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SSLC ​SOCIAL

SCIENCE
NOTES ​PART - II

Prepared
by
Praveenkumar Banakar
Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya
Muddebihal
9980803896/9742426746
HISTORY ​FREEDOM MOVEMENT
Rise of nationalism:
● Local Kings fought against British Kings guided by their political goals since they fought
against foreign occupation it is a beginning of nationalism
● Expansion of communication Road education journalism cultural Association witnessed the
beginning of nationalism
● Farmers And tribal associations witnessed and the revolt of 1857 as well
● Nationalism found its concrete concept ​Indian National Congress:
● Various associations established like the Hindu Mela ,all Indian Association, Pune public
Sabha, Indian Association
● During the reign of Lord lytton Vernacular Press Act passed to curb independence of
● ● ● ● ● ● ​Moderates: ​● ● ● ● ● press All Indian It It WC It political The and They the request
Organised industrial Drain naoroji was discuss placed these used Banerjee Gokhale leaders
1885 ​have of founded National history. resources problems development to development,

R​
various ​to ​public faith table are ​1905 ​was ​ P​ by Congress in WC ​ that meetings issues AO

A​ V​
British the of of ​the ​ Banerjee people India demands Hume first led ​age ​good ​ of rule

E​
established to President to discussions public ​ of ​a development before education England

E​ N​
MG ​moderates ​ retired within ​ importance Ranade British of British in constitutional

B​ A​
through ​ INC demanded and 1885 ​ of government Surendranath eradication Civil
N​ A​ K​ A​
Indian ​ at statistics- Bombay ​ Servant. to National framework ​ cut it of ​ drain

R​
down changed Banerjee poverty ​ Congress

theory through military direction Dadabhai by expenditure prayer Dadabhai of naoroji Indian
and
● Moderate period is called liberal nationalism ​Radicals:
● The group of congressmen who criticised soft stance of moderates is called radicals
● Aurobindo Ghosh Bal Gangadhar Tilak Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal are the leaders
● Criticize the moderates as political beggars ​Division of Bengal:
● Bengal was centre of anti British protests and anti British sentiment
● Viceroy Lord Karjan introduced dividing Bengal to control anti-british protests
● Since Bengal had more concentration of Muslims and Hindus
● In 1905 British divided Bengal into East and West. East was Muslim dominated while West
was dominated by Hindus
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● The division of Bengal resulted in widespread products. Radicals took the issue to door steps
of people boycotted foreign goods encouraged local goods finally government withdrew it in
1911 ​Bal Gangadhar Tilak:
● He declared Swaraj is my birthright attended complete freedom is the aim of radicals
● They are organised people by employing religious celebrations like Ganesha Chaturthi Shivaji
jayanti Durga celebrations
● He published Kesari and Maratha newspapers and influence on common people
● He wrote the book Gita Rahasya in prison it fueled freedom fever ​Revolutionaries:
● They dreams of complete freedom and believed in violent method used guns and bombs to
achieve goal
● Established secret association for armed struggle that is Lotus and Dragger in England, gadha
in USA, abhinava Bharathi in India, anushilan Samiti in India.

R​ A​
● ● Aurobindo Chandrashekar Many of the Ghosh radicals ​ P​ Madam ​ VD ​ later
V​ EE​ N​ B​
Savarkar ​ Cama became ​ awesome Rajguru ​ revolutionaries ​ Khudiram

leaders

ANA​ K​ AR
that Bose ​ is Bhagat Aurobindo ​

Singh
Ghosh.
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
ERA OF GANDHI AND NATIONAL MOVEMENT
GANDHI ERA ​Early life
● Born on 2nd October 1869 at Porbandar
● Karamchand Gandhi and putlibai are the parents
● Went to England for the completion of law education in 1888
● Went to South Africa Natal in 1893. Dada Abdulla company stayed 20 years
● Opposed Apartheid policy and started Satyagraha founding Natal Indian Congress ​Initial
protests
● Gokhale was the political Guru of Gandhi
● He founded Sabarmati ashram at Ahmedabad in 1916
● In 1917 he launched Champaran movement for Indigo Grover support
● Support to mill workers of Ahmedabad
● ● ● ​Achievements ​1. 2. 3. ​Jallianwala ​Background:
● ● ● ● ● ● ● Kheda He He Satyagraha: Ahimsa: Unity freedom eyes Rowlatt They MK He
Incidence​: Massacre Killed followed started called Gandhi ​Bagh ​of could of 380 village India
Act Hindu ​of ​fasting struggle a held people. young ​Gandhiji massacre ​arrest formed hartal

R​
1919 the its ​P​ support Muslim: on assertion against three ​ is implementation India any

A​
protest April General Satyagraha supported ​ struggle ​principles for person Gandhiji and 13
V​ E​ E​
brutal ​ of land the 1919 Dyer ​ Harijan truth act without force tax khilafat ​ Sabha

N​
nonviolence champion Amritsar who weapon hence ​ related periodicals

B​ A​
of was reason movement British ​ to many oppose Punjab based associated ​ at truth the

N​ A​ K​
leaders on unity and rowlatt ​ and nonviolence ​ with expressed were of

A​ R
Satyagraha Hindu Act ​ this arrested ​

incident and and both Muslim social religion explode during


are two
● letter Rabindranath Tagore returned knighthood awards to the British
● this was the reason for non cooperation movement
● Later Udham Singh killed General Dyer ​Khilafat moment
● Sultan's of Turkey ware Caliphs. British harassed caliphs so that protested by Muslim
● In India Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali started khilafat movement
● Gandhiji supported to this moment ​Non cooperation movement
● Congress passed a resolution on Non-Cooperation held at Calcutta on 4th September 1920
● Aim at educating people presenting brutal incidence of British rowlatt Act withdrawal and
reforms in political system
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● Main programs
● Boycotting schools colleges and courts
● Boycotting elections to regional legislative bodies held according to 1919 act
● Returning all horner's and medals
● nominated members to the local bodies resigning from their membership
● Boycotting all government functions
● Boycotting all foreign goods.
● Major developments
● Senior lawyers like Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das Motilal Nehru Rajendra Prasad left
their legal practice
● Students boycotted schools and colleges
● Congress boycott elections for regional bodies
● Many national institutions were established Kashi Vidyapeeth, Gujarat Vidyapeeth, Jamia
Millia Islamia rashtriya Vidyalaya.
● ● ● ​Impacts ​● ● ● ● ● ​Chori ​● ● ● ● ● ​choura ​Raveena common The The Congress Hindu
National Attempts February police There the station 22 morality He ​of ​police withdrew police
visit ​non ​freedom Muslim station is ​incident ​among able freedom of people ​cooperation ​to

Tagore 5th men leg started Prince remove the movement 1922 to movement ​ P​ Unity died

R​ A​
people protest and non ​ returned movement shooting of a . was untouchability ​ Gandhiji

V​
big women Wales cooperation ​movement ​against ​ became group temporarily took

E​ E​
knighthood from ​ in donated went realised some 1921 ​ of the inside people's around

N​ B​
movement ​ beyond and police was revolutionary achieved liberally this the ​ entry

A​ N​
opposed 3000 officer ​ movement the station happened of on ​ to boundaries farmers
A​ K​ A​
women February the ​ turns enraged Congress due ​ into assembled ​ to 12 of

R​
people public lack ​ cities 1922 of spaces fired and in preparation front enter the of police

villages
the
and
● Gandhiji was arrested on March 10 1922 holding Gandhiji responsible for all the violent
uprisings
● He was released two years later on the grounds of ill health. ​Swaraj Party
● The withdrawal of non cooperation movement disheartened many congressmen
● Swaraj party was found in 1923 by Motilal Nehru and CR Das
● Leaders of Swaraj party obtain permission to participate in election
● During the elections that were held in November 1923 Swaraj party won 42 seats out of 101
seats available. ​Reasons for the beginning of civil disobedience movement
● British government appointed the Simon Commission in 1927 to study the effects of Indian
government act 1919
● It arrived in India on February 3rd 1928
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● It was witness divide protest with slogans Simon go back organised in different places
● Lala Lajpat Rai was died during Lathi charge in Lahore .it intensified National freedom
struggle ​Dandi March 1930
● The Congress met at Sabarmati ashram and pass resolution to hold civil disobedience under
the leadership of MK Gandhi
● They demanded 11 points. The viceroy rejected the letter hence declared on 12 March 1930
● The walk with followers of to Dandi. 375 km on foot.he broke the law by holding a fistful salt
without paying the tax with the British had levied on salt.
● The spinning wheel charaka became more famous during this march.
● Thousands of people participated in the Salt Satyagraha. Many needles like Vijayalakshmi
pandit Kamala Nehru Vallabhbhai Patel rajagopalachari Rajendra ​Round ​● ● ● ● ● ​● ​● ● ● ●
Prasad First untouchable In from This representation the As agreed ​In ​constituency This British
constituencies Mahatma According ​table ​order ​the ​a Indian conference was Round prison
result ​conferences second ​government to and to opposed Gandhiji participate National to

facilitate of many table community for the Gandhi ​P​ for ​round ​untouchables approved
R​ A​
Poona conference the others. by opposed Congress announced the ​ in Irwin Gandhi

V​ E​
untouchable ​table ​participation the ​ pact dominion pact second ​ conference ​this

E​ N​
between held did and ​ its Congress communal not ​ decision resulted in and round of

B​ A​
status London participate Gandhi ​ leaders it Ambedkar implemented table ​ topic in to

N​ A​
responsible award in ideological provide ​ and the conference. 1930. civil in ​ and

K​
Ambedkar the in passed disobedience present ​ separate Representation first communal

A​ R​
started Government difference ​ Round for ​ leaders few fasting a electoral separate

constituencies award table movement between and were unto was conference in religious
electoral given death. released
1932
them and
to
were reserved for untouchables among general constituencies
● Third round table conference was organised, ​the Congress did not participate in the
conference
● The British government brought in Government of India Act 1935. The act provided for federal
structure at the centre and regional autonomy
● as a result of the Congress and Muslim league participate in the election and the Congress
gain majority and form the government
● The viceroy unilaterally declared India's war against Germany the Congress walked out of the
cabinet opposing this decision then stratford cripps was sent to India to mediate. ​Quit India
1942
● The stratford cripps commission proposed some suggestions in front of Indians like dominion
status to India formation of new constitution
● The proposals were opposed by Congress and called for quit India Movement
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● Gandhi gave call to the fellow Indians to ​Do or die
● Many leaders of Congress were arrested and imprison.
● non Congress organisation took the lead in this moment. Jayaprakash Narayan provided
leadership to this movement he was the leader of socialist wing.
● the train factory workers and call for the support of common people and collected the money
● Efforts were made outside the border of India Subhas Chandra Bose really commendable in
this direction
● after the election of 1937 Muslim league was kept out of government formation
● Congress walked out of the government in 1939 opposing the unilateral decision of viceroy to
participate in World War II
● Muslim celebrated this walkout as ​Vimukti Divas ​hence Muslim league did not participate in
quit India Movement but they proposed for the division of India. ​Formers and workers protest
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ​● ​● ● These ideology Many They They Congress Gandhijis formers Many
influenced In The in ​Worker ​Railway officer printers awareness Maharashtra Telangana farmers
oppoded protested farmers of associations union of ​struggle ​workers the influence try tebhaga
by protests of to farmers leftist

R​
P​ in rebelled the Bengal against farmers organise Kolkata ​ held ​started ​Indigo bulbar was

A​ V​
were ​ were protest protest rose against land ​ protest visible and the influenced
E​ E​
cropping ​in ​and organised ​ ​ olkata ​farmers cotton in against ​
against tax K other British in

N​
against railway activities ​ in zamindars mill by places under Champaran as the ​in ​planters

