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VECTOR CALCULUS

PART-A

1. Is the position vector r  xi  y j  zk irrotational? Justify.


Solution:
Given r  xi  y j  zk
Condition for Irrotational is 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝐹̅ = ∇ x𝐹̅ = 0
i j k
              
curl r   i z  y   j z  x   k y  x 
x y z  y z   x z   x y 
x y z

 i 0  j 0  k 0  0


2. Find the unit normal to the surface x 2  xy  z 2  4 at the point (1,-1,2).

Solution:

Let   x 2  xy  z 2  4 and the point(1,-1,2)


𝜕∅ 𝜕∅ 𝜕∅
∇∅ = 𝑖̅ + 𝑗̅ + 𝑘̅ =(2x+ y)𝑖̅ +(x) 𝑗̅+(2z)𝑘̅
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

Let n be a direction vector of Normal

  (1, 1, 2 )


 2(1)  (1) i  (1) j  2(2)  i  j  4k  n
 i  j  4k i  j  4k
Unit normal  nˆ   
 1  1  16 18
 
3. Prove that div r  3 and curl r  0 . (GATE)
Solution:
   
We know that r  xi  yj  zk
   

div r  .r   i  j  k  xi  y j  z k  1  1  1  3 
 x y z 
i j k
           
curl r   i z  y   j  z  x   k  y  x 
x y z  y z   x z   x y 
x y z
 i 0  j 0  k 0  0

4. Find unit normal vector to the surface x  y  z at the point (1,-2,5)


2 2

Solution:
Let   x 2  y 2  z and the point (1,-2,5)
𝜕∅ 𝜕∅ 𝜕∅
∇∅ = 𝑖̅ + 𝑗̅ + 𝑘̅ = (2x)𝑖̅+(2y) 𝑗̅ - 𝑘̅
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧

Let n be a direction vector of Normal

  (1, 2 , 5 )
 2(1) i  2(2) j  k  2 i  4 j  k  n
 2i  4 j  k 2i  4 j  k
Unit normal  nˆ   
 4  16  1 21

5. If vector F  xi  y 2 j  zx k find  .F  


Solution:

Given F  xi  y 2 j  zx k

    
       
 .F   i  j  k   i  j  k  xi  y 2 j  zx k ..............(1)
 x y z   x y z  
 
 x
  

.F   i  j  k  xi  y 2 j  zx k  1  2 y  x
y z 

      
 .F   i  j  k 1  2 y  x 
 x y z 

     
 .F   i  j  k 1  2 y  x   i  2 j
 x y z 

6. Prove that curl  grad    0 .

Solution:

𝑖̅ 𝑗̅ 𝑘̅
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕    2
 2
  2  2    2   2 
𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 ∇∅ = ∇x∇∅ = ||𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦
|
𝜕𝑧 |  i 
 yz  zy   j    k   
𝜕∅ 𝜕∅ 𝜕∅    xz zx   xy yx 
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑧
=0

7. If   x 2 yz find . at (1, 1, 1).


Solution:

Given   x 2 yz and the point (1,1,1)


    
   i  j  k x 2 yz   i 2 xyz  j x 2 z   k x 2 y 
 x y z  z
   

.   i  j  k  . 2 xyzi  x 2 z  j  x 2 y k  2 yz 
 x y z 
. 1,1,1  2
8. State Gauss Divergence theorem.(AU 2010 &IIT)
Solution:

 F . n dS   ( div F ) dV
S V

9. State Stoke’s theorem. .(AU 2014 &IIT)


Solution:

 F .d r   curl F .n dS
C S

10. State Greens theorem. .(AU 2012 &IIT)


Solution

 Q P 
 ( P dx  Q dy )    x
C R
 dx dy
y 

11. Show that F  (3x  2y  4z)i  (2x  5y  4z) j  (4x  4y  8z)k is solenoidal.

Solution

Condition for Solenoidal is𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹̅ = ∇. 𝐹̅ = 0

   
div F   i  j  k ( 3x  2 y  4 z )i  ( 2 x  5 y  4 z ) j  ( 4 x  4 y  8 z )k
 x y z 
3580

