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Power Engineering Guide

Transmission and Distribution

4th Edition
Power Engineering Guide
Transmission and Distribution

Your local representative:

Sales locations worldwide (EV):


http://www.ev.siemens.de/en/pages/salesloc.htm

Distributed by:
Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Power Transmission and Distribution Group
International Business Development,
Dept. EV IBD

P.O. Box 3220


D-91050 Erlangen
Phone: ++ 49 - 9131-73 45 40
Fax: ++ 49-9131-73 45 42

Power Transmission and Distribution


group online:
http://www.ev.siemens.de

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


Foreword

This Power Engineering Guide is de- Siemens AG is one of the world’s Siemens Power Transmission and
vised as an aid to electrical engineers leading international electrical and Distribution Group offers intelligent so-
who are engaged in the planning and electronics companies. lutions for the transmission and distri-
specifying of electrical power genera- With 416 000 employees in more than bution of power from generating plants
tion, transmission, distribution, control, 190 countries worldwide, the company to customers. The Group is a product
and utilization systems. Care has been is divided into various Groups. supplier, systems integrator and service
taken to include the most important One of them is Power Transmission and provider, and specializes
application, performance, physical and Distribution. in the following systems and services:
shipping data of the equipment listed in ■ High-voltage systems
the guide which is needed to perform The Power Transmission and
■ Medium-voltage systems
preliminary layout and engineering Distribution Group of Siemens with
tasks for industrial and utility-type 24 700 employees around the world ■ Metering
installations. plans, develops, designs, manufactures ■ Secondary systems
and markets products, systems and
The equipment listed in this guide is ■ Power systems control and
complete turn-key electrical infrastruc-
designed, rated, manufactured and energy management
ture installations.
tested in accordance with the Interna- ■ Power transformers
tional Electrotechnical Commission The group owns a growing number
of engineering and manufacturing ■ Distribution transformers
(IEC) recommendations.
However, a number of standardized facilities in more than 100 countries ■ System planning
equipment items in this guide are de- throughout the world. All plants are, ■ Decentralized power supply systems.
signed to take other national standards or are in the process of being certified
Siemens’ service includes the setting
into account besides the above codes, to ISO 9000/9001 practices. This is of
up of complete turnkey installations,
and can be rated and tested to ANSI/ significant benefit for our customers.
offers advice, planning, operation and
NEMA, BS, CSA, etc. On top of that, we Our local manufacturing capability
training and provides expertise and
manufacture a comprehensive range of makes us strong in global sourcing,
commitment as the complexity of this
transmission and distribution equipment since we manufacture products to IEC
task requires.
specifically to ANSI/NEMA codes and as well as ANSI/NEMA standards in
regulations. plants at various locations around the Backed by the experience of worldwide
world. projects, Siemens can always offer its
Two thirds of our product range is customers the optimum cost-effective
less than five years old. For our cus- Siemens Power Transmission and
concept individually tailored to their
tomers this means energy efficiency, Distribution Group (EV) is capable of
needs.
environmental compatibility, reliability providing everything you would expect
and reduced life cycle cost. from an electrical engineering company We are there – wherever and when-
with a global reach. ever you need us – to help you build
For details, please see the individual plants better, cheaper and faster.
product listings or inquire. The Power Transmission and Distribu-
tion Group is prepared and competent,
Whenever you need additional infor-
to perform all tasks and activities in-
mation to select suitable products from
volving transmission and distribution
this guide, or when questions about
of electrical energy.
their application arise, simply call your
local Siemens office.

Sales locations worldwide:


http://www.ev.siemens.de/en/pages/ Dr. Hans-Jürgen Schloß
salesloc.htm Vice President

Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
Power Transmission and Distribution

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


Quality and Environmental Policy

Quality and Environmental –


Our first priority
Transmission and distribution equipment
from Siemens means worldwide activities
in engineering, design, development, man-
ufacturing and service.
The Power Transmission and Distribution
Group of Siemens AG, with all of its divi-
sions and relevant locations, has been
awarded and maintains certification to
DIN EN ISO 9001 and DIN EN ISO 14001.

Certified quality
Siemens Quality Management and Environ-
mental Management System gives our
customers confidence in the quality of
Siemens products and services.
Certified to be in compliance with
DIN EN ISO 9001 and DIN EN ISO 1400,
it is the registered proof of our reliabilty.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


Contents

General Introduction
Energy Needs Intelligent Solutions

Power Transmission Systems 1

High Voltage 2

Medium Voltage 3

Low Voltage 4

Transformers 5

Protection and Substation Control 6

Power Systems Control and Energy Management 7

Metering 8

Services 9

System Planning 10

Conversion Factors and Tables


Contacts and Internet Addresses
Conditions of Sales and Delivery

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


General Introduction

Energy management systems are also im-


portant, to ensure safe and reliable opera- Main substation with transformers up to 63 MVA
tion of the transmission network.

Distribution HV switchgear MV switchgear


In order to feed local medium-voltage dis-
tribution systems of urban, industrial or ru-
ral distribution areas, HV/MV main substa-
tions are connected to the subtransmission
systems. Main substations have to be lo-
cated next to the MV load center for rea-
sons of economy. Thus, the subtransmis-
sion systems of voltage levels up to 145 kV Local medium-voltage distribution system
have to penetrate even further into the
populated load centers.
The far-reaching power distribution system
in the load center areas is tailored exclusive-
ly to the needs of users with large numbers
of appliances, lamps, motor drives, heating,
chemical processes, etc. Most of these
are connected to the low-voltage level. Ring type Feeder cable Spot system
The structure of the low-voltage distribu-
tion system is determined by load and re- Public supply Connection of Industrial supply
liability requirements of the consumers, as large consumer and large buildings
well as by nature and dimensions of the
area to be served. Different consumer char-
acteristics in public, industrial and commer- Medium voltage substations
cial supply will need different LV network
configurations and adequate switchgear MV/LV substation Circuit-
and transformer layout. Especially for indus- looped in MV cable breaker
trial supply systems with their high number by load-break switch- Load-
of motors and high costs for supply inter- gear in different break
ruptions, LV switchgear design is of great combinations for switch
individual substation
importance for flexible and reliable opera- design, transformers Consumer-connection substation looped
tion. up to 1000 kVA in or connected to feeder cable with circuit-
Independent from individual supply charac- breaker and load-break switches for connec-
teristics in order to avoid uneconomical LV fuses tion of spot system in different layout
high losses, however, the substations with
the MV/LV transformers should be located
as close as possible to the LV load centers. MV/LV
The compact load center substations should transformer
be installed right in the industrial produc- level
tion area near to the LV consumers.
The superposed medium-voltage system
has to be configured to the needs of these Low-voltage supply system
substations and the available sources (main
substation, generation) and leads again to Public supply Large buildings with Industrial supply with
different solutions for urban or rural public with pillars and distributed transformers distributed transformers
supply, industry and large building centers. house connections vertical LV risers and with subdistribution board
internal installation internal installation per floor and motor control center
In addition distribution management sys-
tems can be tailored to the needs, from
small to large systems and for specific re-
quirements. Consumers

Fig. 2: Distribution: Principle configuration of distribution systems

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


General Introduction

Despite the individual layout of networks,


common philosophy should be an utmost Power system substation
simple and clear network design to obtain
■ flexible system operation Power system switchgear
■ clear protection coordination
■ short fault clearing time and Bay protection Bay switching
■ efficient system automation. interlocking
– Overcurrent
The wide range of power requirements for – Distance
individual consumers from a few kW to – Differential etc. Control
some MW, together with the high number Other Other
of similar network elements, are the main bays Bay coordination level bays
characteristics of the distribution system
and the reason for the comparatively high
specific costs. Therefore, utmost standard-
ization of equipment and use of mainte- Substation coordination level
nance-free components are of decisive im- BB and BF (busbar
portance for economical system layout. and breaker failure) Substation control Data processing
Siemens components and systems cater protection
to these requirements based on worldwide
experience in transmission and distribution Switchgear Automation
Data and signal
networks. interlocking input/output Metering

Protection, operation, control


and metering
Safe, reliable and economical energy supply Power network telecommunication systems
is also a matter of fast, efficient and reliable Other Other
system protection, data transmission and sub- sub-
processing for system operation. The com- stations stations
ponents required for protection and opera- Power line carrier Fiber-optic
tion benefit from the rapid development of communication communication
information and communication technology.
Modern digital relays provide extensive
possibilities for selective relay setting and
protection coordination for fast fault clear-
ing and minimized interruption times. Re-
mote Terminal Units (RTUs) or Substation System coordination level
Automation Systems (SAS) provide the data
for the centralized monitoring and control
of the power plants and substations by the SCADA functions Distribution Network analysis
management
energy management system. functions
Siemens energy management systems
ensure a high supply quality, minimize gen-
eration and transmission costs and opti- Power and Grafical Training simulator
mally manage the energy transactions. scheduling information
Modularity and open architecture offer the applications systems
flexibility needed to cope with changed or
new requirements originating e.g. from de-
regulation or changes in the supply area
size. The broad range of applications in-
cludes generation control and scheduling,
management of transmission and distribu- Control room equipment
tion networks, as well as energy trading.
Metering devices and systems are impor-
tant tools for efficiency and economy to
survive in the deregulated market. For ex-
ample, Demand Side Management (DSM)
allows an electricity supply utility from a
control center to remotely control certain
consumers on the supply network for load
control purposes. Energy meters are used
for measuring the consumption of electricity,
gas, heat and water for purposes of billing
in the fields of households, commerce,
Fig. 3: System Automation:
industry and grid metering. Principle configuration of protection, control and communication systems

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


General Introduction

Overall solutions – System planning


Of crucial importance for the quality of
power transmission and distribution is the
integration of diverse components to form
overall solutions. Generation
Especially in countries where the increase Transmission
in power consumption is well above the
average besides the installation of gener- Distribution
ating capacity, construction and extension
of transmission and distribution systems Consumers
must be developed simultaneously and
together with equipment for protection,
supervision, control and metering. Also, for
the existing systems, changing load struc-
tures, changing requirements due to energy
market deregulation and liberalization and/
or environmental regulations, together with
the need for replacement of aged equip-
ment will require new installations.
Integral power network solutions are far
more than just a combination of products Applications
and components. Peculiarities in urban de-
velopment, protection of the countryside
and of the environment, and the suitability
for expansion and harmonious integration Light Power Heat
in existing networks are just a few of the
factors which future-oriented power sys-
tem planning must take into account.
Monitoring, Control, Automation
Outlook
The electrical energy supply (generation,
transmission and distribution) is like a pyra-
mid based on the number of components
and their widespread use. This pyramid Fig. 4: Industrial applications
rests on a foundation formed by local expan-
sion of the distribution networks and pow-
er demand in the overall system, which is
determined solely by the consumers and
their use of light, power and heat. These
basic applications arise in many variations
and different intensities throughout the en-
tire private, commercial and industrial sec-
tor (Fig. 4).
Reliability, safety and quality (i.e. voltage
and frequency stability) of the energy sup-
ply are therefore absolute essentials and
must be assured by the distribution net-
works and transmission systems.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


Energy Needs Intelligent Solutions

The changing state of the world’s ener-


gy markets and the need to conserve re-
sources is promoting more intelligent
solutions to the distribution of man’s
silent servant, electricity. Change is gen-
erally wrought by necessity, often driven
by a variety of factors, not least social,
political, economic, environmental and
technological considerations. Currently
the world’s energy supply industries –
principally gas and electricity – are in
the process of undergoing radical and
crucial change that is driven by a mix-
ture of all these considerations. The col-
lective name given to the factors affect-
ing the electricity supply industry
worldwide is deregulation.
This is the changing operating scenario the
electricity supply industry as a whole faces
as it moves inexorably into the 21st century.
How can it rise to the challenge of liberal-
ized markets and the opportunities presented
by deregulation? One of the answers is the
better use of information technology and
“intelligent” control to affect the necessary
changes born of deregulation. However, to Fig. 5: Superconducting current limiter: lightning fast response
achieve this utilities need to be very sure
of the technical and commercial compe-
tence of their systems suppliers. Failure
could prove to be very costly not just in fi- ogies is to be found in decentralized energy is a crucial factor in the economic and so-
nancial terms, but also for a utility’s reputa- supply concepts and in meeting the needs cial development of a particular country. In
tion with its consumers in what is becom- of urban conurbations. Siemens is no longer the industrialized countries the concept of
ing increasingly a buyer’s market. Forming just a manufacturer of systems and equip- the “decentralized power supply” is also
and maintaining close partnerships with ment, it is now much more. Overall con- gaining ground, largely because of environ-
long-established systems suppliers such as cepts are becoming ever more important. mental concern. This has had its conse-
Siemens is the best way of ensuring suc- quences for the generation of electricity:
cess with deregulation into the millennium. All change! wind power is experiencing a renaissance,
Siemens can look back on over 100 years Power distribution technology has not more development work is being carried
of working in close co-operation with power changed significantly over the past forty out into photovoltaic devices and combined
utilities throughout the world. This accumu- years… indeed, the “rules of the game” heat and power cogeneration plants are
lated experience allows the company’s have remained the same for a much longer growing in popularity in many areas for
Power Transmission and Distribution Group period of time. both ecological and economic reasons.
to address not just technical issues, but These developments are resulting in some
also better appreciate many of the opera- A new challenge entirely new energy network structures.
tional and commercial aspects of electricity
Recently decentralized power supply sys- Additional tasks...
distribution. Experience gained over the past
tems have cornered a growing share of the
decade with the many-and-varied aspects of The scope and purpose of tomorrow’s dis-
market for a number of reasons. In devel-
deregulation puts the Group in an almost tribution systems will no longer be to sim-
oping and industrializing countries, it has
unique position to advise utilities as to the ply “supply electricity”. In future they will
become clear that the energy policies and
best solutions for taking full advantage of be required to “harvest” power and redis-
systems solutions adopted by nations with
the opportunities offered by deregulation. tribute it more economically and take into
well-established energy infrastructures are
not always appropriate. Frequently it is account, among other considerations, envi-
Innovation the issue of change more prudent to start with small decentral- ronmental needs. In the past it was no easy
Although today’s technology obviously ized power networks and to expand later in task to supply precisely the right amount of
plays a very important role in the company’s a progressive way as demand and eco- electricity according to demand because, as
current business, innovation has always nomics permit. Much benefit can also be is well-known, electricity cannot be readily
been at the vanguard of its activities; gained if generation makes use of natural stored and the loads were continually chang-
indeed it is the common thread that has or indigenous resources such as the sun, ing. Demand scheduling was very much
run through the company since its incep- water, wind or biomass. Countries that based on statistical forecasting – not an ex-
tion 150 years ago. In future power dis- struggle with population growth and migra- act science and one that cannot by its very
tribution technology, computer software, tion to the towns and cities clearly need to nature take into account realtime variations.
power electronics and superconductivity pay close attention to protecting their bal- Demand scheduling problems can become
will play increasingly prominent roles in in- ance of payments. In such cases, the expan- particularly acute when power stations of
novative solutions. Scope for new technol- sion of power supplies into the countryside limited generating capacity are on line.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


Energy Needs Intelligent Solutions

Nowadays these and similar problems are


not insoluble because of decentralized
power supplies and the use of “intelligent”
control. The Power Transmission and Dis-
tribution Group has developed concepts for
the economic resolution of peak energy de-
mand. One is to use energy stores. Batteries
are an obvious choice, for these can be
equipped with power electronics to en-
hance energy quality as well as storing
electricity.

Intelligent energy management…


One of the options for matching the amount
of electricity available to the amount being
demanded is, even today, the rarely used
technique of load control. Energy saving
can mean much more than just consuming
as few kilowatt-hours as possible. It can
also mean achieving the flexibility of demand
that can make a valuable contribution to a
country’s economy. Naturally, in places such
as hospitals, textile factories and electronic
chip fabrication plants it is extremely impor-
tant for the power supply not to fail – not
even for a second. In other areas of elec-
tricity consumption, however, there is much
more room for manoeuvre. Controlled in-
Fig. 6: Silicon carbide
terruptions of a few minutes, and even a
few hours, can often be tolerated without
causing very much difficulty to those in-
volved. There are other applications where
the time constant or resilience is high, e.g.
cold stores and air-conditioning plants, where
energy can be stored for periods of up to
several hours. Through the application of
“intelligent” control and with suitable finan-
cial encouragement (usually in the form of
flexible tariff rates) there is no doubt that
very much more could be made of load
control.

Improving energy quality…


Power electronics systems, for example
SIPCON, can help improve energy quality –
an increasingly important factor in deregu-
lated energy markets. Energy has now be-
come a product. It has its price and a de-
fined quality. Consumers want a definite Fig. 7: GIL
quality of energy, but they also produce
reaction effects on the system that are
detrimental to quality (e.g. harmonics or Alternatives… resistance from people living nearby, it
reactive power). It should be appreciated, however, that de- would be possible to use gas-insulated lines
Energy quality first has to be measured and centralized power supplies are not a pana- (GIL), an economical alternative investigated
documented, for example with the SIMEAS® cea. For those places where energy density by Siemens.
family of quality recorders. These measure- requirements are high, large power stations The development aim of reducing costs has
ments are important for price setting, and are still the answer, and especially when meanwhile been attained here, and cost-
can serve as the basis for remedial action, they can supply district heating. Theoreti- effective applications involving distances of
such as with active or passive filters. Power cally, it should still be possible to employ serveral kilometres are therefore possible.
electronics development has opened up conventional technology to transport very The system costs for the gas-insulated trans-
many new possibilities here, although con- large amounts of electricity to the megaci- mission lines (GIL) developed by Siemens
siderable progress may still be made in ties of the 21st Century. Even if the use of exceed those of overhead lines only by
this area – a breakthrough in silicon carbide overhead power lines was not an option, about a factor of 10.
technology, for example. due to say there being insufficient space or

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


Energy Needs Intelligent Solutions

Energy management via satellite

Long-distance DC transmission

Wind energy
Power plants
Solar energy Converter station Pumping station

Biomass power plant Irrigation system

Switching station Fuel cells

Energy store

GIL Distribution station Cooling station (liquid nitrogen)

Fig. 8: The mega-cities of the 21st century and the open countryside will need different solutions – very high values of connection density in the former and decentralised
configurations in the latter

This has been achieved by laying the tubu- ers are demanding a more reasonable re- nies and independent operating utilities will
lar conductor using methods similar to those turn on their investment. Deregulation gen- no longer confine their activities to just en-
employed with pipelines. Savings were erally means privatization; profit orientation ergy production; they will be expected to
also made by simplifying and standardizing is therefore clearly going to take over from become increasingly involved in energy dis-
the individual components and by using a concern with cost. In addition this means tribution too.
gas mixture consisting of sulfur hexafluo- that competition will inevitably produce
ride (SF6) and nitrogen (N2). some concessions in the price of electrici- Potential for the future
The advantages of this new technology ty, which will increase the pressure on en- The ongoing development of high-temper-
are low resistive and capacitive losses. The ergy suppliers. Many power supply compa- ature superconductors will doubtless ena-
electric field outside of the enclosure is zero, nies are striving to introduce additional ble much to be achieved. Major operational
and the magnetic field is negligibly small. energy services, thereby making the pure innovations will, nonetheless, come from
No cooling and no phase angle compensa- price of energy not the only yardstick their the more pervasive use of communications
tion are required. GILs are not a fire hazard customers apply when deciding how to and data systems – two areas of technolo-
and are simple to repair. make their purchases. gy where innovations can be seen every
18 months. Consequently, it will be from
Energy trade these areas that the enabling impetus for
The new “rules of the game” that are being Siemens – the energy systems house significant advances in power engineering
introduced in power supply business eve- Siemens is offering solutions to the prob- will come.
rywhere are demanding more capability lems that are governed by the new “rules
from utility IT systems, especially in areas of the game”. The company possesses con-
such as energy trading. Siemens has been siderable expertise, mainly because it is a
in the fortunate position of being able to global player, but also because it covers the
accumulate early practical experience in total spectrum of products necessary for the
this field in markets where deregulation is efficient transmission and distribution of
being introduced very quickly – such as the electricity. As with other Groups within the
United Kingdom, Scandinavia and the USA company, Power Transmission and Distribu-
– and so is now able to offer sophisticated tion no longer regards itself as simply a pur-
systems and expertise with which utilities veyor of hardware. In future Siemens will
can get to grips with the demands of the be more of a provider of services and total
new commercial environment. solutions. This will mean embracing many
In the past it was always security of supply new disciplines and skills, not least finan-
that took the highest priority for a utility. cial control and complete project manage-
Now, however, although it remains an im- ment. One of the reasons is that in future
portant subject, more and more sharehold- “BOT” (Build, Operate & Transfer) compa-

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition


High Voltage

Contents Page
Introduction ...................................... 2/2
Air-Insulated
Outdoor Substations ....................... 2/4
Circuit-Breakers
General ............................................. 2/10
Circuit-Breakers
72 kV up to 245 kV .......................... 2/12
Circuit-Breakers
245 kV up to 800 kV ........................ 2/14
Live-Tank Circuit-Breakers .......... 2/16
Dead-Tank Circuit-Breakers ........ 2/20
Surge Arresters .............................. 2/24
Gas-Insulated Switchgear
for Substations
Introduction ..................................... 2/28
Main Product Range ..................... 2/29
Special Arrangements .................. 2/33
Specification Guide ....................... 2/34
Scope of Supply ............................. 2/37
Gas-insulated
Transmission Lines (GIL) .............. 2/38
Overhead Power Lines ................. 2/40
High-Voltage Direct
Current Transmission .................... 2/49
Power Compensation in
Transmission Systems .................. 2/52

2
High-Voltage Switchgear for Substations

Introduction
1
High-voltage substations form an important
link in the power transmission chain be-
tween generation source and consumer.
Two basic designs are possible:

2
Air-insulated outdoor switchgear
of open design (AIS)
AIS are favorably priced high-voltage sub-
stations for rated voltages up to 800 kV
3 which are popular wherever space restric-
tions and environmental circumstances do
not have to be considered. The individual
electrical and mechanical components of
an AIS installation are assembled on site.
Air-insulated outdoor substations of open
4 design are not completely safe to touch
and are directly exposed to the effects of
weather and the environment (Fig. 1). Fig. 1: Outdoor switchgear

Gas-insulated indoor or outdoor


5 switchgear (GIS)
GIS compact dimensions and design make
it possible to install substations up to
550 kV right in the middle of load centers
of urban or industrial areas. Each circuit-
6 breaker bay is factory assembled and
includes the full complement of isolator
switches, grounding switches (regular
or make-proof), instrument transformers,
control and protection equipment, inter-
locking and monitoring facilities commonly
7 used for this type of installation. The
earthed metal enclosures of GIS assure
not only insensitivity to contamination but
also safety from electric shock (Fig. 2).

8 Gas-insulated transmission lines (GIL)


A special application of gas-insulated
equipment are gas-insulated transmission
lines (GIL). They are used where high-volt-
age overhead lines are not suitable for any
9 reason. GIL have a high power transmis-
sion capability, even when laid under-
ground, low resistive and capacitive losses
and low electromagnetic fields.

10

Fig. 2: GIS substations in metropolitan areas

2/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
High-Voltage Switchgear for Substations

Turnkey Installations
High-voltage switchgear is normally com-
bined with transformers and other equip- 1
ment to complete transformer substations
in order to Major com- Structural
■ Step-up from generator voltage level ponents, Steelwork
to high-voltage system (MV/HV) e.g. trans- Gantries and
■ Transform voltage levels within the former substructures 2
high-voltage grid system(HV/HV) Substation
■ Step-down to medium-voltage level Control Civil
of distribution system (HV/MV) Control and Engineering
The High Voltage Division plans and con- monitoring, Buildings,
structs individual high-voltage switchgear measurement, roads, 3
installations or complete transformer sub- protection, etc. foundations
Design
stations, comprising high-voltage switch- Fire
gear, medium-voltage switchgear, major AC/DC es protection
ri
components such as transformers, and auxililia Env
iron
all ancillary equipment such as auxiliaries,
rge s Ancillary pro menta 4
control systems, protective equipment, Su erter equipment
tec
tion l
etc., on a turnkey basis or even as general div g Li
in gh
les

contractor. rth e m tn

Carrier- ent
ables
ab

in

Ve
a
l and
E st g
The spectrum of installations supplied equipm
rc

sy

n ti
we

ranges from basic substations with single

lat
signal c
Contro

frequ. 5

ion
busbar to regional transformer substations
Po

with multiple busbars or 1 1/2 circuit-break-


er arrangement for rated voltages up to
800 kV, rated currents up to 8000 A and
short-circuit currents up to 100 kA, all over
the world.
6
The services offered range from system Fig. 3: Engineering of high-voltage switchgear
planning to commissioning and after-sales
service, including training of customer per- always fully informed of the state of the Know how, experience and worldwide
sonnel. art, even before a new standard or specifi- presence
The process of handling such an installa- cation is published.
tion starts with preparation of a quotation,
A worldwide network of liaison and sales 7
offices, along with the specialist depart-
and proceeds through clarification of the
Quality/Environmental Management ments in Germany, support and advise our
order, design, manufacture, supply and
customers in all matters of switchgear
cost-accounting until the project is finally Our own high-performance, internationally
technology.
billed. Processing such an order hinges on accredited test laboratories and a certified
methodical data processing that in turn QM system testify to the quality of our Siemens has for many years been a lead- 8
contributes to systematic project handling. products and services. ing supplier of high-voltage equipment,
regardless of whether AIS, GIS or GIL has
All these high-voltage installations have Milestones:
been concerned. For example, outdoor
in common their high-standard of engi- ■ 1983: Introduction of a quality system substations of longitudinal in-line design
neering, which covers power systems, on the basis of Canadian standard are still known in many countries under
steel structures, civil engineering, fire pre-
cautions, environmental protection and
CSA Z 299 Level 1 the Siemens registered tradename “Kiel- 9
■ 1989: Certification of the SWH quality linie”. Back in 1968, Siemens supplied the
control systems (Fig. 3).
system in accordance with world’s first GIS substation using SF6 as
Every aspect of technology and each work DIN EN ISO 9001 by the German insulating and quenching medium. Gas-in-
stage is handled by experienced engineers. Association for Certification of sulated transmission lines have featured
With the aid of high-performance computer Quality Systems (DQS) in the range of products since 1976.
programs, e.g. the finite element meth- ■ 1992: Repetition audit and extension 10
od (FEM), installations can be reliably de- of the quality system to the complete
signed even for extreme stresses, such EV H Division
as those encountered in earthquake zones. ■ 1992: Accreditation of the test labora-
All planning documentation is produced on tories in accordance with DIN EN 45001
modern CAD systems; data exchange with by the German Accreditation Body for
other CAD systems is possible via stand- Technology (DATech)
ardized interfaces. ■ 1994: Certification of the environmental-
By virtue of their active involvement in systems in accordance with
national and international associations and DIN EN ISO 14001 by the DQS
standardization bodies, our engineers are ■ 1995: Mutual QEM Certificate

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/3
Design of Air-Insulated Outdoor Substations

Standards Stresses Variables affecting switchgear


■ Electrical stresses, e.g. rated current,
1 short-circuit current, adequate creepage
installation
Air-insulated outdoor substations of open distances and clearances
design must not be touched. Therefore,
■ Mechanical stresses (normal stressing), Switchgear design is significantly influ-
air-insulated switchgear (AIS) is always set
e.g. weight, static and dynamic loads, enced by:
up in the form of a fenced-in electrical op-
ice, wind ■ Minimum clearances (depending on
erating area, to which only authorized per-
2 sons have access. ■ Mechanical stresses (exceptional rated voltages) between various active
stresses), e.g. weight and constant parts and between active parts and
Relevant IEC 60060 specifications apply to loads in simultaneous combination with earth
outdoor switchgear equipment. Insulation maximum switching forces or short-
coordination, including minimum phase- ■ Arrangement of conductors
circuit forces, etc.
to-phase and phase-to-ground clearances, ■ Rated and short-circuit currents
■ Special stresses, e.g. caused by instal-
3 is effected in accordance with IEC 60071.
lation altitudes of more than 1000 m
■ Clarity for operating staff
Outdoor switchgear is directly exposed to ■ Availability during maintenance work,
above sea level, or earthquakes
the effects of the environment such as the redundancy
weather. Therefore it has to be designed ■ Availability of land and topography
based on not only electrical but also envi- ■ Type and arrangement of the busbar
ronmental specifications. disconnectors
4
Currently there is no international standard The design of a substation determines its
covering the setup of air-insulated outdoor accessibility, availability and clarity. The
substations of open design. Siemens de- design must therefore be coordinated in
signs AIS in accordance with DIN/VDE close cooperation with the customer. The
standards, in line with national standards following basic principles apply:
5 or customer specifications. Accessibility and availability increase with
The German standard DIN VDE 0101 (erec- the number of busbars. At the same time,
tion of power installations with rated volt- however, clarity decreases. Installations
ages above 1 kV) demonstrates typically involving single busbars require minimum
the protective measures and stresses that investment, but they offer only limited flex-
6 have to be taken into consideration for air- ibility for operation management and main-
insulated switchgear. tenance. Designs involving 1 1/2 and 2 cir-
cuit-breaker arrangements assure a high
redundancy, but they also entail the high-
Protective measures est costs. Systems with auxiliary or bypass
Protective measures against direct contact, busbars have proved to be economical.
7 i. e. protection in the form of covering, The circuit-breaker of the coupling feeder
obstruction or clearance and appropriately for the auxiliary bus allows uninterrupted
positioned protective devices and mini- replacement of each feeder circuit-breaker.
ker mum heights. For busbars and feeder lines, mostly wire
Protective measures against indirect touch- conductors and aluminum are used. Multi-
8 ing by means of relevant grounding meas- ple conductors are required where currents
ures in accordance with DIN VDE 0141. are high. Owing to the additional short-
Protective measures during work on circuit forces between the subconductors
equipment, i.e. during installation must (pinch effect), however, multiple conduc-
be planned such that the specifications tors cause higher mechanical stressing at
of DIN EN 50110 (VDE 0105) (e.g. 5 safety the tension points. When wire conductors,
9 rules) are complied with particularly multiple conductors, are used
higher short-circuit currents cause a rise
■ Protective measures during operation, not only in the aforementioned pinch ef-
e.g. use of switchgear interlock equip- fect but in further force maxima in the
ment event of swinging and dropping of the con-
■ Protective measures against voltage ductor bundle (cable pull). This in turn re-
10 surges and lightning strike sults in higher mechanical stresses on the
■ Protective measures against fire, water switchgear components. These effects can
and, if applicable, noise insulation. be calculated in an FEM (Finite Element
Method) simulation (Fig. 4).

2/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Design of Air-Insulated Outdoor Substations

When rated and short-circuit currents are Preferred designs


high, aluminum tubes are increasingly used
to replace wire conductors for busbars 1
and feeder lines. They can handle rated The multitude of conceivable designs in-
currents up to 8000 A and short-circuit clude certain preferred versions, which are
currents up to 80 kA without difficulty. dependent on the type and arrangement of
Not only the availability of land, but also the busbar disconnectors:
the lie of the land, the accessibility and lo- 2
cation of incoming and outgoing overhead H arrangement
lines together with the number of trans- The H arrangement (Fig. 5) is preferrably
formers and voltage levels considerably used in applications for feeding industrial
influence the switchgear design as well. consumers. Two overhead lines are con-
A one or two-line arrangement, and possi- nected with two transformers and inter-
bly a U arrangement, may be the proper linked by a single-bus coupler. Thus each 3
solution. Each outdoor switchgear installa- feeder of the switchgear can be main-
tion, especially for step-up substations in tained without disturbance of the other
connection with power stations and large feeders. This arrangement assures a high
transformer substations in the extra-high- availability.
voltage transmission system, is therefore
unique, depending on the local conditions. 4
HV/MV transformer substations of the dis- Special layouts for single busbars up to
tribution system, with repeatedly used 145 kV with withdrawable circuit-break-
equipment and a scheme of one incoming er and modular switchbay arrangement
and one outgoing line as well as two trans- Further to the H arrangement that is built
formers together with medium-voltage in many variants, there are also designs 5
switchgear and auxiliary equipment, are with withdrawable circuit-breakers and
more subject to a standardized design modular switchbays for this voltage range.
from the individual power supply compa-
nies. For detailed information see the following
pages:
6
– Q8 – Q8
Vertical displacement in m

–0.6
7
–0.8 – Q0 – Q0

–1.0 M – Q1 – Q1 M

– T5 – T5
–1.2 8
– T1 – T1
–1.4
– T1 – T1
M M
–1.6
– Q1 M – Q10 – Q11 M – Q1
9
–1.8
– Q0 – Q0
Horizontal
–2.0 displacement in m
– F1 – F1
–2.2
–1.4 –1.0 –0.6 –0.2 0 0.2 0.6 1.0 1.4 10
= T1 = T1

Fig. 4: FEM calculation of deflection of wire conductors in the event of short circuit Fig. 5: Module plan view

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/5
Design of Air-Insulated Outdoor Substations

Withdrawable circuit-breaker without disconnectors). The isolating dis- tance. An electromechanical motive unit
tance is reached with the moving of the ensures the uninterrupted constant moving
General
1 circuit-breaker along the rails, similar to the motion to both end positions. The circuit-
For 123/145 kV substations with single well-known withdrawable-unit design tech- breaker can only be operated if one of the
busbar system a suitable alternative is the nique of medium-voltage switchgear. In end positions has been reached. Move-
withdrawable circuit-breaker. In this kind of disconnected position busbar, circuit-break- ment with switched-on circuit-breaker is
switchgear busbar- and outgoing discon- er and outgoing circuit are separated from impossible. Incorrect movement, which
nector become inapplicable (switchgear each other by a good visible isolating dis- would be equivalent to operating a discon-
2 nector under load, is interlocked. In the
6300 event of possible malfunction of the posi-
2500 2500
tion switch, or of interruptions to travel
17001700
between disconnected position and operat-
ing position, the operation of the circuit-
3 breaker is stopped.
7600 The space required for the switchgear is
2247 reduced considerably. Due to the arrange-
ment of the instrument transformers on
-Q11 -T1/ 1050
-Q12 -Q9 -T5 -Q0 the common steel frame a reduction in the
-Q11-Q12 =T1 -F1 -Q0 -T1 required space up to about 45% in compar-
4 2530 3000 2530 3100 625 7000 625 3100 ison to the conventional switchgear sec-
7000 6400 7000 2500 4500 14450 tion is achieved.
21450
Description
A common steel frame forms the base for
all components necessary for reliable oper-
5 ation. The withdrawable circuit-breaker
contains:
■ Circuit-breaker type 3AP1F
■ Electromechanical motive unit
■ Measuring transformer for protection
6 and measuring purposes
■ Local control cubicle
All systems are preassembled as far as
possible. Therefore the withdrawable CB
can be installed quite easily and efficiently
7 on site.
The advantages at a glance
■ Complete system and therefore lower
Fig. 6a: H arrangement with withdrawable circuit-breaker, plan view and sections costs for coordination and adaptation.
■ A reduction in required space by about
8 45% compared with conventional
switchbays
■ Clear wiring and cabling arrangement
■ Clear circuit state
■ Use as an indoor switchbay is also pos-
9 sible.

