of Nepal. The water transport, especially river water transport
system is critical due to the river profile; flow depth and velocity of the water flow. GRID Consult
Pvt. Ltd. has conducted this data collection survey considering the professional ethics as well as
quality of service to be rendered.

The team would like to express thanks to the Joint Secretary Mrs. Pramila Devi Shakya Bajracharya,
SDE Mr. Shiva Lal Dahal and Er. Salin Shakya for their support during the study period. Similarly,
the team would like to thank to all staff at MoPIT.

Furthermore, the study team is indebted to the field support of various water transport entrepreneurs
and concerned authorities.

Study Team

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROJECT INFORMATION ............................................................................................................ I

SUBMISSION INFORMATION ..................................................................................................... I

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................... II

TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................................. III

LIST OF FIGURE............................................................................................................................ V

LIST OF TABLE............................................................................................................................. VI

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................... 1-1

1.1 Background ................................................................................................................................................... 1-1

1.2 Objective and Scope of works ................................................................................................................... 1-2

1.3 rationale of the study ................................................................................................................................... 1-2

1.4 study outcomes ............................................................................................................................................. 1-3

CHAPTER 2. WATER TRANSPORT IN NEPAL.................................................................... 2-4

1.5 introuction ..................................................................................................................................................... 2-4

1.6 Water transport in Nepal ............................................................................................................................ 2-4

1.7 River basin and transport in Nepal ........................................................................................................... 2-5

River transport...................................................................................................................................................... 2-6

Recreational water transport .............................................................................................................................. 2-7

Recreational water transport: Boating............................................................................................................... 2-8

River Crossing: shortest route for local travel ................................................................................................. 2-8

CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................. 3-1

1.8 General .......................................................................................................................................................... 3-1

3.1 Data on water transport .............................................................................................................................. 3-2

3.2 review of the previous study ...................................................................................................................... 3-3

Koshi River Basin ................................................................................................................................................ 3-4

Bagmati River: ...................................................................................................................................................... 3-4

Narayani / Gandaki River .................................................................................................................................. 3-4

Karnali /Bheri River ............................................................................................................................................ 3-4


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CHAPTER 4. WATER TRANSPORT FACILITIES ................................................................. 4-5

3.3 Water transport data .................................................................................................................................... 4-5

3.4 Update of the previous study ..................................................................................................................... 4-5

4.3 WT along Koshi River Basin...................................................................................................................... 4-8

4.4 Chatara -Simle Route ................................................................................................................................... 4-8

4.5 Bagmati River Basin....................................................................................................................................... 15

4.6 Gandaki River Basin ...................................................................................................................................... 19

4.7 Karnali River Basin ........................................................................................................................................ 27

CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................... 31

5.1 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................... 31

5.2 Recommendations ......................................................................................................................................... 31

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................... 32

ANNEX – 1: PHOTOGRAPHS ...................................................................................................... 33

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LIST OF FIGURE

Figure 1: River systems in Nepal ................................................................................................................. 2-9

Figure 2: General methodology of the consulting service ....................................................................... 3-1

Figure 3: Koshi River Basin.......................................................................................................................... 4-8

Figure 4: Water transport service alignment at Chatara - Simle (Koshi River basin) ............................ 14

Figure 5: Bagmati River Basin ........................................................................................................................ 15

Figure 7: Water transport service alignment at Bagmati River .................................................................. 18

Figure 8: Gandaki River Basin within Nepal ............................................................................................... 19

Figure 9: Water transport service alignment at Kaligandaki (Mirmi - Setibeni) ..................................... 25

Figure 10: Water transport service alignment at Narayani River (Narayanghat) .................................... 26

Figure 11: Karnali River Basin within Nepal ............................................................................................... 27

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LIST OF TABLE

Table 1: field schedule made by the field team .......................................................................................... 3-2

Table 2: Data description of WT facilities ................................................................................................. 3-3

Table 3: Water transport along Koshi River Basin (study in 2011) ........................................................ 4-6

Table 4: Water transport in Narayani/Gandaki River Basin (study in 2011)........................................ 4-6

Table 5: Water transport in Karnali river basin (Bheri) (study in 2011) ................................................ 4-6

Table 6: Water transport route: Chatara - Simle........................................................................................ 4-9

Table 7: Barahakshetra Marine & Resort Pvt Ltd ..................................................................................... 4-9

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Data Collection Survey of Water Transport Facilities in Nepal

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

Road transport is only the reliable transport service for the economic as well as overall development
in the country. At the same time, air transport and railways are taking up from the very beginning
days of the nation development. The entire road network is comprised of more than 80 thousands
kilometers of all types of roads. Similarly, more than thirty domestic airports are in operation. In the
same way, first railway lines were constructed very early (about seventy years ago). In such scenario
of the transport sector, water transport is in the initial stage of its development. In this sector,
private ventures are providing transport services at very limited locations. The regulations as well as
funding including development plans do not exist in this mode of transport till now. Recently,
Government has initiated to take up the development of water transport as the supplementary mode
of transport.

Nepal as the land-locked country, do not have the direct reach to the sea. However, the rivers could
be a mean to connect to the sea ports located in Indian Ocean. Major Rivers such as Koshi, Gandaki
and Karnali could be utilized for the water navigation to some extent for connecting country to the
sea. Due to the topography of the country, river profiles are not favorable for navigation purpose
due to the waterway depth and high velocity. In the perspective of future development, water
navigation (transport services) could be developed along water reservoirs constructed for the hydro-
electric project.

Water transport has never been in the consideration for the development as the transport sector.
Local initiatives as the private business have started in some places to utilize the water body for the
very limited services with the development of insignificant infrastructure and other facilities.
However, water transport has strength as the supplementary to the road transport. It has to be
developed at the locality which is inaccessible to the road transport. Existing water transport services
are very limited and scattered all over the country. These are not in the government regulations
(except some of them are registered at the local authority) and records have not been updated at the
Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport (MoPIT).

In line with this, MoPIT has taken initiation to conduct the data collection survey for water transport
facilities in Nepal. It has assigned the consulting service to the GRID Consult for carrying out the

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task in this aspect. The consulting service would be supportive further development of water
transport projects as well as the future planning in this sector.