12. Find the value of a so that the vector F  ( x  3 y)i  ( y  2 z) j  ( x  az)k is


solenoidal. .(AU 2012 )
Solution:
Condition for Solenoidal is 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹̅ = ∇. 𝐹̅ = 0

    
div F  .F   i  j  k ( x  3y)i  ( y  2z) j  ( x  az)k  0, for all points (x, y, z)
 x y z 
 11 a  0
 a  2
13. Show that F  ( y 2  z 2  3yz  2x )i  (3xz  2xy ) j  (3xy  2xz  2z)k is solenoidal.

Solution

Condition for Solenoidal is 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹̅ = ∇. 𝐹̅ = 0

 
 x
  

div F  .F   i  j  k  ( y 2  z 2  3yz  2x )i  (3xz  2xy ) j  (3xy  2xz  2z)k
y z 

 2  2x  2x  2  0 for all points (x, y, z)

14. Find the value of  so that F  3x  2y  zi  4x  y  z j  x  y  2zk is solenoidal.

Solution:

Condition for Solenoidal is 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝐹̅ = ∇. 𝐹̅ = 0

    
 
div F  .F   i  j  k  3x  2 y  z i  4x  y  z  j  x  y  2z k  0, for all points (x, y, z)
 x y z 
 3   2  0
   5
PART-A

1. If ∅ = x 3 + y 3 + z 3 − 3xyz, then find i)∇∅, ii) ∇. ∇∅ , iii) ∇ x∇∅ (IIT)

2. Find the angle between the normal to the surface xy  z 2 at the points

(4,1,2) and (3,3,-3). (IIT)

3. Evaluate  2 (log r ) .(IIT)

r
4. Show that is solenoid. (IIT).
r

5. Find the unit normal vector to surface xy  yz  zx  3 at the point (1,1,1) (IIT)

6. Prove that ∇(r n ) = nr n−2 r̅ where r̅ = xi̅ + yj̅ + zk̅ (IIT)

  1
7. Prove  2 r n  nn  1r n2 where r  xi  yj  zk and r | r | and hence deduce  2   .
r

8. If 𝑟̅ = 𝑥𝑖̅ + 𝑦𝑗̅ + 𝑧𝑘̅ and r  r prove that r r is solenoid if n=-3 and r r irrotational
n n

for all vectors of n. (IIT)


9. Find the divergent of the vector field ( x  y )i  ( y  x) j  ( x  Y  z )k (GATE)

10. Find the directional of f  x, y, z   xy  yz at the point 2,1,1 in the direction of


2 3

vector i  2 j  2k .(IIT)

11. Calculate  f if f  3 x z  y z  4 x y  2 x  3 y  5 at 1,1,0 (IIT)


2 2 2 3 3

1
12. Find the directional derivative of in the direction of r  xi  yj  zk at (1,1,2)(IIT)
r
PART-B

1.(a) Find the directional derivative of   2 xy  z 2 at the point (1,-1,3) in the direction of
i  2 j  2k and also find its maximum. (AU June ‘09)

(b) Find the directional derivative of   x 2  2 y 2  4 z 2 at (1,1,-1) in the direction of

2i  j  k (IIT)

(C) Show that F  ( y  2 xz )i  (2 xy  z ) j  (2 x z  y  2 z )k is irrotational and


2 2 2

hence find its scalar potential.