Technical data

10 Nominal voltage [kV] 123 kV (145 kV)


Nominal current [A] 1250 A (2000 A)
Nominal short [kA] 31.5 kA, 1s,
time current (40 kA, 3s)
Auxiliary supply/ 230/400 V AC
motive unit [V]
Control voltage [V] 220 V DC

Fig. 6b: H arrangement with withdrawable circuit-breaker, ISO view Fig. 7: Technical data

2/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Design of Air-Insulated Outdoor Substations

Modular switchbay Description The advantages at a glance


General A common steel frame forms the base for ■ Complete system and therefore lower
As an alternative to conventional substa-
all components necessary for a reliable op- costs for coordination and adaptation. 1
eration. The modul contains: ■ Thanks to the integrated control cubicle,
tions an air-insulated modular switchbay
can often be used for common layouts. ■ Circuit-breaker type 3AP1F upgrading of the control room is
In this case the functions of several HV ■ Motor-operated disconnecting device scarecely necessary.
devices are combined with each other. ■ Current transformer for protection and ■ A modular switchbay can be inserted
This makes it possible to offer a standard- measuring purposes very quickly in case of total breakdown 2
ized module. ■ Local control cubicle
or for temporary use during reconstruc-
Appropriate conventional air-insulated tion.
All systems are preassembled as far as
switchbays consist of separately mounted ■ A reduction in required space by about
possible. Therefore the module can be in-
HV devices (for example circuit-breaker, stalled quite easily and efficiently on site. 50% compared with conventional
disconnector, earthing switches, transform- switchbays is achieved by virtue of the
ers), which are connected to each other by compact and tested design of the mod- 3
conductors/tubes. Every device needs its ule (Fig. 8).
own foundations, steel structures, earthing ■ The application as an indoor switchbay is
connections, primary and secondary termi- possible.
nals (secondary cable routes etc.).
4
Technical data
3000
2000 2000
Nominal voltage 123 kV (145 kV)
Nominal current 1250 A (2000 A)
5
8000 Nominal short 31.5 kA, 1s,
current (40 kA, 3s)
Auxiliary supply 230/400 V AC
Control voltage 220 V DC 6
-Q8 -Q0-Q1 -T1 -Q10/-Q11 -T1 -Q1 -Q0 -F1 =T1
-T5
Fig. 9: Technical data
3000 4500 4500 3000 4000

7500 11500
7

8000
8
9500

19000 3000
A 9
A

9500
8000 10

7500 11500
19000

Fig. 8: Plan view and side view of H arrangement with modular switchbays

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/7
Design of Air-Insulated Outdoor Substations

In-line longitudinal layout, with rotary


disconnectors, preferable up to 170 kV Dimensions in mm
Section A-A
1 The busbar disconnectors are lined up one R1 S1 T1 T2 S2 R2 2500
behind the other and parallel to the longitu-
dinal axis of the busbar. It is preferable to 8000
have either wire-type or tubular busbars
located at the top of the feeder conductors. 20500 8400 19400
2 Where tubular busbars are used, gantries 48300
are required for the outgoing overhead
lines only. The system design requires only Top view
two conductor levels and is therefore clear.
If, in the case of duplicate busbars, the 6500
second busbar is arranged in U form rela- End bay
9000
3 tive to the first busbar, it is possible to ar- 4500 A
range feeders going out on both sides of
the busbar without a third conductor level
(Fig. 10). Normal 9000
bay
A
4
Fig. 10: Substation with rotary disconnector, in-line design
Central tower layout with rotary
disconnectors, normally only for 245 kV Dimensions in mm
5 3000
The busbar disconnectors are arranged
side by side and parallel to the longitudinal
axis of the feeder. Wire-type busbars locat- 12500
ed at the top are commonly used; tubular
busbars are also conceivable. This arrange- 9000
6 ment enables the conductors to be easliy
jumpered over the circuit-breakers and the 7000 18000 17000 17000
bay width to be made smaller than that of
in-line designs. With three conductor levels
the system is relatively clear, but the cost
of the gantries is high (Fig. 11).
7
16000

8
Fig.11: Central tower design

Diagonal layout with pantograph


disconnectors, preferable up to 245 kV Section Dimensions in mm
9 The pantograph disconnectors are placed Bus system Bypass bus
diagonally to the axis of the busbars and
feeder. This results in a very clear, space- 13300
saving arrangement. Wire and tubular con-
ductors are customary. The busbars can
be located above or below the feeder con- 10000 8000 28000 48000 10000
10 ductors (Fig. 12). 10400

Top view

5000
18000 4000
4000
5000

Fig. 12: Busbar area with pantograph disconnector of diagonal design, rated voltage 420 kV

2/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Design of Air-Insulated Outdoor Substations

1 1/2 circuit-breaker layout,


preferable up to 245 kV
Planning principles
The 1 1/2 circuit-breaker arrangement as- 1
sures high supply reliability; however, ex- For air-insulated outdoor substations of
penditure for equipment is high as well. open design, the following planning princi-
ples must be taken into account:
The busbar disconnectors are of the panto-
graph, rotary and vertical-break type. Verti- ■ High reliability
cal-break disconnectors are preferred for – Reliable mastering of normal and 2
the feeders. The busbars located at the top exceptional stresses
can be of wire or tubular type. Of advan- – Protection against surges and light-
tage are the equipment connections, which ning strikes
are very short and enable (even in the case – Protection against surges directly
of multiple conductors) high short-circuit on the equipment concerned (e.g.
currents to be mastered. Two arrange- transformer, HV cable)
3
ments are customary:
■ Good clarity and accessibility
■ External busbar, feeders in line with
– Clear conductor routing with few
three conductor levels conductor levels
■ Internal busbar, feeders in H arrange-
– Free accessibility to all areas (no 4
ment with two conductor levels (Fig. 13). equipment located at inaccessible
depth)
– Adequate protective clearances for
Dimensions in mm installation, maintenance and transpor-
4000 tation work
– Adequately dimensioned transport 5
routes
17500
■ Positive incorporation into surroundings
– As few overhead conductors as
possible
8500 48000 29000 – Tubular instead of wire-type busbars 6
– Unobtrusive steel structures
– Minimal noise and disturbance level
■ EMC grounding system
for modern control and protection
18000 7
■ Fire precautions and environmental
protection
– Adherence to fire protection speci-
fications and use of flame-retardant
Fig.13 : 1 1/2 Circuit-breaker design and nonflammable materials 8
– Use of environmentally compatible
technology and products

For further information please contact:


Fax: ++ 49 - 9131- 73 18 58 9
e-mail: Gerda.Friedel@erls04.siemens.de

10

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/9
Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV

General
Circuit-breaker for air-insulated switchgear
1
Circuit-breakers are the main module of
both AIS and GIS switchgear. They have to
meet high requirements in terms of:
■ Reliable opening and closing
2 ■ Consistent quenching performance with
rated and short-circuit currents even
after many switching operations
■ High-performance, reliable maintenance-
free operating mechanisms.
Technology reflecting the latest state of
3 the art and years of operating experience
are put to use in constant further develop-
ment and optimization of Siemens circuit-
breakers. This makes Siemens circuit-
breakers able to meet all the demands
4 placed on high-voltage switchgear.
The comprehensive quality system,
ISO 9001 certified, covers development,
manufacture, sales, installation and after-
sales service. Test laboratories are accred-
ited to EN 45001 and PEHLA/STL.
5
Main construction elements
Each circuit-breaker bay for gas-insulated
6 switchgear includes the full complement
of isolator switches, grounding switches Control Interrupter
Operating
(regular or proven), instrument transform- elements unit
mechanism
ers, control and protection equipment, in-
terlocking and monitoring facilities com-
monly used for this type of installation
7 (See chapter GIS, page 2/30 and following).
Circuit-breakers for air-insulated switch-
gear are individual components and are
assembled together with all individual
electrical and mechanical components of
8 an AIS installation on site.
All Siemens circuit-breaker types, whether
air or gas-insulated, are made up of the
same range of components, i.e.:
■ Interrupter unit
9 ■ Operating mechanism
■ Sealing system
■ Operating rod
■ Control elements.

10

Circuit-breaker in SF6-insulated switchgear

Fig. 14: Circuit-breaker parts

2/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV

The twin-nozzle system has also proven Specific use of the electrohydraulic
Interrupter unit – itself in special applications. Its specific mechanism
two arc-quenching principles properties support switching without re-
The actuating energy required for the 3AQ
1
striking of small inductive and capacitive
currents. By virtue of its high arc resist- and 3AT high-voltage circuit-breakers at
The Siemens product range includes high- ance, the twin-nozzle system is particularly higher voltage levels is provided by proven
voltage circuit-breakers with self-compres- suitable for breaking certain types of short electrohydraulic mechanisms. The inter-
sion interrupter chambers and twin-nozzle circuit (e.g. short circuits close to genera- rupter chambers of these switching devic-
interrupter chambers – for optimum tor terminals) on account of its high arc re- es are based on the graphite twin-nozzle 2
switching performance under every operat- sistance. system.
ing condition for every voltage level.
Advantages of the electrohydraulic
Self-compression breakers Operating mechanism – mechanism at a glance:
3AP high-voltage circuit-breakers for the two principles for all ■ Electrohydraulic mechanisms provide the 3
lower voltage range ensure optimum use specific requirements high actuating energy that makes it pos-
of the thermal energy of the arc in the sible to have reliable control even over
contact tube. This is achieved by the self- very high switching capacities and to be
compression switching unit. The operating mechanism is a central mod- in full command of very high loads in the
Siemens patented this arc-quenching prin- ule of the high-voltage circuit-breakers. shortest switching time.
ciple in 1973. Since then, we have contin- Two different mechanism types are availa- 4
■ The switch positions are held safely
ued to develop the technology of the self- ble for Siemens circuit-breakers: even in the event of an auxiliary power
compression interrupter chamber. One of ■ Stored-energy spring actuated failure.
the technical innovations is that the arc en- mechanism, ■ A number of autoreclosing operations
ergy is being increasingly used to quench ■ Electrohydraulic mechanism, are possible without the need for
the arc. In short-circuit breaking operations
depending on the area of application and recharging. 5
the actuating energy required is reduced to
voltage level, thus every time ensuring the ■ Energy reserves can be reliably con-
that needed for mechanical contact move-
best system of actuation. The advantages trolled at any time.
ment. That means the operating energy is
are trouble-free, economical and reliable ■ Electrohydraulic mechanisms are mainte-
truly minimized. The result is that the self-
circuit-breaker operation for all specific re- nance-free, economical and have a long
compression interrupter chamber allows
the use of a compact stored-energy spring
quirements. service life. 6
mechanism with unrestrictedly high de- ■ They satisfy the most stringent require-
pendability. Specific use of the stored-energy ments regarding environmental safety.
spring mechanism This has been proven by electrohydraulic
mechanisms in Siemens high-voltage
Twin-nozzle breakers The actuation concept of the 3AP high-volt- circuit-breakers over many years of serv-
On the 3AQ and 3AT switching devices, a
age circuit-breaker is based on the stored- ice. 7
energy spring principle. The use of such an
contact system with graphite twin-nozzles
operating mechanism in the lower voltage
ensures consistent arc-quenching behavior
range became appropriate as a result of
and constant electric strength, irrespective
development of a self-compression inter-
of pre-stressing, i.e. the number of breaks
rupter chamber that requires only minimal
and the switched current. The graphite
actuation energy. 8
twin-nozzles are resistant to burning and
thus have a very long service life. As a
consequence, the interrupter unit of the Advantages of the stored-energy spring
twin-nozzle breaker is particularly mechanism at a glance:
powerful.
Moreover, this type of interrupter chamber
■ The stored-energy spring mechanism of- 9
fers the highest degree of operational
offers other essential advantages. General- safety. It is of simple and sturdy design
ly, twin-nozzle interrupter chambers oper- – with few moving parts. Due to the
ate with low overpressures during arc- self-compression principle of the inter-
quenching. Minimal actuating energy is rupter chamber, only low actuating forc-
adequate in this operating system as well. es are required. 10
The resulting arc plasma has a compara- ■ Stored-energy spring mechanisms are
tively low conductivity, and the switching readily available and have a long service
capacity is additionally favourably influ- life: Minimal stressing of the latch mech-
enced as a result. anisms and rolling-contact bearings in
the operating mechanism ensure reliable
and wear-free transmission of forces.
■ Stored-energy spring mechanisms are
maintenance-free: the spring charging
gear is fitted with wear-free spur gears,
enabling load-free decoupling.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/11
Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 245 kV

Siemens circuit-breakers for the lower Breaking operating currents Major features:
voltage levels 72 kV up to 245 kV, whether
During the opening process, the main con- ■ Self-compression interrupter chamber
1 for air-insulated or gas-insulated switch-
tact (4) opens first and the current commu- ■ Use of the thermal energy of the arc
gear, are equipped with self-compression
tates on the still closed arcing contact. If ■ Minimized energy consumption
switching units and spring-stored energy
this contact is subsequently opened, an
operating mechanisms. ■ High reliability for a long time
arc is drawn between the contacts (5). At
the same time, the contact cylinder (6)
2 moves into the base (7) and compresses
the quenching gas there. The gas then
The interrupter unit flows in the reverse direction through the
contact cylinder (6) towards the arcing con-
Self-compression system tact (5) and quenches the arc there.

3 The current path


Breaking fault currents
In the event of high short-circuit currents,
The current path is formed by the terminal the quenching gas on the arcing contact is
plates (1) and (8), the contact support (2), heated substantially by the energy of the
the base (7) and the moving contact cylin- arc. This leads to a rise in pressure in the
der (6). In closed state the operating cur- contact cylinder. In this case the energy for
4 rent flows through the main contact (4). creation of the required quenching pres-
An arcing contact (5) acts parallel to this. sure does not have to be produced by the
operating mechanism.
Subsequently, the fixed arcing contact re-
leases the outflow through the nozzle (3).
5 The gas flows out of the contact cylinder
back into the nozzle and quenches the arc.

Closed position Opening Opening Open position


6 Main contact open Arcing contact open

1 Terminal plate
1 2 Contact support
2 3 Nozzle
7
4 Main contact
3
5 Arc contact
4
6 Contact
5 cylinder
8 7 Base
6 8 Terminal plate

9
7

8
10

Fig. 15: The interrupter unit

2/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 245 kV

The operating mechanism


1 Corner gears
1
Spring-stored energy type
2 Coupling linkage
Siemens circuit-breakers for voltages up to
245 kV are equipped with spring-stored en- 3 Operating rod
ergy operating mechanisms. These drives 4 Closing release
are based on the same principle that has 1 5 Cam plate 2
been proving its worth in Siemens low and
medium-voltage circuit-breakers for dec- 6 Charging shaft
ades. The design is simple and robust with 7 Closing spring
few moving parts and a vibration-isolated 2 connecting rod
latch system of highest reliability. All com- 8 Closing spring
ponents of the operating mechanism, the 3
control and monitoring equipment and all 9 Hand-wound mechanism
terminal blocks are arranged compact and 10 Charging mechanism
yet clear in one cabinet. 11 Roller level
Depending on the design of the operat- 12 Closing damper
ing mechanism, the energy required for 3
9 13 Operating shaft 4
switching is provided by individual com-
pression springs (i.e. one per pole) or by 14 Opening damper
springs that function jointly on a triple-pole 15 Opening release
basis. 4 10 16 Opening spring
The principle of the operating mechanism connecting rod
with charging gear and latching is identical 5
5 17 Mechanism housing
on all types. The differences between
mechanism types are in the number, size 6 11 18 Opening spring
and arrangement of the opening and clos-
7 12
ing springs.
13
Major features at a glance
6
■ Uncomplicated, robust construction
14
with few moving parts
■ Maintenance-free 15
■ Vibration-isolated latches 16
7
■ Load-free uncoupling of charging
mechanism 17
■ Ease of access 8
■ 10,000 operating cycles 18
8

Fig. 16

10

Fig. 17: Combined operating mechanism


and monitoring cabinet

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/13
Circuit-Breakers for 245 kV up to 800 kV

Siemens circuit-breakers for the higher Arc-quenching assembly Major features


voltage levels 245 kV up to 800 kV, wheth-
The fixed tubes (2) are connected by ■ Erosion-resistant graphite nozzles
1 er for air-insulated or gas-insulated switch-
the contact tube (3) when the breaker is ■ Consistently high dielectric strength
gear, are equipped with twin-nozzle inter-
closed. The contact tube (3) is rigidly cou- ■ Consistent quenching capability across
rupter chambers and electrohydraulic
pled to the blast cylinder (4), the two to- the entire performance range
operating mechanisms.
gether with a fixed annular piston (5) in
■ High number of short-circuit breaking
between forming the moving part of the
operations
2 break chamber. The moving part is driven
■ High levels of availability
by an operating rod (8) to the effect that
■ Long maintenance intervals.
The interrupter unit the SF6 pressure between the piston (5)
and the blast cylinder (4) increases.
When the contacts separate, the moving
Twin-nozzle system
contact tube (3), which acts as a shutoff
3 valve, releases the SF6. An arc is drawn
Current path assembly
between one nozzle (6) and the contact
The conducting path is made up of the tube (3). It is driven in a matter of millisec-
terminal plates (1 and 7), the fixed tubes onds between the nozzles (6) by the gas
(2) and the spring-loaded contact fingers jet and its own electrodynamic forces and
4 arranged in a ring in the moving contact is safely extinguished.
tube (3). The blast cylinder (4) encloses the arc-
quenching arrangement like a pressure
chamber. The compressed SF6 flows ra-
dially into the break by the shortest route
and is discharged axially through the noz-
5 zles (6). After arc extinction, the contact
tube (3) moves into the open position.
In the final position, handling of test volt-
ages in accordance with IEC 60000 and
ANSI is fully assured, even after a number
6 of short-circuit switching operations.

7 Breaker in Precompression Gas flow during Breaker in


closed position arc quenching open position

1
1 Upper terminal
8 plate
2 2 Fixed tubes
3 Moving contact
3
tube
6 Arc 4 Blast cylinder
9
5 Blast piston
4
6 Arc-quenching
5 nozzles
7 Lower terminal
10 2 plate
8 8 Operating rod

Fig. 18: The interrupter unit

2/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Circuit-Breakers for 245 kV up to 800 kV

The operating mechanism ■ Tripping:


The hydraulic valve is changed over
electromagnetically, thus relieving the 1
Electrohydraulic type larger piston surface of pressure and
All hydraulically operated Siemens circuit- causing the piston to move onto the
breakers have a uniform operating mecha- OFF position. The breaker is ready for
nism concept. Identical operating mecha- instant operation because the smaller
nisms (modules) are used for single or tri- piston surface is under constant pres-
ple-pole switching of outdoor circuit- sure. Two electrically separate tripping 2
breakers. circuits are available for changing the
valve over for tripping.
The electrohydraulic operating mecha-
nisms have proved their worth all over the
world. The power reserves are ample, the
switching speed is high and the storage 3
capacity substantial. The working capacity
is indicated by the permanent self-monitor-
ing system.
The force required to move the piston and
piston rod is provided by differential oil 4
pressure inside a sealed system. A hydrau-
lic storage cylinder filled with compressed
nitrogen provides the necessary energy.
Electromagnetic valves control the oil flow
between the high and low-pressure side in
the form of a closed circuit. 5
Main features:
■ Plenty of operating energy
■ Long switching sequences
■ Reliable check of energy reserves 6
at any time
■ Switching positions are reliably
maintained, even when the auxiliary
supply fails
■ Excessive strong foundations Fig. 19: Operating unit of the Q range AIS circuit Fig. 20: Operating cylinder with valve block and
breakers magnetic releases 7
■ Low-noise switching
■ No oil leakage and consequently
environmentally compatible Monitoring unit
■ Maintenance-free. and hydraulic
P P
pump with motor P P
Description of function
Oil tank 8
■ Closing:
The hydraulic valve is opened by elec- Hydraulic storage
tromagnetic means. Pressure from the cylinder M
M
hydraulic storage cylinder is thereby ap-
plied to the piston with two different N2 9
surface areas. The breaker is closed via
couplers and operating rods moved by
the force which acts on the larger sur-
face of the piston. The operating mech-
anism is designed to ensure that, in the Operating cylinder
event of a pressure loss, the breaker 10
remains in the particular position.
Operating piston
Main valve

Auxiliary
switch Pilot control

Releases On Off

Fig. 21: Schematic diagram of a Q-range operating mechanism

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/15
Live-Tank Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV

Circuit-breakers
1 for air-insulated switchgear
Standard live-tank breakers
The construction
2 All live-tank circuit-breakers are of the
same general design, as shown in the illus-
trations. They consist of the following main
components:
1) Interrupter unit
2) Closing resistor (if applicable)
3 3) Operating mechanism
4) Insulator column (AIS)
5) Operating rod
6) Breaker base
4 7) Control unit
The uncomplicated design of the breakers
and the use of many similar components,
such as interrupter units, operating rods
and control cabinets, ensure high reliability Fig. 22: 145 kV circuit-breaker 3AP1FG with triple-pole Fig. 23: 800 kV circuit-breaker 3AT5
because the experience of many breakers spring stored-energy operating mechanism
5 in service has been applied in improvement
of the design. The twin nozzle interrupter
unit for example has proven its reliability in
more than 60,000 units all over the world.
The control unit includes all necessary
6 devices for circuit-breaker control and mon-
itoring, such as:
■ Pressure/SF6 density monitors
■ Gauges for SF6 and hydraulic pressure
(if applicable)
7 ■ Relays for alarms and lockout
■ Antipumping devices
■ Operation counters (upon request)
■ Local breaker control (upon request)
■ Anticondensation heaters.
8
Transport, installation and commissioning
are performed with expertise and effi-
ciency.
The tested circuit-breaker is shipped in
9 the form of a small number of compact
units. If desired, Siemens can provide
appropriately qualified personnel for instal-
lation and commissioning.

10

Fig. 24: 245 kV circuit-breaker 3AQ2

2/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Live-Tank Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV

1 2 7 3 5 6

1 2 2
8
5

1 Interrupter unit
3
2 Closing resistor 9
3 Valve unit
4 Electrohydraulic
operating 13
mechanism 12 4
5 Insulator columns
6 Breaker base 10
7 Control unit 11
4
3 5
4
1 Interrupter unit
7 2 Arc-quenching nozzles
3 Moving contact 6
6 4 Filter
5 Blast piston
Fig. 25: Type 3AT4/5
6 Blast cylinder
7 Bell-crank mechanism
8 Insulator column
9 Operating rod
7
10 Hydraulic operating mechanism
1 11 ON/OFF indicator
12 Oil tank
13 Control unit
8
Fig. 27: Type 3AQ2

9
2

10
3

5 1 Interrupter unit
2 Post insulator
4 3 Circuit-breaker base
4 Operating mechanism
and control cubicle
5 Pillar

Fig. 26: Type 3AP1FG

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/17
Live-Tank Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV

Technical data
1

4 Type 3AP1/3AQ1 3AP2/3AQ2

Rated voltage [kV] 72.5 123 145 170 245/300 362 420
Number of interrupter units per pole 1 1 1 1 1 2 2
5 Rated power-frequency withstand [kV] 140 230 275 325 460 520 610
voltage 1 min.
Rated lightning impulse withstand [kV] 325 550 650 750 1050 1175 1425
voltage 1.2 / 50 µs
Rated switching impulse [kV] – – – – –/850 950 1050
6 withstand voltage
Rated current up to [A] 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000
Rated short-time current (3 s) up to [kA] 40 40 40 40/50 50 63 63
Rated peak withstand current up to [kA] 108 108 108 135 135 170 170
7 Rated short-circuit-breaking [kA] 40 40 40 40/50 50 63 63
current up to
Rated short-circuit making [kA] 108 108 108 135 135 170 170
current up to
Rated duty cycle O - 0.3 s - CO - 3 min - CO or CO - 15 s - CO
8 Break time [cycles] 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Frequency [Hz] 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Operating mechanism type Spring-stored energy mechanism/Electrohydraulic mechanism
Control voltage [V, DC] 60…250
9 Motor voltage [V, DC] 60…250
[V, DC] 120…240, 50/60 Hz
Design data of the basic version:
Clearance Phase/earth [mm] 700 1250 1250 1500 2200 2750 3400
in air across the contact gap [mm] 1200 1200 1200 1400 1900/2200 2700 3200
10 Minimum creepage Phase/earth [mm] 2248 3625 3625 4250 6150/7626 7875 10375
distance across the contact gap [mm] 3625 3625 3625 4250 6125/7500 9050 10500
Dimensions
Height [mm] 2750 3300 3300 4030 5220/5520 4150 4800
Width [mm] 3200 3900 3900 4200 6600/7000 8800 9400
Depth [mm] 660 660 660 660 800 3500 4100
Distance between pole centers [mm] 1350 1700 1700 1850 2800/3000 3800 4100
Weight of circuit-breaker [kg] 1350 1500 1500 1600 3000 4700 5000
Inspection after 25 years
Fig. 28a

2/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Live-Tank Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 800 kV

3AT2/3AT3* 3AT4/3AT5* 4

245 300 362 420 550 362 420 550 800


2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4
460 460 520 610 800 520 610 800 1150 5
1050 1050 1175 1425 1550 1175 1425 1550 2100

– 850 950 1050 1175 950 1050 1175 1425


6
4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000
80 63 63 63 63 80 80 63 63
216 170 170 170 170 200 200 160 160
80 63 63 63 63 80 80 63 63 7
216 170 170 170 170 200 200 160 160

O - 0.3 s - CO - 3 min - CO or CO - 15 s - CO
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8
50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60
Electrohydraulic mechanism
48…250
48…250 or 9
208/120…500/289 50/60 Hz

2200 2200 2700 3300 3800 2700 3300 3800 5000


2000 2400 2700 3200 3800 4000 4000 4800 6400
6050 6050 7165 9075 13750 7165 9075 10190 13860 10
6070 8568 9360 11390 13750 12140 12140 17136 22780

4490 4490 6000 6000 6700 4990 6000 6550 8400


7340 8010 9300 10100 13690 10600 11400 16600 22200
4060 4025 4280 4280 5135 6830 6830 7505 9060
3000 3400 3900 4300 5100 4350 4750 7200 10000
5980 6430 9090 8600 12500 14400 14700 19200 23400
25 years

Fig. 28b * with closing resistor

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/19
Dead-Tank Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 245 kV

Circuit-breakers
1 in dead-tank design
For certain substation designs, dead-tank
circuit-breakers might be required instead
of the standard live-tank breakers. For
these purposes Siemens can offer the
2 dead-tank circuit breaker types.

Main features at a glance


3
Reliable opening and closing
■ Proven contact and arc-quenching
system
■ Consistent quenching performance
4 with rated and short-circuit currents
even after many switching operations
■ Similar uncomplicated design for all
voltages

High-performance, reliable operating


5 mechanisms
■ Easy-to-actuate spring operating
mechanisms
■ Hydraulic operating mechanisms with
6 on-line monitoring

Economy Fig. 29a: SPS-2 circuit-breaker 72.5 kV


■ Perfect finish
■ Simplified, quick installation process
7 ■ Long maintenance intervals
■ High number of operating cycles
■ Long service life

Individual service

8 ■ Close proximity to the customer


■ Order specific documentation
■ Solutions tailored to specific problems
■ After-sales service available promptly
worldwide
9 The right qualifications
■ Expertise in all power supply matters
■ 30 years of experience with SF6-insulat-
ed circuit breakers
10 ■ A quality system certified to ISO 9001,
covering development, manufacture,
sales, installation and after-sales service
■ Test laboratories accredited to EN 45001
and PEHLA/STL

Fig. 29b: SPS-2 circuit-breaker 170 kV

2/20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Dead-Tank Circuit-Breakers for 72 kV up to 245 kV

Subtransmission breaker Operating mechanism Included in the control cabinet are neces-
sary auxiliary switches, cutoff switch, latch
Type SPS-2 and 3AP1-DT The type FA2/4 mechanically and electrical-
ly trip-free spring mechanism is used on check switch, alarm switch and operation 1
counter. The control relays and three con-
type SPS-2 breakers. The type FA2/4 clos-
Type SPS-2 power circuit-breakers trol knife switches (one each for the con-
ing and opening springs hold a charge for
(Fig. 29a/b) are designed as general, defi- trol, heater and motor) are mounted on a
storing ”open-close-open“ operations
nite-purpose breakers for use at maximum control panel. Terminal blocks on the side
A weatherproof control cabinet has a large and rear of the housing are available for
rated voltages of 72.5 and 245 kV. door, sealed with rubber gaskets, for easy control and transformer wiring. 2
access during inspection and maintenance.
Condensation is prevented by units offer- For non US markets the control cabinet is
The construction also available similar to the 3AP cabinet
ing continuous inside/outside temperature
The type SPS-2 breaker consists of three differential and by ventilation. (3AP1-DT).
identical pole units mounted on a common
support frame. The opening and closing 3
force of the FA2/4 spring operating mecha-
nism is transferred to the moving contacts
of the interrupter through a system of con-
necting rods and a rotating seal at the side
of each phase.
4
The tanks and the porcelain bushings Technical data
are charged with SF6 gas at a nominal
pressure of 6.0 bar. The SF6 serves as both
insulation and arc-quenching medium.
A control cabinet mounted at one end
of the breaker houses the spring operating 5
mechanism and breaker control compo-
nents.
Interrupters are located in the aluminum
housings of each pole unit. The interrupt-
ers use the latest Siemens puffer arc- 6
quenching system.
The spring operating mechanism is the
same design as used with the Siemens
3AP breakers. This design has been in ser-
vice for years, and has a well documented 7
reliability record.
Customers can specify up to four (in some
cases, up to six) bushing-type current Type SPS-2/3AP1-DT
transformers (CT) per phase. These CTs,
mounted externally on the aluminum hous-
ings, can be removed without disturbing
Rated voltage [kV] 38 48.3 72.5 121 145 169 242 8
the bushings. Rated power-frequency [kV] 80 105 160 260 310 365 425
withstand voltage
Rated lighting impulse [kV] 200 250 350 550 650 750 900/1050
withstand voltage
9
Rated switching impulse [kV] – – – – – – –/850
withstand voltage
Rated nominal current up to [A] 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000 4000
Rated breaking current up to [kA] 40 40 40 63 63 63 63 10
Operating mechanism type Spring-stored-energy mechanism

Fig. 30

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/21
Dead-Tank Circuit-Breakers for 550 kV

Circuit-breaker Hydraulic drive For further information please contact:


Type 3AT2/3-DT The operating energy required for the Fax: ++ 49 - 3 03 86 - 2 58 67
1 3AT2/3-DT interrupters is provided by the
hydraulic drive, which is manufactured in-
Composite insulators house by Siemens. The functional principle
The 3AT2/3-DT is available with bushings of the hydraulic drive constitutes a techni-
made from composite insulators – cally clear solution which offers certain
2 this has many practical advantages. fundamental advantages.
The SIMOTEC® composite insulators man- Hydraulic drives provide high amounts of
ufactured by Siemens consist of a basic energy economically and reliably. In this
body made of epoxy resin reinforced glass way, even the most demanding switching
fibre tubes. The external tube surface is requirements can be mastered in short
opening times.
3 coated with vulcanized silicon. As is the
case with porcelain insulators, the external Siemens hydraulic drives are maintenance-
shape of the insulator has a multished free and have a particulary long operating
profile. Field grading is implemented by life. They meet the strictest criteria for
means of a specially shaped screening enviromental acceptability. In this respect,
electrode in the lower part of the compos- too, Siemens hydraulic drives have proven
4 ite insulator. themselves throughout years of operation.
The bushings and the metal tank of the
circuit-breaker surround a common gas
volume. The composite insulator used on
the bushing of the 3AT2/3-DT is a one- Technical data
5 piece insulating unit. Compared with con-
ventional housings, composite insulators
offer a wide range of advantages in terms
of economy, efficiency and safety.

6 Interrupter unit
The 3AT2/3-DT pole consists of two break-
ing units in series impressive in the sheer
simplicity of their design. The proven Siemens
contact system with double graphite noz-
zles assures faultless operation, consist-
7 ently high arc-quenching capacity and a
long operating life, even at high switching
frequencies. Thanks to constant further de-
velopment, optimization and consistent
quality assurance, Siemens arc-quencing
8 systems meet all the requirements placed
on modern high-voltage technology. Type 3AT 2/3-DT

Rated voltage [kV] 550


Rated power-frequency [kV] 860
9 withstand voltage
Rated lighting impulse [kV] 1800
withstand voltage
Rated switching impulse [kV] 1300
10 withstand voltage
Rated nominal current up to [A] 4000
Rated breaking current up to [kA] 50/63
Operating mechanism type Electrohydraulic mechanism

Fig. 31

2/22 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Dead-Tank Circuit-Breakers for 550 kV

Fig. 32: The 3AT2/3-DT circuit-breaker with SIMOTEC composite insulator bushings

10

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/23
Surge Arresters

Introduction Nonlinear resistors MO arresters are used in medium, high


and extra-high-voltage power systems.
Nonlinear resistors, comprising metal
1 oxide (MO), have proved especially suita-
Here, the very low protection level and the
The main task of an arrester is to protect high energy absorption capability provided
ble for this.
equipment from the effects of overvolt- during switching surges are especially im-
ages. During normal operation, it should The nonlinearity of MO resistors is consid- portant. For high voltage levels, the simple
have no negative effect on the power erably high. For this reason, MO arresters, construction of MO arresters is always an
system. Moreover, the arrester must be as the arresters with MO resistors are advantage.
2 able to withstand typical surges without known today, do not need series gaps.
Another very important advantage of MO
incurring any damage. Nonlinear resistors Siemens has many years of experience arresters is their high degree of reliability
with the following properties fulfill these with arresters – with the previous gapped when used in areas with a problematic
requirements: SiC-arresters and the new gapless MO ar- climate, for example in coastal and desert
■ Low resistance during surges so that resters – in low-voltage systems, distribu- areas, or regions affected by heavy indus-
3 overvoltages are limited tion systems and transmission systems. trial air pollution. Furthermore, some spe-
■ High resistance during normal operation, They are usually used for protecting trans- cial applications have become possible
so as to avoid negative effects on the formers, generators, motors, capacitors, only with the introduction of MO arresters.
power system and traction vehicles, cables and substations. One instance is the protection of capacitor
There are special applications such as the banks in series reactive-power compen-
■ Sufficient energy absorption capability
protection of sation equipment which requires extremly
for stable operation
4 With this kind of nonlinear resistor, there ■ Equipment in areas subject to high energy absorption capabilities.
is only a small flow of current when contin- earthquakes or heavy pollution
uous operating voltage is being applied. ■ Surge-sensitive motors and dry-type Arresters with polymer housings
When there are surges, however, excess transformers
energy can be quickly removed from the ■ Generators in power stations with Fig. 34 shows two Siemens MO arresters
5 power system by a high discharge current. arresters which posses a high degree with different types of housing. In addition
of short-circuit current strength to what has been usual up to now – the
porcelain housing – Siemens offers also
■ Gas-insulated high-voltage metal-
the latest generation of high-voltage surge
enclosed switchgear (GIS)
arresters with polymer housing.
■ Thyristors in HVDC transmission
6 installations
■ Static compensators
■ Airport lighting systems
■ Electric smelting furnaces in the glass
and metals industries
■ High-voltage cable sheaths
7
■ Test laboratory apparatus.