B​ A​
congress low stations workers ​1827 ​a zamindars part ​ in wages the revolted

N​ A​
Champaran ​ and of banner and of some national ​ district for zamindars Bombay and

K​ A​ R
raised against ​ them. of were nizams ​ Kisan freedom and slogans created British ​

influenced Kheda
Sabha Razaks
struggle
and against National
which zamindars by Marxist
British was
● A labour union was founded in Madras ​The tribal revolts
● the tax and forest policies implemented during British administration was the reason for tribal
revolts
● Revolt of Santhala, khola, Munda and halagali bedaru important
● The revolt of santhala is an important in India the people of this tribe are present in hilly areas
of Bengal
● With the implementation of permanent zamindari system these people became landless
● The land developed by them was taken over by the zamindars
● Zamindars and money lenders became the exploiters
● the upset Santhal has made secretly and decided to loot the zamindars and money lenders
● The revolt was in Bharatpur and rajmahal areas
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● The tribal people killed their enemies and. Frightened money lenders and zamindars fled from
these areas
● It became an inspiration for many revolts in future. ​Subhash Chandra Bose
● Subhash Chandra Bose was from Cuttack of Orissa
● He had secured 4th rank in the Indian civil services exam and he refused posting and became
part of the national freedom struggle
● He became popularly as Netaji
● He told many cities like Vienna palindrome Istanbul and other cities rallied the Indian settled
● buy 1934 Subhash Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru founded the Congress socialist party
● Bose became the President of haripura convention of Indian National Congress
● In 1939 Subhas Chandra Bose got selected as President of Indian National
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ​Dr.B.R ​● Congress He Subhas of the arrest Subhash He Azad Boss help
He He Captain They Subhas He ​Ambedkar ​British quit organised was said had British of joined
started Hind Japan Congress believed calling Chandra give Chandra Lakshmi India Chandra

R​
government radio hands me their the ​ P​ in his your ​ in the Sehgal Bose Bose prisoners

A​
and armed military Bose with political ​ war blood founded arrested opposed died rash

V​ E​ E​
escaped became struggle wing freedom ​ of I in Behari will War airplane ​ forward as

N​
Subhas the get from the ​ on Indian from Bose British without you Burma commander

B​
house crash..
A​
bloc India Chandra Indian National to ​ war explode social border arrest and

N​ A​ K​
preparation independence ​ Bose broadcast of army freedom and Jhansi the ​ and

A​ R​
and reached possibility ​ is and regiment put ​ he and meaning him called also his

Germany of under speeches the seeking for less participation Delhi house
.
over
the
chalo
● He introduced the concept of India not only as a political entity but whole system
● He organised Mahad tank and Kalaram temple movement
● He participated in all the three round table conference
● He demand for seperate electoral constituency for untouchables
● Was Diwan to Baroda Maharaj and member of Bombay legislative council
● He founded Bahishkruta Hitakarini Saba and Swatantra karmika party
● He published periodicals Prabuddha Bharata , janatha , mookanayaka
● Ambedkar was elected as chairman of Drafting committee
● He became the first Law minister of Independent India
● India govt honoured him for life time achievement civil award Bharata Ratna posthumously
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
Jawaharlal Nehru
● Played prominent role in the non cooperation movement held during 1920
● He became the President of Lahore session and declared Poorna Swaraj
● He was influenced by communist ideology
● Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose founded socialist Congress party in 1934
● He argued that charak and Harijan moments was not so effective
● he is more evident in his non-aligned movement and mixed economy principles
● As the prime minister of India
● He can be seen as the architect of industrialisation and modern India
● Nehru became instrumental in the integration of India ,The home minister of his cabinet
Vallabhbhai Patel the iron man of India successful in bringing all princely states of India together
● also laid foundation for the diverse culture of India by implementing language based
​ ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ​partition ​firmly He the Bhabha
reorganisation of states policy ​The ●
Advocated Implemented Developed Indian Mohammad Jinna The it government the as league
British recommended a sought foundation Muslim cabinet result believe declared National
government ​of ​did ​India
to communal not non infrastructure league committee Ali develop panchasheela that

R​
P​ participate for that alignment Congress zinna for ​ only mastering called sent Hindus

A​ V​
federal ​ putting India clashes complete to ​ Lord and for in at have movement and

E​
through ​ form the principles the atomic direct pressure Mountbatten heavy took

E​ N​
discussion Muslims constituent vision industrialisation of ​ action Government place

B​ A​
five energy industries stay signing for of ​ year cannot free in day an away ​ on as under

N​
assembly various plans independent independent viceroy giving on ​ with through from
A​ K​
make and can August ​ the Chinese parts self suggested power ​ bring to leadership one

A​
five India rule 16 ​ of Pakistan nation United development year 1946 the politics President

R
rights to country to plans. complete of India form to Homi India but
an Muslim
Jehangir
the
interim
process of handing over of the power
● In 1946 Mountbatten had discussion with Gandhiji and Muhammad Ali Jinnah
● In July 1947 the bill of India independence to the shape of an act
● August 15th 1947 to new nation India and Pakistan was born
● the Radcliffe brown commission mark the boundaries between two Nations
● Jawaharlal Nehru took oath as the first prime minister of India.
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
INDIA AFTER INDEPENDENCE
● The partition of the country has created new problems the country was burnt in communal fire.
● millions of people from both the countries try to choose their future in both countries
● It was a great challenge to offer shelter and food to refugees
● the integration of princely states into the federal structure was a bigger problem,
● There were 562 princely states in India
● Kashmir and Junagadh in north and Hyderabad in South not agree to join federal structure
easily
● Partition has damaged the economic system of India deeply the colonial power that have used
the resources of India for more two centuries
● India had a challenge of creating its own constitution. Under the chairmanship of Dr BR
Ambedkar the constitution drafting committee gave India a draft constitution
● ● ​Communal ​● ● ● ● ● ● ​Refugee ​● ● ● ● India enemies.Strengthening gender need People
India During Communal These India Millions Around ​The ​communal the the ​crises ​Bengal
Bangladesh ​Crisis V ​ iolence ​had is has of incidents partition and have a 6 strengthening of
country accepted million to people violence vimochana violence ​of c​ aste protect lost ​ P​ ​ f
East o

R​ A​
helped refugees ​ more of based try India religion ​Pakistan s​ oon its many ​ made to

V​
fabric freedom Movement lives find its India lot ​ discrimination after arrived religions military

E​ E​
Nehru of as ​ future in of to communal continued the communal the ​ social that adopt to

N​ B​
in ​ which personal in partition forces due think was India either equality secular ​ was

A​
to for violence was after was about violence ​ numerous of a choice natural long supported

N​ A​
the ​ a also principles forming struggle country took ​ time than one of to invasion

K​ A​ R
the Indian place . of in a by It from ​ individual. during the secular wars was India ​

society.there big its on caught partition could task India


country.
in finally severe of was India
liberate
a
● The war resulted in arrival of 10 lakh refugees to India they were helped by the government of
India
● Major feminine destroyed over financial security during 1970
● ​The people of Tibet ​had arrived in our country has the refugees during Nehru time
● Around 1 lakh and 20,000 Tibet refugees in India
● Government of Karnataka sanctioned 3000 acre of land to Tibetan refugees in 1960 at
Bylakuppe​. There arrival has enriched our cultural diversity.;
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
The problem of formation of new government of independence
● Lord Mountbatten came as the governor general of India and handed over power to India
● Jawaharlal Nehru became the first prime minister. On January 26th 1950 Indian constitution
was adopted
● Dr Babu Rajendra Prasad became the first president of India
● 42nd amendment to the constitution words secular and socialist were added in the year 1976
● India followed and independent foreign policy and parliamentary type of democracy
Integration of princely states
● ● ● ● ● ● ​Junagadh
● ● ● ​Hyderabad
● ● ● there they Joining Government princely Offered Later Under successful the Pakistan
Citizens The This He Under wanted nawab king had princely were in the the Pakistan royalties
1971 states revolted kept flight leadership leadership of in 562 to offer state integrating this the

R​
remain ​P​ three from to princely ​ 3. and against join royalties princely through was

A​ V​
Remaining the options ​ independent special of of federal ruled kingdom ​ states

E​
Vallabhbhai communist the him state its and ​ open princely by structure status ​Instrument
E​ N​
and ​ when independent status has Nizam later for ​ flooded and and to signed Patel

B​ A​
British the states were Junagadh the of ​ refuse the remaining India ​of ​the ​ ruling who

N​
withdrawn the to left farmers ​accession ​streets ​ to Indian government is India Kings joined

A​ K​ A​
join known ​ princely of the federation ​ the Indian an independent as ​ state

R​
opportunity states. iron to ​ federation join man revolted the 1. of Joining India state for

India in against the


1949
of
was India 2.
Nijam and zamindars
● Nizam was patronised the cruel army called Razacks
● Government of India sent its military to fight Hyderabad and defeated the Nizam later
Hyderabad integrated with India in 1948. ​Jammu and Kashmir
● The king of Jammu and Kashmir Hari Singh decided to remain independent
● Pakistan instigated the tribal Muslims to invade Kashmir the people occupied more area of
Kashmir
● Hari Singh had the fear of Pakistan invasion over Jammu and Kashmir.
● King Hari Singh agreed to join India in October 1947
● The Indian army attacked the invading tribal soldiers andro them out of the valley
● One of the part of the Kashmir rebate with Pakistan India complaint at UNO against this issue
● Uno issued battle truce on January 1st 1949
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● Northeast part of Kashmir that was occupied by Pakistan continue to be with it and it is called
Pakistan occupied Kashmir.The expression of Jammu and Kashmir is different from all other
exceptions
Pondicherry
● French had continued their hold over Pondicherry even after independence karakal and Mahi
chandranagar
● These parts got integrated in 1954 and later Pondicherry became union territory in 1963 ​Goa

● a sustained movement was held to protest against the Portuguese occupation of Goa
● They were order to vacate Goa. But they brought more army from Africa and Europe
● ● ​Reorganisation ​● ● ● ● ● ● ● to satyagrahis from The British language After for Andhra In
President According On They integration consolidate 1953 Vishal October Indian Goa the had
government Pradesh ​Reorganisation ​death ​of ​in Andhra formed and to of military from 14 1955

R​
States ​the Kannada ​ P​ their KM of 1947 ​ was act all All potti the panikkar entered and

A​
power ​based ​over ​ 14 Karnataka Mysore formed demand sriramulu speaking states

V​ E​ E​
regional ​ ​ n ​Goa ​
India ​of o and ​state s​ tate in ​language ​and for ​ entered 1953 rajya

N​
HN and governments who world language ​ Commission c​ ame six kunzru took nirmana

B​ A​ N​
died ​ union Goa into over ​ after became based and territories existence ​ parishath
A​ K​
never its 54 was declared administration ​ state days its ruled formed ​ members were

A​ R​
formation and of ​ the people hunger Mr demanded ​ formed exist Faisal using went

strike of Portuguese Ali up


local
for demanding became the major the
● In 1956 vishala Mysore state came into existence
● In 1973 it was renamed as Karnataka.
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
THE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF 20TH CENTURY
The first world war : 1914-18 Reasons
● Issue of establishing control over colonies
● More competition about the European countries
● Control over each other and every market of the world including India
● Problems related to geographical boundaries
● Every country militarized itself too much
● An extreme form of nationalism
● the assassination of Archduke Fransis Ferdinand the prince of Austria was the immediate
cause of the war ​Triple Entente-​ England France and Russia T ​ riple alliance​- Germany Italy
and Austria -Hungary
● ​● ● ● ​Results
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ​Russian ● ​● ​Course ​In With with Germany The insulting Astro Germany The
The The The This ​Reasons
It was ​revolution-1917 ​the triple physical league war German the leads occurrence Hungary
​ ermany penalty Germany accepted lost entente to ​the ​of by map
beginning ruled ​of G