1.2 OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF WORKS

The overall objective the consulting services is to collect the data on existing water transport facilities in Nepal. The
scope of the consulting service includes the following tasks as:
a) Review of previous water transport study reports and identify the location of water transport services in
Nepal in consultation with client. The major water transport corridors may include the following river
systems:
 Koshi River
 Bagmati River
 Gandaki (Narayani) River,
 Karnali River,
b) Prepare the format of the data to be collected from the sites,
c) Conduct the field survey and make inventories of the water transport services at those locations, the field
survey shall be made with the proper measurement of the major parameters of the existing water transport
facilities,
d) Identify the improvement options for the smooth and better water transport services in the particular
locations in consultation with local community as well as transport entrepreneurs,
e) Prepare the GIS based mapping (with suitable attributes) of water transport facilities and other related data
such as water flow width and depth of the mains,
f) Prepare the report on the consulting service for the data collection survey of water transport facilities in
Nepal

1.3 RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Water transport sector is in the primitive stage of its development in Nepal. However, it has future
perspective as a low cost supplementary mode to the road transport services. Further, it would have
cross border linkage to the India by connecting the Sea Ports via major rivers in the south of the
country. In the past, there was lack of a systematic planning, implementing and monitoring
institution within the Government system. Recently, Government of Nepal has established Office of
the Water Transport the initiation for planning and development of water transportation system in
Nepal. The major challenge at this stage is to formulate policies, plans, and strategy in this sector.
The existing scenario of water transport services and facilities including the local efforts has to be
taken into consideration. Therefore, this study is expected to set up an initial platform for the
development of water transport system policies and plans, which will include short-term as well as
long term actions to be taken in its development. The data collection survey regarding the existing
water transport facilities are relatively very limited. However, the services could be improved and
developed by considering these efforts into the Government Plans and Programs.
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Furthermore, this study has reviewed the past studies conducted in this sector.

1.4 STUDY OUTCOMES

Data collection on the existing water transport facilities are expected to have an input of spatial
information of scattered local efforts in this sector. This study is aimed at the finding the locations of
the water transport services and visiting those sites for collecting the relevant information on them.
At the same time, probable future interventions requirements for promotion of those services were
also noted down. The overall outcome of this study can be taken as:

 Updated information on the locations of water transport services by reviewing the previous
study as well as relevant literatures on them,

 Collection relevant information on the services and facilities of the existing transport
facilities,

 GIS based maps of the locations of the water transport facilities with the relevant attributes,

 Recommendations for the promotion of local efforts based on the interactions with
stakeholders of the existing service operators.

The report on this study has been compiled in line with the ToR of the study is framed as below:

 Chapter 1: Introduction

 Chapter 2: Water Transport in Nepal

 Chapter 3: Methodology

 Chapter 4: Water Transport Facilities

 Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations

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CHAPTER 2. WATER TRANSPORT IN NEPAL

1.5 INTROUCTION

Water transport becomes an important mode of transport from the very ancient human
civilization. Especially, water navigation in the ocean as well sea and river corridors become a
major economic and tool for the trade promotion for human civilization. Water transport refers
to movement of goods and passengers on waterways by using various means like boats,
steamers, launches, ships, etc. With the help of these means goods and passengers are carried to
different places, both within as well as outside the country. Within the country, rivers and canals
facilitate the movement of boats, launches, etc. Since the goods and passengers move inside the
country, this type of transport is called inland water transport. When the different means of
transport are used to carry goods and passengers on the sea route it is termed as ocean transport.
Major types of water transport thus categorized as:
 Inland water transport: Inland water transport use boats, launches, barges, streamers,
etc., to carry goods and passengers on river and canal routes. These routes are called
inland waterways and are used in domestic or home trade to carry bulky goods.
Passenger transport through waterways is limited in Nepal due to the topographic
constraints and river flow parameters. Inland water transport system requires the
gentle flow with enough depth for the vessel operation. Inland transport is by means
of boats, steamers, barges and launches etc.
 Ocean transport: Ocean transport refers to movement of goods and passengers with
the help of ships through sea or ocean waterways. It plays an important role in the
development of international trade. It is also used for transporting goods and
passengers in the coastal areas. Ocean transport has its fixed route, which links
almost all the countries of the world. Sea transport may be of the following two types
as:
o Coastal Shipping in which ships ply between the main ports of a country.
This helps in home trade and also in carrying passengers within the country;
o Overseas shipping in which ships ply between different countries separated
by sea or ocean. It is mainly used for promotion and development of
international trade. It is economical means of transport to carry heavy
machines and goods in bulk. Overseas transport is carried out on fixed
routes, which connect almost all the countries. In ocean transport, different
types of ships are used to carry passengers and goods such as liners, tramps,
ships etc.

1.6 WATER TRANSPORT IN NEPAL

Ministry of Physical Infrastructure and Transport has conducted a feasibility study of water
transport and other several studies had been conducted so far. Most of those studies considered
major river corridors as Koshi, Narayani, Karnali river corridors.
There have been various studies related to water transportation on previous years with the aim of
establishing water transportation as an alternative mode of transportation from the usual likes of
land and air transportation. Specially targeting hilly and Himalayan regions of Nepal where air
transportation seems costly and affected by the unusual drag and lift phenomenon due to varying

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wind conditions and other infrastructure problems, and on regards to land transportation due to
long winding roads and narrow pathways and essentially long travel times, the water
transportation scenario is fueled by perennial rivers that originate from Himalayan glaciers. The
earlier studies for water transport on various river basins of Nepal include:
 In 1998, Indo-Nepal Border (Narayanghat to Valmiki Nagar) of 87 km length waterway
study conducted by JV of NEPECON, Everest Consultant & Rites.
 Saptakoshi – Sunkoshi study investigation for water navigation by Rites (Tribeni to
Kursela 275 km) in 2010.
 In Arun River, the length of 45 km from Chatraghat to Leguwaghat has been studied by
Development Consult in 2011.
 In Tamor, the length of 45 km from Mulghat to Majhitar has been studied by Sitara
Consult in 2011.
 In 2011/12, a study project by the name of “Feasibility Study of Water Transport along
Koshi, Gandaki and Bheri River Basins” was carried out by East Consult under the
directions of Water Transport Development Project from MOPPW, GON.
Since, Nepal has many rivers where navigations are possible. People living near the river corridor
are using the navigation facilities by country boats and some motorized water boats which are all
done by local initiatives and private agency. The recreational purpose motor boat in Kulekhani
Dam of about 7 km and through local initiatives of Parbat in Kali Gandaki from Mirmi to Seti
Beni about 4.5 km. Sumnima Water Transport and Nepal River Transport has been operating jet
boat service on the Chataraghat-Simle.

1.7 RIVER BASIN AND TRANSPORT IN NEPAL

Nepal as the land locked country; it has high Himalayas in the northern part of the country and plain land in the
southern part of the country. The Himalayas are the main source of the river system in Nepal the
major river system basins in Nepal can be taken as:
 Koshi River system
 Nrayan (Gandaki) River System
 Karnali River system
The history of water transport in Nepal is not so long. Some initiations were carried out to study the
suitability of water transport along the river basins. However, studies were limited to the report
production and the projects were not realized. The river systems in Nepal is shown in Figure 1.
Presently, the context of water transport can be characterized as:
 Lack of detail study for water transport projects form the public domain,
 The river hydrology seems to be main obstruction to carryout projects,
 Weak Geology i. e. River bed and side slopes are very sensitive for any interventions for may
created long term hazard to the locality which may be unfavorable for water transport,
 Local initiations were started in some places with most advantageous mode of transport to the
operators as well as users.