Arrester voltage referred Rated voltage ÛR


to continuous operating
Continuous operating
8 voltage Û/ÛC
voltage ÛC

2
9

10 1
20 °C
Fig. 34: Measurement of residual voltage on
115 °C porcelain-housed (foreground) and polymer-housed
(background) arresters
150 °C

0
10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 1 10 102 103 104
Current through arrester Ia [A]

Fig. 33: Current/voltage characteristics of a non-linear MO arrester

2/24 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Surge Arresters

Fig. 35 shows the sectional view of such The polymer-housed high-voltage arrest- be limited more effectively. Secondly, com-
an arrester. The housing consists of a fiber- er design chosen by Siemens and the high- pared with the outdoor type, inductance of
glass-reinforced plastic tube with insulating quality materials used by Siemens provide the installation is lower (both that of the 1
sheds made of silicon rubber. The advan- a whole series of advantages including connecting conductors and that of the ar-
tages of this design which has the same long life and suitability for outdoor use, rester itself). This means that the protec-
pressure relief device as an arrester with high mechanical stability and ease of dis- tion offered by GIS arresters is much better
porcelain housing are absolutely safe and posal. than by any other method, especially in the
reliable pressure relief characteristics, high Another important design shown in Fig. 36 case of surges with a very steep rate of
mechanical strength even after pressure are the gas-insulated metal-enclosed surge rise or high frequency, to which gas-insu- 2
relief and excellent pollution-resistant prop- arresters (GIS arresters) which have been lated switchgear is exceptionally sensitive.
erties. The very good mechanical features made by Siemens for more then 25 years. Please find an overview of the complete
mean that Siemens arresters with polymer There are two reasons why, when GIS ar- range of Siemens arresters in Figs. 37 and 38,
housing (type 3EQ/R) can serve as post resters are used with gas-insulated switch- pages 26 and 27.
insulators as well. The pollution-resistant gear, they usually offer a higher protective 3
properties are the result of the water-repel- safety margin than when outdoor-type ar-
lent effect (hydrophobicity) of the silicon resters are used (see also IEC 60099-5,
rubber, which even transfers its effects to For further information please contact:
1996-02, Section 4.3.2.2.): Firstly, they can
pollution. be installed closer to the item to be pro- Fax: ++ 49 - 3 03 86 -2 67 21
tected so that traveling wave effects can e-mail: arrester@siemens.de
4

SF6-SF6 bushing
(SF6 -Oil bushing on request) 5
Flange with gas diverter nozzle
Access cover with
Seal pressure relief
device and filter

Pressure relief diaphragm


6
Compressing spring
Spring contact

Metal oxide resistors Grading hood


7

Composite polymer housing Metal-oxide resistors


FRP tube/silicon sheds
Supporting rods 8
Enclosure

10

Fig. 36: Gas-insulated metal-enclosed arrester


(GIS arrester)

Fig. 35: Cross-section of a polymer-housed arrester

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/25
Low-Voltage and Medium-Voltage Arresters
and Limiters (230/400 V to 52 kV)

Type Low-voltage arresters Medium-voltage arresters


and limiters
1
3EA2 3EF1 3EC3 3EE2 3EH2 3EG5 3EK5 3EK7 3EQ1-B
3EF2
3EF3
3EF4
2 3EF5

Applications Low- Motors, DC sys- Gene- Distri- Distri- Distri- Distri- AC and DC
voltage dry-type tems (loco- rators, bution bution bution bution locomotives,
over- transformers, motives, motors, systems systems systems systems overhead
head airfield light- overhead melting metal- and and and contact lines
3 line sys- ing systems, contact furnaces, enclosed medium- medium- medium-
tems sheath voltage lines) 6-arrester gas-in- voltage voltage voltage
limiters, connec- sulated switch- switch- switch-
protection tions, switch- gear gear gear
of converters power gear
for drives plants with
4 plug-in
connec-
tion

Nom. syst. [kV] 1 10 3 30 45 30 60 30 25


5 voltage (max.)
Highest [kV] 12 4 36 52 36 72.5 36 30
voltage for
equipment (max.)
6 Maximum [kV] 1 15 4 45 52 45 75 45 37 (AC)
rated 4 (DC)
voltage
Nominal [kA] 5 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
discharge
7 current
Maximum [kJ/kV] – 3EF1/2 0.8 10 10 1.3 3 5 3 10
energy 3EF3 9
absorbing 3EF4 12.5
capability 3EF5 8
8 (at thermal
stability)
Maximum [A] 1 x 380 3EF4 1500 1200 1200 200 300 500 300 1200
long 20 x 250 3EF5 1200
duration
9 current
impulse,
2 ms
Maximum [kA] Line dis- 40 40 300 16 20 20 20 40
short- connec-
10 circuit tion
rating
Housing Polymer Polymer Porcelain Porcelain Metal Porcelain Porcelain Polymer Polymer
material

Fig. 37: Low and medium-voltage arresters

2/26 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
High-Voltage Arresters
(72.5 to 800 kV)

Type Metal-oxide surge arresters


3EP1 3EP4 3EP2 3EP3 3EQ1 3EQ4 3EQ3 3EP2-K 3EP2-K3 3EP3-K 1
3ER3
Applications Medium- Medium- High- High- Medium- High- High- High- High- High-
and and voltage voltage and voltage voltage voltage voltage voltage
high- high- systems, systems, high- systems, systems, systems, systems, systems,
voltage voltage outdoor outdoor voltage outdoor outdoor metal- metal- metal- 2
systems, systems, instal- instal- systems, instal- instal- enclosed enclosed enclosed
outdoor outdoor lations lations, outdoor lations lations, gas- gas- gas-
instal- instal- HVDC, instal- HVDC, insulated insulated insulated
lations lations SC & SVC lations SC & SVC switch- switch- switch-
appli- appli- gear gear gear
cations cations 3
Nom. syst. [kV] 60 150 500 765 275 500 765 150 150 500
voltage
(max.)
Highest [kV] 72.5 170 550 800 300 550 800 170 170 550 4
voltage for
equip. (max.)
Maximum [kV] 84 147 468 612 240 468 612 180 180 444
rated
voltage 5
Nominal [kA] 10 10 10/20 10/20 10 10/20 20 10/20 10/20 20
discharge
current
Maximum 2 3 5 5 3 5 5 4 4 5 6
line
discharge
class
Maximum [kJ/kV] 5 8 12.5 20 8 12.5 20 10 10 12.5
energy 7
absorbing
capability
(at thermal
stability)
Maximum [A] 500 850 1500 3900 850 1500 3900 1200 1200 1500 8
long
duration
current
impulse,
2 ms
Maximum [kA] 40 65 65 100 50 65 80 – – –
9
short-
circuit
rating
Minimum [kNm]2) 2.12) 4.52) 12.52) 342)
breaking
10
moment
Maximum [MPSL] 63) 213) 723) – – –
permissible
service
load
Housing Porcelain Porcelain Porcelain Porcelain Polymer1) Polymer1) Polymer1) Metal Metal Metal
material
1) Silicon rubber sheds 2) Acc. to DIN 48113 3) Acc. to IEC TC 37 WG5 03.99; > 50% of this value are maintained after pressure relief

Fig. 38: High-voltage arresters

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/27
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

Introduction Protection of the environment Each circuit-breaker bay includes the full
complement of disconnecting and ground-
1 The necessity to protect the environment ing switches (regular or make-proof),
Common characteristic features of often makes it difficult to erect outdoor instrument transformers, control and pro-
switchgear installation switchgear of conventional design, where- tection equipment, interlocking and moni-
as buildings containing compact SF6-insu- toring facilities commonly used for this
Because of its small size and outstanding lated switchgear can almost always be
compatibility with the environment, SF6 - type of installation (Fig. 39).
designed so that they blend well with the
2 insulated switchgear (GIS) is gaining con- surroundings. Beside the conventional circuit-breaker
stantly on other types. Siemens has been bay, other arrangements can be supplied
a leader in this sector from the very start. SF6-insulated metal-enclosed switchgear such as single-bus, ring cable with load-break
is, due to the modular system, very flexible switches and circuit-breakers, single-bus
The concept of SF6 - insulated metal-en- and can meet all requirements of configu-
closed high-voltage switchgear has proved arrangement with bypass-bus, coupler and
ration given by network design and operat- bay for triplicate bus. Combined circuit-
itself in more than 70,000 bay operating ing conditions.
3 years in over 6,000 installations in all parts breaker and load-break switch feeder, ring
of the world. It offers the following out- cable with load-break switches, etc. are
standing advantages. furthermore available for the 145 kV level.

Minimal space requirements


4 The availability and price of land play an
important part in selecting the type of
switchgear to be used. Siting problems
arise in
■ Large towns
5 ■ Industrial conurbations
■ Mountainous regions with narrow
valleys
■ Underground power stations
In cases such as these, SF6-insulated
switchgear is replacing conventional
6 switchgear because of its very small space
requirements.

Full protection
against contact with live parts
7 The all-round metal enclosure affords
maximum safety for personnel under
all operating and fault conditions.

Protection against pollution

8 Its metal enclosure fully protects the


switchgear interior against environmental
effects such as salt deposits in coastal
regions, industrial vapors and precipitates,
as well as sandstorms. The compact
switchgear can be installed in buildings
9 of uncomplicated design in order to mini-
mize the cost of cleaning and inspection
and to make necessary repairs independ-
ent of weather conditions.

Free choice of installation site


10 The small site area required for SF6-insu-
lated switchgear saves expensive grading
and foundation work, e.g. in permafrost
zones. Other advantages are the short
erection times and the fact that switchgear
installed indoors can be serviced regard-
less of the climate or the weather.

Fig. 39: Typical circuit arrangements of SF6-switchgear

2/28 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

Main product range of GIS This objective is attained only by incorpo- Minimal-weight construction
rating all processes in the quality manage- through the use of aluminum alloy and the
for substations ment system, which has been introduced 1
exploitation of innovations in development
and certified according to DIN EN ISO such as computer-aided design tools.
SF6 switchgear up to 550 kV 9001 (EN 29001).
(the total product range covers GIS from Siemens GIS switchgear meets all Safe encapsulation
66 up to 800 kV rated voltage): Fig. 40. the performance, quality and reliability means an outstanding level of safety
The development of the switchgear is demands such as: based on new manufacturing methods 2
always based on an overall production con- and optimized shape of enclosures.
Compact space-saving design
cept, which assures the achievement of Environmental compatibility
the high technical standards required means uncomplicated foundations, a wide
of the HV switchgear whilst providing the range of options in the utilization of space, means no restrictions on choice of location
maximum customer benefit. less space taken up by the switchgear. through minimal space requirement, ex-
tremely low noise emission and effective 3
gas sealing system (leakage < 1% per year
per gas compartment).
Economical transport
5170 means simplified and fast transport and
reduced costs because of maximum possi-
4
ble size of shipping units.
3470

4480
2850

Minimal operating costs


means the switchgear is practically mainte-
nance-free, e.g. contacts of circuit-breakers 5
3500 4740 500 and disconnectors designed for extremely
long endurance, motor-operated mecha-
nisms self-lubricating for life, corrosion-free
Switchgear type 8DN8 8DN9 8DQ1 enclosure. This ensures that the first in-
spection will not be necessary until after
25 years of operation. 6
Details on page 2/30 2/31 2/32
Reliability
Rated voltage [kV] up to 145 up to 245 up to 550 means our overall product concept which
Rated power- [kV] up to 275 up to 460 up to 740 includes, but is not limited to, the use of
finite elements method (FEM), three-
frequency
dimensional design programs, stereolitho-
7
withstand voltage
graphy, and electrical field development
Rated lightning [kV] up to 650 up to 1050 up to 1800 programs assuring the high standard of
impulse withstand quality.
voltage
Smooth and efficient
Rated switching [kV] – up to 850 up to 1250 installation and commissioning
8
impulse withstand
voltage transport units are fully assembled and
tested at the factory and filled with SF6 gas
Rated (normal) current [A] up to 3150 up to 3150 up to 6300 at reduced pressure. Plug connection of all
busbar switches, all of which are motorized, fur-
Rated (normal) current [A] up to 2500 up to 3150 up to 4000 ther improves the speediness of site instal- 9
feeder lation and substantially reduces field wiring
errors.
Rated breaking [kA] up to 40 up to 50 up to 63
current Routine tests
Rated short-time [kA] up to 40 up to 50 up to 63 All measurements are automatically docu-
withstand current mented and stored in the EDP information
10
system, which enables quick access to
Rated peak [kA] up to 108 up to 135 up to 170 measured data even if years have passed.
withstand current
Inspection [Years] > 25 > 25 > 25
For further information please contact:
Bay width [mm] 800 1200/1500 3600
Fax: ++ 49- 9131-7-34498
All dimensions in mm e-mail: evhgis@erls04.siemens.de
Fig. 40: Main product range

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/29
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

SF6-insulated switchgear
up to 145 kV, type 8DN8 1 7 2 8 6
1 Gas-tight bushing
Gas-permeable bushing
Three-phase enclosures are used for type
8DN8 switchgear in order to achieve ex-
tremely low component dimensions. The
2 low bay weight ensures minimal floorload-
ing and eliminates the need for complex
foundations. Its compact dimensions and
low weight enable it to be installed almost 10
anywhere. This means that capital costs can
be reduced by using smaller buildings, or
3 by making use of existing ones, for instance
when medium voltage switchgear
is replaced by 145 kV GIS. 5
The bay ist based on a circuit-breaker
mounted on a supporting frame (Fig. 41). 4
A special multifunctional cross-coupling
4 module combines the functions of the dis-
connector and earthing switch in a three-
position switching device. It can be used as
■ an active busbar with integrated discon-
nector and work-in-progress earthing 9
5 switch (Fig. 41/Pos. 3 and 4),
3
■ outgoing feeder module with integrated
disconnector and work-in-progress earth-
ing switch (Fig. 41/Pos. 5),
■ busbar sectionalizer with busbar earthing.
6 For cable termination, a cable termination
module can be equipped with either con-
ventional sealing ends or the latest plug-in
connectors (Fig. 41/Pos. 9). Flexible single-
pole modules are used to connect overhead 1 Interrupter unit of the 5 Outgoing feeder module
lines and transformers by using a splitting circuit-breaker with disconnector and
7 module which links the 3-phase encapsulated 2 Spring-stored energy earthing switch
3 4
switchgear to the single pole connections. mechanism with circuit-breaker 6 Make-proof earthing switch
Thanks to the compact design, up to three control unit (high-speed) 1
completely assembled and works-tested 3 Busbar I with disconnector 7 Current transformer 7
bays can be shipped as one transport unit. and earthing system 5
8 Voltage transformer
Fast erection and commissioning on site 4 Busbar II with disconnector 8
8 ensure the highest possible quality.
9 Cable sealing end 6
and earthing system
10 Integrated local control cubicle 9
The feeder control and protection can be
located in a bay-integrated local control Fig. 41: Switchgear bay 8DN8 up to 145 kV
cubicle, mounted in the front of each bay
(Fig. 42). It goes without saying that we
9 supply our gas-insulated switchgear with all
types of currently available bay control sys-
tems – ranging from contactor circuit con-
trols to digital processor bus-capable bay
control systems, for example the modern
10 SICAM HV system based on serial bus
communication. This system offers
■ Online diagnosis and trend analysis ena-
bling early warning, fault recognition and
condition monitoring.
■ Individual parameterization, ensuring the
best possible incorporation of customized
control facilities.
■ Use of modern current and voltage sensors.
This results in a longer service life and lower
operating costs, in turn attaining a consider-
able reduction in life cycle costs.
Fig. 42: 8DN8 switchgear for rated voltage 145 kV Fig. 43

2/30 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

SF6-insulated switchgear
Gas-tight bushing 7 3 10 9 12
up to 245 kV, type 8DN9 1
Gas-permeable bushing
The clear bay configuration of the light-
weight and compact 8DN9 switchgear is 14 4 6 5
evident at first sight. Control and monitoring
facilities are easily accessible in spite of 2
the compact design of the switchgear.
The horizontally arranged circuit-breaker
forms the basis of every bay configuration.
The operating mechanism is easily acces-
sible from the operator area. The other bay
modules – of single-phase encapsulated
3
design like the circuit-breaker module – are
located on top of the circuit-breaker. The
three-phase encapsulated passive busbar
is partitioned off from the active equipment.
Thanks to “single-function” assemblies 4
(assignment of just one task to each module)
and the versatile modular structure, even
unconventional arrangements can be set
up out of a pool of only 20 different modules.
The modules are connected to each other 5
by a standard interface which allows an
extensive range of bay structures. The
switchgear design with standardized mod-
ules and the scope of services mean that
all kinds of bay structures can be set up in 2 1 11 8 13
a minimal area. 6
The compact design permits the supply of 1 Circuit-breaker interrupter unit 8 Earthing switch
double bays fully assembled, tested in the 2 Spring-stored energy (work-in-progress)
factory and filled with SF6 gas at reduced mechanism with circuit-breaker 9 Outgoing-disconnector
pressure, which assures smooth and effi- 3 5
control unit 10 Make-proof earthing switch
cient installation and commissioning. 3 Busbar disconnector I (high-speed) 7 7
The following major feeder control level 4 Busbar I 11 Current transformer
functions are performed in the local control 1
5 Busbar disconnector II 12 Voltage transformer 11
cubicle for each bay, which is integrated in 8
the operating front of the 8DN9 switch-
6 Busbar II 13 Cable sealing end
7 Earthing switch 14 Integrated local control cubicle 9 12
gear:
(work-in-progress) 10 8
■ Fully interlocked local operation and 13
state-indication of all switching devices
managed reliably by the Siemens digital
switchgear interlock system Fig. 44: Switchgear bay 8DN9 up to 245 kV
■ Practical dialog between the digital feed-
er protection system and central proces- 9
sor of the feeder control system
■ Visual display of all signals required for
operation and monitoring, together with
measured values for current, voltage and
power 10
■ Protection of all auxiliary current and
voltage transformer circuits
■ Transmission of all feeder information to
the substation control and protection
system
Factory assembly and tests are significant
parts of the overall production concept
mentioned above. Two bays at a time un-
dergo mechanical and electrical testing
Fig. 45: 8DN9 switchgear for
with the aid of computer-controlled stands. rated voltage 245 kV

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/31
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

SF6-insulated switchgear
1 up to 550 kV, type 8DQ1 12 11 10 9 8 7 1 6

The GIS type 8DQ1 is a modular switch-


gear system for high power switching sta-
tions with individual enclosure of all mod- 4
2 ules for the three-phase system.
The base unit for the switchgear forms a
horizontally arranged circuit-breaker on top 5
of which are mounted the housings con-
taining disconnectors, grounding switches, 3
current transformers, etc. The busbar mod-
3 2
ules are also single-phase encapsulated
and partitioned off from the active equip-
ment.
As a matter of course the busbar modules
of this switchgear system are passive
elements, too.
4
Additional main characteristic features of
the switchgear installation are:
13 14 15 16 17 18
■ Circuit-breakers with two interrupter
units up to operating voltages of 550 kV 3
and breaking currents of 63 kA (from 1 Circuit-breaker 10 Grounding switch
5 63 kA to 100 kA, circuit-breakers with 2 Busbar disconnector I 11 Current transformer
5

four interrupter units have to be con- 3 Busbar I 12 Cable sealing end 2 4


sidered) 4 Busbar disconnector II 13 Local control cubicle 6
■ Low switchgear center of gravity by 14
5 Busbar II Gas monitoring unit 1
means of circuit-breaker arranged hori- (as part of control unit)
6 Grounding switch 11
6 zontally in the lower portion
7 Voltage transformer 15 Circuit-breaker control unit 10
■ Utilization of the circuit-breaker trans- 16 Electrohydraulic operating unit
port frame as supporting device for the
8 Make-proof grounding 9
7
switch 17 Oil tank 8
entire bay
9 Cable disconnector 18 Hydraulic storage cylinder 12
■ The use of only a few modules and
combinations of equipment in one enclo-
7 sure reduces the length of sealing faces Fig. 46: Switchgear bay 8DQ1 up to 550 kV
and consequently lowers the risk of
leakage

10

Fig. 47: 8DQ1 switchgear for rated voltage 420 kV

2/32 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

Some examples for special 1 Cable termination 7 Current transformer


arrangement 2 Make-proof earthing 8 Outgoing 1
switch disconnector 1
3 Outgoing 9 Make-proof earthing
Gas-insulated switchgear – usually accom-
disconnector switch
modated in buildings (as shown in a tower- 2
type substation) – is expedient whenever 4 Earthing switch 10 Voltage transformer
5 Circuit breaker 11 Outdoor termination 3
the floor area is very expensive or restrict-
6 Earthing switch
2
ed or whenever ambient conditions neces-
sitate their use (Fig. 50, page 2/34).
4
For smaller switching stations, or in cases
of expansion when there is no advantage 5
in constructing a building, a favorable
solution is to install the substation in a 6 3
container (Fig. 49). 7

8
Mobile containerized switchgear –
even for high voltage 9
4
At medium-voltage levels, mobile contain-
erized switchgear is the state of the art.
10
But even high-voltage switching stations
can be built in this way and economically
operated in many applications. 11

The heart is the metal-enclosed SF6-in- 5


sulated switchgear, installed either in a
Fig. 48: Containerized 8DN9 switchgear with stub feed in this example
sheet-steel container or in a block house
made of prefabricated concrete elements.
In contrast to conventional stationary sively independent operation of the instal- GIS up to 245 kV in a standard container
switchgear, there is no need for complicat- lation on site. Containerized switchgear is
The dimensions of the 8DN9 switchgear
6
ed constructions; mobile switching sta- preassembled in the factory and ready for
tions have their own ”building“. made it possible to accommodate all active
operation. On site, it is merely necessary
components of the switchgear (circuit-
to set up the containers, fit the exterior
breaker, disconnector, grounding switch)
system parts and make the external con-
and the local control cabinet in a standard
nections. Shifting the switchgear assembly
work to the factory enhances the quality
container. 7
and operational reliability. Mobile container- The floor area of 20 ft x 8 ft complies
ized switchgear requires little space and with the ISO 668 standard. Although the
usually fits in well with the environment. container is higher than the standard
Rapid availability and short commissioning dimension of 8 ft, this will not cause any
times are additional, significant advantages problems during transportation as proven
for the operators. Considerable cost re- by previously supplied equipment. 8
ductions are achieved in the planning, con- German Lloyd, an approval authority, has
struction work and assembly. already issued a test certificate for an even
Building authority approvals are either not higher container construction.
required or only in a simple form. The in- The standard dimensions and ISO corner
stallation can be operated at various loca- fittings will facilitate handling during trans- 9
tions in succession, and adaptation to local port in the 20 ft frame of a container ship
circumstances is not a problem. These are and on a low-loader truck.
Fig. 49: 8DN9 switchgear bay in a container the possible applications for containerized
Operating staff can enter the container
stations:
through two access doors.
■ Intermediate solutions for the 10
modernization of switching stations Rent a GIS
Mobile containerized switching stations ■ Low-cost transitional solutions when Containerized gas-insulated high voltage
can be of single or multi-bay design using tedious formalities are involved in the substations for hire are now available. In
a large number of different circuits and new construction of transformer sub- this way, we can step into every breach,
arrangements. All the usual connection stations, such as in the procurement of instantly and in a remarkably cost-effective
components can be employed, such as land or establishing cable routes manner.
outdoor bushings, cable adapter boxes and ■ Quick erection as an emergency station Whether for a few weeks, months or even
SF6 tubular connections. If necessary, all in the event of malfunctions in existing 2 to 3 years, a fair rent makes our Instant
the equipment for control and protection switchgear Power Service unbeatably economical.
and for the local supply can be accommo- ■ Switching stations for movable, geo-
dated in the container. This allows exten- thermal power plants

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/33
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

All dimensions in m Air con- Specification guide for


1 ditioning metal-enclosed SF6-insulated
system
switchgear
26.90
The points below are not considered to
be comprehensive, but are a selection of
2 Relay room the important ones.

General
These specifications cover the technical
23.20 data applicable to metal-enclosed SF6 gas-
3 insulated switchgear for switching and
distribution of power in cable and/or over-
head line systems and at transformers.
Key technical data are contained in the
data sheet and the single-line diagram
attached to the inquiry.
4 A general “Single-line diagram” and a
Gas-insulated sketch showing the general arrangement
switchgear type of the substation and the transmission line
Grounding
8DN9 exist and shall form part of a proposal.
resistor
The switchgear quoted shall be complete
5 to form a functional, safe and reliable sys-
tem after installation, even if certain parts
15.95 required to this end are not specifically
called for.
13.8 kV
switchgear Applicable standards
6
Shunt All equipment shall be designed, built,
reactor tested and installed to the latest revisions
of the applicable IEC 60 standards (IEC
Publ. 60517 “High-voltage metal-enclosed
11.50 switchgear for rated voltages of 72.5 kV
7 and above”, IEC Publ. 60129 “Alternating
current disconnectors (isolators) and
grounding switches”, IEC Publ. 60056
Cable duct “High-voltage alternating-current circuit-
8.90 breakers”), and IEC Publ. 60044 for instru-
8 ment transformers.

Compensator Local conditions


The equipment described herein will be
installed indoors. Suitable lightweight,
prefabricated buildings shall be quoted if
9 Radiators available from the supplier.
Only a flat concrete floor will be provided
by the buyer with possible cutouts in case
40 MVA transformer of cable installation. The switchgear shall
be equipped with adjustable supports
10 (feet). If steel support structures are re-
2.20 quired for the switchgear, these shall be
provided by the supplier.
For design purposes indoor temperatures
of – 5 °C to +40 °C and outdoor temper-
atures of – 25 °C to +40 °C shall be consid-
ered.
For parts to be installed outdoors (over-
–1.50
head line connections) the applicable con-
ditions in IEC Publication 60517 shall also
Fig. 50: Special arrangement for limited space. Sectional view of a building showing the compact nature of
be observed.
gas-insulated substations

2/34 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

Work, material and design Each gas-filled compartment shall be The circuit breaker shall be designed to
equipped with static filters of a capacity withstand at least 18–20 operations
Aluminium or aluminium alloys shall be
used preferabely for the enclosures.
to absorb any water vapor penetrating into (depending on the voltage level) at full 1
the switchgear installation over a period short-circuit rating without the necessity
Maximum reliability through minimum of at least 25 years. to open the circuit-breaker for service or
amount of erection work on site is re- maintenance.
Long intervals between the necessary in-
quired. Subassemblies must be erected
spections shall keep the maintenance cost The maximum tolerance for phase dis-
and tested in the factory to the maximum
to a minimum. A minor inspection shall agreement shall be 3 ms, i.e. until the last 2
extent. The size of the subassemblies shall
only become necessary after ten years and pole has been closed or opened respec-
be limited only by the transport conditions.
a major inspection preferably after a period tively after the first.
The material and thickness of the enclo- exceeding 25 years of operation, unless A standard station battery required for
sure shall be selected to withstand an in- the permissible number of operations is control and tripping may also be used for
ternal arc and to prevent a burn-through or met at an earlier date. recharging the operating mechanism.
puncturing of the housing within the first
The energy storage system (hydraulic or
3
stage of protection, referred to a short-
circuit current of 40 kA. Arrangement and modules spring operating system) will hold suf-
Arrangement ficient energy for all standard IEC close-
Normally exterior surfaces of the switch-
open duty cycles.
gear shall not require painting. If done for The arrangement shall be single-phase or The control system shall provide alarm
aesthetic reasons, surfaces shall be appro- three-phase enclosed.
priately prepared before painting, i.e. all signals and internal interlocks, but inhibit 4
The assembly shall consist of completely tripping or closing of the circuit-breaker
enclosures are free of grease and blasted.
separate pressurized sections designed when there is insufficient energy capacity
Thereafter the housings shall be painted
to minimize the risk of damage to person- in the energy storage system, or the
with no particular thickness required but
nel or adjacent sections in the event of a SF6 density within the circuit-breaker has
to visually cover the surface for decorative
failure occurring within the equipment. dropped below a minimum permissible
reasons only. The interior color shall be
Rupture diaphragms shall be provided to level. 5
light (white or light grey).
prevent the enclosures from uncontrolled
All joints shall be machined and all cast- Disconnectors
bursting and suitable deflectors provide
ings spotfaced for bolt heads, nuts and protection for the operating personnel. All isolating switches shall be of the single-
washers. In order to achieve maximum operating break type. DC motor operation (110, 125,
Assemblies shall have reliable provisions reliability, no internal relief devices may 220 or 250 V), completely suitable for re-
to absorb thermal expansion and contrac- be installed because adjacent compart- mote operation, and a manual emergency 6
tions created by temperature cycling. For ments would be affected. drive mechanism is required.
this purpose metal bellows-type compen- Modular design, complete segregation, Each motor-drive shall be self-contained
sators shall be installed. They must be arc-proof bushings and “plug-in” connec- and equipped with auxiliary switches in
provided with adjustable tensioners. tion pieces shall allow ready removal of addition to the mechanical indicators.
All solid post insulators shall be provided any section and replacement with mini- Life lubrication of the bearings is required. 7
with ribs (skirts). mum disturbance of the remaining pres-
surized switchgear. Grounding switches
For supervision of the gas within the en- Work-in-progress grounding switches shall
closures, density monitors with electrical Busbars generally be provided on either side of the
contacts for at least two pressure levels All busbars shall be three-phase or single- circuit-breaker. Additional grounding switch-
shall be installed. The circuit-breakers, phase enclosed and be plug-connected es may be used for the grounding of bus 8
however, might be monitored by density from bay to bay. sections or other groups of the assembly.
gauges fitted in circuit-breaker control
Circuit-breakers DC motor operation (110, 125, 220 or
units.
The circuit-breaker shall be of the single 250 V), completely suitable for remote
The manufacturer assures that the pres- operation, and a manual emergency drive
sure loss within each individual gas com- pressure (puffer) type with one interrupter
partment – and not referred to the per phase*. Heaters for the SF6 gas are mechanism is required. 9
not permitted. Each motor drive shall be self-contained
total switchgear installation only – will be
The arc chambers and contacts of the and equipped with auxiliary position
not more than 1% per year per gas com-
circuit-breaker shall be freely accessible. switches in addition to the mechanical in-
partment.
The circuit-breaker shall be designed to dicators. Life lubrication of the bearings
is required.
minimize switching overvoltages and also 10
to be suitable for out-of-phase switching.
The specified arc interruption performance
must be consistent over the entire operat-
ing range, from line-charging currents to
full short-circuit currents.

* two interrupters for voltages exceeding 245 kV

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/35
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

Make-proof high-speed grounding switches


shall generally be installed at cable and
1 overhead-line terminals. DC motor opera-
tion (110, 125, 220 or 250 V), completely
suitable for remote operation, and a manu-
al emergency drive mechanism is required.
Each motor drive shall be self-contained
2 and equipped with auxiliary position
switches in addition to the mechanical in-
dicators. Life lubrication of the bearings
is required.
These switches shall be equipped with
a rapid closing mechanism to provide fault-
3 making capability.
Instrument transformers
Current transformers (CTs) shall be of the
dry-type design not using epoxy resin as
insulation material. Cores shall be provided
4 with the accuracies and burdens as shown
on the SLD. Voltage transformers shall be
of the inductive type, with ratings up to Fig. 52: Cable termination module –
200 VA. They shall be foil-gas-insulated. Cable termination modules conforming to IEC are Fig. 54: Transformer/reactor termination module –
available for connecting the switchgear to high-volt- These termination modules form the direct connec-
Cable terminations age cables. The standardized construction of these tion between the GIS and oil-insulated transformers
5 Single or three-phase, SF6 gas-insulated,
modules allows connection of various cross-sections or reactance coils. They can be matched economi-
and insulation types. Parallel cable connections for cally to various transformer dimensions by way of
metal-enclosed cable-end housings shall higher rated currents are also possible using the standardized modules.
be provided. The stress cone and suitable same module.
sealings to prevent oil or gas from leaking
into the SF6 switchgear are part of the
6 cable manufacturer’s supply. A mating con- Overhead line terminations
nection piece, which has to be fitted to the Terminations for the connection of over-
cable end, shall be made available by the head lines shall be supplied complete
switchgear supplier. with SF6-to-air bushings, but without line
The cable end housing shall be suitable clamps.
7 for oil-type, gas-pressure-type and plastic-
insulated (PE, PVC, etc.) cables as speci-
fied on the SLD, or the data sheets.
Facilities to safely isolate a feeder cable
and to connect a high-voltage test cable
to the switchgear or the cable shall be
8 provided.

9 Fig. 55: Transformer termination modules

Control
An electromechanical or solid-state inter-
locking control board shall be supplied as a
10 standard for each switchgear bay. This fail-
safe interlock system will positively pre-
vent maloperations. Mimic diagrams and
position indicators shall give clear demon-
stration of the operation to the operating
Fig. 53: Outdoor termination module – personnel.
High-voltage bushings are used for transition from Provisions for remote control shall be
SF6-to-air as insulating medium. The bushings can be supplied.
matched to the particular requirements with regard
to arcing and creepage distances. The connection
Fig. 51: Three phase cable termination module. with the switchgear is made by means of variable-
Example for plug-in type cables. design angular-type modules.

2/36 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Gas-Insulated Switchgear for Substations

Tests required Power frequency tests Scope of supply


Partial discharge tests Each assembly shall be subjected to pow-
er-frequency withstand tests to verify the 1
All solid insulators fitted into the switch- For all types of GIS Siemens supplies
correct installation of the conductors and
gear shall be subjected to a routine partial the following items and observes these
also the fact that the insulator surfaces are
discharge test prior to being installed. interface points:
clean and the switchgear as a whole is not
No measurable partial discharge is allowed polluted inside. ■ Switchgear bay with circuit-breaker inter-
at 1.1 line-to-line voltage (approx. twice rupters, disconnectors and grounding
the phase-to-ground voltage). This test en- switches, instrument transformers, and 2
Additional technical data
sures maximum safety against insulator busbar housings as specified. For the
failure, good long-term performance and The supplier shall point out all dimensions, different feeder types, the following lim-
thus a very high degree of reliability. weights and other applicable data of the its apply:
switchgear that may affect the local con- – Overhead line feeder:
Pressure tests ditions and handling of the equipment. the connecting stud at the SF6-to-air 3
Each cast aluminium enclosure of the Drawings showing the assembly of the bushing without the line clamp.
switchgear shall be pressure-tested to at switchgear shall be part of the quotation. – Cable feeder:
least double the service pressure. according to IEC 60859 the termina-
Leakage tests Instructions tion housing, conductor coupling, and
connecting plate are part of the GIS
Leakage tests performed on the subassem- Detailed instruction manuals about instal- delivery, while the cable stress cone 4
blies shall ensure that the flanges and cover lation, operation and maintenance of the with matching flange is part of the ca-
faces are clean, and that the guaranteed equipment shall be supplied by the con- ble supply (see Fig. 52 on page 2/36).
leakage rate will not be exceeded. tractor in case of an order. – Transformer feeder:
connecting flange at switchgear bay
and connecting bus ducts to trans- 5
former including any expansion joint
are delivered by Siemens. The SF6-
to-oil bushings plus terminal enclo-
sures are part of the transformer
delivery, unless agreed otherwise
(see Fig. 54 on page 2/36)*. 6
■ Each feeder bay is equipped with
grounding pads. The local grounding
network and the connections to the
switchgear are in the delivery scope
of the installation contractor. 7
■ Initial SF6-gas filling for the entire
switchgear as supplied by Siemens is
included. All gas interconnections from
the switchgear bay to the integral gas
service and monitoring panel are sup-
plied by Siemens as well. 8
■ Hydraulic oil for all circuit-breaker operat-
ing mechanisms is supplied with the
equipment.
■ Terminals and circuit protection for aux-
iliary drive and control power are pro- 9
vided with the equipment. Feeder cir-
cuits and cables, and installation material
for them are part of the installation con-
tractor’s supply.
■ Local control, monitoring, and interlock-
ing panels are supplied for each circuit- 10
breaker bay to form completely oper-
ational systems. Terminals for remote
monitoring and control are provided.
■ Mechanical support structures above
ground are supplied by Siemens; em-
bedded steel and foundation work is
part of the installation contractor’s scope.