R​
industrialist the most ​P​ ​ ar ​Tsar of and ​
Nations and w of growth force to of the revolution
A​
Ottoman of the ​ in stop Europe other its 19 came year defeat

V​ E​
Germany ​ of geographical exploited the century. restrictions dictators ​ was Empire

E​ N​
underwent to war in ​ existence Russia America and to ​ Thevar sign like lost we

B​ A​
imposed area ​ in change Hitler. their treaty had in true November ​ exploiting 1919

N​ A​ K​
existence ​ stayed from of on small ​ Versailles Germany the the ​ neutral. 1917

countries war

A​ R
landlords ​ you 1919 ​

entered emerged which an was in agreement Europe


an
● The landlords for exploring the labours and small farmers
● the people were fed up with administration of Tsar
● Japan small country of Asia defeated Russia in 1905 ​February revolution
● Workers called for total boycotts
● The famous and workers took arms and fought against the rulers
● Lenin guided the foreigners and workers on the path of revolution. Lenin was declared as a
traitor
● The resistance of workers and farmers became more intense so Nicholas II run away from the
country
● The power was shared by moderates called as mensheviks they declared Russia as republic
● This is called as February revolution
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
October revolution
● Lalan return to Russia and called for peace food and land
● this was supported by the workers and farmers across Russia
● the bolsheviks the party of walkers created October revolution
● the declared Russia is a socialist republic union
● Lenin became the President of the government ​Reformations of Lenin
● He declared that land belong to the farmers
● implemented political and economic policies that ensures free health schooling and Residents
for Russians
● Implemented Karl Marx scientific communism
● He was died in 1924 ​Joseph Stalin
● Implemented five year plans for economical growth of USSR
● ● ● ● ​Hitler ​● ●
​ ● ● ● ​● ​● ● ● ● ​● ​● USSR Yuri The 1987 ​Hitler He
​ He Banned He ​Ideology
​ e formations became is declared put nurtured
He He Germans Jeeves ​Administration H
appointed independent Gagarin brought suppressed ​became launched
​ forward are workers are

the like the ultra that became the in ​P​ the ​the the
​ reasons Glasnost(Liberal dictator the

R​ A​
union Nazi India's nationalism superior minister socialist ​chancellor supremacy
​ ​ first

V​ E​
the party and and ​ for five satellite first race name and all political ​ as fuhrer year ​of

E​ N​
astronaut the ​ of the communist of ​Germany the
​ economy) in German plan ​ the
B​ A​
problems only history partie Gobbels world is ​ party of borrowed ​after ​ race the of in

N​ A​
they of human of to 1985 ​ world German ​the theory
​ Germany spread are ​ death from

K​ A​ R​
and the civilization ​ the Perestroika(Re USSR only ​ of theory
​ ​President ​ fit to rule

of nazizm

hindenburg the
​ organising) world in
● army named brownshirts was established
● The mass killing done by Hitler 6 billion Jews were killed and 1 million others were also killed
● Mass killing is called as Holocaust
● In 1935 Hitler implemented Nuremberg laws
● Imprisoned jeeves in concentration camps, pushed people to gas chambers
● Hitler's racial headed ended with his death.
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
Mussolini
● The fascist party of Mussolini grew in Italy
● Ultra nationalism, destroying the other national forces, patronising violence, racial superiority,
expansion of national boundaries, support of human execution are the features of fascism.
● Mussolini was the prime minister of Italy from 1922 to 1943
● He was the founder of national fascist party
● He banished all workers agitations and established one party dictatorship.
● dismissed democracy of Italy legally and became the dictator
● He was assassinated in 1945. ​Second World War
● Reasons
● Germany occupied Poland on September 1st 1939
● the nationalism grow more in Germany and other European countries
● ● ● ● ​● ​● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Industrial Hate Hitler Italy Japan ​Course ​The Germany England
England Expecting Germany Hitler Japan Italy Russia Germany USA war and defeated and
emerged attacked attack joined defeated ​of ​held France declared Germany is egoistic Italy on
face an ​the ​funded August China Germany between attack ​ P​ and Japan the on ​war ​as Russia

R​ A​
German movement war western the series Japan try more to ​ on 24 and dictator to

V​
expand against axis Russia 1939 ​ and acupoint of money forces were lost Europe and

E​ E​ N
defeats other started island of Germany its ​ by part allies in to Germany territory ​

the Germany countries attack stalingrad Nourish in of in emerging power British eastern Axis

B​ A​ N​
the Denmark ​ and Pacific ultra Russia were colonies In ​ Europe. in Musaloni 1942

nationalism Europe

A​ K​ A​ R​
in Ocean Norway entered the ​ in allies North emerged ​ Holland non ​ in

Africa Germany
war as pact the dictator with of
● Germany surrender due to the March of adami and allied forces
● Hitler committed suicide in 1945
● USA drop the first atomic bomb of the word on Hiroshima and Nagasaki of Japan
● On August 15 1945 Japan surrender completely and the allied forces achieved the complete
victory.
● Results
● Cause most misery and death in human history
● it also changed the social political and economical changes in the world
● In the place of league of Nations United Nations organisation came into existence
● English jeena USA USSR and France become permanent members
● USSR and USA became powerful rivals countries. It leads to cold war
● England France and other European countries lost their most of the colonies
● USA use Nuclear weapon in Japan nuclear arms race started between powerful countries

Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896


Chinese Revolution:
● Cheena was not completely a colony like India
● It was a semi colonial country has some part of it was independent
● It was under the rule of France and Japan
● China was controlled by landlords and warlords
● Integration and Unity of China
● In 1911 under the leadership of Kuomintang party is leader Sun yat Sen anti imperialistic
democratic Revolution took place
● The communist party started in China in the year 1925 it supported farmers moments and
workers moments
● In order to build unified China the communist party and Kuomintang party work together
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ​● ​● ● After he killed In in Japan into The announcement Chiag on People's of
Reformation ​Community and importance industrialisation 1934 order China started October
prominence other communist the ki attacked and to shek death republic facilities attacking

R​
protect 1st was farming 35 ​in ​P​ ​ hina ​
had of 1949 land on party given C was Sun the to

A​
China was ​ the reforms run people's occupied communist established to yat

V​ E​ E​
communist introduced away science the Sen ​ it Chinese liberation distributed ​ the

to more and Taiwan

N​ B​
party ​ in party party in China areas technology communist China ​ member army came
A​ N​
is line ​ and which basis and entered to ​ into Mao the Mao in provided around

A​ K​ A​
party was the order farmers Tse ​ tse Beijing hands drawn fought ​ tung 70000

R​
Tung to with achieve ​ of by against started became free rule revolutionaries Japan health

of growth a this Chiag and the Long and education President


in
ki March
came were shek
● Leap forward program was planned and implemented
● The private property was converted into public property
● The cultural revolution was implemented. ​Cold War
● the mistrust competition and fear that emerged between two blocks of the world after the end
of second world war is called cold War
● the cold war is between capitalist block led by USA and communist bloc led by USSR
● Egypt India and other countries started non aligned movement and stayed away from the
blocks
● Consequences
● The competition to stockpile weapons grew
● USA try to enter into agreement to sell its weapons across the world
● It formed more military organisations to have hold over
● Agreement like NATO SEATO CENTO signed by USA
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● in every state of USA huge arms manufacturing factories were formed
● The competition for nuclear weapons increased
● The intelligence networks space War and better Technology increased
● The entire world entered into a invisible war and tension
● USA was successful in gaining the control
● USSR became victim to economic crisis and many other internal crisis
Emergence of USA as a strong country:
● The great economic depression but affected USA in 1927
● as a result output dropped in automobile and agriculture
● there was also drop in the output of consumer durable manufacturing mining shipbuilding and
many other industries
● This economic crisis led to changes in the politics

● ● ● Japan favour USA USA has has attacked of allied emerged become ​ P​ forces

R​ A​ V​ E​ E​ N
pearl ​ the as ​ herbal only powerful ​ superpower ​ military ​ country ​

B​ A​
base ​ of after the of ​ USA 1945

NA​ K​ A​ R
world ​ this after ​ made the ​ USA end ​

of to the enter cold the war.


war in
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
GEOGRAPHY MINERAL AND POWER RESOURCES
Meaning: ​a natural inorganic substance that possesses a definite chemical composition and
physical properties. Iron board Bauxite etc Mining- the process of extracting mineral from the
earth is called mining.
Importance:
● they are the gift of nature and contribute to the prosperity of country
● They are useful for industrial development construction transport communication and trade
and Commerce
● Some have great economic value like gold and diamond
● India is endowed with many minerals ​Iron : ​● ●
​ ● ● ● ​Manganese- ​● ● ● ● ● ● ​Bauxite
● ● ● ​It industry
​ Orissa Orissa Sandur Barely It used India Orissa It India It Orissa It ​is is
​ is is is

​ available the called in is exports ​ferrous Ferro


aa ​ ​jack ​35% Karnataka is is is the Hospet steel
main the the the wonder ​of ​leading alloy production largest largest biggest manufacture source
R​
​ ​all ​
to ​metallic in P​ kudremukh Orissa Japan ​ traders ​metal Jharkhand metal producer

A​ V​
producer producer of producer ​mineral UK
​ Maharashtra consumed aluminium ​ of dry

E​ E​
US 20th are ​ and Madhya ​and of
​ batteries and and ​ the century manganese exporter

N​ B​
​ Belgium has important and India ​important Pradesh
an by ​ ​ largest paint Karnataka

A​ N​ A​
in and the glass places ​ Reserves Maharashtra rest ​raw world
​ ​ pottery part

K​ A​ R​
​ ​
material in Karnataka is ​ exported and ​ for calico
​ ​iron and printing
​ ​steel

● it is available in Madhya Pradesh Orissa Andhra Pradesh and Ranchi ​Mica ​● It is a non

metallic mineral easily split into thin it is a transparent sheet and heat
resistant
● used in electrical telephone aeroplane automobile and wireless communication
● it is available in Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Maharashtra Orissa and Tamilnadu
● India is the largest producer and exporter
● Recently mica export declined due to synthetic mica is being produced ​Power resources
● the resource which is necessary for the generation of energy is called power source.
● Essential for economic growth
● Improving standard of living and development of industry agriculture transport and
communication ​Types
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
Conventional resource- coal petrol and gas. These are exhaustible Non conventional resource-
solar wind biogas. These are inexhaustible
Coal ​● It is associated with the geological periods
● It is a fuel substance of plant origin composed of carbon
● it is formed by vegetative matter buried in the past and has changed into coal due to
temperature and pressure variation
● Importance-​it is an important source of power, provides products like Ammonia Coal Tar coal
gas benzoyl naphtha and sulphur, used in dies plastic fibres rubber
● it is available in Jharkhand Chhattisgarh Orissa Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh India is the
third largest producer in the world ​Petroleum
● It is a Mineral oil composed of hydrocarbons
● ● ● ● ● ​Hydroelectricity
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● The It Raw It Digboi It electricity It Keeps First The Karnataka- Tamil
Maharashtra- Odisha- Andhra Telangana-nizamsagar is is is is the extracting called renewable
raw real hydro material Nadu_ naharkatiya machine source Pradesh- Hirakud material Boss

generated liquid electricity shivanasamudram Mettur for Koyna ​P​ in shivanasamudram

R​
cheaper of clean gold ​ Bombay and petrochemicals for Srisailam commercial moron

A​ V​
pykara many from and power Bheemkud due and and and ​ khopoli High to the

E​
rudrasagar easily industries ​ and plant Nagarjuna economic calorific force energy
E​ N​
Almatti Gujarat sileru rubber transmitted in on ​ of India value river used deltas falling