2.(a) Find the directional derivative of   xy 2  yz 3 at the point (2,-1,1) in the direction
of normal to the surface x log z  y  4  0 at the point (-1,2,1). (IIT)
2

(b) Find the value a,b,c so that the vector

F  ( x  y  az)i  (bx  2 y  z) j  ( x  cy  2 z)k may be irrotational and hence find

its scalar potential. (AU June ’09 & IIT)

(c) Find the value a,b,c so that the vector

F  ( x  2 y  az)i  (bx  3 y  z) j  (4 x  cy  2 z)k may be irrotational and hence find its


scalar potential (IIT)

3.(a) Find the directional derivative of   x 2 yz  4xz 2 at (1,-2,-1) in direction of


2i  j  2k and also find its maximum. (AU Dec ‘10& IIT)
(b) Find the value of the constant a,b and c so that
  
F  (6 xy  az3 )i  (bx2  z) j  (3xz 2  cy)k may be irrotational and hence find its
scalar potential. . (AU 2014)

 
4. (a) Prove that F  x  y  x i  2 xy  y  j  yz k is irrotational and hence find
2 2

its scalar potential. (AU 2015)

 x   
 xy dx  x 2  y 2 dy where c is the square bounded by the lines
2
(b) Evaluate
c
x  0, x  1, y  0, y  1 using Green’s theorem.

(c) Evaluate  (2 xy  x 2 )dx  ( x 2  y 2 )dy where C is the closed curve in xy-plane bounded
c

by the curves y  x 2 and x  y 2 .(IIT)

5.(a) Prove that F  y 2 i  2 xy j  2 z k is irrotational and hence find its scalar potential.

 3x 
 8 y 2 dx  (4 y  6 xy )dy 
2
(b) Using Green’s Theorem in a plane evaluate where
C
C is the boundary of the region defined by the lines x =0,y = 0 and x + y=1 (AU Dec ‘10)

2 2 2 2
  
6. (a) Show that the vector F  x  xy i  y  x y j field is irrotational. Find its
scalar potential. (AU 2011)

 x   
 xy dx  x 2  y 2 dy where c is the square bounded by the
2
(b) Evaluate
c

lines x  1, y  1 using Green’s theorem.

7.(a) Show that F  (2 xy  z )i  ( x  2 yz ) j  ( y  2 zx)k is irrotational and hence


2 2 2

find its scalar potential.

(b) Find the directional derivative of   x 3 y 2 z at (1,2,3) in the direction of

9i  3 j  k and also find the maximum directional derivative.

8. Verify Gauss divergence theorem for F  x 2 i  y 2 j  z 2 k where S is the surface of the


cuboids formed by the planes x=0,x=a, y = 0,y = b, z = 0 and z = c.(AU June 09)
9. Verify Gauss divergence theorem for F  (x 2  yz )i  ( y 2  xz ) j  (z 2  xz )k where S is
the surface of the cuboids formed by the planes x=0,x=a, y = 0,y = b, z = 0 z = c.
(AU June ‘15)

10.Verify Gauss divergence theorem for F  4 xzi  y 2 j  yz k where S is the

closed surface of the cube formed by x=0,x=1,y = 0,y = 1, z = 0 and z =1(IIT)

11.Verify Gauss divergence theorem for F  x i  z j  yz k over the cube formed


2

by x  1, y  1, z  1 .

12.Verify Stoke’s theorem for F  ( x 2  y 2 )i  (2 xy) j taken around the rectangle

x = a, y=0,x = -a, y = b . (AU June ‘09/May Jun ‘ 2014/Nov Dec 2015)

13.Verify Stoke’s theorem for F  y z i  z x j  x y k and S is the open surface


2 2 2

of cube formed by the planes x  a , y  a, z  a in which z=-a is cut.


(AU Dec ‘11)
14. Verify Stokes theorem when F  xyi  2 yz j  zx k where S is the open surface of

the rectangular parallelepiped formed by the planes x=0.x=1,y=0,y=2 and z =3

above the xoy-plane. (AU June ‘09)

15. Verify Stokes theorem for F   y  z  2i   yz  4 j  xz k where S is

the open surface of cube formed by the planes x  0, y  0, x  2, y  2 and z  2 .