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River transport
In such adverse situations there are some good examples of existing water transport systems in
Gandaki and Koshi river. In Koshi river, there has been started a transport service from very long. The
details of this service are mentioned in the box below.

Box 1: Water transport in Koshi River basin:


 Route operation: From Chataraghat to Simle
 Operator: Nepal River Transport Pvt. Ltd.
 Service Started: 2062 B. S.
 Operation Length: 12 Km
 Travel time: 15 min.( Walking time 6-8 hrs)
 Vessel type: Single Engine Jet Boat (American Manufacture)
 No. of Vessel Operation: one
 Passenger Number: Up-stream 20 persons /Down stream 50 persons
 Fare rate: Rs. 250 per passenger
 Frequency: 12 up-downs (24 trips)
 Operating months: October –June (8 months)
 Operating staff 5 persons
 Fuel (Diesel) 35 liter per trip

Similarly, Gandaki river basin, at the damsite of the Kaligandaki HEP a water transport service had
been started since 2060 B.S. the details of the service is mentioned in the Box 2.

Box 2: water transport service in Gandaki river basin

 Service started from: 2060 B.S.


 Travel distance: 5 km
 Vessel type: Bus engine locally made propeller type of
propulsion
 Operation and legal status: Vessels are Registered at DDC by paying
total revenue of Rs. One lakh p.a.
 Travel time: 30 min
 Vessel capacity: Small boat 50 persons /Big boat 70 persons
 Number of operating vessel: 8 boats (each boat serving one trip per day)
 Fare per trip: Rs. 50 per pax/ Rs. 0,50 per Kg.
 Fuel consumption: 12 ltr. Per trip
 Size of the Vessel: 35 ft.X8 ft.
 Speed: 9 – 20 km/hr
 Draft: 1 – 2.5 m.

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Recreational water transport

Tourism industries are one of the prominent sectors of Nepalese economy. Himalayan Rivers could
be the Centre of adventure for worldwide tourism. The recreational water transport could play a vital
role for the Promotion of tourism in Nepal. ‘White Water Rafting’ is very famous along the
Himalayan river in Nepal. The white water rafting has been started in late 1960’s by two French in
Sunkoshi. In 1976, the first Commercial River rafting company named Himalaya River Expedition
was launched and experienced river guide, Mike Yager of America was brought to manage the
company and to train Nepalese guides. From this phase to present, rafting in Nepal has really taken
off and Nepal is known as one of the world's premier river running destinations.

Koshi Basin is worldwide famous for rafting specially along Sunkoshi and Tamor Rivers, feeder
braches for Koshi River. Sunkoshi River (River of Gold) is one of the prominent rivers for the white
water rafting in the world. The electrifying and nerve thrilling rapids of Class 4-5 with inspiring
source of natural beauty can be found in the Sunkoshiriver adventure. The rafting agency has
marked the starting point Dohalghat and end point Chatara

which length is about 272 km and they have scheduled the rafting trip for about 9 days / 8 Nights.
For the access to Dohalghat, the Araniko Highway is used and from Chatara, Dharan-Chatara of 16
km road is used for connecting with Eastern Highways. According to the rafting agency, the best
month for rafting in this river is in May, September and October where the discharge of the river
start to increase and decrease.

Trishuli River is Nepal’s most popular rafting river. It has impressive gorges and some moderate
white water. The difficulty grade of the river is 3-4. The rafting agency has marked the starting point
Baireni and end point Narayanghat which length is about 106 km and they have scheduled the
rafting trip for about 4 days / 3 Nights.

For the access to Baireni, the Prithivi Highway is used. According to the rafting agency, the best
month for rafting in this river is in March to May and October to December where the discharge of
the river starts to increase and decrease. Kali Gandaki River is divided into Upper and Lower Kali
Gandaki since 2001 after the built of the dam in Mirmi. The upper Kali Gandaki has difficulty grade
of IV and lower Kali Gandaki has difficulty grade of II, The upper Kali Gandaki trip starts from
Beni to Mirmi which takes 2-3 days to complete the journey of 60 km and the lower Kali Gandaki
trip starts from Ramdi to Narayanghat which takes 4-5 days to complete the journey of 130 km.
According to the rafting agency, the best month for rafting in upper Kali Gandaki is in March to

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May and October to December and for rafting in lower Kali Gandaki is in February to April and
October to December.

Recreational water transport: Boating

Water body can be taken as the prime natural matter for recreation. The boating for sighseeing is
very popular for domestic as well as international tourists in Nepal. Many private interpreneurs has
engaged in tourism service for boating in different places of the country. The dam-site of Kulekhani
Hydropower Project is famous for boating cum natural sightseeing. It may help to the local economy
as well as the shortest travel route to cross the water body

River Crossing: shortest route for local travel

The rivers create major physical obstruction to the village accessibility in Nepal. However, it could
be a better solution for improving accessibility in remote areas in the country. Government has taken
major role for the construction of trail bridges and other relevant infrastructure. It creates fixed
facility for the access to the market and other services. However, boat service for the river crossing
could solve the problem in very simple way. From the very beginning of the human civilization as
well as these days boat technology is serving us very effectively.

In the context of Nepal, the geographical constraints and river hydrology are not very suitable for
passenger transport. However, people using local technology for crossing rivers by the use of boats
is familiar.

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Figure 1: River systems in Nepal

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CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY

1.8 GENERAL

Data collection on the water transport facilities consists of the field visit with predetermined format to be
filled. The stages of the study were as: desk study, field visits and reporting of the data.
The desk study was conducted with the review of the previous study on the water transport. Discussion on the
scope of the consulting service was conducted with the officials of MoPIT. The field data collection forma was
finalized in consultation with officials in the Ministry and experts. The inception stage of the consulting service
concluded with the prepared schedule for field team and other logistics. The general methodology has been
fixed as the figure below.

Figure 2: General methodology of the consulting service

Desk Study: This stage of the assignment has been undertaken by the team as the initial step for the
project. The team has formulated the methodology and field objectives. The data collection format
has been developed for the main tool of the study. The team has finalized the field schedule. The
team has reviewed the previous study report for reviewing the existing water transport facilities. The
team deployment for field was performed as per the schedule of the contract agreement.