B​ A​
Kali and ​ the Sagar drugs established Kaveri ​ highest in strategic water of transport

N​ A​ K​
fertilizers Kaveri in ​ is producer. 1902 value called ​ in Godavari dyestuff 1897

A​ R
hydroelectricity ​

Ankleshwar Darjeeling and Krishna West Kabey


Bengal
● Kerala- Idukki and Sabari Giri ​Nuclear power
● The energy generated from the atomic minerals
● India has large reserves of atomic minerals like uranium and Thorium
● The first nuclear power plant was setup at Tarapur in 1969
● Some of the important power plants in India Tarapur Rana Pratap Sagar Kalpakkam Narora
kaiga kundankulam kakrapara. ​Need for non conventional resource
● They are renewable pollution free and eco friendly
● Can be conveniently supplied to Urban and rural areas
● They are capable of meeting the requirements ​Energy crisis
● there is a great demand for energy but the production of energy is not sufficient this cause
energy crisis
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● Reasons:
● Meader deposits of and shortage of Petroleum
● Poor quality of coal
● Erratic rainfall and shortage of water to generate hydroelectricity
● Loss of power and process of transmission
● Limited use of non conventional energy
Remedies
● Increase the production of petrol and coal
● To have substitute for oil and coal
● Importance to water power generation
● Greater use of non conventional resource

RAVEEN
P​
BANAKAR

Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya


Muddebihal 9980803896
POPULATION OF INDIA Size of population
● total number of people living in a particular area is called population
● India second populous country in the world
● As per 2011 census total population of India was 121.1 crore
● Account 17.5% of the world's population ​Growth
● During 1901 and 1921 population growth was low
● the period from 1921 to 1951 was considered as period of moderate growth
● Population was very high from 1951 to 1991 ​Causes
● High birth rate is responsible for overpopulation. Early marriages religious and social attitudes
polygamy and poverty illiteracy and tropical climate
● Low death rate due to improved medical facility and control of epidemics. Lower ​Impact ​● ● ●
● ● ​Measures ​● ● ● ​Population ​● ● ● ● ● infant Rapid of Burden Low Political Low Family
Publicity Creating Uttar Sikkim Among Lakshadweep Sparsely ​of ​food g ​ rowth to ​per standard
distribution ​Pradesh mortality ​control ​growth planning has and union on unrest capita and

awareness populated civic ​or ​the malnutrition advertisement of territories ​P​ of ​problems ​is

R​
has ​overpopulation ​and income and smallest and population and living the ​ the spread

A​ V​
poverty areas ​ social most among the and smallest and ​ Delhi population women ​of

E​
populous are amenities environmental of has slow ​ overpopulation ​the education is

E​ N​
Himalayan ​ population posed rural the welfare economic ​ highest state people several

B​
projects
A​
region pollution ​ development

N​ AK​ A​ R
populous ​ problems ​ like ​ unemployment ​

shortage
● Densely populated areas are located in Gangetic plain , coastal plain and industrial areas
Density of population
● The number of people per square kilometre is called density of population
● According to 2011 census 382 per square kilometre
● Bihar has the highest density 1102 per square kilometre
● Arunachal Pradesh has the lowest density of 17
● About union territories Delhi has the highest density of 11297
● Andaman Nicobar Islands have lowest density of population of 463
● Areas of high density
● Northern great plains Western and eastern coastal plain. Bihar West Bengal Uttar Pradesh
Haryana Punjab
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● These have high density of population due to fertile soil, transport and
communication facilities
● Areas of medium density
● Peninsular India including Jharkhand Assam Goa Maharashtra Karnataka
● mineral resources and development of metallurgical industries are the main reason for
medium population density
● Areas of low density
● Madhya Pradesh Rajasthan Uttaranchal Meghalaya Himachal Pradesh Jammu and
Kashmir
● The mountain and hilly terrains and low temperature and semi arid climate
responsible for low population density ​Factors Affecting on distribution of
population
● Physical features
● Northern and North eastern hill areas are populated but a great plains and North
● ​● ​● ​● ​● ​● ​● ​● ● India ​Climate ​The cold ​Solis ​Fertile plains.infertile ​Resources ​areas
Industries ​latest Bangalore Supply influence population and have realised which soil of
dry on water regions Mumbai dense ​and ​are population regions ​ P​ sandy commercial is

R​ A​
Commerce ​,tourism rich ​ population high attract Hyderabad ​ minerals in soil in

V​ E​ E​
Thar distribution. ​ and favourable areas more and ​ and due good and ​ urban

N​
Kolkata have population Himalaya to ​ power security physical climatic no centres

B​ A​ N​
population resources ​ for region of region features have life ​ example and

A​ K​ A​
dense density where are ​ property the densely ​ population as northern

R​
it and is populated space also plains like in have Delhi hot coastal and
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya
Muddebihal 9980803896
INDIAN TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
Meaning: ​moment of goods services and passengers from place to place is called transport
Importance
● transport plays important role in development of all factors of human activities Primary
secondary and tertiary
● if the agriculture and industries are the body and bones of national organism transport and
communication are the nerves
● It helps to develop resources agriculture industry increases the internal and external trade
Modes ​Land Water Air ​Road Types Pm ​transport ● ● ● ● ● ● 1. 2. ​gram ​transport- ​Transport
transport- ​of ​Provides Most Development Very Door plays Border Metalled Unmetalled ​of
Roads Sadak transport ​convenient ancient to - important National Security. door Road, Road
employment inland ​:

R​
Yojana ​Road service and of ​P​ rail and role and agriculture to ​ universal ​is ​and isolated

A​ V​
international ​ in ocean ​implemented ​is Rises tourism pipeline possible. ​ it and
E​ E​ N​
places income plays ​ trade industry they ​ vital ​to ​and commerce are c
​ onvert

B​ A​ N​ A​
role roads standard feeders ​ in ​ economy are ​mud ​and ​ to of essential it the

K​ A​ R​
Road ​living ​ is railway very ​ into ​. Encourages ​ useful ​metal ​for ​Road ​defence

tourism. and
On the basis of construction and maintenance the types of crops are
1. Golden Quadrilateral super highways 2. National highways 3. State highway 4. District road
5. Village road.
1. Golden Quadrilateral and super highway:
● There are four to six Lane Road constructed in 1999
● Hit links Delhi Mumbai Bangalore Chennai Kolkata Delhi.
● It connects major cities cultural and industrial centre
● Construction and maintenance under the control of National Highway Authority of India. 2.
National Highway:
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● Trunk Road connects capitals ports towns and it is maintained by CPWD ​3. State highway:
connects district headquarters it is under the control of SPWD. 4. ​District road: ​connect Taluk
headquarters. Zila Panchayat is the incharge of roads 5. ​Village road: ​links villages which are
mostly unmetalled roads. 6. ​Border roads: ​used for defence purpose found along Indian
borders maintained by Border roads Development Authority.
Railway transport:
● They are very essential to carry heavy goods passengers over long distance
● First rail line was laid between Bombay and Thane in 1853
● Railways are divided into 16 zones ​Pipelines: ​these are laid under earth surface mostly used
to transport crude oil to the refineries. The total length of pipelines in India he is about
35676kms
Waterways: ​Provides ​Inland Ocean Ports ​meeting unloading There ​Ports 1 ​ . 2. ● ● ● 1. ​on ​are
waterway ​Inland Ocean Rivers due It India about Kandla- ​waterways ​points is navigation ​the
14 carried to has Major 85% ​west: ​waterway development lakes waterway. between Gujarat a
R​
of through long ports facility back our ​P​ Gulf coastline ​ land trade in water by Ganga

A​ V​ E​
of India of and means road is Kutch ​ and seaborn. and sea Brahmaputra ​ and

E​ N​ B​ A​
Canal of ports routes ​ rail ships ​ are India where and ​ the and is ​ inland boats

NA​ K​ A​ R
located ships deltas ​ waterway. are at area ​ docked the ​ centre ​

Now for of loading the eastern play and


limited is fear
role
2. Mumbai- the biggest spacious and it is the Gateway of India 3. Jawaharlal Nehru- it is built for
the release of pressure on Mumbai 10 km of Mumbai 4. Marmagoa- located in Goa . Zuary
estuay 5. New Mangalore- gateway of Karnataka. 6. Kochi- Queen of Arabian Sea ​Ports on the
east:
1. Tuticorin- Tamil Nadu 2. Chennai- oldest port and artificial 3. Ennore- substitute to Chennai
port 4. Visakhapatnam- deepest and landlocked 5. Paradip- Mahanadi Delta Orissa 6. Kolkata-
riverine port on Hooghly river second biggest port and it is the largest
terminal port in Southeast Asia 7. Haldia- on the Confluence of Hooghly West Bengal
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
8. Port Blair- Andaman Nicobar ​Air transport ​what is the quickest means of transport efficient
and useful during flood war and earthquake. Corporations:
1. Air India International 2. Indian Airlines Private sector:
1. Jet Airways 2. Sahara 3. Paramount There are 141 out of 88 are domestic
1. Indira Gandhi International Airport 2. Shivaji 3. Subhash Chandra Bose 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
Communication ​conveyance communication ​Importance ​1. 2. 3. 4. Categories: 1. Anna
Kempegowda Rajiv Ramdas Vallabhbhai Lal LG Biju Information Helps Enables provides
Personal- Bahadur Bardoli Patnaik of Gandhi International in messages creating us
entertainment email International to one Patel International Shastri Airport ​ P​ know Bangalore

R​ A​
place letters ​ awareness International from natural ​ International Hyderabad to and

V​
helps one ​ Airport another Airport

E​ E​
telephone ​ hazards person among in ​ Airport unity place

N​ B​ A​ N​
Airport ​ to weather people and another ​ integrity ​ about condition ​ person

A​ K​ A​ R
government of the ​ or and country place ​ trade ​

policies to close is called


2. Mass Communication- radio television newspaper ​Postal Services ​Carry letters packets
parcel and money it provides National certificate ​Telecommunication ​Communication over a
distance by cable like Telegraph telephone and fax ​Radio and TV ​useful for farmers to get
up-to-date information about agriculture problems price weather condition and modern methods
of agriculture
● AIR the term coined in 1936
● Doordarshan established in 1959 ​Newspaper ​More than 100000 newspapers and periodicals
registered in India 41 hour 100 years past history Bombay Samachar is the oldest and still exist
newspaper which was established in 1822
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896

Satellite Centre computer network


● Radio and TV networking over India done through satellite Technology
● GPS and GIS developed in India
● GIS is a Computer Based system, GPS technology that indicate the location and
moving object point of latitude and longitude
● The Remote Sensing Technology collects information regarding earth surface gather
information about earth without touching object. Aerial and satellite photos are taken
through Remote Sensing Technology.