* Note: this interface point should always be closely


Fig. 56: The modular system of the 8DQ1 switchgear enables all conceivable customer requirements to be met coordinated between switchgear manufacturer and
with just a small number of components transformer supplier.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/37
Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines (GIL)

Introduction The gas-insulated transmission line tech-


nique is a highly reliable system in terms
1 of mechanical and electrical failures. Once
For high-power transmission systems a system is commissioned and in service,
where overhead lines are not suitable, it runs reliably without any dielectrical or
alternatives are gas-insulated transmission mechanical failures as experience over the
lines (GIL). course of 20 years shows. For example,
The GIL exhibits the following differences one particular Siemens GIL will not under-
2 in comparison with cables: go its scheduled inspection after 20 years
of service, as there has been no indication
■ High power ratings
of any weak point.
(transmission capacity up to 3000 MVA
Fig. 57 shows the arrangement of six
per System)
phases in a tunnel.
■ High overload capability
3 ■ Suitable for long distances
(100 km and more without compensa- Basic design
tion of reactive power) In order to meet mechanical stability crite-
■ High short-circuit withstand capability ria, gas-insulated lines need minimum Fig. 57: GIL arrangement in the tunnel of the Wehr
(including internal arc faults) cross-sections of enclosure and conductor. pumped storage station
4 ■ Possibility of direct connection to gas- With these minimum cross-sections, high (4000 m length, in service since 1975)
insulated switchgear (GIS) and gas-insu- power transmission ratings are given.
lated arresters without cable entrance Due to the gas as insulating medium, low
fitting capacitive loads are given so that compen-
■ Multiple earthing points possible sation of reactive power is not needed,
even for long distances of 100 km and
5 ■ Non-flammable, no fire risk in case of
more.
failures
The innovations in the latest Siemens GIL
development are the considerable reduc-
tion of costs and the introduction of buried
laying technique for GIL for long-distance
6 power transmission.
SF6 has been replaced by a gas mixture
of SF6 and N2 as insulating medium.

Siemens experience
7
Back in the 1960s with the introduction of
sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as an insulating
and switching gas, the basis was found for
the development of gas-insulated switch-
gear (GIS).
8 On the basis of GIS experience, Siemens
developed SF6 gas-insulated lines to trans-
mit electrical energy too. In the early 1970s
initial projects were planned and imple-
mented. Such gas-insulated lines were Fig. 58: Long-term test set-up at the IPH, Berlin
9 usually used within substations as busbars
Reduction of SF6 content
or bus ducts to connect gas-insulated The characteristics of N2/SF6 gas mixtures
switchgear with overhead lines, the aim Several tests have been carried out in show that with an SF6 content of only
being to reduce clearances in comparison Siemens facilities as well as in other test 15–25% and a slightly higher pressure,
to air-insulated overhead lines. laboratories world-wide since many years. the insulating capability of pure SF6 can be
Implemented projects include GIL laying in attained. Besides, the arcing behavior is
Results of these investigations show that
10 tunnels, in sloping galleries, in vertical
the bulk of the insulating gas for industrial improved through this mixture. Tests have
shafts and in open air installation. proven that there would be no external
projects involving a considerable amount
Flanging as well as welding has been ap- damage or fire caused by an internal fail-
of gas should be nitrogen, a nontoxic nat-
plied as jointing technique. ure.
ural gas.
However, another insulating gas should be The technical data of the GIL are shown in
added to nitrogen in order to improve the Fig. 59.
insulating capability and to minimize size
and pressure. A N2/SF6 gas mixture with
high nitrogen content (and sulphur hexa-
fluoride portion as low as possible) was
finally chosen as insulating medium.

2/38 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Gas-Insulated Transmission Lines (GIL)

Technical data
1
Rated voltage up to 550 kV
Rated current lr 2000 – 4600 A
Transmission 1500 – 3000 MVA
capacity 2
Capacitance ≈ 60 nF/km
Typical length 1–100 km
Gas mixture SF6/N2 10%/90%
ranging from up to 35%/65% 3

D
Laying directly buried Fig. 60: GIL laying technique

in tunnels/ clean assembly and productivity is enhan- dures for power cables. The test proce-
sloping galleries/ ced by a high level of automation of the dure consisted of load cycles with doubled
voltage and increased current as well as
vertical shafts overall process.
frequently repeated high-voltage tests.
4
open air Anti-corrosion protection The assembly and repair procedures under
installation Directly buried gas-insulated transmission realistic site conditions were examined
lines will be safeguarded by a passive and too. The Siemens GIL is the first one in
Fig. 59: GIL technical data active corrosion protection system. The the world that has passed these tests,
passive corrosion protection system com- without any objection. Fig. 58 shows the 5
Jointing technique prises a PE or PP coating and assures at test setup arranged in a tunnel of 3 m di-
In order to improve the gas-tightness least 40 years of protection. The active cor- ameter, corresponding to the tunnel used
and to facilitate laying, flanges have been rosion protection system provides protec- in Berlin for installing a 420 kV transmis-
avoided as jointing technique. Instead, tion potential in relation to the aluminum sion link through the city.
welding has been chosen to join the vari- sheath. An important requirement taken
ous GIL construction units. into account is the situation of an earth
References 6
fault with a high current of up to 63 kA to Siemens has gathered experience with
The welding process is highly automated,
earth. gas-insulated transmission lines at rated
with the use of an orbital welding machine voltages of up to 550 kV and with system
to ensure high quality of the joints. This Testing lengths totalling more than 30 km.
orbital welding machine contributes to high
The GIL is already tested according to The first GIL stretch built by Siemens was 7
productivity in the welding process and
the report IEC 61640 (1998) “Rigid high- the connection of the turbine generator/
therefore speeds up laying. The reliability
voltage, gas-insulated transmission lines pumping motor of a pumped storage
of the welding process is controlled by an
for voltages of 72.5 kV and above.” station with the switchyard. The 420 kV
integrated computerized quality GIL is laid in a tunnel through a mountain
assurance system. Long-term performances and has a length of 4000 m (Fig. 57). This
Laying Besides nearly 25 years of field experience connection was commissioned in 1975 at 8
with GIL installations world wide, the long- the Wehr pumped storage station in the
The most recently developed Siemens term performance of the GIL for long-dis- Black Forest in Southern Germany.
GILs are scheduled for directly buried tance installations has been proven by the
laying. For further information please contact:
independent test laboratory IPH, Berlin,
The laying technique must be as compat- Fax: ++ 49-9131-7-3 44 98
ible as possible with the landscape and
Germany and the Berlin power utility 9
BEWAG according to long-term test proce- e-mail: evhgis@erls04.siemens.de
must take account of the sequence of
seasons. The laying techniques for pipe-
lines have been improved over many years
and they are applicable for GIL as a ”pipe-
line for electrical current“too. However, 10
the GIL needs slightly different treatment
where the pipeline technique has to be
adapted.The laying process is illustrated
in Fig. 60.
The assembly area needs to be protected
against dust, particles, humidity and other
environmental factors that might disturb
the dielectric system. Clean assembly
therefore plays an important role in setting
up cross-country GILs under normal envi-
ronmental conditions. The combination of Fig. 61: Siemens lab prototype for dielectric tests

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/39
Overhead Power Lines

Introduction
1 2000
Since the very beginning of electric power,
overhead lines have constituted the most
important component for transmission and
distribution. Their portion of overall length MW Power per circuit
of electric circuits depends on the voltage
2 level as well as on local conditions and 1000
practice. In densely populated areas like
Central Europe, underground cables prevail
in the distribution sector and overhead
power lines in the high-voltage sector. In
other parts of the world, for example in 750 kV
3 North America, overhead lines are often
500
used also for distribution purposes within
cities. Siemens has planned, designed and
erected overhead power lines on all impor-
tant voltage levels in many parts of the
4 world.
200
Selection of line voltage 380 kV

5 For distribution and transmission of electric


100
power standardized voltages according to
IEC 60038 are used worldwide.
For three-phase AC applications, three volt-
age levels are distinguished:
■ The low-voltage level up to 1 kV 220 kV
6 ■ The medium-voltage level between 1 kV 50
and 36 kV and
■ The high-voltage level up to 800 kV.
For DC transmission the voltages vary
from the mentioned data.
7 Low-voltage lines serve households and
small business consumers. Lines on the 20
medium-voltage level supply small settle-
ments, individual industrial plants and 110 kV
larger consumers, the electric power being
8 typically less than 10 MVA per circuit. Transmission distance
The high-voltage circuits up to 145 kV 10
serve for subtransmission of the electric 10 20 50 100 200 500
power regionally and feed the medium- km
voltage network. This high-voltage level
network is often adopted to support the Fig. 62: Selection of rated voltage for power transmission
9 medium-voltage level even if the electric
power is below 10 MVA. Moreover, some 245 kV lines were used in Central Europe The 420 kV level represents the highest
of these high-voltage lines also transmit for interconnection of utility networks be- voltage used for AC transmission in
the electric power from medium-sized gen- fore the changeover to the 420 kV level for Central Europe with the task of intercon-
erating stations, such as hydro plants on this purpose. Long-distance transmission, necting the utility networks and of trans-
10 small and medium rivers, and supply large- for example between the hydro power mitting the energy over long distances.
scale consumers, such as sizable industrial plants in the Alps and the consumers, was Some 420 kV lines connect the national
plants or steel mills. They constitute the performed out by 245 kV lines. grids of the individual European countries
connection between the interconnected Nowadays, the importance of 245 kV enabling Europewide interconnected net-
high-voltage grid and the local distribution lines is decreasing due to the application work operation. Large power plants, such
networks. The bandwidth of electrical pow- of 420 kV. as nuclear stations, feed directly into the
er transported corresponds to the broad 420 kV network. The thermal capacity of
range of utilization, but, rarely exceeds the 420 kV circuits may reach 2000 MVA
100 MVA per circuit, while the surge im- with a surge impedance load of approxi-
pedance load is 35 MVA (approximately). mately 600 MVA and a transmission capacity
up to 1200 MVA.

2/40 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Overhead Power Lines

Selection of conductors
Rated voltage
and ground wires 1
[kV] 20 110 220 380 750
Conductors represent the most important
components of an overhead power line
Highest system voltage [kV] 24 123 245 420 800 since they have to ensure economical and
reliable transmission and contribute con- 2
siderably to the total line costs.
Nominal bundle bundle bundle bundle For many years aluminum and its alloys
cross-section [mm2] 50 120 150 300 435 2x240 4x240 2x560 4x560 have been the prevailing conducting mate-
rials for power lines due to the favorable
price, the low weight and the necessity of
Conductor diameter [mm] 9.6 15.5 17.1 24.5 28.8 2x21.9 4x21.9 2x32.2 4x32.2
certain minimum cross-sections. 3
The conductors are prone to corrosion.
Aluminum, in principle, is a very corrosive
Ampacity (at 80 °C con-
210 410 470 740 900 1290 2580 2080 4160 metal. However, a dense oxide layer is
ductor temperature) [A]
formed which stops further corrosive at-
tacks. Therefore, aluminum conductors 4
Thermal capacity [MVA] 7 14 90 140 340 490 1700 1370 5400 are well-suited also for corrosive areas, for
example a maritime climate.
For aluminum conductors there are a num-
Resistance at 20 °C [Ω/km] 0.59 0.24 0.19 0.10 0.067 0.059 0.030 0.026 0.013 ber of different designs in use. All-aluminum
conductors (AAC) have the highest conduc-
tivity for a given cross-section, however 5
Reactance at 50 Hz [Ω/km] 0.39 0.34 0.41 0.38 0.4 0.32 0.26 0.27 0.28 possess only a low mechanical strength,
which limits their application to short
spans and low tensile forces. To increase
Effective the mechanical strength, wires made of
capacitance [nF/km] 9.7 11.2 9.3 10 9.5 11.5 14.4 13.8 13.1 aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys are 6
adopted, the strength of which is twice
that of pure aluminum.
Capacitance All-aluminum and aluminum alloy con-
to ground [nF/km] 3.4 3.6 4.0 4.2 4.8 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.1 ductors have shown susceptibility against
eolian vibrations. Compound conductors
Charging power [kVA/km] 1.2 1.4 35 38 145 175 650 625 2320
with a steel core, so-called aluminum 7
cables, steel reinforced (ACSR), avoid this
disadvantage. The ratio between aluminum
Ground-fault current [A/km] 0.04 0.04 0.25 0.25 0.58 0.76 1.35 1.32 2.48 and steel ranges from 4.3:1 to 11:1. Expe-
rience has demonstrated that ACSR has a
long life, too.
Surge impedance [Ω] 360 310 375 350 365 300 240 250 260 Conductors are selected according to elec-
8
trical, thermal, mechanical and economic
aspects. The electric resistance as a result
Surge of the conducting material and its cross-
impedance load [MVA] – – 32 35 135 160 600 577 2170 section is the most important feature
affecting the voltage drop and the energy 9
losses along the line and, therefore, the
Fig. 63: Electric characteristics of AC overhead power lines (Data refer to one circuit of a double-circuit line)
transmission costs. The cross-section has
to be selected such that the permissible
Overhead power lines with voltages high- The voltage level has to be selected based temperatures will not be exceeded during
er than 420 kV are needed to economically on the duty of the line within the network normal operation as well as under short
transmit bulk electric power over long dis- or on results of network planning. Siemens circuit. With increasing cross-section the 10
tances, a task typically arising when utiliz- has carried out such studies for utilities all line costs increase, while the costs for
ing hydro energy potentials far away from over the world. losses decrease. Depending on the duty
consumer centers. Fig. 62 depicts sche- of a line and its power, a cross-section can
matically the range of application for the be determined which results in lowest
individual voltage levels depending transmission costs. This cross-section
on the distance of transmission and the should be aimed for. The heat balance of
power rating. ohmic losses and solar radiation against
convection and radiation determines the
conductor temperature. A current density
of 0.5 to 1.0 A /mm2 has proven to be an
economical solution.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/41
Overhead Power Lines

High voltage results in correspondingly Selection of insulators


high-voltage gradients at the conductors
1 and in corona-related effects such as visi-
ble discharges, radio interference, audible Overhead line insulators are subject to
noise and energy losses. When selecting electrical and mechanical stress since they
the conductors, the voltage gradient has have to insulate the conductors from po-
to be limited to values between 15 and tential to ground and must provide physical
17 kV/cm. This aspect is important for supports. Insulators must be capable of
2 lines with voltages of 245 kV and above. withstanding these stresses under all con-
Therefore, bundle conductors are adopted ditions encountered in a specific line.
for extra-high-voltage lines. Fig. 63 shows The electrical stresses result from
typical conductor configurations.
■ The power frequency voltage
From the mechanical point of view the ■ Temporary overvoltages at power
3 conductors have to be designed for every- frequency and
day conditions and for maximum loads Fig. 64: Cap and pin-type insulator
■ Switching and lightning overvoltages.
exerted on the conductor by wind and ice.
As a rough figure, an everyday stress of Various insulator designs are in use,
approximately 20% of the conductor ulti- depending on the requirements and the
mate tensile stress can be adopted, result- experience with certain insulator types.
4 ing in a limited risk of conductor damage. Cap and pin-type insulators (Fig. 64) are
made of porcelain or glass. The individual
Ground wires can protect a line against units are connected by fittings of malleable
direct lightning strokes and improve the cast iron. The insulating bodies are not
system behavior in case of short circuits; puncture-proof which is the reason for rel-
therefore, lines with single-phase voltages atively numerous insulator failures.
5 of 110 kV and above are usually equipped
In Central Europe long-rod insulators
with ground wires. Ground wires made
of ACSR with a sufficiently high aluminum (Fig. 65) are most frequently adopted.
cross-section satisfy both requirements. These insulators are puncture-proof. Fail-
ures under operation are extremely rare.
Long-rod insulators show a superior be-
6 havior especially under pollution. The ten-
sile loading of the porcelain body forms
a disadvantage, which requires relatively
large cross-sections. Composite insulators
are made of a core with fiberglass-rein-
forced resin and sheds of differing plastic
7 materials. They offer light weight and high
tensile strength and will gain increasing
importance for high-voltage lines.
Insulator sets must provide a creepage
path long enough for the expected pollu-
8 tion level, which is classified according
to IEC 60815 from light with 16 mm/kV up
to very heavy with 31 mm/kV.
To cope with switching and lightning over-
voltages, the insulator sets have to be de-
9 signed with respect to insulation coordina-
tion according to IEC 60071-1. These
design aspects determine the gap be-
tween the grounded fittings and the live
parts.
Suspension insulator sets carry the con-
10 ductor weight and are arranged more or
less vertically. There are I-shaped (Fig. 66a)
and V-shaped sets in use. Single, double or
triple sets cope with the mechanical load-
ings and the design requirements.
Tension insulator sets (Fig. 66b, c) termi-
nate the conductors and are arranged in
the direction of the conductors. They are
loaded by the conductor tensile force and Fig. 65: Long-rod insulator with clevis and tongue
have to be rated accordingly. connection

2/42 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Overhead Power Lines

Cross arm
1

Conductor
7
Fig. 66a: I-shaped suspension insulator set for 245 kV

Cross arm
8

Fig. 66b: Double tension insulator set for 245 kV (elevation)


9

Cross arm Conductor

10

Fig. 66c: Double tension insulator set for 245 kV (plan)

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/43
Overhead Power Lines

Selection and design of supports


a b c d
1
Together with the line voltage, number of
circuits and type of conductors the config-
uration of the circuits determines the de-
sign of overhead power lines. Additionally,
lightning protection by ground wires, the
2 terrain and the available space at the tower
sites have to be considered. In densely
populated areas like Central Europe, the
width of right-of-way and the space for the
tower sites are limited. In the case of ex-
tra-high voltages the conductor configura-
3 tion affects the electrical characteristics
and the transmission capacity of the line.
Very often there are contradicting require-
ments, such as a tower height as low as
possible and a narrow right-of-way, which
4 can only be met partly by compromises.
The mutual clearance of the conductors Fig. 67: Configurations of medium-voltage supports
depends on the voltage and the conductor
sag. In ice-prone areas conductors should
not be arranged vertically in order to avoid
5 conductor clashing after ice shedding. a b c d
For low- and medium-voltage lines horizon-
tal conductor configurations prevail which
feature line post insulators as well as sus-
pension insulators. Preferably poles made
of wood, concrete or steel are used.
6 Fig. 67 shows some typical line configura-
tions. Ground wires are omitted at this
voltage level.
For high and extra-high-voltage power lines
a large variety of configurations are availa-
7 ble which depend on the number of cir-
cuits and on local conditions. Due to the
very limited right-of-way, more or less all
high-voltage lines in Central Europe com-
e f g h
prise at least two circuits. Fig. 68 shows a
series of typical tower configurations. Ar-
8 rangement e) is called the ”Danube“ con-
figuration and is most often adopted. It
represents a fair compromise with respect
to width of right-of-way, tower height and
line costs.
9 For lines comprising more than two cir-
cuits there are many possibilities for con-
figuring the supports. In the case of cir-
cuits with differing voltages those circuits
with the lower voltage should be arranged
in the lowermost position (Fig. 68g).
10 The arrangement of insulators depends
on the task of a support within the line.
Suspension towers support the conductors
in straight-line sections and at small bends.
This tower type results in the lowest
costs; special attention should therefore be
paid to using this tower type as often as
possible.

Fig. 68: Tower configurations for high-voltage lines

2/44 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Overhead Power Lines

Angle towers have to carry the conductor


tensile forces at angle points of the line.
The tension insulator sets permanently 1
exert high forces on the supports. Various
loading conditions have to be met when
designing angle towers. The climatic con-
ditions are a determining factor as well.
Finally, dead-end towers are used at the 2
ends of a transmission line. They carry the
total conductor tensile forces of the con-
nection to the substations.
Depending on the size of the supports
and the acting forces, differing designs and
materials are adopted. Poles made of 3
wood, concrete or steel are very often
used for low and medium-voltage lines.
Towers with lattice steel design, however,
prevail at voltage levels of 110 kV and
above (Fig. 69). When designing the sup- 4
port a number of conditions have to be
considered. High wind and ice loads cause
the maximum forces to act on suspension
towers. In ice-prone areas unbalanced con-
ductor tensile forces can result in torsional
loading. Additionally, special loading condi- 5
tions are adopted for the purpose of failure
containment, i.e. to limit the extent of
damage. Finally, provisions have to be
made for construction and maintenance Fig. 69: Lattice steel towers of a high-voltage line
conditions.
Siemens adopts modern computer pro-
6
grams for tower design in order to opti-
mize the structures, select components Pad-and-chimney Auger-bored
and joints and determine foundation foundation foundation
loadings.
The stability of the support poles and tow- 7
ers needs also accordingly designed foun-
dations. The type of towers and poles, the
loads, the soil conditions as well as the ac-
cessibility to the line route and the availa-
bility of machinery determine the selection
and design of foundation.
8
Concrete blocks or concrete piers are
in use for poles which exert bending
moments on the foundation. For towers
with four legs a foundation is provided
for each individual leg (Fig. 70). Pad-and- Rock anchor Pile foundation 9
chimney and concrete block foundations foundation
require good bearing soil conditions
without ground water. Driven or augured
piles and piers are adopted for low bearing
soil, for sites with bearing soil in a greater
depth and for high ground water level.
10
In this case the soil conditions must permit
pile driving. Concrete slabs can be used
for good bearing soil, when subsoil and
ground water level prohibit pad and chim-
ney foundations as well as piles. Siemens
can design all types of foundation and has
the necessary equipment, such as pile
drivers, grouting devices, soil and rock
drills, at its command to build all types of
power line foundations. Fig. 70: Foundations for four-legged towers

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/45
Overhead Power Lines

302.50 f40=6.15 300.70


1 fE =6.60
6.07
5.74
f40=
0.47 292.00 fE =
292.00
2 16.00
10.00 13.00 16.20
f40=2.11
282.00 1
279.00 1
1 2
3 WA+0 T+0
DA DH
1
1

8
255.00
232.50

9 175.00 o. D. 286.50 276.50 273.50 280.00 283.00 275.50 270.50 270.00 265.00 263.
281.50 273.00 280.50 284.50 275.00 270.50 272.50 267.50 264.00

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4


0.0 66.0 132.0 194.0 264.0 302.0 331.0 360.0 405.0 462
10 36.0 106.0 166.0 251.0 291.0 316.0 346.0 386.0 426.0

190.00g Left conductor 251.47 m M20


171°0´
6.0 60.0m 50g 251.0 4.0 42
6.0 20 kV line 4.0
190.00g Ro
60.0m M21
at

Fig. 71: Line profile established by computer

2/46 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Overhead Power Lines

1
3
T+8 Arable land Stream
f40=17.46
DH
fE =16.52 Meadow Road
Fallow land Forest
284.20 2

17.30 16.75
16.38 15.86 Ground wire: ACSR 265/35 * 80.00 N/mm2
Conductor: ACSR 265/35 * 80.00 N/mm2
Equivalent sag: 11.21 m at 40 °C
3
7.55 Equivalent span: 340.44 m
11.38 8.44
12.29
Bushes, height
263.00 up to 5 m
24.20 4
f40=5.56
fE =5.87

4
WA+0
DA
6
223.00

7
1.45

16.00

8
270.00
292.50

0 263.00 265.50 261.50 260.00 260.00 236.00 223.00 209.00 9


64.00 266.50 264.00 258.50 260.00 247.50 229.00 215.50 207.00

4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9


0 462.0 534.0 586.0 666.0 688.0 776.0 826.0 904.0
426.0 506.0 544.0 626.0 676.0 744.0 804.0 848.0 910.0 10
Road to XXX Left conductor 235.45 m 169.00g
152°6´
425.0 13.9g 4.0 234.0 5.8
4.0 5.8
Road crossing
at km 10.543 169.00g

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/47
Overhead Power Lines

Route selection Siemens’ activities and


1 and tower spotting experience
Route selection and planning represent Siemens has been active in the overhead
increasingly difficult tasks since the right- power line field for more than 100 years.
of-way for transmission lines is limited and The activities comprise design and con-
2 many aspects and interests have to be struction of rural electrification schemes,
considered. Route selection and approval low and medium-voltage distribution lines,
depend on the statutory conditions and high-voltage lines and extra-high-voltage
procedures and always involve iterative installations. To give an indication of what
studies carried out in the office and sur- has been carried out by Siemens, approxi-
veys in the terrain which consider and eval- mately 20,000 km of high-voltage lines up
3 uate a great variety of alternatives. After to 245 kV and 10,000 km of extra-high-volt-
definition of the route the longitudinal pro- age lines above 245 kV have been set up
file has to be surveyed, identifying all so far. Overhead power lines have been
crossings over roads, rivers, railways, erected by Siemens in Germany and Cen-
buildings and other overhead power lines. tral Europe as well as in the Middle East,
The results are evaluated with computer Africa, the Far East and South America.
4 programs to calculate and plot the line pro- The 420 kV transmission lines across the
file. The towers are spotted by means of Elbe river in Germany comprising four cir-
computer programs as well, which take cuits and requiring 235 m tall towers as
into account the conductor sags under dif- well as the 420 kV line across the Bospho-
ferent conditions, the ground clearances, rus in Turkey with a span of approximately
5 objects crossed by the line, technical data 1800 m (Fig. 72) are worthy of special
of the available tower range, tower and mention.
foundation costs and costs for compensa-
tion of landowners. The result is an eco-
nomical design of a line, which accounts For further information please contact:
for all the technical and environmental con- Fax: ++ 49 - 9131- 33 5 44
6 ditions. Line planning forms the basis for e-mail: heinz-juergen.theymann@erls04.
material acquisition and line erection. siemens.de
Fig. 71 shows a line profile established
by computer.

BT1 BS1 BS suspension tower BS2 BT2


BT tension tower
8

37.5
124 124
9
27.5

10
112 119 70 125 162.5

Dimensions in m

674 1757 668


Europe Bosphorus Asia

Fig. 72: 420 kV line across the Bosphorus, longitudinal profile

2/48 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission

HVDC
1
When technical and/or economical feasibility
of conventional high voltage AC transmis-
sion technology reach their limits, high
voltage DC can offer the solution, namely
■ For economical transmission of bulk
power over long distances
2
■ For interconnection of asynchronous
power grids
■ For power transmission across the sea,
when a cable length is long
■ For interconnection of synchronous but 3
weak power grids, adding to their stability
■ For additional exchange of active power
with other grids without having to increase
the short-circuit power of the system
■ For increasing the transmission capacity 4
of existing rights-of-way by changing
from AC to DC transmission system
Siemens offers HVDC systems as Fig. 76: Earthquake-proof, fire-retardant thyristor valves in Sylmar East, Los Angeles
■ Back-to-Back (B/B) stations to interconnect
asynchronous networks, without any DC systems for all functions. 5
transmission line in between Redundant design for fault-tolerant
■ Power transmission via Dc submarine systems.
cables
Fig. 75: Long-distance transmission Filter technology
■ Power transmission via long-distance DC
overhead lines Single, double and triple-tuned as well
Special features as high-pass passive filters, or any combi- 6
nation thereof, can be installed.
Back-to-Back (B/B): Valve technology Active filters, mainly for the DC circuit,
To connect asynchronous high voltage ■ Simple, easy-to-maintain mechanical are available.
power systems or systems with different design Wherever possible, identical filters are
frequencies. selected so that the performance does not
To stabilize weak AC links or to supply
■ Use of fire-retardant, self-extinguish-
significantly change when one filter has 7
ing material
even more active power, where the AC to be switched off.
■ Minimized number of electrical
system reaches the limit of short-circuit Turnkey service
capability. connections
■ Minimized number of components Our experienced staff are prepared to de-
■ Avoidance of potential sources of sign, install and commission the whole
failure HVDC system on a turnkey basis. 8
■ ”Parallel“ cooling for the valve levels Project financing
■ Oxygen-saturated cooling water. We are in a position to assist our custom-
Fig. 73: Back-to-back link between asynchronous grids After more than 20 years of operation, thy- ers in finding proper project financing, too.
ristor valves based on this technology have
demonstrated their excellent reliability.
General services 9
Cable transmission (CT):
■ Extended support to customers from the
To transmit power across the sea with ■ The recent introduction of direct light-
very beginning of HVDC system plan-
cables to supply islands/offshore platforms triggered thyristors with integrated over-
ning including
from the mainland and vice-versa. voltage protection further simplifies the
valve and reduces maintenance require- – Feasibility studies
ments. – Drafting the specification 10
Control system – Project execution
– System operation and
In our HVDC control system, high-perform-
ance components with proven records in – Long-term maintenance
Fig. 74: Submarine cable transmission – Consultancy on upgrading/replace-
many other standard fields of application
have been integrated, thus adding to the ment of components/redesign of older
Long-distance transmission (LD): schemes, e.g. retrofit of mercury-arc
overall reliability of the system.
For transmission of bulk power over long Use of ”state-of-the-art“ microprocessor valves or relay-based controls
distances (beyond approx. 600 km, consid-
ered as the break-even distance).

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/49
High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission

■ Studies during contract execution on:


– HVDC systems basic design
1 – System dynamic response
– Load flow and reactive power
balance
– Harmonic voltage distortion
– Insulation coordination
2 – Interference of radio and PLC
– Special studies, if any

Typical ratings
Some typical ratings for HVDC schemes
3 are given below for orientation purposes only:
B/B: 100 ... 600 MW
CT: 100 ... 800 MW
LD: 300 ... 3000 MW (bipolar),
whereby the lower rating is mainly deter-
4 mined by economic aspects and the higher
one limited by the constraints of the inter-
connected networks.
Innovations
5 In recent years, the following innovative
technologies and equipment have for ex-
ample been successfully implemented by Fig. 78: HVDC outdoor valves, 533 kV (Cahora Bassa Rehabilitation, Southern Africa)
Siemens in diverse HVDC projects world-
wide:
■ Direct light-triggered thyristors
Rehabilitation and
6 (already mentioned above) modernization of existing
■ Hybrid-optical DC measuring system
(Fig. 77)
HVDC stations (Fig. 78)
■ Active harmonic filters
■ Advanced eletrode line monitoring of The integration of state-of-the-art micro-
7 bipolar HVDC systems processor systems or thyristors allows the
■ An SF6 HVDC circuit-breaker for use as
owner better utilization of his investment,
Metallic Return Transfer Breaker, devel- e.g.
oped from a standard AC high-voltage ■ Higher availability
breaker. ■ Fewer outages
8 ■ Lower losses
■ Better performance values
■ Less maintenance.
Higher availability means more operating
2 hours, better utilization and higher profits
9 for the owner.
The new Human-Machine Interface (HMI)
system enhances the user-friendliness and
3
increases the reliability considerably due
to the operator guidance. This rules out
1 maloperation by the operator, because an
10 incorrect command will be ignored by the
HMI.

Fig. 77: Conventional DC measuring device (1) vs. the


new hybrid-optical device (2) with composite
insulator (3) shows the reduced space requirement
for the new system (installed at HVDC converter sta-
tion Sylmar, USA)

2/50 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission

For further information please contact:


Fax: ++ 49 - 9131- 73 45 52
1
e-mail: marion.sammler@erls04.siemens.de

HMI GPS
6

LAN

7
VCS OLC OLC OLC VCS
SER
Pole 1 Pole 1 SC Pole 2 Pole 2

Communi-
8
CLC CLC cation link to
VBE VBE
HMI Human-machine Interface the load dis-
Pole 1 Pole 2 patch center
GPS Global Positioning System
OLC Open-Loop Control
CLC Closed-Loop Control
9
VBE Valve Base Electronics Communi- Communi-
VCS Valve Cooling Systems cation link to TFR DC Protection TFR cation link to
the remote the remote
SER Sequence of Event
station station
Recording
TFR Transient Fault Recording 10
LAN Local Area Network DC Yard

Fig. 79: Human-Machine Interface with structure of HVDC control system

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/51
Power Compensation in Transmission Systems

Introduction
1
In many countries increasing power
consumption leads to growing and more
interconnected AC power systems. These
complex systems consist of all types of
electrical equipment, such as power plants,
2 transmission lines, switchgear transform-
ers, cables etc., and the consumers.
Since power is often generated in those
areas of a country with little demand, the
transmission and distribution system has
3 to provide the link between power gener-
ation and load centers.
Wherever power is to be transported, the
same basic requirements apply:
■ Power transmission must be economical
4 ■ The risk of power system failure must
be low
■ The quality of the power supply must
be high
However, transmission systems do not
5 behave in an ideal manner. The systems
react dynamically to changes in active and
reactive power, influencing the magnitude
and profile of the power systems voltage.
Fig. 80: STATCOM inverter hall
Examples:
6
■ A load rejection at the end of a long-dis- Further information please contact:
tance transmission line will cause high
Fax: ++ 49 - 9131- 73 45 54
overvoltages at the line end. However, a
high load flow across the same line will e-mail: Wolfgang.Braun@erls04.siemens.de
decrease the voltage at its end.
7 ■ The transport of reactive power through
a grid system produces additional losses
and limits the transmission of active
power via overhead lines or cables.
■ Load-flow distribution on parallel lines is
8 often a problem. One line could be load-
ed up to its limit, while another only car-
ries half or less of the rated current.
Such operating conditions limit the actu-
al transmittable amount of active power.
■ In some systems load switching and/or
9 load rejection can lead to power swings
which, if not instantaneously damped,
can destabilize the complete grid system
and then result in a “Black Out”.
Reactive power compensation helps to
10 avoid these and some other problems.
In order to find the best solution for a grid
system problem, studies have to be car-
ried out simulating the behavior of the sys-
tem during normal and continuous operat-
ing conditions, and also for transient
events. Study facilities which cover digital
simulations via computer as well as analog
ones in a transient network analyzer labo-
ratory are available at Siemens.