Field Study: field visit to the major river corridors had been started. The team of the field engineers
has defined the data collection format based on the data definition. The team before leaving for field

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visit has prepared the schedule so as to get more efficient movement to the water transport sites in
consideration of time in the starting of the monsoon. The field schedule is shown in

Table 1: field schedule made by the field team

Place name
Date Remarks
From To

Kathmandu Koshi 27 June

Koshi Bagmati 29 June

Bagmati Narayani 30 June

Narayani Karnali Chisapani 1 July

Karnali Narayani 3 July

Narayani - Kaligandaki 4 July


(Mirmi)

Kaligandki Kathmandu 6 July

The site visit has concluded by the completion of this item of works. The tentative information on
the existing water transport services has been found in consultation with local authorities, police
posts along the highways, and the places mentioned in the previous water transport sector. The
interaction with the stakeholders and collection of evident along the typical WT services has been
performed in the field.

Reporting: the final stage of the study (data collection survey) is consists of the compilation of data
collected from the field visit as per the standard format and making the write-up on the description
of the scenario for particular location. The most important step of this study is to prepare the GIS
based maps of the WT facilities with the relevant attributes. The compilation of the report as
mentioned in the ToR of the study in the form of draft and final version submission is the
completion of the study.

3.1 DATA ON WATER TRANSPORT

The study is particular in the establishment of geo-spatial information on the water transport
facilities along major rivers in Nepal. The data collected on the existing facilities mainly consists of
the three types as: water transport routes, water transport services and means of the water transport.
The data collected in this study is described in Error! Reference source not found..

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Table 2: Data description of WT facilities

S/N Data heading Data description Remarks

1 River basin Name of the river system for WT facilities and


services

2 WT Route The route terminal locations, terminal facilities,


Length of the route, built up infrastructure,
access road, route operation durations in a year,
travel time, and other description of route
parameters

3 WT Operation The services operator's information: operator's


name, operation licensing, number of vessels,
trip frequency, capacity of WT means, trip
demand etc.

4 Water Transport Type of WT vessel, manufacturing company,


Means operators' licensing, operational parameters
(speed, capacity, mileage, and types of
propulsion)

5 WT Operators The operator of the services: registration,


licensing, date of establishment and future
perspective for development

3.2 REVIEW OF THE PREVIOUS STUDY

One of the major tasks of his study was to update the information on the previous study and
compare them with field verification. The additional data on the previously operated along major
river corridors have been colleted on the data format mentioned in the previous sub-topic. Ministry
of Physical Infrastructure and Transport has conducted the feasibility study in 2011. The main
objectives the study was framed as the establishment feasible options related to the technical,
financial and environmental aspects for the development of some water transport project along the
Koshi, Gandaki and Bheri River. The report on the feasibility study has recommended some feasible
options on the WT projects. The basis of the field data collection and update was taken as per the
feasibility study in 2011.

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Koshi River Basin


The previous reports highlight major section on Koshi river basin and study their feasibility with
accordance to economic analysis. The previous reports have highlighted possible stretches for
extension of water transport with essential improvements that were necessary , however none of the
recommendations have been in operation as we see none improvement whatsoever in regards to
new routes and improvement of routes in operation.

Bagmati River:
Bagmati River basin has never been taken as a subject of study in previous instances. It is a young
development carried out by few entrepreneurs by leasing a motor boat from HS Motors (P) Ltd. that
is currently operating their boating services on Narayani River. The present operation is undertaken
with a distant goal of reaching Raigaun( Bagmati Ga Pa w.n.-02, Makawanpur ) from Nunthar (
ChandrapurNaPa w.n.-01) a distance of about 13kms.

Narayani / Gandaki River


The previous studies highlight possible major stretches for water transportation along this river
basin.
A finding of the field visit was that, those boats in operation at Mirmi- Seti Beni stretch were
constructed with the help of truck, jeep and car engines fitted in the body and extending the axle
shaft to a makeshift propeller fan. The engines for the making were salvaged from the rag pickers
“kabaad” and the builders were called from India (Ghagraghat) for making of the boat (hull and
deck, whole). The wood used for making of deck was Sal wood and Tuni (in some cases). The hull
and the covering (water contact surfaces) were lined with 14 gage iron sheets.

Karnali /Bheri River


The previous studies highlight possible major stretches for water transportation along this river
basin. In Karnali/Bheri River Basin, one main problem as illustrated by the locals is the interference
of Bardiya National Park on a small stretch of KarnaliRiver, North of Chisapani till the extent of
National Park (Ghatgaun). The locals also very strongly put forward the importance of water
transport after crossing the extents of National Park from the point of Ghatgaun towards North.
Another finding was that there are number of boats in operation at Daulatghat, Sankattighat and
Banghusra just for crossing the river. The boats there were constructed with the help of truck and
tractor engines fitted in the body and extending the axle shaft to a makeshift propeller fan. The
engines for the making were salvaged from the rag pickers “kabaad” and the builders were called
from India for making of the boat (hull and deck, whole).

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CHAPTER 4. WATER TRANSPORT FACILITIES

3.3 WATER TRANSPORT DATA

The study on the data collection of water transport facilities has guided by the ToR of the study and
the data description. The major task of the data collection was concentrated along the Koshi,
Narayani/ Gandaki and Karnali River basin. The study team conducted field observation and data
recording for the each river system. The data mainly consists of the parameters of transport services.
Due to the limitation of the time frame, the data on the river basin and water flow was not noted in
detail. The team travelled along the major river corridors and held consultations with the operators of
the services and concerned authorities. Major river corridors with the existing water transport services
were Koshi, Bagmati, Gandaki and Karnali.

3.4 UPDATE OF THE PREVIOUS STUDY

The data mentioned in the previous study reports were taken as the basis for updating the existing
facilities. The feasibility study conducted in 2011 was reviewed for the verification of the present
conditions. The study parameters of that study have been updated after the field consultation and site
verification. The update of the WT facilities on the basis of previous study is described in Table 3,
Table 4and Table 5.

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Table 3: Water transport along Koshi River Basin (study in 2011)


Length Avg Depth Avg. Velocity Avg
Section River Service Feasibility Present Status
(km) (m) (m/s) Gradient
Koshi Barrage – Chatara Saptakoshi 47.05 3.87 1.2 1 in Proposed Waterway Unfeasible -
1681
( K- BC) for Recreational
Chatara – Tribeni (K- CT) Saptakoshi 8.72 8.64 1.4 1 in 872 Existing Waterway Feasible due to high In
willingness to pay Operation
Tribeni – Saune (K-TS) Sunkoshi 48.47 9.7 1.7 1 in 591 Proposed Waterway Feasible -
for Public Transportation on
Saune – Ghurmi (K- SG) Sunkoshi 69.12 16.9 2.1 1 in 452 Technically Not Feasible Technically Not -
Feasible

Table 4: Water transport in Narayani/Gandaki River Basin (study in 2011)