RAVEEN
P​
BANAKAR

Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya


Muddebihal 9980803896
INDIAN INDUSTRIES ​the conversion of raw materials into usable products is known as
manufacturing industries ​Importance
● Industries are vital for economic progress
● Reduces the Reliance on primary products
● Tips to increase National and per capita income
● Earn foreign exchange
● Create job opportunities and rise GDP rate
● The changes in living standard of the people
● It reduce the pressure on agriculture. ​Localisation of industries
1. Supply of raw material 2. Supply of power 3. Transport and communication facilities ​Major
Iron ​4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ● ● ​and industrial ​Market Market Capital Labour Ideal
Government Hugli Mumbai Ahmedabad Madurai Delhi Visakhapatnam Kolkata It machine
Modern is ​steel ​the climate region
region
facility facility
and ​industry ​basis region iron region Coimbatore tools ​regions ​water and region policies

R​ A​ V​
of ​P​ automobiles region all ​ steel supply other ​ region industry ​ industries

EE​ N ​ B​ A​
Agricultural ​ in India ​ many ​ was equipments Industries ​ started

NA​ K​ A​ R
in depend like ​ 1874 engineering ​ at on ​

kulti iron West and locomotive steel Bengal


industry
● Tata iron and Steel company started in 1907 at Jamshedpur
● Private sector industries-Tata iron and Steel industry, Jindal Vijayanagar Steel Limited, ispat
iron and steel industry, dubari steel plant
● Public sector industries-Indian iron and Steel company, Visvesvaraya iron and Steel Limited,
Hindustan Steel Limited, Hindustan Steel Limited Rourkela, Hindustan Steel Limited Durgapur,
Bokaro steel plant, Tata Steel plant, Visakhapatnam steel plant. ​Aluminium Industry
● It is used in manufacturing aeroplanes automobiles railways ships household appliances
electrical cables and its foils are used as packing materials and for paint industries. It is a good
substitute for steel and copper
● The aluminium industry is the second important metal based industry in India. First started in
1942 in West Bengal
● India import aluminium to meet its local demands ​Cotton textile industry
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● It is a agro based industries first started in 1854 Mumbai
● The location of cotton textile industry is governed by supply of raw material power wash
market capital skilled labours and humid climate
● Cotton textile industries widely distributed in Maharashtra Gujarat Tamilnadu Karnataka
● Mumbai is the most popular centre of cotton textile industry hence it is called cottonopolis of
India and Manchester of India. ​Sugar industry
● It is the second important agro based industry in India
● The model sugar Mills was started in the beginning of 20th century
● Supply of sugar cane cheap and efficient transport facility government encouragement market
and capital are main factors for the location of sugar industry
● Industries are widely concentrated in Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Karnataka
● India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world next to Brazil ​Paper ​● ● ● ● ●
Knowledge ​● ● ● ● ​industry ​Paper writing Education paper the started Paper like Industries
Uttar it and It India population Information refers require first bamboo human ​based ​Pradesh
has in is industry wrapping at modern to that an intellectual the Bally developed and those and

education technology indispensable ​industry ​cellulosic country potential ​ P​ literacy is growing

R​ A​
near paper industry ​ packing a forest ​ Kolkata capabilities on pulp mill to level is

V​ E​
information the become printing which based a and was grass ​ key in bank in our

E​ N​
useful 1870 set are knowledge industry rather straw ​ of leading country up relatively
B​ A​
technology Hooghly product in ​ than of 1932 raw knowledge ​ paddy are based physical

N​ A​
materials intensive West it ​ serampore measured is rags ​ used industry Bengal inputs

K​ A​ R​
based . in used for ​ by their West many its and the industry ​ in main inputs this

Maharashtra Bengal. conservation purposes components industry with of Technology The its
such softwood own real Gujarat of
as
one
are software and hardware
● Software Technology parks was established in 1995 in different parts of the country
● They are developed in Karnataka Maharashtra Tamil Nadu and Telangana
● Karnataka has achieved a great name in software industry they were concentrated in
Bengaluru Mumbai Pune Chennai Hyderabad Kolkata Delhi
● Bengaluru is the most important centre of Indian software industry hence it is called ​silicon
valley of India
● Mysore Bangalore to Udupi and Hubli for other centres for software in Karnataka
● This industry earns a large amount of foreign exchange for the country.
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
NATURAL DISASTERS Meaning: ​the natural hazards with create widespread destruction are
known as natural disaster. Such as earthquake volcanoes Tsunami landslide and avalanches
Disaster are infrequent and unpredictable
Cyclone
● wind blows spirally in words towards the centre of the low pressure it is associated with
atmosphere
● There are two types of cyclones namely tropical and temperate cyclones
● Causes
● High temperature ,calm air, highly saturated air
● relative high pressure provides around the low pressure so the wind blows spirally in
● ​● ​● ​● ​● ​● ● ● ​Floods
● ​● ​● ● words ​Effects ​causes system ​Distribution C
​ yclones coastal ​Preventative ​should
Temporary mangrove check It ​Causes ​heavy of Deforestation refers river impact the rainfall
keep water loss disrupt areas to develop centre forests the shelter of in and of melting Tamil
methods

R​
P​ faulty innovation property power touch cyclonic ​ of and silting in should low irrigation

A​ V​
Nadu ​ bay with of supply other pressure and ​ snow river winds of of radio Andhra be

E​ E​
Bengal ​ land life deep destroys provided and beds tropical ​ and television damage by

N​
causing agricultural ​ rooted Pradesh so soil river cyclones crops eastern during

B​
erosion to trees water cyclones

A​ N​
and ​ buildings Orissa vegetation practices cyclones ​ other coast can cloudburst

A​ K​ A​
and be communicative is transport ​ grown more West breaching and ​ blockage
R
animals ​

Bengal prone along and of communication to the lines marriages of cyclones. coast the free line
and flow The
to
Rapid urbanization
● Effects
● Cause loss of life and property
● Damage to crops and vegetation
● Breakdown of communication power system
● Dislocation of transport system
● Soil erosion and disruption of essential service
● Flood prone areas
● Ganga and Brahmaputra river basin
● The settlers Beas and Ravi Chenab river basin
● Peninsular India the delta carriers of river basin
● Lower parts of Narmada and Tapi river basin
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● Control measures
● Afforestation in the catchment area helps in the reduction of run off
● construction of dams across the rivers and storing of water in reservoir
● Construction of embankments for production
● Flood forecasting and early warnings it help essential for taking time reaction to prevent loss
of human life ​Landslides
● the sliding of land mass along steep slopes of hills or mountains is called landslide
● Causes
● Undercutting of the slope as in sea wave erosion of sea Cliffs earthquakes and heavy rainfall
● Deforestation construction of roads, railway lines,hydel power projects mining, quarrying
● ​● ​● ​● ​● ​● ● ● ​Coastal ​● ●
​ ​● ● ● E
​ ffects ​Blocking and ​Areas ​landslides north ​Preventive
Slow Avoiding There coastal coast ​Causes ​Sea Southwest India During ​erosion: ​property
waves production east line should northeast erosion of of by are States monsoon roads

R​
,monsoon mining ​measures ​wave roads be ​ P​ very is and ​ massive monsoon railway the
A​ V​
and action often blocking ​ prevention winds process winds, quarrying ​ in lines

E​ E​
reforestation season hilly causes ​ is tropical of ​ a burrying states of common wearing

N​ B​
activities ​ Rock destruction intensive cyclones like ​ along of falls away problem

A​ N​ A​
human ​ Jammu coastal along the ​ and occurs and slopes ​ settlements, Kashmir

K​ A​ R​
Tsunami highways removal erosion ​ over ​ the Himachal of ​ along vegetation

materials bay the of Pradesh Bengal West along loss coast areas of and
the
life
of
of Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh
● Large waves generated by earthquake are called Tsunami
● Removal of sand and construction of breakwater are main causes
● Effects
● Trees and buildings can be washed away
● Roads railway lines bridges along the coast can be damaged
● Coastal areas can remain flooded
● Preventive measures
● Construction of sea walls and groins
● Restrict sand mining in coastal areas
● Planting of trees to stabilize the beaches in coastal dunes
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
Earthquake
● Earthquake is a violent vibration in the earth crust
● Causes
● Plate moments, volcanic eruption, faulting and folding landslides ,collapse of underground
cave roofs, hydrostatic pressure of man made water bodies
● Effects
● It leads to cracking of ground surface, damage and destruction of buildings rail ,road ,power
lines ,telecom lines, factories loss of human and animal life property, blockage and diversion of
river course and destruction of forests
● Distribution
● 1. The Himalayan zone: Jammu and Kashmir Himachal Pradesh. It is the zone of maximum
intensity
● 2. The indo-gangetic zone: Rajasthan plains of Punjab Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. It
● ​● ​● ● ● ● ● ● ● is 3. Kutch. ​Precautionary ​avoiding Follow Used Restrict Restrict Avoid Stop
the The deforestation building zone the peninsular It earthquake the urban is the construction

R​
the of over human moderate ​ P​ materials growth zone ​measures ​ groundwater zone: and

A​ V​
resistant ​ settlements of in of minimum heavy ​ of intensity it the large includes high

E​ E​ N​
design hilly quarrying mining ​ dams quality in intensity. areas ​ Lakshadweep the

B​ A​
for and earthquake ​ the where activities. reservoirs ​ construction

N​ A​ KA​ R
the ​ Andaman ​ seismic zones ​ waves and ​

Nicobar are intensive


Rann of
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
POLITICAL SCIENCE GLOBAL PROBLEMS AND INDIA'S ROLE
with the beginning of UNO and new era of world started after Second World War Problems like
human rights arms race inequality Apartheid policy terrorism yet remains.
1. Human Rights denial
● Human rights have not been honoured in the name of caste religion race gender colour rights
are denied
● 1776 American Independence war French Revolution Russian Revolution Indian freedom
struggle provided strength to human rights
● Uno declared Universal Declaration of Human Rights on 10th December 1948. Right to live
freedom dignity equality eradication of slavery women exploitation
● In the constitution of India article 12 to 35 Part III rights are discussed ​2.Arms 3. ​● ● ● ● ● ● ●
● ● ● ● ● ​ECONOMIC ​Uno implementation In Commission We Arms insecurity India Global
After Economic the backwardness They Poverty India India ​race ​countries have formed 1963
has and had race Security national of to a sister a fear inequality developing appears US

INEQUALITY ​peaceful lot end International backward that ​ P​ instability and of developed the

R​ A​ V​
commission ​ hurdles were USSR to war ​ is country be country a class under ​ are

E​
and historical dangerous Human in entered countries ​ science the advocates threat

E​ N​
Commission for the became ​ war human Rights control ​ gift into of technology will

B​
phenomenon should War of many ​ a disarmament rights ends Commission colonialism tool
A​ N​
of established ​ appears imperialistic provide agreements of ​ commission agriculture

A​ K​ A​
power ​ due assistance ​ to please to politics to monitor power implement ​ like arms

R​
for transport ​ is PTBT SC suffered very without competition Human ST human CTBT

important and women


condition Rights
education
SALT
rights.
for
● The word third word denotes poverty and non development
● Third world countries trying to come out of shortage of food capital and health
● India is striving to promote economic equality among world countries.
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS UNO ​● 20th century was witness to the World wars. After

the end of first world war league of


nations was founded
● The demand for peace also a more stronger.
● At global level Winston Churchill of UK Joseph Stalin of USSR and Franklin d Roosevelt of
USA attempted to establish International organisation
● The word united nations was proposed by Roosevelt of USA
● on June 26th 1945 , 51 nation sign at the conference of UNO in San Francisco
● UN officially founded on October 24 1945
● At present 193 out of 195 countries have become the members of UNO ​Aims of UNO
1. Safeguarding international peace and security 2. Cooperation among Nations ​UN 2. ​3. 4. 5.
6. ​1. ​● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ​affiliated Security ​Improving Exploring Providing Striving ​General ​The
Every There general For General It It Russia The these act is every like body remaining like are
bodies ​country are China. ​council ​to assembly a budget ​assembly ​a solutions recognition
consisting cabinet non important 7 the build global vice ​P​ face send permanent These 10

R​
mutual is ​ presidents of parliament members meetings approved in to five matters

A​ V​
UNO of human are to various representatives trust ​ representatives international the it

E​ E​
has 7 begins are of in rights to permanent chairperson economic ​ approval the discuss

N​ B​
15 elected ​ general members around agreements ​ from world by to a sociological

A​ N​
members two ​ and this assembly September general all Nations ​ issues third 7 body

A​ K​ A​
the permanent ​ member majority assembly cultural ​ among ​ is States

R​
committees ​ basic them for mandatory a problems period USA UK of France 2 years