2/52 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Power Compensation in Transmission Systems

Types of reactive power


Concept Operating diagram
compensation 1
Parallel compensation 1 Un
Parallel compensation is defined as any
type of reactive power compensation em-
ploying either switched or controlled units, 2
which are connected parallel to the trans-
mission network at a power system node.
In many cases switched compensation
(reactors, capacitor banks or filters) can
provide an economical solution for reactive 3
power compensation using conventional
switchgear.
2 4 4 3 Iind Icap
Static VAr compensator (SVC)
In comparison to mechanically-switched 1 Transformer
reactive power compensation, controlled 2 Thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR) 4
compensation (SVC, Fig. 81) offers the ad- 3 Fixed connected capacitor/filter bank
vantage that rapid dynamic control of the 4 Thyristor-switched capacitor bank (TSC)
reactive power is possible within narrow
limits, thus maintaining reactive power Fig. 81: Static VAr compensator (SVC)
balance.
Fig. 82 is a general outline of the problem-
5
solving applications of SVCs in high-voltage
systems. Voltage control
STATCOM Reactive power control
Overvoltage limitation at load rejection
The availability of high power gate-turn-off
Improvement of AC system stability
6
(GTO) thyristors has led to the develop-
ment of a Static Synchronous Compensa- Damping of power oscillations
tor (STATCOM), Fig. 80, page 2/52. Reactive power flow control
The STATCOM is an “electronic generator” Increase of transmission capability
Load reduction by voltage reduction
of dynamic reactive power, which is con- 7
nected in shunt with the transmission line Subsynchronous oscillation damping
(Fig. 83) and designed to provide smooth,
continuous voltage regulation, to prevent
voltage collapse, to improve transmission Fig. 82: Duties of SVCs
stability and to dampen power oscillations.
The STATCOM supports subcycle speed of 8
response (transition between full capaci- Concept Operating diagram
tive and full inductive rating) and superior
performance during system disturbances UN
to reduce system harmonics and resonanc- UN
es. Particular advantages of the equipment I
are the compact and modular construction 9
that enables ease of siting and relocation,
as well as flexibility in future rating up-
grades (as grid requirements change) and US
the generation of reactive current irrespec-
tive of network voltage. 10

Id
Iind Icap
UD

Fig. 83: STATCOM

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/53
Power Compensation in Transmission Systems

Series compensation Synchronous Series Compensation (SSSC)


Series compensation is defined as insertion The Static Synchronous Series Compensa-
1 of reactive power elements into transmis- tor (SSSC) is a solid-state voltage genera-
sion lines. The most common application is tor connected in series with the transmis-
the series capacitor. sion line through an insertion transformer
(Fig. 85). The generation of a boost voltage
Thyristor-Controlled advancing or lagging behind the line cur-
2 Series Compensation (TCSC) rent by 90° affects the voltage drop caused
By providing continuous control of trans- at the line reactance and can be used to
mission line impendance, the Thyristor Con- dampen transient oscillations and control
trolled Series Compensation (TCSC, Fig. 84) real power flow independent of the magni-
offers several advantages over conventional tude of the line current.
fixed series capacitor installations. These
3 advantages include:
■ Continuous control of desired
compensation level
■ Direct smooth control of power flow
within the network Concept Operating diagram
4 ■ Improved capacitor bank protection
■ Local mitigation of subsynchronous UT I
oscillations (SSR). This permits higher Inductive Capacitive
levels of compensation in networks I
where interactions with turbine-generator
5 torsional vibrations or with other control
or measuring systems are of concern.
■ Damping of electromechanical (0.5–2 Hz)
power oscillations which often arise be-
tween areas in a large interconnected
power network. These oscillations are
6 due to the dynamics of interarea power Id
transfer and often exhibit poor damping UD UT
when the aggregate power transfer over
a corridor is high relative to the transmis-
sion strength. Fig. 85: Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC)

7
Concept Operating diagram
Bypass switch

8 Bank Bypass circuit breaker Bank [Z]


disconnect disconnect Inadmissible
switch 1 switch 2 area
MOV arrester

9 Capacitors Damping
circuit

10 Thyristor
valve
Thyristor controlled
reactor

Valve arrester Inductive Capacitive

Triggered spark gap 90° Ignition angle α 180°

Fig. 84: Thyristor controlled Series Compensation (TCSC). Example: Single line diagram TCSC S. da Mesa

2/54 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Power Compensation in Transmission Systems

Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)


The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) Concept Vector diagram
is the fastest and most versatile FACTS 1
controller (Fig. 86). The UPFC constitutes UT
a combination of the STATCOM and the UT
SSSC. It can provide simultaneously and
Ua Ub
independently real time control of all basic
power system parameters (transmission 2
voltage, impedance and phase angle), de-
terminig the transmitted real and reactive
power flow to optimize line utilization and
system capability. The UPFC can enhance Ua Ub
transmission stability and dampen system
oscillations. GTO GTO 3
Converter 1 Converter 2

Fig. 86: Unified power-flow controller (UPFC)

Comparison of reactive power 5


compensation facilities
The following tables show the character-
istics and application areas of UPFC
(Fig. 87a), parallel compensation and series 6
compensation (Fig. 87b, page 2/56) and
the influence on various parameters such
as short-circuit rating, transmission phase
angle and voltage behavior at this load.
7
Behavior of compensation element
Compen- Location Short- Voltage Transmis- Voltage Applications
sation circuit influence sion phase after load
element level angle rejection
8
UPFC (Parallel and/or series compensation)

1 UPFC Reduced Controlled Controlled Limited by Real and reactive power 9


control flow control, enhancing
E U transmission stability
UPFC and dampening system
oscillations
10
Fig. 87a: Components for reactive power compensation, UPFC

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 2/55
Power Compensation in Transmission Systems

Behavior of compensation element


1 Compen- Location Short- Voltage Transmis- Voltage Applications
sation circuit influence sion phase after load
element level angle rejection

Parallel compensation
2
2 Shunt Little Voltage Little High Voltage stabilization
capacitor influence rise influence at high load
E U

3
3 Shunt Little Voltage Little Low Reactive power
reactor influence drop influence compensation at low
E U load; limitation of
temporary overvoltage
4
4 Static Little Controlled Little Limited by Reactive power and
VAr com- influence influence control voltage control,
pensator SVC damping of power
E U
5 (SVC) swings to improve
system stability

5 STATCOM No Controlled Little Limited by Reactive power and


influence influence control voltage control,
damping of power
6 E ST U
swings

Series compensation
7
6 Series Increased Very good Much (Very) low Long transmission lines
capacitor smaller with high transmission
E U power rating

8
7 Series Reduced (Very) slight (Much) (Very) high Short lines, limitation
reactor larger of SC power
E U
9

8 Thyristor Variable Very good Much (Very) low Long transmission lines,
Controlled TCSC smaller power flow distribution
SeriesCom- between parallel lines
10 pensation
E U
and SSR damping
(TCSC)

9 SSSC Reduced Controlled Controlled Limited by Real power flow


SSSC control control, damping of
transient oscillations
E U

Fig. 87b: Components of reactive power compensation, parallel compensation/series compensation

2/56 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Medium-Voltage
Switchgear

Contents Page
Introduction ...................................... 3/2

Primary Distribution
Selection Criteria and
Explanations ...................................... 3/4
Selection Matrix ............................... 3/6
Air-Insulated Switchgear ............... 3/8
SF6-Insulated Switchgear ............ 3/24

Secondary Distribution
General ............................................. 3/46
Selection Matrix ............................. 3/48
Ring-Main Units ............................. 3/50
Consumer Substations .................. 3/60
Transformer Substations .............. 3/66

Industrial Load Center .................. 3/68

Medium-Voltage Devices
Product Range ................................ 3/72
Vacuum Circuit-Breakers
and Contactors ............................... 3/74
Vacuum Interrupters ..................... 3/85
Disconnectors/
Grounding Switches ...................... 3/86
HRC Fuses ....................................... 3/88
Insulators and Bushings .............. 3/89
Current Transformers/
Voltage Transformers .................... 3/90
Surge Arresters .............................. 3/90

3
Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Introduction ‘Primary distribution’ means the switch- ‘Secondary distribution’ is the local area
gear installation in the HV/MV transformer supply of the individual MV/LV substations
1 main substations. The capacity of equip- or consumer connecting stations.
Primary and secondary distribution stands ment must be sufficient to transport the The power capacity of MV/LV substa-
for the two basic functions of the medium- electrical energy from the HV/MV trans- tions depends on the requirements of the
voltage level in the distribution system. former input (up to 63 MVA) via busbar LV system. To reduce the network losses,
‘Power Supply Systems’ (PSS) includes the to the outgoing distribution lines or cable the transformer substations should be
equipment of the Primary and Secondary feeders. The switchgear in these main installed directly at the load centers with
2 Distribution, all interconnecting equipment substations is of high importance for the typical transformer ratings of 400 kVA to
(cables, transformers, control systems, safe and flexible operation of the distribu- max. 1000 kVA. Due to the great number
etc.) down to LV consumer distributions as tion system. It has to be very reliable dur- of stations, they must be space-saving and
well as all the relating planning, engineer- ing its lifetime, flexible in configuration, maintenance-free.
ing, project/site management, installation and easy to operate with a minimum of For high availability, MV/LV substations are
3 and commissioning work involved, includ- maintenance. mostly looped in by load-break switches.
ing turnkey projects with all necessary The type of switchgear insulation (air or The line configuration is mostly of the
electrical and civil works equipment (Fig. 1). SF6) is determined by local conditions, e.g. open-operated ring type or of radial strands
space available, economic considerations, with opposite switching station. In the
building costs, environmental conditions event of a line fault, the disturbed section
and the relative importance of mainte- will be switched free and the supply is
4 nance. continued by the second side of the line.
Design and configuration of the busbar This calls for reliable switchgear in the sub-
are determined by the requirements of the stations. Such transformer substations can
local distribution system. be prefabricated units or single compo-
nents, installed in any building or rooms
These are: existing on site, consisting of medium-volt-
5 ■ The number of feeders is given by the age switchgear, transformers and low-volt-
outgoing lines of the system age distri-bution.
■ The busbar configuration depends on Because of the extremely high number
the system (ring, feeder lines, opposite of units in the network, high standardiza-
station, etc.) tion of equipment is necessary. The most
6 ■ Mode of operation under normal condi- economical solution for such substations
tions and in case of faults should have climate-independent and
■ Reliability requirements of consumers, maintenance-free equipment, so that oper-
etc. ation of equipment does not require any
Double busbars with longitudinal sectional- maintenance during its lifetime.
7 izing give the best flexibility in operation. Consumers with high power requirements
However, for most of the operating situa- have mostly their own distribution system
tions, single busbars are sufficient if the on their building area. In this case, a con-
distribution system has adequate redun- sumer connection station with metering is
dancy (e.g. ring-type system). necessary. Depending on the downstream
If there are only a few feeder lines which consumer system, circuit breakers or load-
8 call for higher security, a mixed configura- break switches have to be installed.
tion is advisable. For such transformer substations nonex-
It is important to prepare enough spare tensible and extensible switchgear, for in-
feeders or at least space in order to extend stance RMUs, has been developed using
the switchgear in case of further develop- SF6 gas as insulation and arc-quenching
9 ment and the need for additional feeders. medium in the case of load-break systems
As these substations, especially in densely (RMUs), and SF6-gas insulation and vacu-
populated areas, have to be located right in um (for vcb feeders) as arc-quenching me-
the load center, the switchgear must be dium in the case of extensible modular
space-saving and easy to install. switchgear, consisting of load-break panels
The installation of this switchgear needs with or without fuses, circuit-breaker pan-
10 thorough planning in advance, including the els and measuring panels.
system configuration and future area de-
velopment. Especially where existing in-
stallations have to be upgraded, the situa-
tion of the distribution system should be
analyzed for simplification (system plan-
ning and architectural system design).

3/2 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Medium-Voltage Switchgear

Main substation Subtransmission up to 145 kV 1

2
HV/MV transformers up to 63 MVA

Primary distribution 3
MV up to 36 kV

Secondary distribution

open ring 7

closed ring

8
Diagram 1: Diagram 2: Diagram 3:

10

Substation Customer station with circuit-breaker Extensible switchgear for substation


incoming panel and load-break switch with circuit-breakers e.g. Type 8DH
outgoing panels

Fig. 1: Medium voltage up to 36 kV – Distribution system with two basic functions: Primary distribution and secondary distribution

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/3
Primary Distribution
Selection Criteria and Explanations

General Single busbar with Double busbars with


1 bus-tie breaker dual-feeder breakers
Codes, standards and specifications
Design, rating, manufacture and testing of
our medium-voltage switchboards is gov-
erned by international and national stand-
2 ards. Most applicable IEC recommenda-
tions and VDE/DIN standards apply to our
products, whereby it should be noted that
in Europe all national electrotechnical
standards have been harmonized within
the framework of the current IEC recom-
3 mendations.
Our major products in this section comply
specifically with the following code publi-
cations:
■ IEC 60 298 AC metal-enclosed switch-
4 gear and controlgear for rated voltages Double busbars with Double-busbar switchboard
above 1 kV and up to and including single-feeder breakers with single-busbar feeders
72.5 kV
■ IEC 60 694 Common clauses for high-
voltage switchgear and controlgear
5 standards
■ IEC 60 056 High-voltage alternating-cur-
rent circuit-breakers
■ IEC 60 265-1 High-voltage switches
■ IEC 60 470 High-voltage alternating cur-
6 rent contactors
■ IEC 60 129 Alternating current discon-
nectors (isolators) and grounding switch-
es
■ IEC 60 185 Current transformers
■ IEC 60 186 Voltage transformers
7 ■ IEC 60 282 High-voltage fuses Fig. 2: Basic basbar configurations for medium-voltage switchgear
In terms of electrical rating and testing,
other national codes and specifications can ■ Balancing of feeder on two systems dur- Since 1982, insulating sulfur-hexafluoride
be met as well, e.g. ANSI C37, 20C, ing operation gas (SF6-gas) at slight overpressure has
BS 5227, etc. ■ Access to busbars required during oper- also been used inside totally encapsulated
8 In case of switchgear manufactured out- ation. switchboards as insulating medium for
In double-busbar switchboards with dual medium voltages to totally exclude these
side of Germany in Siemens factories or
feeder breakers it is possible to connect disturbing effects.
workshops, certain local standards can also
be met; for specifics please inquire. consumers of less importance by single- All switchgear types in this section, with
busbar panels. This assures the high availa- the exception of the gas-insulated models
bility of a double-busbar switchboard for 8D and NX PLUS, use air as their primary
9 Busbar system important panels, e.g. incoming feeders, insulation medium. Ribbed vacuum-potted
Switchgear installations for normal service with the low costs and the low space re- epoxy-resin post insulators are used as
conditions are preferably equipped with quirement of a single-busbar switchboard structural supports for busbars and circuit
single-busbar systems. These switch- for less important panels. These composite breakers throughout.
boards are clear in their arrangement, switchboards can be achieved with the In the gas-insulated metal-clad switchgear
10 simple to operate, require relatively little types 8BK20 and 8DC11. 8D and NX PLUS, all effects of the envi-
space, and are low in inital cost and oper- ronment on high-voltage-carrying parts are
ating expenses. Type of insulation eliminated.
Double-busbar switchboards can offer The most common insulating medium Thus, not only an extremely compact and
advantages in the following cases: has been air at atmospheric pressure, plus safe, but also an exceptionally reliable
some solid dielectric materials. Under se- piece of switchgear is available. The addi-
■ Operation with asynchronous feeders
vere climatic conditions this requires pre- tional effort for encapsulating and sealing
■ Feeders with different degrees of impor- cautions to be taken against internal con- the high-voltage-carrying parts requires
tance to maintain operation during emer- tamination, condensation, corrosion, or a higher price – at least in voltage ratings
gency conditions reduced dielectric strength in high alti- below 24 kV. For a price comparison, see
■ Isolation of consumers with shock load- tudes. the curves on the following page (Figs. 3, 4).
ing from the normal network

3/4 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Primary Distribution
Selection Criteria and Explanations

Enclosure, Compartmentalization
Single busbar Double busbar
IEC Publ. 60 298 subdivides metal-en-
closed switchgear and controlgear into !
Percentage (8BK20 = 100)
!
Percentage (8BK20 = 100)
1
three types:
160 160
■ Metal-clad switchgear and controlgear
■ Compartmented switchgear and con-
trolgear 130 130
■ Cubicle switchgear and controlgear. 2
120 8DA10 120
Thus “metal-clad” and “cubicle” are sub- 110
divisions of metal-enclosed switchgear, NX PLUS 110
100 100 8BK20
further describing construction details. 8BK20
90 90
In metal-clad switchgear the components NX AIR
80 80 8DB10
are arranged in 3 separate compartments: 70 8DC11 70 8DC11
3
■ Busbar compartment 0 0
■ Circuit-breaker compartment 7.2 12 15 24 kV 36 Voltage 7.2 12 15 24 kV 36 Voltage
■ Feeder-circuit compartment Fig. 3: Price relation Fig. 4: Price relation
with earthed metal partitions between
each compartment. 4
to dielectric stressing by high voltage, able in all ratings – see selection matrix on
IEC 60 298-1990-12 Annex AA specifies a it is possible and safe to utilize totally en- pages 3/72–3/73 for all power switchgear
“Method for testing the metal-enclosed closed, fixed-mounted and gas-insulated listed in this section. Due to their mainte-
switchgear and controlgear under condi- switchgear. Models 8DA, 8DB, 8DC and nance-free design these breakers can be
tions of arcing due to an internal fault”. NX PLUS described in this section are of installed inside totally enclosed and gas-
Basically, the purpose of this test is to this design. Due to far fewer moving parts insulated switchgear. 5
show that persons standing in front of, or and their total shielding from the environ-
adjacent to a switchboard during internal ment, they have proved to be much more To 2: Vacuum contactors
arcing are not endangered by the effects reliable. Vacuum contactors are used for frequent
of such arcs. All switchboards described switching operations in motor, transformer
All air-insulated switchgear models in this
in this section have successfully passed and capacitor bank feeders. They are type-
these type tests.
section are of the withdrawable type.
tested, extremely reliable and compact de-
6
vices and they are totally maintenance-free.
Switching device Since contactors cannot interrupt fault cur-
Isolating method
Depending on the switching duty in indi- rents, they must always be used with cur-
To perform maintenance operations safely, rent-limiting fuses to protect the equip-
vidual switchboards and feeders, basically
one of two basic precautions must be ment connected. Vacuum contactors can 7
the following types of primary switching
taken before grounding and short-circuiting be installed in the metal-enclosed, metal-
devices are used in the switchgear cubi-
the feeder: clad switchgear types 8BK20, 8BK30 and
cles in this section:
■ 1. Opening of an isolator switch with (Note: Not all types of switching devices can be used in
NXAIR for 7.2 kV/31.5 kA.
clear indication of the OPEN condition. all types of cubicle.)
■ 2. Withdrawal of the interrupter carrier To 3: Vacuum switches or …
■ 1. Vacuum circuit-breakers 8
from the operating into the isolation ■ 2. Vacuum contactors in conjunction Vacuum switches, switch disconnectors
position. with HRC fuses and gas-insulated three-position switch
In both cases, the isolation gap must be ■ 3. Vacuum switches, switch disconnec-
disconnectors in primary distribution switch-
larger than the sparkover distance from tors or gas-insulated three-position boards are used mostly for small trans-
live parts to ground to avoid sparkover switch disconnectors in conjunction with former feeders such as auxiliary transform-
of incoming overvoltages across the gap. HRC fuses. ers or load center substations. Because of 9
The first method is commonly found in their inability to interrupt fault currents
fixed-mounted interrupter switchgear, To 1: Vacuum circuit-breakers they must always be used with current-
whereas the second method is applied limiting fuses. Vacuum switches and switch
In the continuing efforts for safer and more
in withdrawable switchgear. disconnectors can be installed in the air-
reliable medium-voltage circuit-breakers,
insulated switchboard types 8BK20 and
Withdrawable switchgear has primarily the vacuum interrupter is clearly the first
NXAIR. Gas-insulated three-position switch 10
been designed to provide a safe environ- choice of buyers of new circuit-breakers
disconnectors can be installed in the
ment for maintenance work on circuit inter- worldwide.
switchboard type 8DC11.
rupters and instrument transformers. It is maintenancefree up to 10,000 oper-
Therefore, if interrupters and instrument ating cycles without any limitation in terms
transformers are available that do not re- of time and it is recommended for all gen-
quire maintenance during their lifetime, the eralpurpose applications. If high numbers
withdrawable feature becomes obsolete. of switching operations are anticipated
With the introduction of maintenance-free (especially autoreclosing in overhead line
For further information please contact:
vacuum circuit-breaker bottles, and instru- systems and switching of high-voltage mo-
ment transformers which are not subject tors), their use is indicated. They are avail- ++ 49 - 91 31-73 46 39

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/5
Primary Distribution
Selection Matrix

Standards Insulation Busbar system Enclosure, Isolating method Sw


1 compartmentalization de

2
Metal-enclosed, Draw-out section
metal-clad Vac
Vac

3
Single busbar Metal-enclosed, Draw-out section Vac
metal-clad

4 Metal-enclosed, Draw-out section Vac


metal-clad
Type-tested Air-insulated
indoor switchgear
to IEC 60 298 Vac
Metal-enclosed, Draw-out section
5 metal-clad Vac
Sw
cubicle-type Vac

Metal-enclosed, Draw-out section Vac


metal-clad
6 Vac
Double busbar

Metal-enclosed, Draw-out section Vac


metal-clad Vac
cubicle-type Sw
7
Triple-pole Disconnector, Vac
metal-enclosed, fixed-mounted
metal-clad
8
Single busbar Triple-pole Disconnector, Vac
metal-enclosed, fixed-mounted Sw
metal-clad

9 Single-pole Disconnector, Vac


metal-enclosed, fixed-mounted
SF6-insulated metal-clad

Disconnector, Vac
10 Triple-pole
metal-enclosed, fixed-mounted Sw
metal-clad
Double busbar

Single-pole Disconnector, Vac


metal-enclosed, fixed-mounted
metal-clad

Fig. 5: Primary Distribution Selection Matrix

3/6 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Primary Distribution
Selection Matrix

Switching Switchgear Technical data Page


device type 1
Maximum rated short-time Maximum busbar rated Maximum feeder rated
current [kA], 1/3 s current [A] current [A]
7.2 12/15 17.5/24 36 7.2 12/15 17.5/24 36 7.2 12/15 17.5/24 36
kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV kV
2

Vacuum circuit-breaker 50 50 25 – 4000 4000 2500 – 4000 4000 2000 – 3/8


8BK20
Vacuum switch

3
Vacuum contactor
8BK30 50 50 – – 4000 4000 – – 400 400 – – 3/13

Vacuumcircuit-breaker
4
8BK40 63 63 63* – 5000 5000 5000* – 5000 5000 5000* – 3/16

Vacuum circuit-breaker
Vacuum switch
NXAIR 31.5 31.5 25 – 2500 2500 2500 – 2500 2500 2500 – 3/20 5
Switch disconnector
Vacuum contactor

Vacuum circuit-breaker
8BK20 50 50 25 – 4000 4000 2500 – 4000 4000 2000 – 3/8
Vacuum switch 6

Vacuum circuit-breaker
Vacuum switch NXAIR 31.5 31.5 25 – 2500 2500 2500 – 2500 2500 2500 – 3/20
Switch disconnector 7
Vacuum circuit-breaker
NX PLUS 31.5 31.5 31.5 31.5 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 3/38

8
Vacuum circuit-breaker
Switch disconnector 8DC11 25 25 25 – 1250 1250 1250 – 1250 1250 1250 – 3/24

Vacuum circuit-breaker
9
8DA10 40 40 40 40 3150 3150 3150 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 3/30

Vacuum circuit-breaker
Switch disconnector 8DC11 25 25 25 – 1250 1250 1250 – 1250 1250 1250 – 3/24
10

Vacuumcircuit-breaker
8DB10 40 40 40 40 3150 3150 3150 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 3/30

* up to 17.5 kV

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/7
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK20

Metal-clad switchgear 8BK20,


1 air-insulated

■ From 7.2 to 24 kV
■ Single and double-busbar
(back-to-back or face-to-face)
2 ■ Air-insulated
■ Type-tested
■ Metal-enclosed
■ Metal-clad
■ Withdrawable vacuum breaker
3 ■ Vacuum switch optional
■ For indoor installation

Specific features
4 ■ General-purpose switchgear
■ Circuit-breaker mounted on horizontal
slide behind front door
■ Cable connections from front or rear

5 Safety for operating and maintenance


personnel
■ All switching operations behind closed
doors
■ Positive and robust mechanical
6 interlocks
■ Arc-fault-tested metal enclosure
■ Complete protection against contact Fig. 6: Metal-clad switchgear type 8BK20 (inter-cubicle partition removed)
with live parts
■ Line test with breaker inserted (option)
Stationary part Breaker carriage
7 ■ Maintenance-free vacuum breaker
The cubicle is built as a self-supporting The carriage normally supports a vacuum
Tolerance to environment structure, bolted together from rolled gal- circuit-breaker with the associated operat-
vanized steel sheets and profile sections. ing mechanism and auxiliary devices.
■ Metal enclosure with optional gaskets Each cubicle is divided into three sealed Fused vacuum switches are optional.
■ Complete corrosion protection and and isolated compartments by partitions, By manually moving the carriage with the
8 tropicalization of all parts. i.e. the busbar, cable connection and circuit- spindle drive it can be brought into a dis-
■ Vacuum-potted ribbed epoxy insulators breaker compartment. tinct ”Connected“ and ”Disconnected/
with high tracking resistance The fixed contacts of the primary discon- Test“ position. To this effect, the arc and
nectors are located within bushings, effec- pressure-proof front door remains closed.
General description tively maintaining the compartmentalization To remove the switching element com-
9 8BK20 switchboards consist of metal-clad
in all operating states of the switchgear. pletely from its compartment, a central
The bushings are covered by automatic service truck is used. Inspection can easily
cubicles of air-insulated switchgear with steel safety shutters upon removal of the and safely be carried out with the circuit-
withdrawable vacuum circuit-breakers. circuit-breaker carriage from the ”Con- breaker in the ”Disconnected/Test“ posi-
Fused vacuum switches can be used nected“ position. tion. All electrical and mechanical parts are
optionally. The breaker carriage is fully in- easily accessible in this position.
Each compartment in every model has its
10 terlocked with the interrupter and the sta-
own pressure-relief device. To reduce inter- Mechanical spring-charge and contact-
tionary cubicle. It is manually moved in
nal arcing times and thus consequential position indicators are visible through the
a horizontal direction from the ”Connect-
damage, pressure switches can be in- closed door. Local mechanical ON/OFF
ed“ position behind the closed front door
stalled that trip the incoming feeder circuit- pushbuttons are actived through the door
and without the use of auxiliary equip-
breaker(s) in less than 100 msec. This is an as well.
ment.
economical alternative to busbar differen- For complete remote control, the circuit-
A fully isolated low-voltage compartment
tial protection. breaker carriage can be equipped for motor
is integrated. All commonly used feeder
circuits and auxiliary devices are available. operation.
The switchgear cubicles and interrupters
are factory-assembled and type-tested as
per the applicable standards.

3/8 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK20

Cable and bar connections


Cables and bars are connected from
below; entrance from above requires an 1
auxiliary structure behind the cubicle.
Single-phase or three-phase solid-dielectric
cables can be connected from the front or
the rear of the cubicle (specify); stress
cones are installed conveniently inside the 2
cubicle.
Make-proof grounding switches with man-
ual operation can be installed below the
CTs, engaging contacts behind the cable
lugs. Operation of the fully interlocked
grounding switch is possible only with the 3
breaker carriage in the ”Disconnected/
Test“ position.

Interlocking system
4
A series of sturdy mechanical interlocks
forces the operator into the only safe oper-
ating sequence of the switchgear, prevent-
ing positively the following:
■ Moving the carriage with the breaker
closed. 5
■ Switching the breaker in any but the
locked ”Connected“ or ”Disconnected/
Fig. 7: Cross-section through 8BK20 cubicle
Test“ position
■ Engaging the grounding switch with the
Low-voltage compartment Busbars and primary disconnectors carriage in the ”Connected“ position, 6
and moving the carriage into this posi-
All protective relays, monitoring and con- Rectangular busbars drawn from pure cop- tion with the grounding switch engaged.
trol devices of a feeder can be accommo- per are used exclusively. They are mount-
dated in a metal-enclosed LV compartment ed on ribbed, cast-resin post insulators
on top of the HV enclosure. Device-mount- which are sized to take up the dynamic Degrees of protection
ing plates, cabling troughs, and the central forces resulting from short circuits. Solid- Standard degree of protection IP 3XD 7
LV terminal strip(s) are located behind a dielectric busbar insulation is available. according to IEC 60529.
separate lockable door. Full or partial plex- The movable parts of the line and load-
iglass windows, or mimic diagrams are side primary disconnectors have flat, Optionally, the cubicles can be protected
available for these doors. spring-loaded and silver-plated hemispheri- against harmful internal deposits of dust
cal pressure contacts for low contact re- and against dripping water (IP 51), available
sistance and good ventilation. The parallel only for cubicles without ventilation slots. 8
Main enclosure connecting arms are designed to increase
The totally enclosed and sealed cubicle contact pressure during short circuits. The
permits installation in most equipment fixed contacts are silver-plated stubs within
rooms. With the optional dust protection, the circuit-breaker bushings or the busbar
the switchgear is safeguarded against mountings. 9
internal contamination, small animals and
rodents, and naturally against contact with
Instrument transformers
live parts. This eliminates the usual rea-
sons for arc faults. Up to three multicore block-type current
Should arcing occur, nevertheless, the transformers plus three single-phase
arc can be guided towards the end of the potential transformers can be installed in 10
lineup, where damage is repaired most the lower compartment, PTs optionally on
easily. For the latter reason, parititions be- withdrawable modules.
tween individual cubicles of the same bus The CTs carry the cable-connecting bars
sections are normally not used. and lugs, and the fixed contacts of the (op-
tional) grounding switch. All common bur-
den and accuracy ratings of instrument
transformers are available. Busbar meter-
ing PTs with their current-limiting fuses are
installed on withdrawable carriages, identi-
cally to breaker carriages.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/9
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK20

Installation
The switchboards are shipped in sections
1 of up to three cubicles on stable wooden
pallets which are suitable for rolling and
forklift handling. These sections are bolted
or spot-welded to channel iron sections
embedded in a flat and level concrete floor.
2 Front-connected types can be installed
against the wall or free-standing; rear-con-
nected cubicles require service aisles.
Double-busbar installations in back-to-back
configuration are installed free-standing.
Cable feed-in is through corresponding
3 cut-outs in the floor, plans for which are
part of the switchgear supply. Three-phase
(armored) cables for voltages above 12 kV
require sufficient clearance below the
switchgear to split up the phases (cable-
floor, etc.). Circuit-breakers are shipped Fig. 8: Cross-section through switchgear type 8BK20
4 mounted on their carriages inside the in back-to-back double-busbar arrangement for rated voltages up to 24 kV
switchgear cubicles. For dimensions and
weights, see Fig. 9.

5 Weights and dimensions

Rated voltage [kV] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24

Panel spacing [mm] 800 800 800 1000 1000


6
Width [mm] 2050 2050 2050 2250 2250

Depth front conn.


without channel [mm] 1650 1650 1650 2025 2025
with channel [mm] 1775 1775 1775 2150 2150
7
Depth rear conn. [mm] 1775 1775 1775 2150 2150

Approx. weight [kg] 800 800 800 1000 1000


incl. breaker
8 Fig. 9

10

3/10 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK20

Technical data 1

Rated Rated Rated short- Rated short- Rated Rated normal feeder current* Rated normal busbar current
voltage lightning time power circuit-breaking short-
impulse frequency current/short- circuit
voltage voltage time current making 2
(1 or 3 s current
available)
630 1250 2000 2500 3150 4000 1) 1250 2000 2500 3150 4000
[kV] [kV] [kV] [kA] (rms) [kA] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A]
3
7.2 60 20 31.5 80 – ■ ■ ■ – – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
40* 110 – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
50* 125 – ■ – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

4
12 75 28 31.5 80 – ■ ■ ■ – – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
40* 110 – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
50* 125 – ■ – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

15 95 36 31.5 80 – ■ ■ ■ – – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 5
40* 110 – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
50* 125 – ■ – ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

17.5 95 38 16 40 ■ ■ – – – – ■ ■ ■ – –
20 50 ■ ■ – – – – ■ ■ ■ – –
6
25 63 ■ ■ ■ – – – ■ ■ ■ – –

24 125 50 16 40 ■ ■ – – – – ■ ■ ■ – –
20 50 ■ ■ ■ – – – ■ ■ ■ – – 7
25 63 – ■ ■ – – – ■ ■ ■ – –

*1s
1) Ventilation unit with or without fan and ventilation slots in the front of the cubicle required.

Fig. 10
8

10

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/11
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK20

1 8BK20 switchgear up to 24 kV

Panel
Fixed parts Withdraw- Busbar Sectionalizer Bus riser panel Metering Busbar connec-
ableparts modules panel tion panel
2

6
Fig. 11: Available circuit options

10

3/12 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK30

Vacuum contactor
motor starters 8BK30, 1
air-insulated

■ From 3.6–12 kV
■ Single-busbar 2
■ Type-tested
■ Metal-enclosed
■ Metal-clad
■ Withdrawable vacuum contactors
and HRC current-limiting fuses 3
■ For direct lineup with 8BK20 switchgear
■ For indoor installation

Specific features
■ Designed as extension to 8BK20 switch- 4
gear with identical cross section
■ Contactor mounted on horizontally mov-
ing truck – 400 mm panel spacing
■ Cable connection from front or rear
■ Central or individual control power trans- 5
former
■ Integrally-mounted electronic multifunc-
tion motor-protection relays available.