 
16.Verify Stokes theorem for F  x 2  y 2 i  2 xy j where S is formed by x=0 , x=a,

y=0 and y=b (IIT)

 
17. Verify Stokes theorem for F  x 2  y 2 i  2 xy j where S is formed

by x   a, y  0, y  b (IIT)

 xydx  xy dy where S is formed


2
18. (a) Verify Stokes theorem for
C

by (1,0) , (1,0), (0,1), (0,1) (IIT)

(b) Use stokes , evaluate the integral  F.dr


C
where F  2 y 2 i  3x 2 j  (2 x  z )k and c is\
The boundary of the triangle whose vertices are (0,0,0),(2,0,0) and (2,2,0). (IIT)

19. (a) State divergence theorem and hence evaluate   yzi  zxj  xyk ds where S is the
surface of the sphere x  y  z  a
2 2 2 2
in the first octant. (IIT)

(b)The following surface integral is to be evaluated over a sphere for the given steady

velocity vector field F  xi  yj  zk defined with respective to a Cartesian

1
co-ordinate system having i,j and k as unit base vector  4 F .nˆ dA where S is the sphere
S

x  y  z  1 and n is the outward unit normal vector to the sphere. Find the value of
2 2 2

the surface integral.(IIT)

 x  xy dx   y  2 xy dy where C is the square with


2 3
(c) Verify greens theorem

0,0 2,0 2,2 and 0,2 .(IIT)


20. (a) Find the total work done by a force F  2 xyi  4 zj  5 xk along the curve x  t ,
2

y  2t  1 and z  t from the points t=1 to t=2.(IIT)


3

(b)Find the work done in moving particle in the force field

F  2 x i  (2 yz  x) j  yk Along (i) the straight line from (0,0,0) to (3,1,2).


2

(ii) the space curve x  3t , y  t , z  3t  1 from t=0 to t=1. (IIT)


2 2

(c) If F  xyi  zj  x k and C is the curve x  t , y  2t and


2 2
z  t 3 from

t=0 to t=1 find the work done by F .(IIT)

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION
PART-A
1.State trapezoidal rule[A.U. Nov/Dec 2012]

2.Evaluate  sin xdx by trapezoidal rule by dividing into ten equal parts.
0

[A.U. May/June 2013]


2
dx
3.Taking h = 0.5 , evaluate  using trapezoidal rule.[A.U. Nov/Dec 2014]
1 1 x
2

1
1
4.Evaluate 
1/ 2 x
dx by trapezoidal rule, dividing the range into 4 equal parts.

[A.U. May/June 2012]


1
dx
5.Evaluate 1 x
0
2
using trapezoidal rule.[A.U. Nov/Dec 2012]

6.State Simpson’s one-third rule.[A.U. Nov/Dec 2011][A.U. May/June 2013]


1
7.State the local error term in Simpson’s rule.[A.U. Nov/Dec 2014][A.U. Nov/Dec 2015]
3
3
8.Under what condition, Simpson’s rule can be applied and state the formula
8
[A.U. May/June 2012][A.U. Nov/Dec 2015]
9.Write down two point Gaussian quadrature formula.
[A.U. Nov/Dec 2011][A.U. Nov/Dec 2012]
1
dx
10.Use two-point Gaussian quadrature formula to solve 
1 1  x
2
.

[A.U. April/May 2010][A.U. May/June 2012]


2

11.Apply two-point Gaussian quadrature formula to evaluate  e  x dx. [A.U. Nov/Dec 2015]
2

 1
 t   
4 
12.Using two-point Gaussian quadrature formula to evaluate I  sin dt
1 4 
[A.U. Nov/Dec 2015]
13.State three point Gaussian quadrature formula.
[A.U. May/June 2012][A.U. Nov/Dec 2012][A.U. April/May 2015]
3
1
14. Evaluate  x dx
1
Simpson’s one-third rule on two equal parts (GATE).