Length Avg Depth Avg. Velocity Avg
Section River Service Feasibility Present Status
(km) (m) (m/s) Gradient
Devghat – Ramdi (G-DR) Kali 130.425 16.20 1.5 1 in 662 Existing Rafting Route Feasible for Tourism -
Gandaki
Deghat – Mugling(G- Trishuli 32.638 6.75 1.4 1 in 859 Proposed Waterway for Feasible -
DM) Recreational
Mugling – Fishlin (G- Trishuli 16.6 5.47 2.2 1 in 425 Existing Rafting Route Feasible -
MF)
Mirmi – SetiBeni (G- MrS) Kali 5 Varies NA NA Existing Waterway Unfeasible for Jet In Operation
Gandaki (Dam R.L
Boat
524)

Table 5: Water transport in Karnali river basin (Bheri) (study in 2011)


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Length Avg Depth Avg. Velocity Avg


Section River Service Feasibility Present Status
(km) (m) (m/s) Gradient
Chisapani – Ghatgaun Karnali 15.59 6.60 1.2 1 in 704 Proposed Waterway for Feasible -
(B- CG) Recreational
Ghatgaun – Taranga Bheri 36.99 3.74 1.5 1 in 355 Proposed Waterway for Public Feasible -
(B- GT) Transportation
Taranga – Kamalpur (B- Bheri 19.804 4.04 1.3 1 in 440 Proposed Waterway Feasible -
TK)
for Public Transportation
Kamalpur– Botechaur (B- Bheri 50.51 3.18 1.2 1 in 443 Not Feasible due to no Not Feasible due to -
KB) willingness to pay no willingness to pay

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4.3 WT ALONG KOSHI RIVER BASIN

The Koshi is 720 km (450 mi) long and drains an area of about 74,500 km2 (28,800 sq mi) in Tibet,
Nepal and Bihar. Koshi River basin, Nepal with its seven major tributaries, the Indrawati, the Sun
Koshi, the Tama Koshi, the Likhu, the Dudh Koshi, the Arun and the Tamor. The altitude of the
basin ranges from only 65m near the Nepal-India boarder in the south to above 8000m in the north
within a short distance of about 150km.

Figure 3: Koshi River Basin


The GIS based water transport facility Map is provided in the Annex of the report.

4.4 CHATARA -SIMLE ROUTE

The present water transport service is operating from Chatara – Simle , the major aspect of this
service is for the tourism to Barahashetra. The length of this route is about 9 km by waterway
with The regular passenger transport runs almost 10 months a year, only drawback being the
unfeasibility of it during monsoon season when the water is full of debris and particle sand which
adversely affects the propeller system cruisers as well as jet system boats. There is not any
terminal infrastructure built for the operation. Private entrepreneurs running the service are

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however working on their own “port” construction for the ease of docking and boat parking. The
transport is also run for recreational purposes and during the Barahakshetra mela, thousands of
people aspire to visit the temple via waterways to integrate recreation while on being pilgrimage
purposes. The WT route, operators' and vessel related information are given in the table below.

Table 6: Water transport route: Chatara - Simle


Province: 1

District: Sunsari, Dhankuta, Udaypur, Bhojpur


River Name: Koshi
S/N Description Parameters

1 Location of WT Service Origin -Destination: Chatara - Simle

2 Purpose of WT: Passenger transport and Recreation

3 Frequency: (Trip/day) 8-9 trips during Kumbha Mela ( Barahakshetra) , else 4-5 trips
to Simle

Distance 8.72 km

4 WT Service capacity (per trip) According to vessel ( varies from 5-120 pa)

5 Operation months of year 10 months depends on water level.

6 Number of intermediate stations 1 ( Barahkshetra)

7 Terminal facilities (infrastructure) Not any structures built

8 Approach Roads to the terminals Foot trail (stepping down to the river bank (20 m) from the
road

9 Alternate to water transport road Chatara-Dharan-Dhankuta-Bhojpur Road


service (name of road)
Chatara - Simle Road distance …km
10 Cost of service(both) passenger and Passenger transport round trip @ Nrs 1000/person
Goods transport

11 Comparison of cost road and water NA on fares, time comparison - 15 min on full speed boat, 5
transport from the same Origin and hours on foot and 1 day +more on bus.
destination

12 Operation service license/permit No license

13 Operation personnel (operator) On experience basis, experienced on foreign countries.


license/permit

There are three operators along the Chatara - Simle route for the passenger transport mainly for
recreational purpose. The data for these operators are given in the tables below.

4.4.1 Barakshetra Maritime and Resort Pvt. Ltd.


Table 7: Barahakshetra Marine & Resort Pvt Ltd
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Type-I Propeller type Cruiser, 900cc, Cinoturf 500Hp engine

Motor boat Engine type: Propeller Body: Fibre safety elements: Life Jacket
Jet Boat Engine type: Body: safety elements
Vessel Parameters Type Propeller Engine powered Cruiser
Weight 10.4 Tonnes
Capacity (Ton) Total weight including boat + passengers 14.5
Tonnes
Mileage 1.4 km/l
Distance travel (Km) 8
Speed Full Speed 30knots (55.56 kmph) , Operational
speed 20 knots(37.04 kmph)
Manufacturing of Boat Imported from abroad

Purpose Transportation, recreational

Type-II OVM System Speedboat, Out boat engine from Yamaha


Motor boat Engine type: OVM Body: Fiber safety elements: Life Jacket
Jet Boat Engine type: Body: safety elements
Vessel Parameters Type Speedboat (Motorboat)
Weight 2.5 Tonnes
Capacity (Ton) Total weight including boat + passengers 4.5
Tonnes
Mileage 1.4 km/l
Distance travel (Km) 8
Speed Full speed 45knots (83.34 kmph), Operational speed
20 knots (37.04)
Manufacturing of Boat Imported from abroad
Purpose Transportation, recreational

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Operator Name Nabin Kumar Poudel (Owner)


Phone no. 9851079946
No. of vessel in use 4 (1- propeller, 3 - OVM)
No. of employee 10 within whole company
Rate(fare) NRS 1000/round trip/person
Safety Used Life jacket
Casualties None
information

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4.4.2 Operator Company: Barahakshetra Jal Yatayat Pvt Ltd.