Safety of operating and maintenance 6


personnel
■ All switching operations behind closed
doors
■ Positive and robust mechanical inter-
locks 7
■ Arc-fault-tested metal enclosure
■ Complete protection against contact
with live parts
■ Absolutely safe fuse replacement
■ Maintenance-free vacuum interrupter 8
tubes

Fig. 12: Metal-clad switchgear type 8BK30 with vacuum contactor (inter-cubicle partition removed)
Tolerance to environment
■ Metal enclosure with optional gaskets
■ Complete corrosion protection and tropi- 9
calization of all parts Technical data
■ Vacuum-potted ribbed expoy insulators
with high tracking resistance Rated BIL PFWV Maximum Feeder Rated busbar current
voltage rating of rating
motor 10
1250 2000 2500 3150 4000
[kV] [kV] [kV] [kW] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A]

3.6 40 10 1000 400 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■


7.2 60 20 2000 400 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■
12 60 28 3000 400 ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Fig. 13

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/13
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK30

1 Full-voltage Reduced-voltage nonreversing (RVNR) Reduced-voltage nonreversing (RVNR)


nonreversing with starter (reactor starting) with external reactor autotransformer
(FVNR) ”Korndorffer Method“

Fig. 14: Available circuits


6
General description The stationary part Busbars and primary disconnectors
8BK30 motor starters consist of metal- The cubicle is constructed basically the Horizontal busbars are identical to the ones
enclosed, air-insulated and metal-clad cubi- same as the matching switchgear cubicles in the associated 8BK20 switchgear.
cles. Vacuum contactors on withdrawable 8BK20, with the exception of the contactor Primary disconnectors are adapted to the
7 trucks, with or without control power truck. low feeder fault currents of these starters.
transformers, are used in conjunction with Silver-plated tulip contacts with round con-
current-limiting fuses as starter devices. tact rods are used.
The truck is fully interlocked with the struc- Contactor truck
ture and is manually moved from the Vacuum contactor, HRC fuses, and control
CTs and cable connection
8 ”Connected“ to the ”Disconnected/Test“ power transformer with fuses (if ordered)
position. A fully isolated low-voltage com- are mounted on the withdrawable truck. Due to the limited let-through current of
partment is integrated. All commonly used Auxiliary devices and interlocking compo- the HRC fuse, block-type CTs with lower
starter circuits and auxiliary devices are nents, plus the primary disconnects com- thermal rating can be used. Depending on
available. plete the assembly. the protection scheme used, CTs with one
The starter cubicles and contactors are or two secondary windings are
9 factory-assembled and type-tested as per installed.
Low-voltage compartment
applicable standards. All commonly used feeder cables up to
Space is provided for regular bimetallic or 300 mm2 can be terminated and connect-
electronic motor-protection relays, plus the ed at the lower CT terminals.
usual auxiliary relays for starter control.
The compartment is metal-enclosed and Grounding switches or surge-voltage
10 has its own lockable door. All customer limiters are installed optionally below the
wiring is terminated on a central terminal current transformers.
strip within this compartment.

Main enclosure
Practically identical to the associated
8BK20 switchgear.

3/14 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK30

Interlocking system
Contactor, truck and low-voltage plugs are
integrated into the interlocking system to 1
assure the following safeguards:
■ The truck cannot be moved into the
”Connected“ position before the LV plug
is inserted.
■ The LV plug cannot be disconnected 2
with the truck in the ”Connected“ posi-
tion.
■ The truck cannot be moved with the
contactor in the ON position.
■ The contactor cannot be operated with 3
the truck in any other but the locked
”Connected“ or ”Disconnected/Test“
position.
■ The truck cannot be brought into the
”Connected“ position with the ground-
ing switch engaged. 4
■ The grounding switch cannot be en-
gaged with the truck in the ”Connect-
ed“ position.

Degrees of protection 5
Standard degree of protection IP 3XD
according to IEC 60529.
Optionally, the starters can be protected
against harmful internal deposits of dust
and against dripping water in the 6
”Operating“ position (IP 51).
Fig. 15: Cross-section through switchgear type 8BK30
Installation
Identical to the procedures outlined for 7
8BK20 switchgear. Only the HRC fuses are Weights and dimensions
shipped outside the enclosure, separately
packed.
Rated voltage [kV] 3.6 7.2 12

Width [mm] 2 x 400 2 x 400 2 x 400 8


Height [mm] 2050 2050 2050

Depth [mm] 1650 1650 1650

Approx. weight [kg] 700 700 700 9


incl. contactor

Fig. 16

10

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/15
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK40

Metal-clad switchgear 8BK40,


1 air-insulated

■ From 7.2 to 17.5 kV


■ Single and double-busbar
(back-to-back or face-to-face)
2 ■ Air-insulated
■ Type-tested
■ Metal-enclosed
■ Metal-clad
■ Withdrawable vacuum breaker
3 ■ For indoor installation

Specific features
■ General-purpose switchgear for rated
4 feeder/busbar current up to 5000 A and
short-circuit breaking current up to
63 kA
■ Circuit-breaker mounted on horizontally
moving truck
■ Cable connections from front
5
Safety of operating and maintenance
personnel
■ All switching operations behind closed
Fig. 17: Metal-clad switchgear type 8BK40 with vacuum circuit-breaker 3AH
doors
6 (inter-cubicle partition removed)
■ Positive and robust mechanical
interlocks
■ Complete protection against contact
with live parts
■ Line test with breaker inserted (option)
7 ■ Maintenance-free vacuum circuit-
breaker

Tolerance to environment
8 ■ Sealed metal enclosure with optional
gaskets
■ Complete corrosion protection and tropi-
calization of all parts
■ Vacuum-potted ribbed epoxy-insulators
with high tracking resistance
9
Generator vacuum circuit-breaker panel
■ Suitable for use in steam, gas-turbine,
hydro and pumped-storage power plants
10 ■ Suitable for use in horizontal, L-shaped
or vertical generator lead routing

Fig. 18: Cross-section through type 8BK40 generator panel

3/16 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK40

General description
8BK40 switchboards consist of metal-clad
cubicles of air-insulated switchgear with 1
withdrawable vacuum circuit-breakers. The
breaker truck is fully interlocked with the
interrupter and the stationary cubicle.
It is manually moved in a horizontal direc-
tion from the ”Connected“ position behind 2
the closed front door and without the use
of auxiliary equipment. A fully isolated low-
voltage compartment is integrated.
All commonly used feeder circuits and aux-
iliary devices are available.
The switchgear cubicles and interrupters 3
are factory-assembled and type-tested as
per applicable standards.

Stationary part
4
The cubicle is built as a self-supporting
structure, bolted together from rolled gal-
vanized steel sheets and profile sections.
Cubicles for rated voltages up to 17.5 kV
are of identical construction. Each cubicle
is divided into three sealed and isolated 5
compartments by partitions, i.e. the bus-
bar, cable connection and circuit-breaker
compartment.
The fixed contacts of the primary discon- Fig. 19: Cross-section through panel type 8BK40
nectors are located within insulating breaker 6
bushings, effectively maintaining the com-
partmentalization in all operating states of
the switchgear. The bushings are covered tion indicators are visible through the towards the end of the lineup, where dam-
by automatic steel safety shutters upon closed door. Local mechanical ON/OFF age is repaired most easily. For the latter
removal of the circuit-breaker element pushbuttons are actived through the door reason, partitions between individual cubi-
from the ”Connected“ position. as well. cles of the same bus sections are normally 7
Each compartment in every model has its For complete remote control, the circuit- not used.
own pressure-relief device. To reduce inter- breaker carriage can be equipped for motor
nal arcing times and thus consequential operation. Busbars and primary disconnectors
damage, pressure-switches can be installed
Rectangular busbars drawn from pure
that trip the incoming-feeder circuit-breaker(s)
Low-voltage compartment copper are used exclusively. They are 8
in less than 100 msec. This is an economic
alternative to busbar differential protection. All protective relays, monitoring and con- mounted on ribbed, cast-resin post insula-
trol devices of a feeder can be accommo- tors which are sized to take up the dyna-
dated in a metal-enclosed LV compartment mic forces resulting from short circuits.
Interrupter truck
on top of the HV enclosure. Device-mount- The movable parts of the line and load-
The truck normally supports a vacuum ing plates, cabling troughs, and the central side primary disconnectors have flat, 9
circuit-breaker with the associated operat- LV terminal strip(s) are located behind a spring-loaded and silver-plated hemispheri-
ing mechanism and auxiliary devices. separate lockable door. Full or partial plex- cal pressure contacts for low contact re-
By manually moving the truck with the iglass windows, or mimic diagrams sistance and good ventilation. The parallel
spindle drive it can be brought into a dis- are available for these doors. connecting arms are designed to increase
tinct ”Connected“ and ”Disconnected/ contact pressure during short circuits. The
Test“ position. To this effect, the front fixed contacts are silver-plated stubs within 10
Main enclosure the circuit-breaker bushings.
door remains closed.
Inspection can easily and safely be carried The totally enclosed and sealed cubicle
out with the circuit-breaker in the ”Discon- permits installation in most equipment
Instrument transformers
nected/Test“ position. All electrical and rooms. With the optional dust protection,
mechanical parts are easily accessible in the switchgear is safeguarded against Up to three multicore block-type current
this position. internal contamination, small animals and transformers plus three single-phase
rodents, and naturally against contact with potential transformers can be installed in
Mechanical spring-charge and contact-posi- live parts. This eliminates the usual rea- the lower compartment, PTs optionally
sons for arc faults. Should arcing occur, on withdrawable modules.
nevertheless, the arc can be guided

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/17
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK40

The CTs carry the cable-connecting bars


and lugs, and the fixed contacts of the (op- Weight and dimensions
1 tional) grounding switch. All common bur-
den and accuracy ratings of instrument
transformers are available. Busbar meter- Rated voltage [kV] 7.2 12 15 17.5
ing PTs with their current-limiting fuses are
installed on a withdrawable truck, identical Width [mm] 1100 1100 1100 1100
to the breaker truck.
2 Height [mm] 2500 2500 2500 2500
Cable and bar connections
Depth [mm] 2300 2300 2300 2300
Cables and bars are connected from
below; entrance from above requires an Approx. weight [kg] 2800 2800 2800 2800
3 auxiliary structure behind the cubicle. incl. breaker
Single-phase or three-phase solid-dielectric
cables can be connected from the front of Fig. 20
the cubicle; stress cones are installed con-
veniently inside the cubicle.
Regular and make-proof grounding switch-
4 es with manual operation can be installed
Technical data
below the CTs, engaging contacts behind
the cable lugs. Operation of the fully inter- Rated Rated Rated Rated Rated Rated normal feeder Rated
locked grounding switch is possible only voltage lightning- short-time short- short- current normal
with the breaker carriage in the ”Discon- impulse power- circuit- circuit- busbar
5 nected/Test“ position. voltage frequency breaking making current
voltage current/ current
short time
Interlocking system
current
A series of sturdy mechanical interlocks 1250 2500 3150 5000 5000
forces the operator into the only safe oper- [kV] [kV] [kV] kA [rms] [kA] [A] [A] [A] [A] [A]
6 ating sequence of the switchgear, prevent-
ing positively the following: 7.2 60 20 50 125
63 160
■ Moving the truck with the breaker
closed.
■ Switching the breaker in any but the
12 75 28 50 125
63 160
7 locked ”Connected“ or ”Disconnected/
Test“ position.
15 95 36 50 125
■ Engaging the grounding switch with
63 160
the truck in the ”Connected“ position,
and moving the truck into this position
with the grounding switch engaged. 17.5 95 38 50 125
8 63 160

Degrees of protection
Fig. 21
Degree of protection IP 4X:
In the ”Connected“ and the ”Disconnect-
9 ed/Test“ position of the truck, the switch-
gear is totally protected against contact
with live parts by objects larger than 2 mm Front-connected types can be installed
in diameter. against the wall or free-standing. Double-
Optionally, the cubicles can be protected busbar installations in back-to-back configu-
against harmful internal deposits of dust ration are installed free-standing.
10 and against drip water (IP 51). Cable feed-in is through corresponding cut-
outs in the floor; plans for which are part
of the switchgear scope of supply. Three-
Installation phase (armored) cables for voltages above
The switchboards are shipped in sections 12 kV require sufficient clearance below
of one cubicle on stable wooden pallets the switchgear to split up the phases (cable
which are suitable for rolling and forklift floor, etc.). Circuit-breakers are shipped
handling. These sections are bolted or mounted on their trucks inside the switch-
spot-welded to channel iron sections em- gear cubicles. For preliminary dimensions
bedded in a flat and level concrete floor. and weights, see Fig. 20.

3/18 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8BK40

1
8BK40 switchgear up to 17.5 kV

Panel
Fixed parts Withdraw- Metering Busbar Sectionalizer Bus riser panel 2
ableparts panel modules

8BK40 generator vacuum CB panel

7
Variants Additional parts Optional parts

10

Fig. 22: Available circuit options for switchgear/generator panel type 8BK40

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/19
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type NXAIR

Metal-clad or cubicle type Renewed availability

switchgear NXAIR, air-insulated ■ Internal fault withstand capability satis-


1 fied according to standards
■ Separate pressure relief for every com-
■ From 3.6 to 24 kV partment
■ Single- and double-busbar (back to back ■ Standard direction of pressure relief
or face-to-face) upwards
2 ■ Air-insulated ■ Busbar fittings (e.g. voltage transform-
■ Metal-enclosed ers, current transformers in run of bus-
bar or make-proof earthing switches) ar-
■ Metal-clad or cubicle type
ranged in separate compartments above
■ Modular construction of individual panels busbar compartments
■ Supplied as standard with bushing-
3 type transformers for selective tripping
■ Pressure-resistant additional compart-
ments with pressure-proof barrier to
of feeders without any additional busbar compartment
measures.
■ Pressure-resistant floor covering
■ Vacuum circuit-breaker module
■ Control cables inside panels arranged in
type NXACT
metallic cable ducts
4 ■ Cable testing without isolation of busbar
Specific features assured by separately opening shutters
■ General-purpose switchgear of module compartment
■ Circuit-breaker mounted on horizontal ■ Easy replacement of compartments by
slide or truck behind front door virtue of self-supporting, modular and
5 ■ Cable connections from front or rear bolted construction
■ Replacement of module compartments
and/or connection compartments possi-
Safety of operating and maintenance ble without having to isolate busbar
personnel
■ Bushing-type transformers for selective
■ All switching operations behind closed disconnection of feeders
6 doors
■ Switchgear modules with intgrated inter- Fig. 23: Metal-clad switchgear type NXAIR Standards
locking and control board
■ Panels tested for internal arcs to ■ The switchgear cubicles and interrupters
IEC 60 298, App. AA are factory assembled and type-tested
7 ■ Complete protection against contact Flexibility
according to VDE 0670 Part 6 and
IEC 60 298.
with live parts
■ Wall mounting or free-standing arrange-
■ Mechanical switch position indication on ment
panel front for switching device, discon- Degrees of protection
■ Cable connection from front or rear
nector and earthing switch Standard degree of protection IP3XD
■ Connection of all familiar types of cables
8 ■ Earthing of feeders by means of make- according to IEC 60 529
proof earthing switches. ■ Available in truck-type or withdrawable
construction Optionally, the cubicles can be protected
■ Operation of all switching, disconnecting against harmful internal deposits of dust
and earthing functions from panel front ■ Optional left or right-hand arrangement
and against dripping water (IP 51), available
of hinges
– Unambiguous assignment of actuating only for cubicles without ventilation slots.
openings and control elements to me- – of high-voltage doors
9 chanical switch position indications – of doors of low-voltage compartments
– Mechanical switch position indications ■ Extension of existing switchgear at both
integrated in mimic diagram ends without modification of panels
– Convenient height of actuating open- ■ Easy replacement of bushing-type trans-
ings, control elements and mechanical formers from front
10 switch position indications on high- ■ Screw-type mating contacts on bushing-
voltage door, as well as low-voltage type transformers can be easily replaced
unit in door of low-voltage compart- from front (from module compartment).
ment. ■ Reconnection of current transformers on
– Logical interlocks prevent malopera- secondary side
tion
■ Option: verification of dead state with
high-voltage door closed, by means of a
voltage detection system according to
IEC 61 243-5

3/20 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type NXAIR

NXAIR is of modular construction.


The main components are: 1 Pressure relief duct
A Module compartment 2 Busbars
1
B Busbar compartment E 3 Bushing-type insulator
C Connection compartment B
1 4 Bushing-type transformer
D NXACT vacuum circuit-breaker module 5 Make-proof earthing switch
E Low-voltage compartment 2 A 6 Cable connection for 2 cables
per phase
2
3 9
Module compartment 7 Cables
4 10 8 Cable brackets
Basic features
D 9 Withdrawable part
■ Housings are of sendzimir-galvanized 5 11
10 Vacuum interrupters 3
sheet-steel 12
6 11 Combined operating and
■ High-voltage door and front frame with interlocking unit for circuit-
additional epoxy resin powder coating C breaker, disconnector and
7
■ Module compartment to accomodate earthing switch
necessary components (vacuum circuit- 8 13 12 Contact system
breaker module, vacuum contactor mod-
14 13 Earthing busbar 4
ule, disconnector module, metering
14 Option: truck
module and transformer feeder module)
for implementing various panel versions
■ With shutter operating mechanism
■ High-voltage door pressure-proof in Fig. 24: Cross-section through cubicle type NXAIR
event of internal arcs in panel
5
■ Metallic cable ducts on side for laying Solid-state HMI
control cables (internal and external) (human-machine interface) Door of low-voltage
■ Option: test sockets for capactive volt- Bay controller SIPROTEC 4 type 7SJ62 for compartment
age detection system control and protection (Fig.25)
■ Low-voltage plug connectors for connec-
6
tion of switchgear modules to auxiliary Features
voltage circuits. 1 LCD for process and equipment data,
e.g. for:
NXACT vacuum circuit-breaker module – Measuring and metering values
– Binary data for status of switchpanel 7
Features and device
■ Integrated mechanical interlocks be- – Protection data
tween operating mechanisms – General signals
■ Integrated mechanical switch position – Alarm
indications for circuit-breaker, withdrawa- 2 Keys for navigation in menus and for 8
ble part and earthing switch functions entering values
■ Easy movement since only withdrawable 3 Seven programmable LEDs with possi-
part is moved ble application-related inscriptions, for
■ Permanent interlock of carriage mecha- indicating any desired process and
nism of switchgear module in panel equipment data 1 9
4 Four programmable function keys for
Low-voltage compartment frequently performed actions.
2
■ Accommodates equipment for protec-
tion, control, measuring and metering, 3
e.g. bay controller SIPROTEC 4 type 10
7SJ62
■ Shock-protected from high-voltage 4
section by barriers
■ Low-voltage compartment can be
removed; ring and control cables are
plugged in
■ Option: low-voltage compartment of Bay controller SIPROTEC 4
increased height (980 mm) possible type 7SJ62
■ Option: partition wall between panels.
Fig. 25: Bay controller

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/21
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type NXAIR

Technical data
1
Rated voltage [kV] 12 15 17.5 24
Rated short-time
power-frequency
2 voltage [kV] 28 1) 36 38 50
Rated lightning
impulse voltage [kV] 75 95 95 125
Rated short-circuit
3 breaking current max. [kA] 31.5 31.5 25 25
Rated short-time
withstand current max. [kA] 31.5 31.5 25 25
Rated short-circuit
making current max. [kA] 80 80 63 63
4
Rated normal
current of busbar max. [A] 2500 2500 2500 2500
Rated normal
current of feeder max. [A] 2500 2500 2500 2500
5 Rated normal
current of trans-
former feeder Depends on rated current of fuse used
panels with
HV HRC fuses 2)
6 1) 42 kV on request
2) At 7.2 kV: max. rated current 250 A
at 12 kV: max rated current 150 A
at 15/17.5/24 kV: max. rated current 100 A

Fig. 26
7

Weights and dimensions

8 Width [mm] 800 800 800 800*) / 1000


Height [mm] 2000 2300 2300 2300
Height with high [mm] 2350 2650 2650 2650
LV compartment
9 Depth [mm] 1350 1550 1550 1550
Weight (approx.) [kg] 600
*) up to 1250 A rated normal current of feeder

10 Fig. 27

3/22 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Air-Insulated Switchgear
Type NXAIR

Incoming and Outgoing feeder Metering panel Transformer


outgoing feeder panel with with metering feeder panel with 1
panel with circuit- disconnector module transformer
breaker module module feeder module
and fuses

4
Switch Sectionalizer Bus riser panel Spur panel with
disconnector panel of the bus of the bus circuit-breaker
panel sectionalizer sectionalizer module

Feeder panel with Feeder panel with Feeder panel Feeder panel with
busbar current busbar earthing with busbar busbar voltage
metering switch connection metering 8
(optional)* (optional)* (optional)* (optional)*

10

Components shown with dashes are optional


* Not for feeder panels with open-circuit ventilation,
busbar current metering up to 12 kV, 25 kA

Fig. 28: Available circuit options

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/23
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DC11

Gas-insulated switchgear
1 type 8DC11

■ From 3.6 up to 24 kV
■ Triple-pole primary enclosure
■ SF6-insulated
2 ■ Vacuum circuit-breakers, fixed-mounted
■ Hermetically-sealed, welded, stainless-
steel switchgear enclosure
■ Three-position disconnector as busbar
disconnector and feeder earthing switch
3 ■ Make-proof grounding with
vacuum circuit breaker
■ Width 600 mm for all versions
up to 24 kV
■ Plug-in, single-pole, solid-insulated bus-
4 bars with outer conductive coating
■ Cable termination with external cone
connection system to EN 50181

Operator safety
5 ■ Safe-to-touch and hermetically-sealed
primary enclosure
■ All high-voltage parts, including the cable
sealing ends, busbars and voltage trans-
formers are surrounded by grounded
6 layers or metal enclosures
■ Capacitive voltage indication for check-
ing for ”dead“ state
■ Operating mechanisms and auxiliary
switches safely accessible outside the
primary enclosure (switchgear enclo-
7 sure)
■ Type-tested enclosure and interrogation
interlocking provide high degree of inter-
nal arcing protection
■ Arc-fault-tested acc. to IEC 60 298
8 ■ No need to interfere with the SF6-insu-
lation Fig. 29: Gas-insulated swichgear with vacuum circuit-breakers

Operational reliability
■ Hermetically-sealed primary enclosure ■ Complete switchgear interlocking with The 8DC11 is the result of the economical
9 for protection against environmental mechanical interrogation interlocks combination of SF6-insulation and vacuum
effects (dirt, moisture, insects and ro- ■ Welded switchgear enclosure, perma- technology. The insulating gas SF6 is used
dents). Degree of protection IP65 nently sealed for internal insulation only; circuit interrup-
■ Operating mechanism components ■ Minimum fire contribution tion takes place in standard vacuum break-
maintenance-free in indoor environment er bottles. The safety for the personnel
■ Installation independent of attitude for
10 (DIN VDE 0670 Part 1000) and the environment is maximized. The
feeders without HRC fuses
■ Breaker-operating mechanisms accessi- 8DC11 is completely maintenance-free.
■ Corrosion protection for all climates The welded gas-tight enclosure of the pri-
ble outside the enclosure (primary enclo-
sure) mary part assures an endurance of 30 years
General description without any work on the gas system.
■ Inductive voltage transformer metal-
enclosed for plug-in mounting outside Due to the excellent experience with vacu-
the main circuit um circuit breaker gas-insulated switch-
■ Toroidal-core current transformers gear, there is a worldwide rapidly increas-
located outside the primary enclosure, ing demand of this kind of switchgear even
i.e. free of dielectric stress in the so-called low-range field.

3/24 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DC11

1. Modular design and compact


dimensions
The 8DC switchboards consist of:
1 1 Low-voltage compartment 1
■ The maintenance-free SF6-gas-insulated 2 Busbar voltage transformer
switching module is three-phase encap-
sulated and contains the vacuum circuit- 3 Busbar current transformer
breaker and 3 position selector switch 2 4 Busbar 2
(ON/OFF/READY TO EARTH)
■ Parts for which single-phase encapsula- 5 SF6-filled enclosure
tion is essential are safe to touch, easily
accessible and not located in the switch- 3 6 Three-position switch
ing module, e.g. current and potential 4
transformers 7 Three-position switch
5 operating mechanism 3
■ The busbars are even single-phase
encapsulated, i.e. they are insulated by 8 Circuit-breaker operating
silicone rubber with an outer grounded mechanism
coating. The pluggable design assures a 7 6
high degree of flexibility and makes also 9 Circuit-breaker
the installation of busbar CTs and PTs (Vacuum interrupter) 4
simple.
8 10 Current transformers
2. Factory-assembled well-proven test- 9 11 Double cable connection
ed components with T-plugs
Switchgear based on well-proven compo- 10 5
12 PT disconnector
nents.
The 8DC switchgear design is based on 11 12 13 Voltage transformers
assembling methods and components
which have been used for years in our SF6- 14 Cable
insulated Ring Main Units (RMUs). For ex- 6
ample, the stainless-steel switchgear en- 15 Pressure relief duct
closure is hermetically-sealed by welding 13
without any gaskets. Bushings for the bus-
bar, cable and PT connection are welded in
this enclosure, as well as the rupture disc,
which is installed for pressure relief in the 7
unlikely event of an internal fault. Siemens
has had experience with this technique
14
since 1982; 50,000 RMUs are running trou- 15
ble-free.
Cable plugs with the so-called outer-cone
Fig. 30: Cross section through switchgear type 8DC11
8
system have been on the market for many
years.
The gas pressure monitoring system is nei-
ther affected by temperature fluctuations
nor by pressure fluctuations and shows 2 5 3
clearly whether the switchpanel is ”ready
9
for service“ or not. The monitor is magnet- 1 ”Ready for service“ indicator
ically coupled to an internal gas-pressure
reference cell; mechanical penetration 2 Pressure cell
through the housing is not required. A de- 1 3 Red indicator: Not ready
sign safe and reliable and, of course, well-
4 Green indicator: Ready
10
proven in our RMUs.
The vacuum circuit-breaker, i.e. the vacu- 5 Magnetic coupling
um interrupters and the operating mecha- Stainless-steel 4
nism, is also used in our standard switch- enclosure filled with
boards. The driving force for the primary SF6 gas at 0.5 bar
contacts of the vacuum interrupters is (gauge) at 20 °C
transferred via metal bellows into the SF6-
gas-filled enclosure. A technology that has
been successfully in operation in more
than 100,000 vacuum interrupters over 20 Fig. 31: Principle of gas monitoring (with ”Ready for service“ indicator)
years.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/25
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DC11

3. Current and potential transformers 4. No gas work at site and simplified HV tests can be omitted. Factory-tested
as per user’s application installation quality is ensured thanks to simplified
1 A step forward in switchgear design with- The demand for reliable, economical and
installation without any final adjustments
or difficult assembly work.
out any restriction to the existing system! maintenance-free switchgear is increasing
New switchgear developments are some- more and more in all power supply sys-
times overdesigned with the need for high- tems. Industrial companies and power sup- 5. Minimum space and maintenance-
ly sophisticated secondary monitoring and ply utilities are aware of the high invest- free, cost-saving factors
2 protection equipment, because current- ment and service costs needed to keep a
Panel dimensions reduced, cable-connec-
and potential-measuring devices are used reliable network running. Preventive main-
tenance must be carried out by trained and tion compartment enlarged!
with limited rated outputs.
costly personnel. The panel width of 600 mm and the depth
The result: of 1225 mm are just half of the truth. More
A modern switchgear design should not
Limited application in distribution systems only reduce the investment costs, but also important is the maximized size of the 8DC
3 due to interface problems with existing the service costs in the long run! switchgear cable-connection compartment.
devices; difficult operation and resetting of The access is from the switchgear front
parameters. The Siemens 8DC switchgear has been and the gap from the cable terminal to the
developed to fulfill those requirements. switchgear floor amounts to 740 mm.
The Siemens 8DC switchgear has no re- The modular concept with the mainte-
strictions. Current and potential transform- There is no need for any aisle behind the
nance-free units does not call for installa- switchgear lineup and a cable cellar is su-
4 ers with conventional characteristics are tion specialists and expensive testing and
available for all kinds of protection require- perfluous. A cable trench saves civil engi-
commissioning procedures. The switching neering costs and is fully sufficient with
ments. They are always fitted outside the module with the circuit-breaker and the
SF6-gas-filled container in areas of single- compact dimensions, such as width 500
three-position disconnector is sealed for mm and depth 600 mm.
pole accessibility, the safe-to-touch design life by gas-tight welding without any gas-
of both makes any kind of setting and test- kets. All other high-voltage components Consequently, the costs for the plot of land
5 ing under all service conditions easy. are connected by means of plugs, a tech- and civil work are reduced. Even more,
Current transformers can be installed in nology well-known from cable plugs with a substation can be located closer to the
the cable connection compartment at the long- lasting service and proven experience. consumer which can also solve cable
bushings and, if required additionally, at routing problems.
All cables will be connected by cable plugs
the cables (inside the cable connection with external cone connection system.
6 compartment). Busbar CTs for measuring In the case of XLPE cables, several manu- Busbar
and protection can be placed around the facturers even offer cable plugs with an
silicone-rubber-insulated busbars in any outer conductive coating (also standard for Features
panel. the busbars). Paper-insulated mass-impreg- ■ Single-pole, plug-in version
Potential transformers are of the metal- nated cables can be connected as well by ■ Made of round-bar copper, silicon-
clad pluggable design. Busbar PTs are Raychem heat-shrinkable sealing ends and
7 designed for repeated tests with 80% of adapters.
insulated
the rated power-frequency withstand volt- ■ Busbar connection with cross pieces
The pluggable busbars and PTs do not and end pieces, silicon-insulated
age, cable PTs can be isolated from the require work on the SF6 system at site. In-
live parts by means of a disconnection ■ Field control with the aid of electro-
stallation costs are considerably reduced conductive layers on the silicon-rubber
device which is part of the SF6-gas-filled (all components are pluggable) because,
switching module. This allows high-voltage insulation (both inside and outside)
8 testing of the switchboard with AC and the
contrary to standard GIS, even the site
■ External layers earthed with the switch-
cable with DC without having to remove gear enclosure to permit access
the PTs. ■ Insensitive to dirt and condensation
■ Shock-hazard protected in form of metal
covering
9 ■ Switchgear can be extended or panels
replaced without affecting the SF6 gas
enclosures.

10

Fig. 32: Plug-in busbar (front view with removed low-voltage panel)

3/26 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DC11

Fig. 33: Vacuum circuit-breaker (open on operating-mechanism side)

4
4 5 6 7 8 2 9 3 1 Primary part SF6-insulated,
with vacuum interrupter
2 Part of switchgear enclosure
3 Operating-mechanism box
(open) 5
4 Fixed contact element
5 Pole support
6 Vacuum interrupter
7 Movable contact element
6
8 Metal bellows
1 9 Operating mechanism

Fig. 34: Vacuum circuit-breaker (sectional view)


7
Switch-disconnector Metering
Circuit-breaker panel Disconnector panel Busbar section
panel with fuses

1)
9

10
Basic versions
Vacuum circuit-breaker Disconnector panel Switch-disconnector Busbar section with Switch-disconnector
panel and three-position with three-position panel with three-position 2 three-position panel with three-position
disconnector disconnector switch disconnector disconnectors and switch disconnector
and HV HCR fuses vacuum circuit-breaker and HV HCR fuses
in one panel
Optional equipment indicated by means of broken lines 1) Current transformer: electrically, this is assigned to the switchpanel,
can be installed/omitted in part or whole. its actual physical location, however, is on the adjacent panel.

Fig. 35: Switchpanel versions

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/27
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DC11

Technical data Weights and dimensions


1
Rated voltage [kV] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24 Width [mm] 600

Height [mm] 2250


Rated power-frequency
2 withstand voltage [kV] 20 28 36 38 50
Depth single-busbar [mm] 1225
double-busbar [mm] 2370
Rated lightning impulse
withstand voltage [kV] 60 75 95 95 125 Weight single-busbar [kg] 700
(approx.) double-busbar [kg] 1200
3 Rated short-circuit
breaking current Fig. 37
Rated short-time
current, 3 s max. [kA] 25 25 25 25 25
Cable connection systems
4 Rated short-circuit
making current [kA] 63 63 63 63 63
Features

[A] ■ 8DC11 switchgear for thermoplastic-


Rated busbar current 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250
insulated cables with cross-sections
up to 630 mm2
5 Rated feeder current max. [A] 1250 1250 1250 1250 1250 ■ Standard cable termination height of
740 mm
Rated current of switch- ■ High connection point, simplifying
disconnector panels assembly and cable-testing work
with fuses max. fuse [A] 100 80 63 63 50
■ Phase reversal simple, if necessary,
6 Fig. 36: Technical data of switchgear type 8DC11
due to symmetrical arrangement of
cable sealing ends
■ Cover panel of cable termination com-
partment earthed
Climate and ambient conditions Internal arc test ■ Nonconnected feeders:
7 The 8DC11 fixed-mounted circuit breaker Tests have been carried out with 8DC11 – Isolate
is fully enclosed and entirely unaffected switchgear in order to verify its behavior – Ground
by ambient conditions. under conditions of internal arcing. – Secure against re-energizing
■ All medium-voltage switching devices The resistance to internal arcing complies (e.g. with padlock)
are enclosed in a stainless-steel housing, with the requirements of:
8 which is welded gas-tight and filled with ■ IEC 60 298 AA Types of cable termination
SF6 gas
■ DIN VDE 0670 Part 601, 9.84 Circuit-breaker and disconnector panels
■ Live parts outside the switchgear enclo- with cable T-plugs for bushings, with M16
These guidelines have been applied in
sure are single-pole enclosed terminal thread according to EN 50181
accordance with PEHLA Guideline No. 4.
■ There are no points at which leakage type C.
currents of high-voltage potentials are
9 able to flow off to ground Protection against electric shock Switch disconnector panels with elbow
and the ingress of water and solid cable plugs for bushings, with plug-in con-
■ All essential components of the operat- nection according to EN 50181 type A.
ing mechanism are made of noncorrod- foreign bodies
ing materials The 8DC11 fixed-mounted circuit breaker
■ Ambient temperature range: offer the following degrees of protection in
10 –5 to +55°C. accordance with IEC 60 259:
■ IP3XD for external enclosure
■ IP65 for high-voltage components of
switchpanels without HV HRC fuses

3/28 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DC11

1 Low-voltage compartment 1
5 2 Operating mechanism
1 3 Cable connection
4 Current transformer 2
6 5 Panel link
6 Busbar
7
7 Gas compartment
2 8 8 Three-position switch
3
9 Voltage transformer

4
3

4
5
9

Fig. 38: Double busbar: Back-to-back arrangement (cross section)


7

Single cable Double cable Termination for surge arrester Termination


for switch discon-
nector panel
8

10

Fig. 39: Types of cable termination, outer cone system

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/29
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DA/8DB10

Gas-insulated switchgear General description 3. Three-position switch and circuit-


breaker
type 8DA/8DB10 The switchgear type 8DA10 represents the
1 successful generation of gas-insulated me- The required isolation of any feeder from
dium-voltage switchgear with fixed-mount- the busbar, and its often desired grounding
■ Single-busbar: type 8DA ed, maintenance-free vacuum circuit-break- is provided by means of a sturdy, mainte-
Double-busbar: type 8DB ers. The insulating gas SF6 is used for nance-free three-way switch arranged be-
internal insulation only; circuit interruption tween the busbars and the vacuum break-
■ From 7.2 to 40.5 kV
2 ■ Single and double-busbar
takes place in standard vacuum breaker er bottles. This switch is mechanically
bottles. interlocked with the circuit breaker. The
■ Gas-insulated operations ”On/Isolated“ and ”Isolated/
■ Type-tested Grounding selected“ are carried out by
1. Encapsulation means of two different rotary levers. The
■ Metal-clad (encapsulated)
■ Compartmented All high-voltage conductors and interrupter grounding of the feeder is completed by
3 ■ Fixed-mounted vacuum breaker elements are enclosed in two identical closing the circuit-breaker. To facilitate
cast-aluminum housings, which are ar- replacement of a vacuum tube with the
ranged at 90° angles to each other. The busbars live, the switch is located entirely
Specific features aluminum alloy used is corrosion-free. within the busbar compartment.
■ Practically maintenance-free compact The upper container carries the copper The vacuum circuit-breakers used are of
switchgear for the most severe service busbars with its associated vacuum-potted
4 epoxy insulators, and the three-way selec-
the type 3AH described on pages 3/74 ff
conditions of this section. Mounted in the gas-insulat-
■ Fixed-mounted maintenance-free vacu- tor switch for the feeder with the three ed switchgear, the operating mechanism is
um breakers positions ON/ISOLATED/GROUNDING placed at the switchgear front and the vac-
SELECTED. The other housing contains uum interrupters are located inside the gas
■ Only two moving parts and two dynamic
the vacuum breaker interrupter. The two filled enclosures. The number of operating
seals in gas enclosure of each pole
5 ■ Feeder grounding via circuit-breaker
housings are sealed against each other, cycles is 30,000. Since any switching arc
and against the cable connecting area by that occurs is contained within the vacuum
■ Only 600 mm bay width and identical arc-proof and gas-tight epoxy bushings tube, contamination of the insulating gas is
dimensions from 7.2 to 40.5 kV with O-ring seals. Busbar enclosure and not possible.
breaker enclosures form separate gas
Safety and reliability compartments.
6 The hermetical sealing of all HV compo-
4. Instrument transformers
■ Safe to touch – hermetically-sealed
grounded metal enclosure. nents prevents contamination, moisture, Toroidal-type current transformers with
and foreign objects of any kind – the lead- multiple secondary windings are arranged
■ All HV and internal mechanism parts
ing cause of arcing faults – from entering outside the metallic enclosure around the
maintenance-free for 20 years the switchgear. This reduces the require- cable terminations. Thus there is no high
■ Minor gas service only after 10 years
7 ■ Arc-fault-tested
ment for maintenance and the probability potential exposed on these CTs and sec-
of a fault due to the above to practically ondary connections are readily accessible.
■ Single-phase encapsulation – zero. All moving parts and items requiring All commonly used burden and accuracy
no phase-to-phase arcing inspection and occasional lubrication are ratings are available.
■ All switching operations from dead-front readily accessible. Bus metering and measuring are by induc-
operating panel tive, gas-insulated potential transformers
8 ■ Live line test facility on panel front which are plugged into fully insulated and
2. Insulation medium
■ Drive mechanism and CT secondaries gas-tight bushings on top of the switch-
Sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6) gas is the prime gear.
freely and safely accessible
insulation medium in this switchgear.
■ Fully insulated cable and busbar connec-
Vacuum-potted cast-resin insulators and
tions available bushings supplement the gas and can 5. Feeder connections
9 ■ Positive mechanical interlocking withstand the operating voltage in the ex- All commonly used solid-dielectric insulat-
■ External parts of instrument transform- tremely unlikely case of a total gas loss in ed single and three-phase cables can be
ers free of dielectric stresses. a compartment. The SF6 gas serves addi- connected conveniently to the breaker en-
tionally as corrosion inhibiter by keeping closures from below. Normally, fully insu-
Tolerance to environment oxygen away from the inner components. lated plug-in terminations are used. Also,
10 ■ Hermetically-sealed enclosure protects
The guaranteed leakage rate of any gas fully insulated and gas-insulated busbar
compartment is less than 1% per year. systems of the DURESCA/GAS LINK type
all high-voltage parts from the environ-
Thus no scheduled replenishment of gas is can be used. The latter two termination
ment
required. Each compartment has its methods maintain the fully insulated and
■ Installation independent of altitude own gas supervision by contact-pressure safe-to-touch concept of the entire switch-
■ Corrosion protection for all climates. gauges. gear, rendering the terminations mainte-
nance-free as well.
In special cases, air-insulated conventional
cable connection is available.