● Every member has on vote to exercise. Veto power the right to reject a resolution
● solve Global problems peacefully it employees peacekeeping force to maintain peace
● select the judge of International court of justice and nominates secretary general for UN ​3.
Economic and social committee
● This committee has a membership of 54 members
● Functions
● conducting studies on economic social cultural education and health issues
● Issues like refugee problem women status residence and many other issues
● Recommends on issues of human rights
● Organising conferences on human resource culture education
● Coordinating the functions of UN agencies ILO FAO IMF
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
4. Trusteeship council
● Trusteeship have got reduced over a period of time its importance has also got reduced. This
has become inactive now as there is no trustee left ​5. International court of justice
● This court has 15 judges for the term of 9 years
● It is located in Hague Netherland
● Giving judgement and providing legal consultations
● This court is important from ethical and rational prospectus ​6. Secretariat
● It is the head of the executive body
● Secretary is elected by general assembly for a period of 5 years
● Its head office is in New York
● Day to day administration of the UNO and institutional functions are run by secretariat
Achievements of UNO
● ​● ● ● ​● ​● ● ● ​● ​● ● ​Various 1. Peacekeeping ​Performing work Israel It ​Economic ​it's It
another organisations support ​Social ​Health well Universal imperialism ​FAO organisation ​has
achieved trying being towards ​: ​Afghanistan continued it organisation ​achievements ​of
important was to Declaration UNO of ​and ​through peacekeeping uplift world born solving like

R​ A​
P​ functions under financial ​to ​ the World programs in work general UNESCO ​ 1945

V​
socio-economic the of ​UNO ​ on Bank Human crisis ​achievements ​to work disarmament

E​ E​ N
agreement that fight International UNICEF ​ of and Rights the Suez against ​
B​ A​
observatory United status ​ canal world on in and poverty 1948 ​ tariffs monetary

N​ A​
development of Iran refugee nuclear ​ the And role and ​ malnutrition Indonesia people

K​ A​ R​
removal trade ​ fund disarmament council ​ program, of working the Kashmir ​ of

are and colonialism world interested hunger well International Palestine with and in able
social
Korea
Its head office is in Rome It aims to develop agriculture food supply Hungary community and
reforming the life of rural people
2. WHO : ​it was founded in 1948 with the aim of improving the health of the world community. It
has tried to eradicate diseases like Cholera malaria and smallpox the organisation trying to
address issues like population growth hunger malnutrition. Its head office is in Geneva
Switzerland
3. UNESCO: ​it was founded in the year 1946. Iys head office in Paris. extras to improve the
science education culture of the world. And preserving the world heritage
4. UNICEF: ​it was founded in 1946 for the benefit of the children. The aim of this organisation is
to create conducive environment for the development of children and women. It received Nobel
award in the year 1965.
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
It sells greeting cards to generate funds to tour and its various function
5. IMF: ​it was founded in 1945 its head offices in New York. It tries to resolve international
economic crisis. It plays the role of a facilitator between developed countries and undeveloped
countries
6. IBRD : ​it was founded in the year 1947 it is also called as World Bank its head office is in
Washington this Bank provides funds in large sum to promote the growth in agriculture
infrastructure transport communication It helps to balance the world trade and the development
of the countries
7. International labour organisation: ​its head office is in Geneva Switzerland. It works for the
welfare of the workers health facilities life quality. it suggest measures like maternity benefits
minimum wages housing schemes for labours It's striving to protect the welfare of workers of the
world
8. WTO : ​it was founded on January 1st 1995 according to the general agreement on trade and
This considered ​Regional ● ​● ● ● ​● ●
​ ● ● ● tariff. tries ​Commonwealth ​It organisation There
the elevation ​SAARC ​It There Bhutan The progress workshops is was to ​corporation: ​main
founded as main resolve are founded are third and aim of aim 54 8 and poverty Afghanistan

R​
important States various in member of ​ P​ is the in training this to ​ Nations ​1985 year foster

A​ V​
namely organisation and ​ conflicts pillar states its programs ​ 1926 securing mutual

E​ E​ N​
head India ​ of and arising the the ​ office Pakistan ties is king its world ​ World have

B​
to head out along upholding is of ​ been peace in international Trade Indian office Sri

A​ N​ A​
Nepal with taken Lanka ​ along remains economic is the ​ in place values Nepal

K​ A​ R​
London ​ with trade the ​ for IMF progress Bangladesh and of nominal ​ the

democracy and Commerce.it representatives World and head Maldives cultural Bank
freedom of this
is
of these countries on various topics like science and technology agriculture on regular basis
● European union
● It is an institution of 27 European countries founded in 1992
● it provides for common market common currency and common agriculture and trade policy
● The founders asserted this travels for international peace and democracy in the world
● This union is the continuation of earlier European economic community
● Association of southeast Asian nations
● It was founded in 1967 the membership countries are Singapore Malaysia Indonesia
Philippines and Thailand
● its main aim is to foster mutual grid corporation adding social and economic ties achieving
progress in cultural technological scientific administrative fields
● It represents totally 9% of the world total population
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
● The organisation of African Unity
● It was founded in 1963
● it aims to establish equality freedom and Unity among all the African Nations and it is
committed to raise voice against new imperialism and of for developed Nations and it has
function and well against apartheid new imperialism and many other threats to African
countries

RAVEEN
P​
BANAKAR
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya
Muddebihal . 9980803896
SOCIOLOGY SOCIAL MOVEMENTS Meaning and nature:
● related to a natural resistant a social process that related to social mobility changes transitions
● Moment has a goal and plans to achieve through programme of action
● It is a part of human society
● it is a platform that enables people to showcase their needs and vision
● farmers movement environment moment women's movement started with the emergence of
industrialisation Government and private companies claimed ownership on nature's resource
● Many movements brought permanent social change like freedom movement Bhakti movement
Origin and evolution: Mob: ​and Assembly Ex ​Mob ​When ​Environmental ​environmental Jmm
activities accident ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● emotional ​violence ​Jharkhand a the Reflex Dis Would Leads
Due The It It collection leads is and behaviour of Satisfaction controllable great to scene people
their to social be violence expression movements to ​moments ​destruction Mukti no serious

dominance of displacement and at people Unity shortcomings of ​ P​ morcha particular cinema

R​ A​
mob on results through ​ law social are ​ gathered turns of of and public in formed
V​ E​
scientific theatres ​ anti use point institution major violent order ​ social of property in

E​ N​
without in police deaths place situation moments 1973.Jharkhand then ​ elements on

B​ A​
and and any ​ it government is like ​ military called aimed indulges Prior communal

N​ A​ K​
plan mob ​ at tribal policies in preserving ​ and a violence people temporary

A​ R​
violence ​ gather and ​ biological are programmes to caste thinking express opposed

violence system
demands
decision.
mining
1. Chipko movement 1974
The women decided to hug trees in order to protect since government had issued licence to cut
2500 trees at Reny Tehri Garhwal district in Uttar Pradesh as a result environment remains
protected
2. Apico movement 1983
the local people of village Salyani opposed the move of contractor to cut trees in kalase forest
People started this product trees from smuggling ​3. Narmada bachao andolan
huge dam built across river Narmada under Sardar Sarovar project and local people
displaced. ​People agitated under leadership of Medha Patkar ​4. Silent valley movement
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
The building of dam in Silent Valley of Palghat Kerala threatened sensitive technological
balance people from Kerala sasthra Parishad opposed the project ​5. Coastal Karnataka
environment moment
People of Mangalore opposed Mangalore refinery and petrochemicals Limited due to harmful
chemical discharge. ​6. Kaiga nuclear power plant
under the leadership of Shivaram karanth opposed to power plant due to deforestation
threat of pollution from nuclear radiation would spoil ecosystem
Women's movement
● it is a moment that opposed the patriarchal values exploiting women and gender inequality
● Patriarchal values considered women as a Slave
● Exploitation like mental abuse dowry rape domestic violence acid attack kidnaps and ​Alcohol
● ● ● ● ​Formers ​● ● ● ● ● ● human it Kusuma It rural Labourer wife Farmers D bonded 1980
Professor Rudrappa It Place stop ​prohibition ​was create put ​moment ​Devaraj hence share
women Navalagund forth demands a traffic labour part problems soraba movement lose MD

was Aras problems in women of resource ​movement ​ P​ their nanjundaswamy and the

R​ A​
freedom many like along ​ formers in president organise small releasing began stop ​ like

personal social with extracted

V​ E​
struggle price Sieze earnings Revolt with her ​ reforms a Sundaresh farmers fixation

E​ N​
and protest ​ lost socialist of denial and is ​ properties they community their the like

B​ A​
proposed from against formars of ​ often best founded lives was eradication land ​ Debt

N​
example village the possibly in tax ​ alcoholism
A​ K​
indebtedness level by asana Karnataka secretary. ​ MK and infrastructure of ​ take

A​ R​
Gandhi Kolar caste sewer ​ away state ​ Mandya system problem money Ryot levy

tenancy system Sanga.


in earned lives Reform
should
of
by
● Recent movement against mahadayi river and Kaveri river are notable ​Labour moments
● Demands better working condition and pay for workers along with implementing legal
provisions
● Labour movements held through trade unions
● Due to industrialisation in Europe people migrated towards Industries this lead to labour
exploitation and workers party is trade unions starts to organise people against exploitation
● The act of 1923 and should social security for labours ​Untouchability prevention moment
● Inhuman practice it is a movement against caste based social exploitation
● Jyotiba Phule organised a moment to oppose varna system
● Periyar Ramaswamy started self importance Movement in Tamilnadu
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
● Dr BR Ambedkar became more powerful in 1930 Round table conference he called for
untouchables to become rulers of India he started periodicals Mooka naika and continue
his fight for the rights of dalits.
RAVEEN
P​
BANAKAR

Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya


Muddebihal . 9980803896
SOCIAL PROBLEMS
1. CHILD LABOUR 2. SEXUAL HARASSMENT ON CHILDREN 3. FEMALE FOETICIDE 4.
HUNGER AND MALNUTRITION 5. GENDER DISCRIMINATION 6. CHILD MARRIAGE 7.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN
● Children below the age of 14 years are working for the financial consideration they are called
as child labour
● ● ​● ​1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ​Reasons ​● ● ● ● ● there and Child prohibition ​Terms ​No Rupees No age
This production vehicles Lack The Due Failure Failure ​for ​children family various of greedy to
act of are labour ​child ​15 Agricultural ​and ​to to social 50000 added cement 12.6 can and
compulsory implement act of ​conditions ​below owners ​labour ​other prohibition combustible

R​
P​ engage environment 18 million in and dangerous and ​ 2016 are fields 14 crisis 2 who

A​ V​
land rubber considered years children years and their and ​ strive resulting reforms

E​
products universal employments that children ​ imprisonment be Regulation production are

E​ N​
for employed honours as ​ less under out Act iron in adolescence education of and

B​ A​
any wages ​ Act chemical and drought forced and ie is ​ minimum household mining

N​ A​
1986 imposed steel protect and ​ labour which manufacturing. children ​ amended
K​
manufacturing more production wage child ​ on activities in leads work violates houses