Type Jetboat (KIAN - 1)


motor boat Engine type: Body: safety elements:
Jet Boat Engine type: 295Hp Star Body: Fibre safety elements : Lifejacket
Motor
Vessel Parameters Type Open Body, 245 dia. Alamarine Jet 5000 RPM
Weight 3Tonnes
Capacity (Ton) Total weight including boat + passengers 5 Tonnes
Mileage 1.4 km/l
Distance travel (Km) 8
Speed Full Speed 35knots(64.8 kmph), Operational speed
25 knots(46.3 kmph)
Manufacturing of Boat Imported from abroad
Purpose Transportation, recreational
Operator Name Bimal Man Shrestha ( Chairperson)
Phone no. 9842021172
No. of vessel in use 1
No. of employee 3
Rate( fare) NRS 1000/round trip/person
Safety Used Life jacket
Casualties None
information

4.4.3 Operator Company: Saptakoshi Tourism and Waterways Pvt Ltd.


Type Jetboat (Mt 8848)
motor boat Engine type: Body: safety elements:
Jet Boat Engine type: 295Hp Star Body: Fibre safety elements: Life
Motor jacket
Vessel Parameters Type Open Body,
Weight 4 Tonnes
Capacity (Ton) Total weight including boat + passengers 7 Tonnes
(reduced capacity due to use of steel in making of
body)
Mileage 1.4 km/l

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Distance travel (Km) 8
Speed Full Speed 35knots (64.8 kmph), Operational speed
25 knots (46.3 kmph)
Manufacturing of Boat Engine imported from abroad, hull and deck
constructed in Nepal (Itahari)
Purpose Transportation, recreational
Operator Name Chiranjivi Regmi ( Chairperson)
Phone no. 9852663834
No. of vessel in use 1
No. of employee 3
Rate(fare) NRS 1000/round trip/person
Safety Used Life jacket
Casualties None
information

4.4.4 Operator Company: Nepal River Transport Pvt Ltd.

Type Jet boat


motor boat Engine type: Body: safety elements:
Jet Boat Engine type: Caterpillar - Body: Aluminum safety elements: Lifejacket
400Hp Engine
Vessel Parameters Type Open Body, 295dia Hamilton Jet 5000 RPM
Weight 5 Tonnes
Capacity (Ton) Total weight including boat + passengers 8 Tonnes
Mileage 1.4 km/l
Distance travel (Km) 8
Speed Full Speed 35knots (64.8 kmph), Operational speed
25 knots (46.3 kmph)
Manufacturing of Boat Engine imported from abroad, hull and deck
constructed in Nepal (Itahari)
Purpose Transportation, recreational
Operator Name Anish Thapa
Phone no. 9852055390
No. of vessel in use 1
No. of employee 3
Rate(fare) NRS 1000/round trip/person
Safety Used Life jacket
Casualties None
information

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Figure 4: Water transport service alignment at Chatara - Simle (Koshi River basin)

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4.5 BAGMATI RIVER BASIN

The basin of the Bagmati River, including the Kathmandu Valley, lies between the much larger Gandaki basin to
the West and the Koshi Basin to the east.

Figure 5: Bagmati River Basin

The location of the water transport system in Bagmati River is shown in Figure below. The detail of water transport
route in Bagmati River is given figure below.
GIS based mapping of the Bagmati basin for water transport facility is shown in the Annex of the report.

4.5.1 Rautahat Sarlahi Route (planned)

The present water transport service is in operation as a recreational service in Bagmati River. The anticipated target
of the water transport is to provide transportation service from Nunthar ( Chandrapur Municipality ward Number 1 ) to
Raigaun (Bagmati rural municipality ward number 2 ). The road transportation service from Bagmati to Raigaun
takes about 2~3 hours and would be very feasible via boats if developed . It is estimated to take around 40~45 mins

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via the boating service. The owner of the current waterways service provider has also mentioned a survey report
already developed for the anticipated route. No terminal infrastructure is built for the operation ease, being the
youngest of the river basins among the likes of Koshi , Narayani and Karnali , the service commenced on 1st Baisakh
2076.

4.5.2 Water Transport Service Data


Province: 2
District: Rautahat - Sarlahi
River Name: Bagmati
S/N Description Parameters
1 Location of WT Service Origin: Nauthar, Bagmati Destination: Bagmati rural
municipality ward no.2 ,
raigaun ( Target)
2 Purpose of WT: recreational
3 Frequency: (Trip/day) 6-9 trip/day
4 WT Service capacity (per trip) 12 person per trip
5 Operation months of year 10months (except shrawan & Bhadra) ,operated by
Bagmati Jal Marga upobhokta samiti
6 Number of intermediate stations Nauther-Padherodobhan (1.5km)
7 Terminal facilities (infrastructure) -
8 Approach Roads to the terminals Gravel road
9 Alternate road service (name of road) Bagmati Irrigation canal corridor to Bagmati canteen
bajaar ,raigaun
10 Cost of service(both) passenger and NRs. 230 per person
Goods transport
11 Operation service license/permit No license
12 Operation personnel (operator) On experience basis. Training from H.S moterboat pvt.
license/permit Ltd.

4.5.3 Water Transport operator's Data


Operator: Bagmati Jalmarga Users Committee
Type
Motor boat Engine type: four stroke Body: fiber safety elements: Life
petrol engine jacket
Jet Boat Engine type: Body: safety elements
Vessel Parameters Type motor boat
Weight 800kg
Capacity (Ton) 12 person per trip
Mileage 1km/l
Distance travel (Km)
Speed 5-6 km/hr
Manufacturing of Boat Importing engine and mechanics and assemble in

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Butwal, (Total cost 12-16 lakhs)
Purpose Recreational
Operator Name Manoj Ghimire
Phone no.
No. of vessel in use 1
No.of employee 1
Rate(fare) Rs.150 per trip per person
Safety Used Life jacket
Casualties 2 people in 2059/60 year
information
Problem/ Narrow channel and rock obstruction at 6 place (at Bhiman, Dovan( kauwakhola),
Obstruction Dovan (kyan khola ),Jhwandi, paire, Bhimart)

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Figure 6: Water transport service alignment at Bagmati River

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4.6 GANDAKI RIVER BASIN

The Gandaki river basin is a trans boundary basin lying north-south in the central Himalayan region. It
extends from China in the north, through Nepal, to India in the south and is bounded by the Karnali
basin to the west and the Koshi basin to the east. The basin has a total drainage area of 46,300 km2 –
72% in Nepal, 18% in India, and 10% in China – and includes part of Xiagaze prefecture in Tibet
Autonomous Region in China, 19 districts in Nepal (12 entirely and 7 partially within the basin), and 9
districts in India. The Gandaki River is known as the Narayani in the plains of Nepal and as the
Gandak in India, where it joins the Ganges (Ganga) at Hajipur near Patna. It has seven major
tributaries (the Kali Gandaki, Seti Gandaki, Madi, Marsyangdi, Daraudi, Budhi Gandaki, and Trishuli),
of which all except the Daraudi and Madi have catchment areas with glaciers (Bajracharya and Shrestha
2011).

Figure 7: Gandaki River Basin within Nepal

The location of the water transport system in Gandaki basin is shown in Figure below. The detail of water
transport route in Gandaki basin is given figure below.
GIS based mapping of the Gandaki basin is attached in the Annex of the report.