3/30 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DA/8DB10

8DA10 1
1
1 Low-voltage cubicle
2 2 Secondary equipment (SIPROTEC 4)

3 3 Busbar
4 Cast aluminum 2
4 5 Disconnector
6 Operating mechanism and
interlocking device
for three-position switch 3
6 7 Three-position switch
7 8 CB pole with upper and lower
bushings
8
9 CB operating mechanism
9 10 Vacuum interrupter
4
10 11 Connection
12 Current transformer
11
13 Rack
12 5
13

Fig. 40: Schematic cross-section for switchgear type 8DA10, single-busbar 6

8DB10
7

1
2
3 8
4
5

9
6
7
8
9 10
10
11
12
13

Fig. 41: Schematic cross-section for switchgear type 8DB10, double-busbar

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/31
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DA/8DB10

6. Low-voltage cabinet
All feeder-related electronic protection
1 devices, auxiliary relays, and measuring
and indicating devices are installed in met-
al-enclosed low-voltage cabinets on top of
each breaker bay. A central terminal strip
of the lineup type is also located there for
2 all LV customer wiring. PCB-type protec-
tion relays and individual-type protection
devices are normally used, depending on
the number of protective functions re-
quired.
2250
3 7. Interlocking system
The circuit-breaker is fully interlocked with
the isolator/grounding switch by means of
solid mechanical linkages. It is impossible
to operate the isolator with the breaker
4 closed, or to remove the switch from the
GROUND SELECTED position with the
breaker closed. Actual grounding is done
via the circuit-breaker itself.
Busbar grounding is possible with the 600
5 available make-proof grounding switch.
If a bus sectionalizer or bus coupler is in-
stalled, busbar grounding can be done via 1525
the three-way switch and the correspond-
ing circuit-breaker of these panels.
The actual isolator position is positively dis-
6 played by rigid mechanical indicators. Fig. 42: Dimensions of switchgear type 8DA10, double-busbar

Switchgear type 8DB10, double-busbar


The double-busbar switchgear has been
developed from the components of the
7 switchgear type 8DA10. Two three-position
switches are used for the selection of the
850**

busbars. They have their own gas-filled


components. The second busbar system is
located phasewise behind the first busbar
8 system.
The bay width of the switchgear remains
unchanged; depth and height of each bay
are increased (see dimension drawings 2350
Fig. 43).
For parallel bus couplings, only one bay is
9 required.

10

2660

Fig. 43: Dimensions of switchgear type 8DB10, double-busbar

3/32 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DA/8DB10

Degrees of protection
Cable cross-sections for plug-in terminations 1)
In accordance with IEC 60529:
1
■ Degree of protection IP 3XD:
Interface Rated voltage
The operating mechanism and the low- type
voltage cubicle have degree of protection 7.2/12/15 kV 17.5/24 kV 36 kV
IP 3XD against contact with live parts with Cable cross-section
objects larger than 1 mm in diameter. Pro-
tection against dripping water is optionally [mm2] [mm2] [mm2] 2
available. Space heaters inside the operat-
ing mechanism and the LV cabinet are 2 up to 300 up to 300 up to 185
available for tropical climates.
■ Degree of protection IP 65: 3 400 to 630 400 to 630 240 to 500
By the nature of the enclosure, all high- 3
voltage-carrying parts are totally protected 4 up to 1200 up to 1200 up to 1200
against contact with live parts, dust and
water jets. 1) The plug-in terminations are of the inside cone type acc. to EN 50181: 1997

Fig. 44
Installation 4
The switchgear bays are shipped in prefab-
ricated assemblies up to 5 bays wide on Weights and dimensions
solid wooden pallets, suitable for rolling,
skidding and fork-lift handling. Double-bus-
bar sections are shipped as single or dou- 5
ble bays. The switchgear is designed for Width [mm] 600
indoor operation; outdoor prefabricated en-
closures are available. Each bay is set onto
Height single-busbar (8DA) [mm] 2250
embedded steel profile sections in a flat
concrete floor, with suitable cutouts for the
double-busbar (8DB) [mm] 2350
cables or busbars. All conventional cables 6
can be connected, either with fully insulat- Depth single-busbar (8DA) [mm] 1525
ed plug-in terminations (preferred), or with double-busbar (8DB) [mm] 2660
conventional air-insulated stress cones.
Fully insulated busbars are also connected
directly, without any HV-carrying parts ex- Weight per bay single-busbar (8DA) [kg] approx. 600 7
posed. Operating aisles are required in double-busbar (8DB) [kg] approx. 1150
front of and (in case of double-busbar sys-
tems) behind the switchgear lineup. Fig. 45

8
Ambient temperature and current-carrying capacity:

Rated ambient temperature (peak) 40 °C


9
Rated 24-h mean temperature 35 °C

Minimum temperature –5 °C

At elevated ambient temperatures, 30 °C = 110% 10


the equipment must be derated as follows
(expressed in percent of current at rated 35 °C = 105%
ambient conditions).
40 °C = 100%

45 °C = 90%

50 °C = 80%

Fig. 46

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/33
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DA/8DB10

Options for circuit-breaker feeder of


1 switchgear type 8DA10, single-busbar

Busbar accessories
2
Mounted on
breaker housing

Mounted on current
3 transformer housing
Panel connection
options per phase Mounted
on panel
Voltage connections
transformer,
4 nondisconnectable 1 x plug-in cable
or disconnectable termination
Interface type 2 and 3 Mounted
on panel
or Make-proof or connections
earthing
switch
5 Totally gas or Mounted
solid-insulated bar on panel
Cable or bar connections
or or
connection,
nondisconnectable 3 x plug-in cable termination
or disconnectable Interface type 2
6
or Sectionalizer or 3 x plug-in cable Mounted
without additional
space required termination on panel
Interface type 3 connections

7 Busbar current Current


or or 5 x plug-in cable Mounted
transformer transformer
termination on panel
Interface type 2 connections

2 x plug-in cable
8 or termination
Interface type 2 and 3 Mounted
with plug-in voltage on panel
transformer connections

or
9 Totally solid-insulated
bar with plug-in
voltage transformer
or
Surge
10 Air-insulated cable
arrester
termination

or
Air-insulated bar

Plug-in cable terminations are of the


Inside Cone Type acc. to EN 50181: 1997

Fig. 47

3/34 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DA/8DB10

Options for circuit-breaker feeder of


switchgear type 8DB10, double-busbar 1

BB1
BB2
Busbar accessories
2
Mounted on
breaker housing

Mounted on current 3
transformer housing
Panel connection Mounted
options per phase on panel
Voltage connections
BB1 BB2
transformer,
nondisconnectable 4
1 x plug-in cable
termination Mounted
Interface type 2 and 3 on panel
BB1 or BB2 Voltage or connections
transformer,
disconnectable
Totally gas or
5
Mounted
solid-insulated bar on panel
or Make-proof or connections
BB1 BB2
earthing
switch 3 x plug-in cable termination
Interface type 2 6
BB1 BB2 or BB1 Cable or bar or
and BB2 connection,
nondisconnectable 3 x plug-in cable termination
Interface type 3
7
Cable or bar or 5 x plug-in cable termination Current
BB1 BB2 or BB1 connection,
and BB2 Interface type 2 transformer
disconnectable

Busbar current or
2 x plug-in cable termination 8
Interface type 2 and 3
BB1 or BB2 transformer with plug-in voltage Mounted on
transformer panel connections

or BB1 Sectionalizer
BB2 without additional
or 9
space required Totally solid insulated
bar with plug-in
voltage transformer

or
Air-insulated cable Surge
10
termination arrester

or Air-insulated bar

Plug-in cable terminations are of the


Inside Cone Type acc. to EN 50181: 1997

Fig. 48

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/35
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DA/8DB10

Technical data
1
Rated voltage [kV] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24 36 40.5

Rated power-frequency [kV] 20 28 36 38 50 70 85


2 withstand voltage

Rated lightning-impulse [kV] 60 75 95 95 125 170 180


withstand voltage (200)

3 Rated short-circuit max. [kA] 40 40 40 40 40 40 40


breaking current
and rated short-time
current 3s,

Rated short-circuit max. [kA] 110 110 110 110 110 110 110
4 making current

Rated current busbar max. [A] 3150 3150 3150 3150 3150 2500 2500
with twin busbar max. [A] 4500 4500 4500 4500 4500 4500 4500

5 Rated current feeder max. [A] 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500

Fig. 49

6 Further Applications Twin-Busbar System (TBS)


This primary distribution switchgear is
Power Supply for Railway Systems based on the worldwide proven SF6-insu-
Type 8DA10 SF6 gas-insulated switchgear lated type 8DA / 8DB switchgear and has
(single and double-pole) (Fig. 50a). been supplemented by a twin busbar
7 This type has been upgraded for service in (Fig. 50b).
railway networks with a basic-impulse in- The use of standard components allowed
sulation level (BIL) of 200 (230) kV. us in a remarkably short time to create
It is therefore the ideal switchgear from a modular, compact type of switch-
for 1 x 25 kV and 2 x 25 kV (50/60 Hz) gear a high-current system unbeatable in
8 railway networks. terms of minimal space requirement.
Typical occurrences in railway networks The modular-structure busbars were ar-
prove the suitability of the switchgear for ranged in twin-busbar form. This twin-busbar
such applications: system is supplied via a twin circuit-breaker
■ Effects of lightning strikes
and respective twin disconnector. All stand-
ard panel types required (incoming feeder,
9 ■ Switching impulse voltage
coupler, outgoing feeder) are available.
■ Breaking under asynchronous conditions
with a 180° phase difference
■ Recovery voltage after breaking under
asynchronous conditions with a 180°
10 phase difference.

3/36 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type 8DA/8DB10

Further applications for 8DA/8DB


1
a) Power Supply for Railway Systems

1-pole 2-pole
2

b) High Power Busbar 4500 A with Twin Busbar System (TBS)

8DA (single busbar) 8DB (double busbar)


7

10

Fig. 50 a/b

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/37
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type NX PLUS

Gas-insulated switchgear type Specific features Panel construction


NX PLUS ■ Used in transformer stations and sub-
1 stations
■ Practically maintenance-free compact
■ From 7.2 up to 36 kV switchgear for the most severe service Panel with integrated inside cone
■ Single-busbar conditions
■ Metal enclosed/metal-clad ■ Panel width 600 mm
2 ■ Three-pole primary enclosure (with bus sectionalizer panel 900 mm) Features
■ Gas-insulated for all voltages up to 36 kV ■ Rated voltage up to 36 kV
■ Fixed-mounted circuit-breakers ■ Rated short-circuit breaking current
■ Three-position switch as busbar discon- General description up to 31.5 kA
nector and feeder earthing switch ■ Rated normal currents of busbars and
The switchgear type NX PLUS combines
3 ■ Make-proof earthing with vacuum compact design, long service life, climate- feeders up to 2500 A.
circuit-breaker resistance and freedom from maintenance

1. Reliablility
■ Hermetically sealed primary enclosure
4 for protection against environmental ef-
fects (dirt, moisture and small animals)
■ Operating mechanism components
maintenance-free in indoor environment
(DIN VDE 0670 Part 1000)
■ Breaker operating mechanisms acces-
5 sible outside the switchgear container
(primary enclosure)
■ Inductive voltage transformers metal-
enclosed for plug-in mounting outside
the main circuit
6 ■ Ring-core current transformers located
outside the primary enclosure
■ Complete interrogative interlocking
system
■ Welded switchgear container, sealed Panel with separate inside cone
7 for life
■ Minimum fire load. Features
2. Insulation medium ■ Rated voltage up to 36 kV
■ Rated short-circuit breaking current
Due to the excellent experience with vacu-
up to 31.5 kA
um circuit-breaker gas-insulated switch-
8 gear, there is a worldwide rapidly increas- ■ Rated normal currents of busbars and
ing demand of this kind of switchgear even feeders up to 2500 A.
in the so-called low-range field.
The insulating gas SF6 is used for internal
insulation only; circuit interruption takes
9 place in standard vacuum breaker bottles.
The safety for the personnel and the envi-
ronment is maximized. Panel with outside cone
The NX PLUS is completely maintenance-
free. The welded gas-tight enclosure of the
primary part assures a full service life with- Features
10 out any work on the gas system. ■ Rated voltage up to 24 kV
■ Rated short-circuit breaking current up
to 25 kA
Fig. 51: SF6-insulated switchgear
Type NX PLUS with SIPROTEC ■ Rated normal currents of busbars up
to 2500 A and feeders up to 1250 A.

Fig. 52

3/38 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type NX PLUS

1
1 Door of low-voltage compartment
2 SIPROTEC 4 bay controller, type
7SJ63, for control and protection
3 EMERGENCY OFF pushbutton 2
4 Door to mechanical control board
6 15 5 Cover of connection compartment
7
29 6 Busbar cover
8 7 Busbar module, welded, 3
16 SF6-insulated
1 9
8 Three-pole busbar system
17 9 Three-position switch, SF6-insulated,
10 with the three positions:
2 18 ON – OFF – EARTH 4
11 10 Module coupling between busbar
module and circuit-breaker module
12 19
3 11 Circuit-breaker module, welded,
29 SF6-insulated, with integrated cable
4 20 connection 5
13 12 Vacuum interrupter of circuit-breaker
5 21
13 Pressure-relief duct
14 22 14 Integrated cable connection as inside
cone
15 Optional low-voltage compartment
6
1100 mm high
16 Standard low-voltage compartment
730 mm high
17 Ring-core current transformer 7
18 Manual and motor operating
29 mechanism of three-position switch
19 Mechanical control board
23
20 Manual and motor operating
17 mechanism of circuit-breaker 8
24 21 Voltage transformer connection
29 21
socket as inside cone
25 22 22 Cable connection compartment
23 Module coupling between 9
circuit-breaker and cable connection
module
24 Cable connection module, welded,
SF6-insulated, with separate cable
29 connection
11 25 Separate cable connection as inside
10
17 cone
26 Voltage transformer connection
26 socket as outside cone
27 22 27 Cable connection as outside cone
28 28 Connection cables
29 Rupture diaphragm

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/39
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type NX PLUS

Tolerance to environment
■ Hermetically-sealed enclosure protects Technical data
1 all high-voltage parts from the environ-
ment Rated voltage up to [kV] 24 36 (40.5*)
■ Installation independent of altitude
Rated frequency [Hz] 50/60 50/60
■ Corrosion protection for all climates.
Rated short-time power-frequency voltage [kV] 50 70 (85*)
2 Operator safety Rated lightning impulse voltage [kV] 125 170 (185*)
■ Safe-to-touch and hermetically sealed Rated short-circuit max. [kA] 31.5 31.5
primary enclosure breaking current
■ All HV parts, including the cable sealing and rated short-time
ends, busbars and voltage transformers, withstand current, 3 s
3 are surrounded by earthed layers or met- Rated short-circuit making current max. [kA] 80 80
al enclosures
■ Capacitive voltage detection system for Rated normal current of busbar max. [A] 2500 2500
verification of safe isolation from supply Rated normal current of feeder max. [A] 2500 2500
■ Operating mechanisms and auxiliary
4 switches safely accessible outside the *) On request
primary enclosure (switchgear container)
■ Protective system interlock to prevent Fig. 53
operation when enclosure is open
■ Type-tested enclosure and interrogative
5 interlocks provide high degree of internal Weights and dimensions
arcing protection.

Width [mm] 600


Width of sectionalizer panel (≤ 2000 A) 900

6 Width sectionalizer panel (> 2000 A) [mm] 1200


Height [mm] 2450
Height with higher LV compartment [mm] 2630
Depth [mm] 1600
7 Weight per panel (approx.) [kg] 800

Fig. 54

10

3/40 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type NX PLUS

Control board Solid-state HMI with panel door SIPROTEC 4 bay controller,
closed type 7SJ63 1
(The basic unit for this is in the
Bay controller
low-voltage compartment)
Solid-state HMI
(human-machine interface)
SIPROTEC 4 bay controller, type 7SJ63,
PROFIBUS-capable, control and protection 2
for stand-alone or master operation. 5 1

2
3
3
6
4

4
1 LCD for process and equipment information, graphically as feeder mimic control
diagram and as text
2 Keys for navigating in menus, in feeder mimic control diagram and for entering values
3 Keys for controlling the process
4 Four programmable function keys for frequently performed actions 5
5 Fourteen programmable LEDs with possible application-related inscriptions for
indicating any desired process and equipment data
6 Two key-operated switches for “changeover between local and remote control“ and
“changeover between interlocked and non-interlocked position“.

Fig. 55 6
Mechanical control board
Mechanical control board 1 ON/OFF position indication for three-
Features with panel door open position switch
■ Arranged behind panel door 2 ON/OFF operating shaft for three-position 7
■ Opening of door switches of the switch
SIPROTEC 4 bay controller, type 7SJ63, 1 2 3 4 3 OFF/EARTHING PREPARED operating
automatically shaft for three-position switch
■ Three-position switch interlocked
4 OFF/EARTHING PREPARED position
with circuit-breaker
indication for three-position switch 8
■ Cancelling of feeder earthing can be 5
blocked mechanically. 6 5 Mimic diagram
6 Ready indication for busbar module
7 (gas compartment monitoring)
8 7 Ready indication for circuit-breaker
module (gas compartment monitoring)
9
9
10 8 Interlocking for preselection
11 9 ON/OFF position indication for circuit-
12 breaker
13
10 Manual spring charging for circuit-breaker 10
14 11 ON pushbutton for circuit-breaker with
15
sealable cap
12 OFF pushbutton for circuit-breaker
13 Locking device for ”feeder earthed”
14 ”Spring charged” indication for circuit-
breaker
15 Operating cycle counter for circuit-breaker

Fig. 56

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/41
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type NX PLUS

Options for circuit-breaker panel


with cable connection as inside cone for:
1 Busbar fittings
■ Rated voltage up to 36 kV
Fittings
■ Rated short-circuit breaking current up to before circuit-breaker module
31.5 kA
■ Rated normal currents of busbars and Fittings
feeders up to 2500 A. after circuit-breaker module 4)
2 1)
Also available as Disconnector panel. 1) Panel connection
fittings

3
Panel connection
versions

4 Capacitive 1 x plug-in Voltage Current


voltage cable, sizes trans- trans-
detection 2 or 3 former, former
system plug-in
type

5
or 2) 1 x plug-in or 2 x plug-in
cable, cable, sizes
size 2 2 or 3

6
or 2) Voltage or 3 x plug-in
trans- cable, sizes
former, 2 or 3
plug-in
7 type

or 2) Surge or 4 x plug-in
arrester, cable, size 2
plug-in
8 type

and 3) Busbar or Solid-


9 current
trans-
insulated
bar
former (e.g. Duresca bar)

10 Surge arrester,
plug-in type

1) Capacitive voltage detection system according to LRM or IVDS system.


2) Not possible with rated normal current of feeder of 2500 A.
3) Not possible with busbar voltage transformer.
4) Requires cable connection with container for separate inside cone.

Fig. 57

3/42 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type NX PLUS

Options for circuit-breaker panel


with cable connection as outside cone for:
Busbar fittings
1
■ Rated voltage up to 24 kV
Fittings
■ Rated short-circuit breaking current up to before circuit-breaker module
25 kA
■ Rated normal currents of busbars up to Fittings
2500 A and feeders up to 1250 A. after circuit-breaker module
2
Also available as Disconnector panel. 1)
1) Panel connection
fittings

3
Panel connection
versions

Capaci- 1 x plug-in Voltage Current 4


tive cable trans- trans-
voltage former, former
detection discon-
system nectable
5
or 1 x plug-in or 2 x plug-in
cable, cable
size 2

6
or Voltage or 3 x plug-in
trans- cable
former,
plug-in
type 7

or Surge
arrester,
plug-in
type 8

and 2) Busbar
current
trans-
9
former

Surge arrester 10
or limiter,
plug-in type

1) Capacitive voltage detection system according to LRM or IVDS system.


2) Not possible with busbar voltage transformer.

Fig. 58

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/43
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type NX PLUS

Options for sectionalizer panel


■ Rated voltage up to 36 kV Sectionalizer panel
1 ■ Rated short-circuit breaking current up to
31.5 kA
■ Rated normal currents of busbar up to
2500 A.
Busbar Fittings before circuit-
fittings breaker module
2
1)

Capacitive Current
4 1)
voltage transformer
detection
system

5 Busbar
and current
transformer

6
1) Not possible with rated normal current of busbar of 2500 A.

Fig. 59
7

10

3/44 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
SF6-Insulated Switchgear
Type NX PLUS

Standards, specifications, Internal arc test, Protection against electric shock,


resistance to internal arcs the ingress of water and solid foreign
guidelines bodies 1
Internal arc test
The NX PLUS fixed-mounted circuit-break-
Standards Tests have been carried out with NX PLUS er switchgear is fully enclosed and entirely
switchgear, in order to verify its behaviour unaffected by climatic influences.
The NX PLUS switchgear complies with under conditions of internal arcing. ■ All medium-voltage switching devices
the standards and specifications listed
below: The resistance to internal arcing complies are enclosed in a stainless steel contain- 2
with the requirements of er, which is welded gas-tight and filled
■ VDE 0670, Part 1000 with SF6 gas.
■ VDE 0670, Part 6, Appendix AA
■ VDE 0670, Part 6 ■ Live parts outside the switchgear con-
■ IEC 60 298, Appendix AA.
■ VDE 0670, Part 101 et seq. tainer are single-pole insulated and
■ VDE 0670, Part 2 Resistance to internal arcs screened.
3
■ IEC 60 694 The possibility of faults in the NX PLUS ■ There are no points at which leakage
■ IEC 60 298 fixed-mounted circuit-breaker switchgear is currents of high-voltage potential are
■ IEC 60 056 much less than in previous types, due to able to flow off to earth.
■ IEC 60 129. the single-pole enclosure of external com- ■ All essential components of the operat-
ponents and the SF6 insulation of the ing mechanism are made of non-corrod-
In accordance with the obligatory harmoni- 4
switchgear: ing materials.
zation in the European Community, the na-
tional standards of the member countries ■ All external fault-causing factors have
conform to IEC 60 298. been eliminated, such as: Degrees of protection
– Pollution deposits The NX PLUS fixed-mounted circuit-break-
Type of service location – Moisture er switchgear offers the following degrees
– Small animals and foreign bodies of protection in accordance with IEC 60 529: 5
NX PLUS switchgear can be used as an
■ Maloperations are prevented by the ■ IP3XD for external enclosure
indoor installation in accordance with
clear, logical layout of the operating ele- ■ IP65 for parts under high voltage
VDE 0101:
ments
■ Outside closed electrical operating areas ■ The three-position switch and the vacu-
in locations not accessible to the general um circuit-breaker provide short-circuit- 6
public. Tools are required to remove proof earthing of the feeder.
switchgear enclosures.
Should arcing occur in spite of this, the
■ In closed electrical operating areas. pressure is relieved towards the rear into a
A closed electrical operating area is a duct.
room or area which is used solely for
the operation of electrical installations. In the improbable event of a fault inside 7
This type of area is locked at all times the switchgear container, the SF6 insula-
and accessible only to authorized trained tion restricts the arc energy to only about
personnel and other skilled staff. Un- 1/3 of that for air. The pressure-relief facil-
trained or unskilled persons must be ac- ity in the rear panel of the switchgear con-
companied by authorized personnel. tainer is designed to operate in an over-
pressure range of 2 to 3.5 bar. The gases 8
are discharged towards the rear into a duct.
Definition
The pressure-relief duct diverts the gases
“Make-proof earthing switches“ are earth- upwards.
ing switches with short-circuit making ca-
pacity (VDE 0670, Part 2). 9

10

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/45
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear and Transformer Substations

General Features Standards


■ The fixed-mounted ring-main units
1 Maximum personnel safety
type 8DJ10, 8DJ20, 8DJ40 and 8DH10
The secondary distribution network with
■ High-grade steel housing and cable con- comply with the following standards:
its basic design of ring-main systems with
nection compartment tested for resist-
counter stations as well as radial-feed
ance to internal arcing
transformer substations is designed in
order to reduce network losses and to ■ Logical interlocking IEC Standard VDE Standard
2 provide an economical solution for switch- ■ Guided operating procedures
gear and transformer substations. ■ Capacitive voltage indication integrated
in unit IEC 60 694 VDE 0670 Part 1000
These are installed with an extremely high
number of units in the distribution net- ■ Safe testing for dead state on the IEC 60 298 VDE 0670 Part 6
work. Therefore, high standardization of closed-off operating front IEC 60 129 VDE 0670 Part 2
3 equipment is necessary and economical. ■ Locked, grounded covers for fuse as-
IEC 60 282 VDE 0670 Part 4
The described switchgear will show such sembly and cable connection compart-
qualities. ments IEC 60 265-1 VDE 0670 Part 301
To reduce the network losses the trans- Safe, reliable, maintenance-free IEC 60 420 VDE 0670 Part 303
former substations should be installed
directly at the load centers. ■ Corrosion-resistant hermetically welded IEC 60 056 VDE 0670 Part 101–107
4 high-grade steel housing without seals
The transformer substations consisting of IEC 61 243-5 EVDE 0682 Part 415
and resistant to pressure cycles
medium-voltage switchgear, transformers EN 61 243-5(E)
■ Insulating gas retaining its insulating and
and low-voltage distribution can be de-
quenching properties throughout the Fig. 60
signed as prefabricated units or single
service life
components installed in any building or
5 ■ Single-phase encapsulation outside In accordance with the harmonization
rooms existing on site.
the housing agreement reached by the European Union
Due to the large number of units in the member states that their national specifica-
■ Clear indication of readiness for
networks the most economical solution for tions conform to IEC Publication
operation, unaffected by temperature
such substations should have climate-inde- No. 60 298.
or altitude
pendent and maintenance-free equipment
■ Complete protection of the switch
6 so that operation of the equipment does
disconnector/fuse combination, even Resistance to internal arcing
not need any maintenance work during its
lifetime. in the event of thermal overload of
– IEC Publ. 60 298, Annex AA
the HV HRC fuse (thermal protection
For such transformer substations, nonex- function) – VDE 0670, Part 6
tensible and extensible switchgear, for in-
■ Reliable, maintenance-free switching
stance ring-main units (RMUs), have been
7 developed using SF6 gas as insulation and
devices
arc-quenching medium in the case of load- Excellent resistance to ambient conditions For further information please contact:
break systems (RMUs), and SF6 gas insula-
■ Robust, corrosion-resistant and mainte- Fax: ++ 49 - 91 31-73 46 36
tion and vacuum as arc-quenching medium
in the case of extensible modular switch- nance-free operating mechanisms
■ Maintenance-free, all-climate, safe-to-
8 gear, consisting of load-break panels with
touch cable terminations
or without fuses, circuit-breaker panels and
metering panels. ■ Creepage-proof and free from partial
Siemens has developed RMUs in accord- discharges
ance with these requirements. ■ Maintenance-free, safe-to-touch,
all-climate HV HRC fuse assembly
9 Ring-main units type 8DJ10, 8DJ20, 8DJ40
and 8DH10 are type-tested, factory-fin- Environmental compatibility
ished, metal-enclosed, SF6-insulated indoor
■ Simple, problem-free disposal of the
switchgear installations. They verifiably
meet all the demands encountered in net- SF6 gas
work operation by virtue of the following ■ Housing material can be recycled by
10 features: normal methods

3/46 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear and Transformer Substations

1
Primary
distribution
G 2

Secondary
distribution

RMU for transformer Extensible switchgear Extensible switchgear


substations for consumer for substations with 10
Type 8DJ substations circuit-breakers
Type 8DH or 8AA Type 8DH or 8AA

Fig. 61: Secondary Distribution Network

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/47
Secondary Distribution
Selection Matrix

1 Switchgear

Codes, Type of Insulation Enclosure Switching Appl


standards installation device
2

3
RMU
subst
conve
conne
Stand
4
RMU
Metal-enclosed subst
Nonextensible SF6-gas-insulated Load-break switch cable
fixed-mounted
Stand
5
Medium-voltage
indoor switchgear,
type-tested RMU
low s
according to: housi
IEC 60 298
6 DIN VDE 0670, Part 6

Load-break switch Cons


SF6-gas-insulated Metal-enclosed Vacuum CB
fixed-mounted CB sw
Measurement panels up to
7
Extensible

Load-break switch Cons


Air-insulated Metal-enclosed Vacuum CB CB sw
8 Measurement panels up to

9
Transformer substations Execution of
the transformer substation

10

Prefabricated, factory-assembled substations, with different type of housings,


made of concrete, galvanized sheet steel or aluminium

Fig. 62

3/48 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Selection Matrix

Application Switchgear Technical data Page


type
2
Rated lightning Rated voltage Maximum rated Rated normal current
impulse withstand short-time
voltage at: withstand current Busbar max. Feeder
7.2/12 17.5/24 [kV] [kA] [kA] [A] [A]
[kV] [kV] 1s 3s
3
RMU for transformer
substations, plug and
conventional cable 8DJ10 60/75 95/125 7.2–24 25 20 630 up to 630 3/50
connection,
Standard Range 1
4
RMU for transformer 7.2–12 25 14.3
substations, high
cable connection, 8DJ20 60/75 95/125 630 up to 630 3/53
Standard Range 2 7.2–24 20 20
5
RMU for extremely
low substation 8DJ40 60/75 95/125 7.2–24 20 11.5 630 up to 630 3/58
housings
6
7.2–15 25 20
Consumer substation/
CB switchgear 8DH10 60/75 95/125 1250 up to 630 3/60
up to 630 A 17.5–24 20 11.5 7

7.2–12 20 11.5 1000 up to 1000


Consumer substation/
CB switchgear 8AA20 60/75 95/125 3/64
up to 630 A 17.5–24 16 9.3 630 up to 630 8

9
Package Type of housing HV section Transformer Page
substation type Medium-voltage rating
(Example) switchgear type

8FB10 8DJ10 630 kVA 10


8FB11 8DJ20
8FB12 8DJ40 3/66
8FB1
8FB15 up to 1000/1250 kVA
8FB16
8FB17

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/49
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ10

Ring-main unit
1 type 8DJ10, 7.2–24 kV
nonextensible, SF6-insulated
Standard Range 1

2 Typical use
SF6-insulated, metal-enclosed fixed-mount-
ed ring-main units (RMU) type 8DJ10 are
used for outdoor transformer substations
and indoor substation rooms with a varia-
3 bility of 25 different schemes as a standard
delivery program.
More than 60,000 RMUs of type 8DJ10
are in worldwide operation.