A​ R​
rights act as ​ to of properly. adolescent during migration explosives factories repair

school of of motorcycle agriculture


labour
families. hours
Demerits of child labour
● It affects the physical and psychological growth of children
● They suffer from various ill health as adults
● They become illiterate as a result they missed their basic rights
● Children become target of exploitation
● The risk of sexual exploitation becomes more for children ​Remedies
● Ensuring all the children below 18 years to be in the school
● Ensuring gender equality
● Stopping migration of helpless family
● Creating awareness
● Implementation of child rights through grama panchayat
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
Sexual violence against children
● Sexual offences act 2012 is brought to address increasing sexual offences against children.
● Any act of unsafe touch exploitation violence harassment and assault on any children under
the age of 18 years is considered as sexual offence
● The act brought into effect on 19th June 2012
1. Penetrative sexual assault 2. Aggravated penetrative sexual assault 3. Sexual assault 4.
Aggravated sexual assault 5. Sexual harassment 6. Using children to produce porn movies 7.
Collection of absence photographs. ​Female foeticide Hunger ​hunger If An Any from ​Hunger
the individual ● ● ● ● ● ● ● person hunger requirements it The The 1991 children Male the it
techniques the foeticide. is ​and index ​is is a amount prevalence an very state female age who
and Child census-960 ​MALNUTRITION n ​ eeds attempt for of important received malnutrition

R​
where mortality 0 act every child of are at to ​P​ intolerance 1994 to least of 6 not the ​ ratio
A​
year stop for thousand. patriarchal less to fulfilled ​ rate necessary 1820 every implement for

V​ E​
the the than ​ is every towards calorie natural number 16.5 thousand it ​ 1632 values is

E​ N​
calorie called thousand where the of ​ calorie growth girls of food preconception are

B​ A​
female men. as of ​ does children the invisible food according of of boys ​ According food

N​ A​
a main girl 914 female ​ is 933 child not is for reason ​ hunger considered and as to

K​ A​
available every ​ foetus mortality to FAO per prenatal 2001 ​ for 2001

R​
thousand. in the ​ census for the rate as existence diagnostic the a womb is person

individual 19.3 it is of 949 of it suffering mother


shows
female
Hunger index is the total of three aspects
1. The average of people who receive less than minimum calorie of food required 2. The
average of children who are below 5 years of age and underweight 3. The mortality rate of
children below 5 years of age Hunger has relationship with infant mortality rate child mortality
rate fertility rate and economic development rates. India ranks at 20 according to the Global
hunger index. ​Malnutrition
● As per National family health survey of 2011 rural areas body mass index 24.3. urban area
16.2
● 60.9 children suffering from anaemia
● 45.2 pregnant women are suffering from anaemia
● 79.5 of the women are abused by their husbands
● In order to provide health security families are receiving provisions from public food
distribution system.
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
Gender discrimination Gender is a concept that used to describe men and women ​it
includes consumer behaviour and social layers of life. Types of gender discrimination:
1. Inequality in birth rate: in patriarchal society preference is given to male child and
female foeticide is a common practice in most of the countries 2. Inequality in infrastructure: girls
have less access to school than boys and not
allowed to participate in developmental programmes in the countries belonging to Asia Africa
South America 3. Inequality in opportunities: opportunities for women are less in higher
education when
compared to men this is more true in countries like Europe and North America 4. Inequality in
ownership: gender discrimination is evident in the ownership of land and
house ownership. Inheritance is in favour of male children.
Child Reasons: Child ​5. ● ● ● ​● 1 ​ . 2. 3. 4. ​marriage marriage ​Inequality management The
years It marriage.Having ready The to ​Child ​physical Gender Lack Lack Poor is complete an
marriage evolved of of implementation age mentally ​marriages ​illegal.she education. proper
discrimination and ​prohibition ​in child 18 family: womb psychological of takes

R​
P​ implementation physically years marriage children ​ children ​considered ​should Child

A​ V​
can it place ​ of ​act ​is to is found support legal ​ enter marriages a be ​2006 ​is to between

E​ E​
primary well ​ one have mentally provisions the in ​as ​ of being the of the ​a ​law marriage
N​ B​
children. ​ the reason. boy ​crime-​it breed featus sharing physically of basic ​ of in the

A​ N​
child below ​ school for affects of children function full ​ family marriages manage 21 9

A​ K​ A​
education months.it not years born of ​ work only the the ​ and out burden

R
marriage. married functions ​

is of a mandatory girl such and who couplebut Girl marriages of role is should for below in the
the the
be 18
girl
● It is a crime to marry even when either of couple is minar
● It is liable for punishment who contacted motivated the marriage.the priest photographer video
graphic musician vehicle driver all liable for punishment, law column 9,10 and 11. Imprisonment
of 2 years and fine of one lakh rupees
● Owner of the marriage hall printer of invitations consider affender under the law ​ill effects of
child marriage
● Violations like sexual assault on children become more
● Rights of children continue to violated
● Children fall into the trap of malnutrition anaemia abortion infanticide and maternal mortality
● The chance of girl becoming a widow at young age
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
How to prevent child marriage
● We can lodge a complaint with toll free number 1098
● We can also inform to headmaster village accountant Panchayat Development officer health
inspector nearby police station. All these are child marriage prevention officers
● Implementing the education development programs.children within 18 years of age should be
within the schooling system and should have 100% attendance
● Importance should be given to girls education. And should be empowered on priority basis
Child trafficking ​70% of human trafficking are women and children.children are forced into
sexual slavery and child marriages in the Indian society. ​Any human being below 18 years is
employed transfer shifted shelter sent and owned with the intention of exploitation is
called child trafficking
● nearest male relatives of the girls lure them in the name of love or marriage and sell
● ● ​Reasons
● ● ● ​Effects
● ● ● ● ​Remedial ​them boys trafficking Small money child bonded Over difficulties Frequent It
Children Children they addiction affects ​action ​undergo labour trap exposure off girls labour.

are become the migrations. the Mafia in who ,child family, holistic exposed girls unwanted ​ P​ to

R​ A​ V​
have ​ infected internet marriage in social ​ development the been to ​ pregnancy

E​ E​
name physical and with inequalities lured ,School ​ social ​ of HIV by love psychological

N​
of AIDS abortions giving dropout, children

B​ A​ N​
media, and ​ and ​ chocolates marriage gender poverty, forced other ​ and

A​ K​ A​
sexually discrimination, sexual and pregnancies ​ negligence ice later ​ cream
R​
exploitation transmitted ​ sell and in murder them financial the later families, to diseases

and sold human drug for


● immoral human trafficking prevention Act 1956 has been amended and it prohibits child and
women trafficking
● Those who are involved in any trafficking they are liable for punishment under IPC 370 and
would be imprisoned for minimum 10 years
● Formation of child rights clubs
● Formation of child protection committee
● Organising children grama sabha
● Formation of child rights protection units
● Formation of women and children trafficking prevention committees
● Formation of Balika Sanga in all anganwadis of the state.
Praveenkumar Banakar . Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal . 9980803896
ECONOMICS
MONEY AND CREDIT ​Money is an important Discovery that has made day to day transaction
Means of payment ,measure and store of value Robert Son-money is anything which widely
accept in payment for goods
Evolution of money:
1. Barter system
People exchange goods for goods without money.It was difficult method of trade. Problem of
double coincidence and valuation of animals in exchange.
2. Commodity money
a commodity with describe the size and weight was adopted ​Cattle in Greece ,sheep in
Rome, teeth in China
exchange.since ​documents ​government Dollar ​5. 6. Functions 4. 3. Bank Plastic ​ATM
Checks ​Paper Metallic ​precious ​traders ​in cards ​money ​US ​money money of ​drafts started

issued ​pound ​begin money. ​using metals ​money ​having deposit in ​to ​to pin. ​by ​like ​P​ UK

R​ A​
print ​carry ​standard ​government ​ Digital gold Euro receipts the ​ the ​silver in money
V​ E​ E​
notes. ​ return ​weight Europe etc ​ bronze ​they ​ Rupee . E-Money ​documents

N​ B​
fitness ​ yen ​were ​used in Japan ​ acceptance India

A​ N​ A​
called ​as ​ money yuan ​as ​ as evidence ​ in ​permissory ​portable where China

KA​ R
of ​is ​

and suitable ​money. notes. ​divisible


medium ​when ​Letter ​search ​of
of
Primary functions
1. Medium of exchange and means of payment 2. Measure of value. Prices of goods expressed
in rupee Secondary functions
1. Standard of deferred payment. Facilitates future payments 2. Store of value. Possible to save
and store for future helps in accumulation 3. Transfer of value. Transferring purchase power
from person to person and place to
place ​Banks ​The Indian Banking Regulation Act 1949 define advective banking company 20
public sector banks are there in India. There are rural banks private Cooperative and registered
with RBI. 14 banks are Nationalised in 1969 and six in 1980.
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
Importance of bank
● Banks play a vital role in economic development
● They mobilise the savings of the public
● It helps in the capital formation
● It provides a way of remittance of money to accounts
● they give loans to the borrowers land the money to agriculture and industries
● The issue DD credit cards and debit cards
● Invested funds on securities of government
● Offers higher rates of interest on fixed deposit ​Reserve Bank of India
It was established in 1st April 1935 and Nationalised in 1949 on 1st January ​Functions
● Monopoly of note issue. Rs 2 and above and one rupee on behalf of government ​Regulation
● ● Measurement 1. 2. Money current Demand M1= M2 ● ● ● ● ● ● =M1 ​of ​Notes of Bankers
like Bankers credits National interbank Controller Custodian Resorts Promotion branches.

supply ​money ​account + deposit- monetary- post taxes coins ​ P​ of to ​supply ​office buying

R​ A​
balance to Bank. clearing ​ the the claims. and demand of bank of of the ​ credit. money

V​
foreign Banking country banks savings charges government. Regulates and is ​ house.

E​ E​
liable deposits Regulates selling ​ supply: exchange. is habits. issue ​ equals to

N​ B​
Settlements activities ​ pay of Accept the Vikram foreign amount on to ​ Managers

A​
Government currency demand. ​ of deposits currency

N​ A​ K​
on of bank ​ of transactions savings credit ​ foreign notes guide Time of ​ Bonds
A​ R​
issued government through plus deposits- ​ them exchange across and ​ coin by and

expansion treasury banks issued fixed RBI collect banks rates provide deposits and bills and
schedule the of
savings
it money
3. M3= M1 + net time deposit 4. M4=M3+ total deposit with post office
● Narrow money- M1 and M2 is referred as narrow money
● Broad money- M3 and M4 is referred as broadband
● Inflation- higher the supply of money without supply of goods and services leads to rise in
price of commodities is called inflation.
● Mild increase in prices like tonic to economy if it is Rapid it affects purchase power income
distribution and investment Trend.
● the measures taken to regulate credit overall money supply in the economy and invest rates is
called monetary policy.
Praveenakumar Banakar Govt Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
Credit control measures:
A. Quantitative credit control measures ​1. Bank rate policy: the rate at which RBI lends funds
to commercial banks. ie repo rate
and reverse repo rate.
● The rate of lending money to commercial banks by RBI is called repo rate
● the rate of borrowing money from commercial banks by RBI is called reverse repo. This
affects the interest rate and deposits 2. Open market operation: buying and selling of
government securities by Central Bank. 3. Varying reserve requirements: banks are obliged to
maintain reserves with RBI into accounts
A. CRR cash reserve ratio B. SLR statutory liquidity ratio CRR-Bank required to reserving
deposits with RBI SLR- This B. ​This effects Quantitative ​1. 2. 3. 4. way ​way ​Bank Change
reduced Credit Moral letters Direct ​on ​RBI ​RBI price ​required suasion-method can action-
rationing- and ​restrict ​in or ​credit and ​vary lending circulars increased to measures

R​ A​
P​ economy. the ​have lending ​control ​maximum ​ margins: ​flow ​ minimum this of

V​ E​ E​
capacity ​ measures: ​taken ​of p
​ ersuade leads amount ​credit ​ Collateral by ​ cash to
N​ B​
of Central ​ regulate ​control bank. of in within. credit banks security ​ Bank over

A​ N​ A​
the ​given to ​ margin credit advance against ​money ​ to a flow.