4.6.1 Narayanghat basin

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In the Narayani river , there are two sections that were studied in the course of the survey , one
being a recreational service being provided at Narayanghat/Gaidakot with the service tour of about
3 kms round trip all along the Narayani river . The daily trips generated by the service amounts to
2~3 trips/day/boat with 7 number of vessels in operation at present.

The second section that was studied was Mirmee- Seti Beni section which is probably the oldest
water transportation service running in Nepal for both passenger transportation and goods
transportation. Previously hailed as solo means of transportation for communities of Syangya ,
Gulmi and Parbat districts nearby Seti-beni . The transportation service was started from 2059 B.S
as stated by stakeholders of Kali-Gandaki Jal yatayat Samiti , the registration on DDC was executed
on 2065 B.S. The Samiti estimates that around 2065 B.S the water transport was a sole mode of
transportation for both passengers and goods for the nearby 15 V.D.C’s of Gulmi , Syangja and
Parbat districts. The water transportation is estimated to take 1.5 hours by hand rowed boat and
around 15 mins via motor boat. The same destination if traversed via road transportation takes the
route from Mirmee – Dumrichaur on foot , then Dumrichaur to Setibeni via road takes additional
15 mins than the total amount of time via waterways. The boats in use are locally made via use of
truck and mini-truck engines with axle shaft connected to a local made propeller and decks and hulls
being crafted at Butwal under supervision from mechanics imported from india ( Ghagraghat).

4.6.2 WT service in Narayanghat

Province: 3 & 4
District: Chitwan - Nalwalpur
River Name: Narayani

Operator: H.S Motorboats Pvt. Ltd & M.T.S Motorboats Pvt. Ltd.

S/N Description Parameters


1 Location of WT Service Origin: Destination:
Narayanghat/Gaidakot Narayanghat/Gaidakot
2 Purpose of WT Recreational
3 Frequency: (Trip/day) 2 trip / Day / Boat
4 WT Service capacity (per trip) 12 person including operator
5 Operation months of year 10 months depend on water level.
6 Number of intermediate stations _
7 Terminal facilities (infrastructure) No terminal Facilities Available
8 Approach Roads to the terminals Walk from FNCCI along the Narayani beach about
200m
9 Alternate road service (name of road) -

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10 Cost of service(both) passenger and NRs 150 / Person - Surrounding tour
Goods transport
11 Comparison of cost road and water -
transport from the same Origin and
destination
12 Operation service license/permit No license
13 Operation personnel (operator) On experience basis.
license/permit

4.6.3 Water Transport Vessel in Narayanghat


Type
motor boat Engine type: 4 stroke petrol Body: Fiber safety elements: Life jacket
engines
Jet Boat Engine type: Body: safety elements
Vessel Type Motor boat (40 Hp)
Parameters
Weight 300 kg with engine
Capacity (Ton) 8-9 quintal
Mileage petrol (0.5 km/l)
Distance travel (Km)
Speed 10-20 kmph (with full weight) and 40-50 Kmph (with
no weight)
Manufacturing of Boat Importing engine and mechanics / assembled in
Butwal. (12-16 lakh including tax)
Purpose Recreational
Operator Name Hari sharma (shareholder of H.S. motor boat)
Phone no. 9804296570
No. of vessel in use 4 boats of H.S motor boat and 3 boats of M.T.S
motor boat.
No. of employee 6 employees in H.S motor boat and 3 employees in
M.T.S motor boat
Rate(fare) 150 / person
Safety Used Life jacket
Casualties _
information

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Boats docking and waiting for passengers Boats docking and terminal/ticketing house view

4.6.4 Water Transport Service Data ( Mirmee)

District: Syangja - Gulmi - Parbat


River Name: Kaligandaki
Operator: Kali- Gandaki Jal Yatayat Samiti.
S/N Description Parameters
1 Location of WT Service Origin: Mirmee (Syangja) Destination: Seti Beni
2 Purpose of WT for fun as well as for the transport of goods and
passenger
3 Frequency: (Trip/day) 1 trip/day per boat
4 WT Service capacity (per trip) as per the size of boat and engine use by the boat
(normally 25 - 125 person per trip)
5 Operation months of year 8 months (Kartik 15 - Jestha 15) depends on water level.
6 Number of intermediate stations -
7 Terminal facilities (infrastructure) Kali-Gandaki Jal yatayat samiti and its building for
ticketing
8 Approach Roads to the terminals 20m downstairs walk via stairs from the Mirmee Bus-
Stop to the bank of Aandhikhola River
9 Alternate road service (name of road) Kaligandaki Corridor / Mirmee - Dumri chaure -
SetiBeni / Mirmee - Dumri chour - Jogimara - Setibeni
10 Cost of service(both) passenger and NRs 100 per person to seti-beni./ NRs 1 per kg for
Goods transport goods.
11 Comparison of cost road and water
transport from the same Origin and
destination
12 Operation service license/permit No license
13 Operation personnel (operator) On experience basis.

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license/permit

4.6.5 Water Transport Vessel Data in Mirmee


B Water transport Vessel Data
Type
motor boat Engine type: Vehicle Body: Deck - Wooden. Hull - safety elements: Life jacket
engine steel
Jet Boat Engine type: Body: safety elements
Vessel Type motor boat
Parameters
Weight
Capacity (Ton)
Mileage 1.4 km/l
Distance travel (Km)
Speed 5-6km/hr
Manufacturing of Boat Importing engine and mechanics from India and assembling
locally.
Purpose Transportation, recreational for religious purpose
Operator Name Prem Bahadur Bote (Samiti Treasurer)
Phone no. 9847429260
No. of vessel in use 12 (10 truck engine boat and 2 bolero DI engine boat)
No. of employee 20
Rate(fare) 100 ker person and Rs 1 per kg of goods
Safety Used Life jacket
Casualties 2 people in year 2059/60
information
Problem/ Obstruction due to rocks and narrow channel from Thulo khola to Setibeni
Obstruction

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Wooden Deck of the boat with seating facilty Top view of the boat

Boats parked on beach due to machinery problem Boats parked on water and stationary due to high
floodwater

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Figure 8: Water transport service alignment at Kaligandaki (Mirmi - Setibeni)

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Figure 9: Water transport service alignment at Narayani River (Narayanghat)

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4.7 KARNALI RIVER BASIN

The Karnali rises from Mt. Kailash on the Tibetan Plateau, and flows 671 miles to its confluence
with the Ganges River in India. With a length of 507 kilometers (315 mi) within Nepal, it is the
longest river in Nepal.

Figure 10: Karnali River Basin within Nepal

4.7.1 WT at Karnali

The present water transport service is in operation as a river crossing service in Karnali River. The
river crossing water transport facility is facilitated by makeshift (locally made) boats with engines
derived from old trucks/tractors and the axle shaft being fitted with locally made propellors. The
location of services are Daulatpurghat , Sankattighat and Banghusraghat. The river crossing is in
popular use due to the long route of road transport to the destination i.e Daulatpurghat/
Sankattighat/ Banghusraghat to Rajapur – Tikapur and then to the opposite river bank.