PART-B
6
dx
1.Evaluate 1 x
0
by using (i) Direct Integration (ii) Trapezoidal rule (iii) Simpson’s one-

third rule (iv) Simpson’s three-eighth rule [A.U. Nov/Dec 2011] [A.U. Nov/Dec 2014]
5 .2
2. Evaluate  log e dx using Trapezoidal rule. [A.U. May/June 2013]
4


2
3
3. Compute  sin xdx using Simpson’s 8
0
rule. [A.U. Nov/Dec 2012]

1.3
4. Taking h = 0.05 evaluate 1
x dx by using Trapezoidal rule and Simpson’s

three-eighth rule. [A.U. May/June 2014]


2
5. Evaluate  sin xdx by dividing the range into ten equal parts, using Trapezoidal rule.
0

1
1
6. Using Trapezoidal rule, evaluate 1 x
1
2
dx by taking eight equal interval

[A.U. May/June 2013] [A.U. Nov/Dec 2015]


6
dx
7.Evaluate 1 x
0
2
by using (i) Direct Integration (ii) Trapezoidal rule (iii) Simpson’s one-

third rule (iv) Simpson’s three-eighth rule [A.U. Nov/Dec 2011] [A.U. Nov/Dec 2014][A.U.
Nov/Dec 2014
2

8. Evaluate  sin xdx by dividing the range into ten equal parts, using Simpson’s one-third
0

rule. Verify your answer with actual integration. [A.U. Nov/Dec 2012] [A.U. Nov/Dec 2014

5
dx
9. Evaluate  4x  5
0
by Simpson’s one-third rule and hence find the value of log e 5

( n  10 ) [A.U. April/May 2005]



10.Evaluate  sin xdx by dividing the range into ten equal parts, by trapezoidal rule. [A.U.
0

May/June 2006] [A.U. May/June 2009]


1

11. Evaluate  e  x dx by dividing the range into 4 equal parts using (i) Trapezoidal rule (ii)
2

Simpson’s one –third rule. [A.U. April/May 2011][A.U. May/June 2009]


1.. 2 1.4
dxdy
12a) Evaluate   x  y by trapezoidal formula by taking h=k=0.1[A.U. April/May 2010]
1 1
2
x 2  2x  1
b) Evaluate 0 1  ( x  1 )2 dx by Gaussian three point formula.[A.U. May/June 2013][A.U.
Nov/Dec 2015]
2 2
dxdy
13.a) Using trapezoidal rule, evaluate   numerically with h=0.2along x-direction
1 1 x2  y2
and k=0.25 along y-direction. [A.U. May/June 2012][A.U. April/May 2015]
2
dx
b) Evaluate 1 x
1
3
using 3 point Gaussian formula. [A.U. Nov/Dec 2014]

1 1
dxdy
14.a) Evaluate   1  x  y by trapezoidal rule.[A.U. Nov/Dec 2014]
0 0

1
dx
b) Use Gaussian three-point formula to evaluate  1 x
0
2
. [A.U. May/June 2012]

1 1
dxdy
15.a) Using trapezoidal rule evaluate  1 x  y
0 0
with h  0.5 along x-direction and

k  0.25 along y-direction. [A.U. Nov/Dec 2015]


5
dx
b) Use Gaussian three-point formula to evaluate 
1
x
. [A.U. May/June 2012]

1.4 2.4
dxdy
16a) Evaluate 
1 2 xy
using Simpson’s rule.[A.U. Nov/Dec 2015]

2
x 2  2x  1
b) Use Gaussian three-point formula to evaluate 0 1  x  12 dx. [A.U. May/June 2013]
2 1
1 1
17.a) Evaluate   4xydxdy using
0 0
Simpson’s rule by taking h 
4
, k  . [A.U. Nov/Dec
2
2012]
1 .5

 e dx using three point Gaussian quadrature formulas. [A.U. April/May 2015]


x 2
b) Evaluate
0 .2

1 1
2 2
sin xy 1
18.a) Evaluate   1  xy dxdy using
0 0
Simpson’s rule with h  k 
4
[A.U. May/June

2012][A.U. May/June 2014]


2 x2

b) Compute  e 2
dx using Gaussian two point quadrature formula. [A.U. May/June 2009]
2