K​ A​ R
against particular commercial ​supply ​the ​ credit ​

particular ​and ​use or banks.


consequent ​or reduced sector
security through
is
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PUBLIC FINANCE AND BUDGET
Meaning:
● public finance deals with our government Raises revenue to meet its expenditure
● public finance is concerned with the income and expenditure of public authorities and with the
adjustment of one to the other- Dalton
● public finance studies the way in which the government manages its income and expenditure,
loans ​Importance of public finance
● The government activities of mobilising revenue
● socio economic growth ,maintain economic stability and achieve affair distribution of income
● ● ● ● ​Budget
● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● the It The the in year the is normally March The Budget if budget if if
developing the the both increases called India money study statement government approval
budget expenditure income can the budget the of raised countries financial be the public finance

R​
shows of ​P​ of and of growth both estimated ​ tries three through is finance expenditure
A​ V​
excess more ​ year minister the like to rate types ​ regulate houses India starts than

E​ E​
borrowing also income ​ revenue of present surplus the ​ the the helps are from before the

N​
economy government revenue and equal as for April economic deficit in central

B​ A​
expenditure compared analysis development 31st it 1st ​ is it and and budget of is

N​ A​
called and ​ normally activities March called benefits balanced and ​ ends to of balanced

K​ A​
in expenditure evaluation ​ activities deficit is year lok on prepare compulsory ​ everyone

R
budget Sabha 31st prepared ​

budget
budget March of deficit it in budget. is February by called of budget government subsequent
surplus and
to spend more to achieve economic progress ​Public expenditure
● the expenditure incurred by public authorities like Central and state and local governments to
satisfy the collective social wants of the people is known as public expenditure
● it has to improve the climate for investment it should provide incentives to save invest and
innovate it helps in acceleration of economic growth and ensure return omics stability
● Goals of public expenditure
● Promote faster economic development
● Promote industry trade and Commerce
● Agricultural and rural development
● Promote balanced regional growth
● Build socio-economic overheads roadways railways power
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● Promote full employment
● Maximize social welfare ​Public revenue
● public revenue is the income mobilized by government for purpose of financing the
government's activities
● the sources can be classified under two heads as revenue and capital A. ​Revenue receipts​:
Revenue Generated by government through tax and non tax source 1. Tax revenue:
● tax is described a compulsory payment by citizens to the government without expecting any
direct benefit in return.
● Taxes are the major source of revenue to the government
● Higher the rate of tax on high income. Lower rate of tax on low income group
● The food are exempted from income tax
burden Ex: indirect Indirect The consumer. Ex- apart 2. B. ● A. ● ● ● ● Personal Excise Non tax
from Indirect if This Direct Profit Profit Revenue Revenue When of tax the taxes on tax this
taxes the duty burden is revenue: earned generated income tax: tax: The are type called

manufacturer value the generated generated imposed tax is of government by as tax not ​ P​ tax

R​ A​
is added reserve progressive by ​ paid corporate transferable imposed the on ​ by by of

V​ E​
tax by goods Indian the the ​ goods Bank an import gets department public by ​ tax
E​ N
individual taxation and railway government of ​ revenue and wealth export India sector ​

B​ A​
services. services.the on tax ​ tax of from industries whom Post ​ stamp service is other

N​ A​ K​
transferable ​ and it tax duty ​ is sources tax telecommunication is levied ​ ultimately

A​ R
and ​ to it GST(1 is is other ​

called called paid July city non by direct is 2017) the tax called tax. revenue The
● Revenue generated by the coins and mints
● Various types of fees and penalties ​B. Capital Receipt
● it refers to those receipts which either create a liability or cause or reduction in the assets of
government
● Government generated capital revenue through other sources too. Withdrawing its investment
from its own industries and the state government to repay the loan they have taken from central
government ​Public Debt ( Loans )
● The government borrows money from internal and external resources
● the loan obtained from citizens of the country banks Financial Institutions and industry is
called internal dept
● The loan from foreign governments foreign Financial Institutions is called foreign or external
dept
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Deficit financing
● the government first estimates is expenditure and then plans the revenue mobilisation
● it is usually plans for more expenditure than revenue
● This is good for the development of the country
● In order to fill any gaps between income and expenditure government Rises loans from
internal and external sources
● government resort to various measures to cover of this that is it usually borrow the money
from Central Bank by printing additional currency ​Deficit calculation
1. Fiscal deficit: the excess of governments expenditure over its revenue receipt and
non dept capital receipt is the fiscal deficit Fiscal deficit =(revenue receipt + non debt
capital)-total expenditure 2. Revenue deficit: excess of total revenue expenditure of Government
over its total revenue 4. 3. ● ● ● Budget Primary Revenue High and government It To
management ​receipt also check deficit= uncontrolled amount deficit: increases deficit=revenue

R​
such total fiscal of ​P​ Act ​practice deficit revenue-total ​ the deficit deficit (FRBMA)was

A​ V​ E​
inflation or and ​ of receipts of not government current ​ also good in expenditure

E​ N​
the passed indicates - ​ revenue for year country

B​ A​
economic ​ The ​- in interest ​ financial 2003

N​
expenditure ​fiscal ​ order payments

A​ K​ A​ R
responsibility ​indiscipline ​ me ​ as ​

they on create ​and ​the part ​budget


liabilities
of the
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BUSINESS STUDY GLOBALISATION OF BUSINESS ​GLOBALISATION ATTITUDE A GREAT
PROCESS IN ECONOMIC REFORMS AND HAVE MADE LARGE BUSINESS UNITS AS
GLOBAL BRANDS THE CLOSE RELATIONSHIP AND INTER DEPENDENT AMONG THE
COUNTRIES INCREASED
Meanings ​It's a economic interdependence of countries worldwide and variety of crossword
transaction in goods and services capital slow through rapid diffusion of technology- IMF
a. Cross border moment of goods and services b. Capital flow technology and information c.
One worldwide marketing .production of goods in any region at cheaper cost ​Factors
1. World wide technical economical political cultural exchange. Brought by
Characteristics
Advantages ​2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. communication Helps Create Reduce
Create Create Increases International Create Development Increase Outsourcing Cultural Multi
Development Use of culturalization in street subsidy harmony international technology the
exchange

overcoming the international restriction by flow role rate of of ​P​ to transport multinational

R​
global telecommunication among ​ of of zone worldwide internet WTO capital

A​ V​
agreement and political on finance trade by ​ countries diversity and capital IMF

E​
removing satellites ​ trade companies barriers finance

E​
WIPO ​ system

N​ B​ A​
investment ​ border duty and through ​ cell ​ deta phone trade
N​ AKAR
flow ​

1. Promotes economic growth generate more production 2. Increases standard of living 3. Made
available of similar type of goods 4. Increase GDP 5. Increase in income of people 6.
Customers are offered much choice of goods 7. Keep the cost down due to competition 8.
Promotes specialisation best at making 9. Can improved political social link ​Disadvantages
1. Developed countries have outsourced goods manufacture and white collar jobs to
third world where cost of labour is low. 2. It leads to child labour 3. Resulted in unethical
practices in trade
Praveenakumar Banakar Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
4. It helped terrorist and criminals 5. Increased garbage dumps pollution Sky High 6. consuming
more junk food Mcdonalds KFC results in health degradation and spread
of diseases so traditional family food habits slowly disappearing. Deadly viral diseases spread
all over the world AIDS cancer dengue 7. Environmental degradation due to industrialisation
pollution dumping the waste and
garbage 8. cheap imports of goods from developing countries leads to unemployment in
developed countries where production cost is high and outsourcing 9. Competition for infant
industry small scale industry ​WTO -WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION ​It was established in
1995 January 1st having 149 member countries. Its headquarter is in Geneva Switzerland
Functions ​AIMS ​1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ​at ​Being Administration Stress Reducing
Bringing Assistance Bringing Bringing Settling Economic Good Peace governance to for and

disputes force trade efficiency down tax free growth stability. in in trade ​P​ trade under

R​ A​
independent world living border ​ and in ​ agreements cost trade legal trade

V​ E​ EN ​
tension trade ​ and framework ​ raise ​ of lifestyle
BANAKAR
Praveenakumar Banakar Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION
USER AND PROVIDER
● service organisation have used the term user to those who used the goods and service
● The person who supplies goods or services is called provider
● it is the duty of the traders and producers to provide quality goods and service for the price
paid by the consumer
● It is the right of every consumer to get quality goods and services
● Federation of consumer organisation and the national consumer protection council are some
movements at the national level creating awareness in consumer education ​The reasons for
consumer exploitation
● the direct transaction between the producer and consumer has almost stopped
● ● ● ​Consumer
● ● ● ● ​Consumer ​● ​● ​● ● ​World consumers ​the Consumer The Consumer wage Every ours
occupies Unfortunately It ​Consumer ​many safeguard More measures refers price ​protection
development is than moments consumer a to free fixation the act, the production 30 had is

R​
protection day ​a prime enterprise acts many ​P​ interests act person to blood ​ has of

A​
undergo of against have the place times ​ information certain to pressure who goods ​Act ​of

V​ E​
been economy consumers the the adulteration various buys ​ wants consumers

E​ N​
implemented consumer and ​ on Technology goods ​ and services difficulties
B​ A​
government he against purchased consumer ​ of I is avail food ​ neglected was ie

N​ A​
exploitation has and essential ​ services articles, and done led is goods ​ problems

K​
regarded alerted to ​ exploited mainly Government teleshopping for commodities by to

A​ R​
a satisfy the it the consideration ​ by as to and producers incurred formulate the the

his cheated middleman


king of act, wants India many and weights new and price Act traders losses
ads 1986 or
and to
● US President John f Kennedy adopted a legislation comprising of 4 rights such as citizens
safety ,information ,appeal and remedy for this reason March 15 every year is celebrated as
World consumer day.
● So March 15, 1962 is an important day in the history of world consumers ​Major objectives of
the Action
● importance for safety and quality
● Avoiding production and sale of dangerous goods
● Prevention of trade malpractices
● Supervision and quality weight measures and price
● Compensating the consumers in case of any problem
● Creating awareness to the consumers
The that promotes the rights to consumers
Praveenakumar Banakar Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896
● Right to protect against the marketing of goods
● The right to information about quality quantity security and standard
● Right to choice
● Right to be heard
● Right to seek redressal against unfair trade practices
● Right to consumer education
● Right to stop exploitation
● Right to healthy environment The consumer protection act provides for the establishment of
1. ​Central protection council-​ central minister of consumer affairs 2. ​State consumer
protection council​-state Ministry of consumer affairs 3. ​District consumer protection
council-​ district commissioner ​Consumer disputes redressal agency ​The act provides for
establishment of consumer disputes redressal agencies ​The ​1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. ​methods
District ​where ​The e ​ xceeding ​The ​of There Complaint Complaint Person mentioned The and
There No any advocate receipt particulars ​state National i​ s is the complaints ​to ​or ​forum:​ no
no ​be ​organisation value ​Commission​: maybe should 20 prescribed fees ​followed ​and lakh

R​
P​ Commission:​ of a of or ​ lawyer qualified have goods where type and goods stamp

A​ V​
to ​proforma door not against name ​ and is the High and ​file ​duty district more

E​ E​
required. ​ handwritten claim it amount ​a ​of service court is ​ for whom ​case ​the to than

N​ B​
headed ​ judge the shall file person judge the ​in ​of one the is complaint ​ a ​consumer

A​
exceed loss nominated. less consumer case by complaint ​ crore is full judge should its than

N​ A​ K​
address president 1 ​ ​ ourt ​be is Hidden supreme lakh ​
crore 20 of himself c made
A​ R​
specified and ​ . it can retains telephone ​ entertains should court. argue. clearly the be

It shall number clearly complaints


complaints along dispose with of bill
Praveenakumar Banakar Adarsha Vidyalaya Muddebihal 9980803896