The detail of water transport route in Karnali basin is given figure below. GIS based map is attached in
the Annex of the report.

4.7.2 Water Transport Service Data

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District: Kailali, Bardiya
River Name: Karnali
S/N Description Parameters
1 Location of WT Service Dhaulatpurghat One side to another side of
river (across the river,
Sunnkattighat
connects Bardiya and Kailali )
Banghusra
2 Purpose of WT for the transport of goods, passenger & vehicles like
cycle, bike
3 Frequency: (Trip/day) in avg. 5-8 trip/day per boat
4 WT Service capacity (per trip) as per the size of boat and engine use by the boat (
normally 65 - 150 person per trip)
5 Operation months of year 12 month operated. (effected by storm so does not
operated when storm occurs, not effected by flow speed
of water)
6 Number of intermediate stations -
7 Terminal facilities (infrastructure) -
8 Approach Roads to the terminals 350m walk from the Karnali embankment to the river
beach (Gravel road)
9 Alternate road service (name of road) Sannkatti-banghusra-dhaulatpur-rajapur
10 Cost of service(both) passenger and NRs 20-30 per person, NRs 30 per bike, NRs 50 per
Goods transport animal, NRs 150 per bel-gaada
11 Comparison of cost road and water -
transport from the same Origin and
destination
12 Operation service license/permit No license
13 Operation personnel (operator) On experience basis.
license/permit

4.7.3 Water Transport Vessel Data


Operator: local contractors
motor boat Engine type: Vehicle Body: Deck - Wooden. Hull - safety elements: None
engine steel
Jet Boat Engine type: Body: safety elements
Vessel Type motor boat
Parameters
Weight Not Available
Capacity (Ton) 9 bike per trip, 85 persons by truck engine, 60 person per trip
by tractor engine boat
Mileage 1.4 km/l
Distance travel (Km) NA (Across the river)
Speed 5-6km/hr
Manufacturing of Boat Importing engine and mechanics from India and assembling
locally.
Purpose Transportation, Crossing the rievr

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Operator Name Gauri sanker sonaha (Contractor – Daulatpurghat)
Phone no. 9848094891
Name Uttam singh Thakuri (Contractor – Sankattighat)
Phone no. 9812670603
No. of vessel in use 12 (10 truck engine boat and 2 bolero DI engine boat)
No. of employee 20
Rate(fare) Rs 20per trip person, Rs 30 per bike, Rs 150 per belgadi, 50 per
animal
Safety Used None
Casualties None
information
Problem/ None
Obstruction

Truck Engine being used in boat Wooden Deck of the boat

Water transportation (people including motorbikes) Tractor Engine being used in boat

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Boat Docking Livestock transportation as well as people

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CHAPTER 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 CONCLUSIONS

The major task for the data collection survey was completed. The major water transport facilities
along the Koshi, Bagmati, Narayani/Gandaki and Karnali River corridors were noted for the detail
data. The review of the previous study and initiatives indicated that there were not any contributions
from the Government authorities for the promotion of the transport services. Similarly, previous
recommendations for the development of some infrastructures at the existing services have not been
realized. The most important part of the data collection survey is the GIS based maps with the
relevant attributes. The attributes of the data comprised of the following:
 WT route information
 Wt operators' information
 WT vessel information
 WT service information such as licensing as well as registration
The field observations as well as review of the previous study have shown that water transport
services are neglected for the government programs for the infrastructure development. Most of the
water transport facilities are operated in the local initiatives and privately financed. The collected data
on the existing facilities would be the base line for the plans by the concerned authorities.

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

The data collection survey along the major river corridors recommends that the MoPIT and the
Office of the Water Transport would need to start to plan and make a roadmap for the promotion of
the water transport mainly for the international trade link, inland waterways for passenger services and
recreational (Rafting) aspects. The most important step for the promotion of the existing WT services
is to develop the plans for the basic terminal infrastructures at those locations.
For the ease of existing water transport services there shall be an urgent action for the formulation of
policies, regulations and regular programs and pland for the promotion of the existing facilities.

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REFERENCES

1. Ancient water transportation, http://education.usace.army.mil/navigation


2. Census Bureau of Statistics, http://www.cbs.gov.np, Nepal
3. C.F.Almeida, K.Yamamoto and J.A. Sant’ Anna, Analyses of Navigability of the rivers at
Amazon Region Under Cargo Transportation Approach
4. Colin Palmer, Farhad Ahmed, Ana Bravo and Priyanthi Fernando(2002), Rural Water
Transport
5. District Development Profile of Nepal 2010/11, Mega Research Centre & Publication,
Putalisadak, Kathmandu Nepal
6. Govrnment of Assam, India http://assamgovt.nic.in/business/industrial_infra.asp
7. Inland water Transport http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/ Publications/
TPTS_pubs/pub_2157/review_ch9.pdf
8. Feasibility Study of Water Transport along Koshi, Gandaki and Bheri River Basins/Final
Report, Minstry of Physical Planning and works, Water Transport development Project, 20111
9. Narayan Rangaraj and G. Raghuram (2007), Viability of Inland water transport in India, ADB
India
10. Nepal Transport Policy, 2058
11. Peoples Republic of China (2001), Fourth Inland Water Transport Project
12. Peter Knowles and Darren Clakson-King (2011), White water Nepal, Third Edition, River
Publishing, UK
13. Shantanu Nandan Sharma (2004), Feasibility of an Indo-Nepal waterway to be investigated,
New Dehli, India
14. US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Manual 1110-2-1611, Layout and design of Shallow
Draft

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Data Collection Survey of Water Transport Facilities in Nepal

ANNEX – 1: PHOTOGRAPHS

Koshi basin

Traditional Bamboo Transport via raft-making and riding the current

Boat Station( Docking facility ) at Present Port facility and boat Station under construction

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Data Collection Survey of Water Transport Facilities in Nepal

Bagmati basin

Motor boat parked on the river Terminal facility / Ticket Station

Discussion with boat owner Discussion with boat owner

Narayani

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Data Collection Survey of Water Transport Facilities in Nepal

Motor boat Motor boat

Station Station

Discussion with boat owner Boat in operation

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Data Collection Survey of Water Transport Facilities in Nepal

Karnali

Discussion at police station Discussion with boat operator

Livestock transportation Loaded boat

Truck engine used in boat Clearing water leakage from boat

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Data Collection Survey of Water Transport Facilities in Nepal

Kaligandaki(Mirmee)

Motor boat Motor boat

Ticket counter Station

Discussion with local stakeholders Discussion with local stakeholders

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