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# BEAMS

INTRODUCTION
BENDING STRESS AND THE PLASTIC MOMENT
STABILITY
BENDING STRENGTH OF COMPACT SHAPES
BENDING STRENGTH OF NONCOMPACT SHAPES
SHEAR STRENGTH
DEFLECTION
DESIGN OF BEAMS
HOLES IN BEAMS
BEAM BEARING PLATES AND COLUMN BASE
PLATES
INTRODUCTION
 Beams are structural members that support
transverse loads and therefore subjected primarily
to flexure
 If substantial amount of axial load is also present,
the member is referred to as beam – column
 For flexure, the required and available strength are
moments
 For LRFD,

 For ASD,
Dividing both sides
by the elastic
section modulus S
we get an equation
for allowable stress
design:
BENDING STRESS AND THE PLASTIC MOMENT

##  To be able to determine the nominal moment

strength Mn we must first examine the behavior of
very small loads to the point of collapse
 Consider the beam loaded as shown oriented so
that bending is about the major principal axis
 The maximum flexural stress formula is as long
as the loads are small enough that the material
remains within the linear elastic stage.
 In structural steel, this means the fmax must not
exceed Fy and that the bending moment must not
exceed My = Fy Sx , where My = the bending
moment which brings the beam to the point of
yielding
 A simply supported beam with a concentrated load at
 Bending within the linear elastic stage
 Due to increased load bending stress reached the
yield strength, yielding has just begun
 Further increase in load, yielding has progressed
in to the web
 The entire cross-section has yielded
 The additional moment required to bring from
stage (b) to stage (d) is 10% to 20% of the yield
moment My for W shapes
 When stage (d) has been reached, any further
increase in the load will cause collapse
 A plastic hinge is said to have formed at the
center of the beam, and this hinge along with the
hinges at the ends of the beam constitute an
unstable mechanism
 During the plastic collapse the mechanism motion
is as shown
 Structural analysis based on a consideration of
collapse mechanisms is called plastic analysis
 The plastic moment capacity, which is the
moment required to form the plastic hinge, can
be easily computed from a consideration of the
corresponding stress distribution
Sample Problem
1. For the built up shape shown determine:
a. The elastic section modulus S and the yield
moment My
b. Plastic section modulus Z and the plastic
moment Mp
Bending is about the x-axis and the steel is A572
Sample Problem
2. Compute the plastic moment MP for a W 10 x
60 of A992 steel
STABILITY
 If a beam can be counted on to remain stable up to
the fully plastic condition, Mn = Mp otherwise Mn < Mp
 Forms of Instability for Beams
1. Lateral-Torsional Buckling (LTB) – outward
deflection accompanied by twisting
2. Flange Local Buckling (FLB) – compression flange
buckling
3. Web Local Buckling (WLB) – buckling of the
compression part of the web
 Stability Bracing
1. Lateral Bracing – prevents lateral translation
2. Torsional Bracing – prevents direct twisting
CLASSIFICACTION OF SHAPES
 AISC classifies cross-sectional shapes as:
1. Compact
2. Non-compact
3. Slender
BENDING STRENGTH OF COMPACT SHAPES
 A beam can fail by reaching Mp and becoming fully
plastic or it can fail by
1. Lateral-Torsional Buckling (LTB) (elastically or
inelastically)
2. Flange Local Buckling (FLB) (elastically or
inelastically)
3. Web Local Buckling (WLB) (elastically or
inelastically)
 Limit State for Yielding
 Doubly Symmetrical Compact I-shaped Members
and Channels Bent about their Major Axis
Mn = Mp = Fy Zx
where :
Fy = specified minimum yield strength of the type of
steel being used
Zx = plastic section modulus about the x-axis
Sample Problem
1. A simply supported beam with 30’ span length is a
W 16 x 31 of A992 steel. It supports a reinforced
concrete floor slab that provides continuous lateral
support of the compression flange. The service
the beam; it does not include the weight of the
beam itself. The service live load is 550 lb/ft. Does
the beam have adequate moment strength?
 Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB)
 The moment strength of compact shapes is a
function of the unbraced length, Lb defined as the
distance between points of lateral support
 The nominal Flexural Strength for compact I and C-
shapes sections can be summarized as follows:
where :

## Lb = length between points that are either braced

against lateral displacement of compression
flange or braced against twist of the cross-section
E = modulus of elasticity of steel
J = torsional moment of inertia (mm4)
Sx = section modulus (mm3)
Rm = cross-section monosymmetric parameter
= 1.0 doubly symmetric members
= 1.0, singly symmetric members subject to single
curvature bending
ho = distance between the flange centroids
Cw = warping constant (in6)
Sample Problem
1. Determine the design strength and the
allowable strength of a W14x68 of A242 (Fy =
50 ksi; E = 29000 ksi)
a. Continuous lateral support
b. An unbraced length of 20 ft with Cb = 1.0
c. An unbraced length of 30 ft with Cb = 1.0