4 Specific features
■ Maintenance-free, all-climate
■ SF6 housings have no seals
■ Remote-controlled motor operating
mechanism for all auxiliary voltages from
5 24 V DC to 230 V AC
■ Easily extensible by virtue of trouble-free
replacement of units with identical cable
connection geometry
■ Standardized unit variants for operator-
compatible concepts
6 ■ Variable transformer cable connection
facilities
■ Excellent economy by virtue of ambient
condition-resistant, maintenance-free
components
7 ■ Versatile cable connection facilities,
optional connection of mass-impregnat-
ed or plastic-insulated cables or plug
connectors Fig. 63: Example: Scheme 10
■ Cables easily tested without having to
8 be dismantled

10

3/50 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ10

Technical data (rated values)1) 1

Rated voltage [kV] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24

Rated frequency [Hz] 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60


2
Rated current of [A] 400/630 400/630 400/630 400/630 400/630
cable feeders

Rated current of [A] 200 200 200 200 200


transformer feeders2) 3
Rated power-frequency [kV] 20 28 36 38 50
withstand voltage

Rated lightning-impulse [kV] 60 75 95 95 125


withstand voltage 4
Rated short-circuit [kA] 63 52 52 52 40
making current of cable
feeder switches

Rated short-circuit [kA] 25 25 25 25 25 5


making current of
transformer switches

Rated short-circuit current, 1s [kA] 25 21 21 21 16

Ambient temperature [°C] min. – 50 min. – 50 min. – 50 min. – 50 min. – 50 6


max. +80 max. +80 max. +80 max. +80 max. +80

1) Higher values on request


2) Depending on HV HRC fuse assembly
7
Fig. 64

8
1 1 HRC fuse boxes
2 Hermetically-scaled welded
stainless steel enclosure
2
3 SF6 insulation/quenching gas
9
3 4 Three-position load-break switch
5 Feeder cable with insulated
4 connection alternative with
T-plug system

6 6 Maintenance-free stored energy 10


mechanism

Fig. 65: Cross section of SF6-insulated ring-main unit 8DJ10 Fig. 66: “Three-position load-break switch”
ON–OFF–EARTH

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/51
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ10

Examples out of 25 standard schemes


1
With integrated HV HRC fuse assembly

3
Scheme 10 Scheme 71 Scheme 81

Dimensions [mm]

5 Width 800 1170 1630


Depth 800 800 800
Height Version with
low support frame 1360 1360 1360
Version with
6 high support frame 1760 1760 1760

Without HV HRC fuses Combinations

Scheme 70 Scheme 61 Scheme 64


9

10 Dimensions [mm]

Width 1450 1700 2070


Depth 800 800 800
Height Version with
low support frame 1105 1360 1360
Version with
high support frame 1505 1760 1760

Fig. 67: Schemes and dimensions

3/52 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ20

Ring-main unit
type 8DJ20, 7.2–24 kV 1
non extensible, SF6-insulated
Standard Range 2

Typical use 2
Same system as type 8DJ10 (page 3/50)
but other geometrical dimensions and
design, also single panel for transformer
feeder.
■ Substations with control aisles 3
■ Compact substations, substations by
pavements
■ Tower base substations
■ 7.2 kV to 24 kV
■ Up to 25 kA 4
Specific features
■ Minimal dimensions
■ Ease of operation
■ Proven components from the
5
8DJ10 range
■ Metal-enclosed
■ All-climate
■ Maintenance-free
■ Capacitive voltage taps for
6
– incoming feeder cable
– outgoing transformer feeder
■ Optional double cable connection Fig. 68: Example: Scheme 10 (width 1060 mm)
■ Optional surge arrester connection
■ Transformer cable connected via straight
7
or elbow plug
■ Motor operating mechanism for auxiliary
voltages of 24 V DC – 230 V AC

8DJ20 switchgear
8
■ Overall heights 1200 mm, 1400 mm
or 1650 mm
■ High cable termination
■ For cable T-plugs 9
■ Detachable lever mechanism
■ Option: rotary operating mechanism

10

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/53
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ20

Technical data
1
Rated voltage Ur [kV] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24

Rated insulation level: [kV] 20 28 36 38 50


Rated power-frequency withstand voltage Ud
2
Rated lightning impulse voltage Up [kV] 60 75 95 95 125

Rated frequency fr [Hz] 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60

Rated normal current Ir [A] 400 400 400 400 400


3 for ring-main feeders 630 630 630 630 630

for transformer feeders depending on the HV HRC fuse [A] 200 200 200 200 200

Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 1 s [kA] 20 20 21 21 16


25 25 25 25 21
4
Rated short-time withstand current Ik, 3 s [kA] 20 20 20 20 20

Rated peak-withstand current Ip [kA] 50 50 52 52 40


63 63 63 63 52
5 Rated short-time making current Ima [kA] 25 25 25 25 25
for transformer feeder
for ring-main feeder [kA] 50 50 52 52 40
63 63 63 63 52
6 Ambient temperature T [°C] –40 to +70

Rated filling pressure (at 20 °C) [hpa] 500 500 500 500 500
for insulation pre and for operation prm

7 Fig. 69

10

3/54 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ20

Transformer feeder 1
Section A-A
A

1 HV HRC fuse compartment


1 2
2 RMU vessel, filled with SF6 gas
3 Three position load-break
switch ON-OFF-Earth
2 4 Transformer cable with elbow
plugs
3
3
5 Spring-assisted/stored-energy
mechanism

5
4

6
A
Standard
Cable termination for elbow plugs
(Option:cable-T-plugs), cable bushing
directed downlwards 7

Fig. 70: Panel design / Example: ring-main transformer block, scheme 10

10

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/55
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ20

Transformer feeder Ring-main units without Combinations with


1 panels with HV HRC fuses HV HRC fuses HV HRC fuses2)

4
Scheme 01 Scheme 21 Scheme 11/32/70/84 Scheme 20 Scheme 10

6 Ring-main feeders 0 0 2–5 1 2

Cable connection with


cable plugs, compatible
with bushings ASG 36-400
7 to DIN 47 636 with thread
connection M 16 x 2,
connection at front
Transformer feeders 1 1 0 1 1

8 Cable connection with


cable plugs, compatible
with bushings ASG 24-250
to DIN 47 636, optionally
ASG 36 400 with plug/thread
9 connection M 16 x 2
Location of bushings
optionally at front or –
at bottom
Dimensions in mm
10
Width 510 710 710 + 350/per additional feeder 710 1060
Depth 780 780 780 780 780
Height 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200
1400 1400 1400 1400 1400
1760 1760 1760 1760 1760

Fig. 71 2) others on request

3/56 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ20

4
e 10 Scheme 71 Scheme 72 Scheme 81 Scheme 82

3 4 2 3 6

1 1 2 2

10
1410 1760 1410 1760
780 780 780 780
1200 1200 1200 1200
1400 1400 1400 1400
1760 1760 1760 1760

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/57
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ40

Ring-main unit
1 type 8DJ40, 7.2–24 kV
nonextensible, SF6-insulated

Typical use
2 SF6-insulated, metal-enclosed, fixed-
mounted. Ring-main units type 8DJ40 are
mainly used for transformer compact sub-
stations. The main advantage of this switch-
gear is the extremely high cable termina-
tion for easy cable connection and cable
3 testing work.

Specific features
8DJ40 units are type-tested, factory-
4 finished, metal-enclosed SF6-insulated
switchgear installations and meet the
following operational specifications:
■ High level of personnel safety and Fig. 72: Nonextensible RMU, type 8DJ40
reliability
■ High availability
5
■ High-level cable connection Technical data (rated values)1)
■ Minimum space requirement
■ Uncomplicated design
Rated voltage [kV] 12 24
■ Separate operating mechanism
actuation for switch disconnector
6 and make-proof grounding switch, Rated frequency [Hz] 50 50
same switching direction in line
with VDEW recommendation Rated current of [A]
cable feeders 400/630* 400/630*
■ Ease of installation
■ Motor operating mechanism Rated current of [A] ≤ 200 ≤ 200
7 retrofittable transformer feeders
■ Optional stored-energy release for
ring cable feeders Rated power-frequency [kV] 28 50
withstand voltage
■ Maintenance-free
■ All-climate Rated lightning-impulse [kV] 75 125
8 withstand voltage
Rated short-circuit [kA]
making current of 50 (31.5)* 40 (31.5)*
cable feeder switches

9 Rated short-circuit [kA] 25 25


making current of
transformer switches2)
Rated short-time current [kA]
of cable feeder switches 20 (12.5)* 16 (12.5)*
10 Rated short-circuit time [s] 1 1

Rated filling pressure [barg] 0.5 0.5


at 20 °C
Ambient temperature [°C] min. – 40 min. – 40
max. + 70 max. + 70
1) Higher values on request
2) Depending on HV HRC fuse assembly
* With snap-action/stored-energy operating mechanism up to 400 A/12.5 kA, 1s

Fig. 73

3/58 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DJ40

Scheme 10 Scheme 32 Scheme 71


4

5
Dimensions [mm]

Width 1140 909 1442

Depth 760 760 760 6


Height 1400/1250 1400/1250 1400/1250

Fig. 74: Schemes and dimensions

10

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/59
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DH10

Consumer substation
1 modular switchgear type 8DH10
extensible, SF6-insulated

Typical use
2 SF6-insulated, metal-enclosed fixed-mount-
ed switchgear units type 8DH10 are indoor
installations and are mainly used for power
distribution in customer substations or
main substations.
3 The units are particularly well suited for
installation in industrial environments,
damp river valleys, exposed dusty or sandy
areas and in built-up urban areas.
They can also be installed at high altitude
or where the ambient temperature is very
4 high.

Specific features
8DH10 fixed-mounted switchgear units are
5 type-tested, factory-assembled, SF6-insulat-
ed, metal-enclosed switchgear units com-
prising circuit-breaker panels, disconnector
panels and metering panels.
They meet the demands made on medi-
um-voltage switchgear, such as
6 ■ High degree of operator safety, reliability
and availability Fig. 75: Extensible, modular switchgear type 8DH10
■ No local SF6 work
■ Simple to install and extend
■ The units have a grounded outer enclo-
■ Operation not affected by environmental
7 factors
sure and are thus shockproof. This also
applies to the fuse assembly and the
■ Minimum space requirements cable terminations. Plug-in cable sealing
■ Freedom from maintenance is met sub- ends are housed in a shock-proof metal-
stantially better by these units than by enclosed support frame
earlier designs. ■ Fuses and cable connections are only
8 ■ Busbars from panel blocks are located accessible when earthed
within the SF6 gas compartment. Con- ■ All bushings for electrical and mechani-
nections with individual panels and other cal connections are welded gas-tight
blocks are provided by solid-insulated without gaskets
plug-in busbars ■ Three-position switches are fitted for
9 ■ Single-phase cast-resin enclosed insulat- load switching, disconnection and
ed fuse mounting outside the switch- grounding, with the following switch
gear housing ensures security against positions: closed, open and grounded.
phase-to-phase faults Make-proof earthing is effected by the
■ All live components are protected three-position switch (shown on page
against humidity, contamination, corro- 3/51)
10 sive gases and vapours, dust and small ■ Each switchgear unit can be composed
animals as required from single panels and
■ All normal types of T-plugs for thermo- (preferably) panel blocks, which may
plastic-insulated cables up to 300 m2 comprise up to three combined single
cross-section can be accommodated panels
■ The 8DH10 switchgear is maintenance-
free
■ Integrated current transformer suitable
for digital protection relays and protec-
tion systems for CT operation release

3/60 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DH10

1
1

1
2
2
3
2 4
5
3
3 6
7
4
8
5 9 4
10

1 Fuse assembly 1 Low-voltage compartment 6 Three-position switch


2 Three-position switch 2 Circuit-breaker operating mechanism 7 Ring-main cable termination 5
(400/630 A T-plug system)
3 Transformer/cable feeder connection 3 Metal bellow welded to the gas tank
8 Hermetically-welded RMU housing
4 Hermetically-welded gas tank 4 Pole-end kinematics 9 Busbar (up to 1250 A)
5 Plug-in busbar up to 1250 A 5 Spring-assisted mechanism 10 Overpressure release system
6
Fig. 76: Cross section of transformer feeder panel Fig. 77: Cross section of circuit-breaker feeder panel

7
LV cabinet
1
2

3
4

9
extensible extensible

1 Plug bushing welded to the gas tank


2 Silicon adapter 10
3 Silicon-insulated busbar
4 Removable insulation cover to
assemble the system at site

Fig. 78: Combination of single panels with plug-in type, silicon-insulated busbar. Fig. 79: Cross-section of silicon-plugged
No local SF6 gas work required during assembly or extension busbar section.

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/61
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DH10

Technical data (rated values)1)


1
Rated voltage [kV] 7.2 12 15 17.5 24

Rated frequency [Hz] 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60 50/60


2
Rated power-frequency [kV] 20 28 36 38 50
withstand voltage

Rated lightning-impulse [kV] 60 75 95 95 125


3 withstand voltage

Rated short-circuit [kA] 25 25 20 20 16


breaking current of
circuit-breakers

4 Rated short-circuit [kA] 25 25 20 20 16


current, 1s

Rated short-circuit [kA] 63 63 50 50 50


making current
5 Busbar rated current [A] 630 630 630 630 630
1250 1250 1250 1250 1250
Feeder rated current
– Circuit-breaker panels [max. A] 400/630 400/630 400/630 400/630 400/630
6 – Ring-main panels [max. A] 400/630 400/630 400/630 400/630 400/630
– Transformer panels2) [max. A] 200 200 200 200 200
Rated current of bus
sectionalizer panels
– without HV HRC fuses [A] 400/630 400/630 400/630 400/630 400/630
7 – with HV HRC fuses2) [A] 200 200 200 200 200

1) Higher values on request


2) Depending on HV HRC fuse assembly

Fig. 80
8

10

3/62 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8DH10

Individual panels
1

Ring-main panel Transformer panel Circuit-breaker panel Billing metering Busbar metering
panel and grounding panel
4

Dimensions [mm] 5
Width 500 500 350 600*/850 500

Depth 780 780 780 780 780

Height 1400 2000 1400 1400/2000** 1450 6


* Width for version with combined instrument transformer
** With low-voltage compartment

Blocks 7

9
2 Ring-main feeders
3 Ring-main feeders 2 Transformer feeders 3 Transformer feeders

10
Dimensions [mm]
Width 700 1050 1000 1500

Depth 780 780 780 780

Height 1400 1400 1400 1400

Fig. 81: Schemes and dimensions

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/63
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8AA20

Consumer substation
1 modular switchgear
type 8AA20, 7.2–24 kV
extensible, air-insulated

2 Typical use
This air-insulated modular indoor switch-
gear is used as a flexible system with a lot
of panel variations. Panels with fused and
unfused load-break switches, with truck-
3 type vacuum circuit-breakers and metering
panels can be combined with air-insulated
busbars.
The 8AA20 ring-main units are type-tested,
factory-assembled metal-enclosed indoor
switchgear installations. They meet opera-
4 tional requirements by virtue of the follow-
ing features:

Fig. 82: Extensible modulares switchgear type 8AA20


Personnel safety
5 ■ Sheet-steel enclosure tested for resist-
ance to internal arcing Technical data (rated values)1)
■ All switching operations with door
closed
■ Testing for dead state with door closed Rated voltage and 7.2 12 17.5 24
■ Insertion of barrier with door closed insulation level
6
Rated power-frequency [kV] 20 28 38 50
Safety, reliability/maintenance withstand voltage
■ Complete mechanical interlocking
Rated lightning-impulse [kV] 60 75 95 125
■ Preventive interlocking between barrier withstand voltage
7 and switch disconnector
■ Door locking Rated short-time current 1s [kA] 20 20 16 16
Rated short-circuit [kA] 50 50 40 40
Excellent resistance to ambient making current
conditions
8 ■ High level of pollution protection by
Rated busbar current1) [A] 630 630 630 630
virtue of sealed enclosure in all operat- Rated feeder current [A] 630 630 630 630
ing states
■ Insulators with high pollution-layer 1) Higher values on request
resistance
9 Fig. 83

Dimensions Width Height Depth


12/24 kV 12/24 kV
10 [mm] [mm] [mm]

Load-breaker panels 600/750 2000 665/790 or 931/1131


Circuit-breaker panels 750/750 2000 931/1131
Metering panels 600/750 2000 665/790 or 931/1131

Fig. 84: Dimensions

3/64 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Switchgear Type 8AA20

Standards
■ The switchgear complies with the
following standards: 1

IEC Standard VDE Standard 1


1
IEC 60 694 VDE 0670 Part 1000
2
IEC 60 298 VDE 0670 Part 6 2
IEC 60 129 VDE 0670 Part 2 2
IEC 60 282 VDE 0670 Part 4
4 3 3
IEC 60 265-1 VDE 0670 Part 301
IEC 60 420 VDE 0670 Part 303
IEC 60 056 VDE 0670 Part 101–107 1 Load-break switch 1 Vacuum circuit-breaker
2 Grounding switch 2 Current transformer
IEC 61 243-5 EVDE 0682 Part 415
EN 61 243-5(E)
3 Potential transformer 4
4 Grounding switch
Fig. 85
Fig. 86a: Cross-section of cable feeder panel Fig. 86b: Cross-section of withdrawable type
In accordance with the harmonization vacuum circuit-breaker panel
agreement reached by the EC member
states, their national specifications con- 5
form to IEC Publ. No. 60 298.

Resistance to internal arcing


– IEC Publ. 60298, Annex AA 6
– VDE 0670, Part 6

Type of service location Individual panels


Air-insulated ring-main units can be used
in service locations and in closed electrical Circuit-breaker panels 7
service locations in accordance with
VDE 0101. Scheme 11/12 Scheme 13/14

Specific features
8
■ Switch disconnector fixed-mounted
■ Switch disconnector with integrated
central operating mechanism
■ Standard program includes numerous Load-break panels
circuit variants
■ Operations enabled by protective inter-
Scheme 21/22 Scheme 23/24 Scheme 25/26 9
locks; the insulating barrier is included in
the interlocking
■ Extensible by virtue of panel design
■ Cubicles compartmentalized (option)
■ Minimal cubicle dimensions without 10
extensive use of plastics Metering and cable panels
■ Lines up with earlier type 8AA10 Scheme 33/34
■ Withdrawable circuit-breaker section can
be moved into the service and discon-
nected position with the door closed

Fig. 87: Schemes

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/65
Secondary Distribution
Transformer Substations

Factory-assembled
1 packaged substations
type 8FB1 (example)
Factory-assembled transformer substations
are available in different designs and di-
2 mensions. As an example of a typical sub-
station program, type 8FB1 is shown here.
Other types are available on request.
The transformer substations type 8FB1
with up to 1000 kVA transformer ratings
3 and 7.2–24 kV are prefabricated and facto-
ry-assembled, ready for connection of net-
work cables on site.
Special foundation not necessary.
■ Distribution substations for
4 public power supply
■ Nonwalk-in type
■ Switchgear operated with open substa-
tion doors

5 General features/Applications
■ Power supply for LV systems, especially
in load centers for public supply Fig. 88: Steel-clad outdoor substation 8FB1 for rated voltages up to 24 kV and transformers up to 1000 kVA
■ Power supply for small and medium
industrial plants with existing HV side
HV section (as an example): LV section:
6 cable terminations
■ Particularly suitable for installation at 8DJ SF6-insulated ring-main unit The LV section can take various forms to
sites subject to high atmospheric humid- (for details please refer to RMUs pages suit the differing base configurations. The
ity, hostile environment, and stringent 2/48–2/61) connection to the transformer is made by
demands regarding blending of the sta- parallel cables instead of bare conductors.
tion with the surroundings Technical data:
7 Incoming circuit: Circuit breaker, fused load
■ Extra reliability ensured by SF6-insulated ■ Rated voltages and insulation levels disconnector, fuses or isolating links.
ring-main units type 8DJ, which require 7.2 kV 12 kV 15 kV 17.5 kV 24 kV Outgoing circuits: Tandem-type fuses,
no maintenance and are not affected by 60 75 95 95 125 kV (BIL) load-break switches, MCCB, or any other
the climate ■ Rating of cable circuits: 400 / 630 A requested systems.
■ Rating of transformer circuits: 200 A Basic measuring and metering equipment
8 Brief description ■ Degree of protection for HV parts: IP 65 to suit the individual requirements.
The substation housing consists of a tor- ■ Ambient temperature range:
sion-resistant bottom unit, with a concrete –30°C/+55°C (other on request)
trough for the transformer, embedded in
the ground, and a hot-dip galvanized steel Transformer section:
9 structure mounted on it. It is subdivided
into three sections: HV section, transform- Oil-cooled transformer with ratings up to
er section and LV section. The lateral sec- max. 1000 kVA. The transformer is con-
tion of the concrete trough serves as nected with the 8DJ10 ring-main unit by
mounting surface for the HV and LV cubi- three single-core screened 35 mm2 plastic
cles and also closes off the cable entry insulated cables. The connection is made
10 compartments at the sides. These com- by means of right-angle plugs or standard
partments are closed off at the bottom and air-insulated sealing ends possible at the
front by hot-dip galvanized bolted steel transformer side.
covers.
Four threaded bushes for lifting the com-
plete substation are located in the floor of
the concrete trough. The substations are
arc-fault-tested in order to ensure safety
for personnel during operation and for the
pedestrians passing by the installed sub-
station.

3/66 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Secondary Distribution
Transformer Substations

Substation 8FB10 8FB11 8FB12 8FB15 8FB16 8FB17


housing type: 1
HV section:
SF6 -insulated
ring-main unit
(RMU)
2
H High-voltage H T L H T L T H T L H T L T
section
T Transformer
section L H L H
L Low-voltage
3
section

Transformer rating 630 kVA 630 kVA 630 kVA 1000 kVA 1000 kVA 1000 kVA

Overall dimensions,
4
weights:
Length [mm] 3290 2570 2100 3860 3120 2350
Width [mm] 1300 2100 2100 1550 2300 2300
Height above [mm] 1650 1650 1650 1700 1700 1700
ground 5
Height overall [mm] 2100 2100 2100 2350 2350 2350
Floor area [mm2] 4.28 5.40 4.41 5.98 7.18 5.41
Volume [mm3] 7.06 8.91 7.28 10.17 12.20 9.19
Weight without [kg] approx. 2280 approx. 2530 approx. 2400 approx. 3400 approx. 3800 approx. 3600
transformer 6
Fig. 89: Technical data, dimensions and weights

Fig. 90: HV section: Fig. 91: Transformer section: Fig. 92: LV section:
Compact substation 8FB with SF6-insulated RMU Cable terminations to the transformer, as a example Example of LV distribution board
(two loop switches, one transformer feeder switch 10
with HRC fuses)

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/67
Industrial Load Center Substation

Introduction
1
Industrial power supply systems call for a
maximum level of operator safety, opera-
tional reliability, economic efficiency and
flexibility. And they likewise necessitate an
integral concept which includes “before”
2 and “after” customer service, which can
cope with the specific load requirements
and, above all, which is tailored to each
individually occurring situation.
With SITRABLOC® such a concept can be
easily turned into reality.
3

For further information please contact:


Fax: ++ 49 - 91 31-73 15 73
4

General
Fig. 93
5
SITRABLOC is an acronym for
SIemens TRAnsformer BLOC-type.
SITRABLOC is supplied with power from
a medium-voltage substation via a fuse/
Substation
8DC11/8DH10
switch-disconnector combination and a ra-
6 dial cable. In the load center, where SITRA-
BLOC is installed, several SITRABLOCs are
connected together by means of cables or
bars.

7 Load-centre
Features substation
■ Due to the fuse/switch-disconnector Supply company's
combination, the short-circuit current substation
is limited, which means that the radial
8 cable can be dimensioned according to
the size of the transformer.
■ In the event of cable faults, only one
SITRABLOC fails.
■ The short-circuit strength is increased
9 due to connection of several stations in
the load center. The effect of this is that, LV busways
in the event of a fault, large loads are
selectively disconnected in a very short
time.
10 ■ The transmission losses are optimized
since only short connections to the
loads are necessary. Fig. 94: Example of a schematic diagram
■ SITRABLOC has, in principle, two trans-
former outputs:
– 1250 kVA during AN operation
(ambient temperature up to 40 °C)
– 1750 kVA during AF operation
(140% with forced cooling).
These features ensure that, if one station
fails for whatever reason, supply of the
loads is maintained without interruption.

3/68 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Industrial Load Center Substation

The SITRABLOC components are:


■ Transformer housing LV Busway
with roof-mounted ventilation for AN/AF 1
operating mode
■ GEAFOL Transformer
Tap-Off Unit with
(cast-resin insulated) with make-proof HRC Fuses
earthing switch
AN operating mode: 100% load up to 2
an ambient temperature of 40 °C
AF operating mode: 140% load
■ LV circuit-breaker
as per transformer AF load Consumer
■ Automatic power factor correction Distribution
equipment (tuned/detuned) incl. Control 3
■ Control and metering panel as well as
central monitoring interface SITRABLOC
■ Universal connection to the LV distribu-
Fig. 95: Location sketch
tion busway system
4
Whether in the automobile or food indus- Technical data
try, in paintshops or bottling lines, putting
SITRABLOC to work in the right place con-
siderably reduces transmission losses. Rated voltage 12 kV and 24 kV
The energy is transformed in the production Transformer rating AN/AF 1250 kVA/1750 kVA 5
area itself, as close as possible to the
loads. For installation of the system itself,
Transformer operating mode 100% AN up to 40 °C
no special building or fire-protection meas- 140% AF
ures are necessary. Power factor correction up to 500 kVAr without reactors
up to 300 kVAr with reactors
Available with any level of output Busway system 1250 A, 1600 A, 2500 A 6
SITRABLOC can be supplied with any level Degree of protection IP 23 for transformer housing
of power output, the latter being controlled IP 43 for LV cubicles
and protected by a fuse/switch-disconnec- Dimensions (min) (LxHxD) 3600 mm x 2560 mm x 1400 mm
tor combination.
Weight approx. 6000 kg 7
A high-current busbar system into which
up to four transformers can feed power Fig. 96
ensures that even large loads can be
brought onto load without any loss of Reliability of supply
energy. Due to the interconnection of units,
it is also ensured that large loads are With the correctly designed transformer 8
switched off selectively in the event of output, the n-1criterion is no longer a prob-
a fault. lem. Even if one module fails (e.g. a medi-
um-voltage switching device, a cable or
transformer) power continues to be sup-
Integrated automatic power plied without the slightest interruption.
factor correction None of the drives comes to a standstill 9
With SITRABLOC, power factor correction and the whole manufacturing plant contin-
is integrated from the very beginning. ues to run reliably. These examples show
Unavoidable energy losses – e.g. due to that, with SITRABLOC, the power is there
magnetization in the case of motors and when you need it – and safe, reliable and
economical into the bargain.
transformers – are balanced out with pow- 10
er capacitors directly in the low-voltage
network. The advantages are that the level
of active power transmitted increases and
energy costs are reduced (Fig. 97).

Fig. 97: Capacitor Banks

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/69
Industrial Load Center Substation

N-1 operating mode N -1 criteria


With the respective design of a factory grid
1 on the MV side as well as on the LV side
How to understand this mode: the so called n-1 criteria is fulfilled. In case
one component fails on the line side of the
Normal operating mode: 4x1250 kVA AN operating mode (100%) transformer e.g. circuit breaker or trans-
N -1 operating mode: 3x1750 kVA AF operating mode (≤ 140%) former or cable to transformer, no interup-
2 tion of the supply on the LV side will occur.

Power distribution Example Fig 98:


Load required 5000 kVA = 4 x 1250 kVA.
In case one load centre (SITRABLOC)
3 is disconnected from the MV network
the missing load will be supplied via
Supply company’s substation
the remaining three (N-1) load centres.

4
Circuit-breakers and switch disconnectors
Substation with HV HRC fuses

5 t < 10 ms

6 SITRABLOC SITRABLOC SITRABLOC SITRABLOC

M M M Production M M M

Operator safety
7 Reduced costs
Low system losses

Fig. 98: N-1 operating mode

8 SITRABLOC is a combination of everything


which present-day technology has to offer.
Just one example of this are our GEAFOL®
cast-resin transformers.
Their output: 100% load without fans plus
9 reserves of up to 140% with fans. And as
far as persons are concerned, their safety
is ensured even in the direct vicinity of the
installation.
Another example is the SENTRON high-
10 current busbar system. It can be laid out in
any arrangement, is quick to install and
conducts the current wherever you like –
with almost no losses.
The most important thing, however, is the
uniformity of SITRABLOC throughout, irre-
spective of the layout of the modules.

Fig. 99: Transformer and earthing switch, LV Bloc

3/70 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Industrial Load Center Substation

The technology at a glance


SITRABLOC can cope with any require- Information distribution
ments. Its features include 1
■ A transformer cubicle with or without
fans (AN/AF operation)
■ GEAFOL cast-resin transformers with
make-proof earthing switch – AN opera-
tion 1250 kVA, AF operation 1750 kVA 2
■ External medium-voltage switchgear
with fuse switch-disconnectors
■ Low-voltage circuit-breakers S7-400 S7-300 S5-155U
■ Automatic reactive-power compensation
– up to 500 kVAr unrestricted, PROFIBUS-DP 3
up to 300 kVAr restricted
■ The SENTRON high-current busbar sys-
tem – Connection to high-current busbar
systems from all directions
■ An ET 200 /PROFIBUS interface for cen- 4
tral monitoring system (if required).
PG/PC COROS OP

PROFIBUS
ET 200B ET 200C Field devices
6

Communications interface

SITRABLOC 7
ET 200M 12/24 kV
P P

GEAFOL transformer 8
with built-on
make-proof earthing switch

9
LV installation with circuit-
breakers and automatic reactive-
power compensation
10

0.4 kV
Option
LV busbar system
with sliding link
(e.g. SENTRON busways)

Fig. 100

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/71
Medium-Voltage Devices
Product Range

Devices for
Device Type Rated Short- Short-time
1 medium-voltage switchgear voltage circuit current
current (3s)
With the equipment program for switch-
[kV] [kA] [kA]
gear Siemens can deliver nearly every
device which is required in the medium-
2 voltage range between 7.2 and 36 kV.
Indoor vacuum 3AH 7.2 … 36 13.1 … 80 13.1 … 80
Fig. 101 gives an overview of the available
circuit-breaker
devices and their main characteristics.
All components and devices conform to NX ACT 12 25 25
international and national standards,
Outdoor vacuum 3AF 36 25 25
as there are:
3 circuit-breaker

Vacuum circuit-breakers
■ IEC 60 056 Components for 3AY2 12 … 36 16 … 40 16 … 40
■ IEC 60 694 3AH VCB
4 ■ BS5311

Indoor vacuum switch 3CG 7.2 … 24 – 16 … 20


Vacuum switches
■ IEC 60 265-1
in combination with Siemens fuses:
5 ■ IEC 60 420 Indoor vacuum 3TL 7.2 … 24 – 8 (1s)
contactor
Vacuum contactors
■ IEC 60 470 Vacuum interrupter VS 7.2 … 40.5 12.5 … 80 12.5 … 80
6 ■ UL 347

Switch disconnectors
■ IEC 60 129
Indoor switch 3CJ 12 … 24 – 18 … 26 (1s)
disconnector
■ IEC 60 265-1
7
HV HRC fuses Indoor disconnecting 3D 12 … 36 – 16 ... 63 (1s)
■ IEC 60 282 and grounding switch

8 Current and voltage transformers


HV HRC fuses 3GD 7.2 … 36 31.5 … 80 –
■ IEC 60 185, 60 186
■ BS 3938, 3941
■ ANSI C57.13
Fuse bases 3GH 7.2 … 36 44 –
9 peak withstand
current
For further information please contact:
Fax: ++ 49 - 91 31 - 73 46 54
Indoor post insulators, 3FA 3.6 … 36 – –
Bushings 3FH/3FM
10
Indoor and outdoor 4M 12 … 36 – –
current and voltage
transformers

Surge arresters 3E 3.6 … 42 – –

Fig. 101: Equipment program for medium-voltage switchgear

3/72 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Medium-Voltage Devices
Product Range

Rated Operating cycles Applications/remarks Page


current 1
mechanical with rated with short-
current circuit current
[A]

800 … 12,000 10,000 … 10,000 … 25 … 100 All applications, e.g. overhead lines, cables, transformers, 3/74 2
120,000 30,000 motors, generators, capacitors, filter circuits, arc furnaces
1250 … 2500 10,000 10,000 25 … 50 3/78

1600 10,000 10,000 50 All applications, e.g. overhead lines, cables, transformers, 3/80
motors, generators, capacitors, filter circuits 3

1250 … 2500 – – – Original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and retrofit 3/81

4
800 10,000 10,000 – All applications, e.g. overhead lines, cables, transformers, 3/82
motors, capacitors; high number of operations; fuses
necessary for short-circuit protection

400 … 800 1x106 ... 3x106 0.25x105 ... 2x106 – All applications, especially motors with very high number 3/84 5
of operating cycles

630 … 4000 10,000 … 10,000 … 25 … 100 For circuit breakers, switches and gas-insulated switchgear 3/85
30,000 30,000 6

630 1000 20 – Small number of operations, e.g. distribution transformers 3/86

7
630 … 3000 – – – Protection of personnel working on equipment 3/87

8
6.3 … 250 – – – Short-circuit protection; short-circuit current limitation 3/88

400 – – – Accommodation of HV HRC fuse links 3/88


9

– – – – Insulation of live parts from another, 3/89


carrying and supporting function
10
– – – – Measuring and protection 3/90

– – – – Overvoltage protection 3/90

Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition 3/73
Medium-Voltage Devices
Type 3AH

As standard circuit-breakers they are avail- Properties of 3AH circuit breakers:


Indoor vacuum circuit-breakers able for the entire medium-voltage range.
1 type 3AH Circuit-breakers with reduced pole center No relubrication
distances, circuit-breakers for very high Nonwearing material pairs at the bearing
numbers of switching cycles and single- points and nonaging greases make relubri-
The 3AH vacuum circuit-breakers are phase versions are part of the program. cation superfluous on 3AH circuit-breakers
three-phase medium-voltage circuit-break- The following breaker types are available: up to 10,000 operating cycles, even after
ers for indoor installations.
2 The 3AH circuit-breakers are suitable for:
■ 3AH1 – the maintenance-free circuit- long periods of standstill.
breaker which covers the range
■ Rapid load transfer, synchronization between 7.2 kV and 24 kV. It has High availability
■ Automatic reclosing up to 31.5 kA a lifetime of 10,000 operating cycles Continuous tests have proven that the
■ 3AH2 – the circuit-breaker for 60,000 3AHs are maintenance-free up to 10,000
■ Breaking short-circuit currents with
operating cycles in the range between operating cycles: accelerated temperature/
3 very high initial rates of rise of the recov-
7.2 kV and 24 kV humidity change cycles between –25 and
ery voltage
+60 °C prove that the 3AH functions relia-
■ Switching motors and generators ■ 3AH3 – the maintenance-free circuit-
bly without maintenance.
breaker for high breaking capacities in
■ Switching transformers and reactors
the range between 7.2 kV and 36 kV. Assured quality
■ Switching overhead lines and cables It has a lifetime of 10,000 operating
4 ■ Switching capacitors cycles Exemplary quality control with some hun-
dred switching cycles per circuit-breaker,
■ Switching arc furnaces ■ 3AH4 – the circuit-breaker for up to certified to DIN/ISO 9001.
■ Switching filter circuits 120,000 operating cycles
■ 3AH5 – the economical circuit-breaker in No readjustment
the lower range for 10,000 maintenance- Narrow tolerances in the production of
5 free operating cycles the 3AH permanently prevent impermissi-
ble play: even after frequent switching
the 3AH circuit-breaker does not need to
be readjusted up to 10,000 operating
cycles.
6
Electrical data and products summary

Rated Vacuum circuit-breaker (Type)


7 voltage at Rated short-circuit breaking current1) (Rated short-circuit making current)
[kV] [kA] [kA] [kA] [kA] [kA] [kA] [kA] [kA] [kA]
13.1 16 20 25 31.5 40 50 63 up to 80
(32.8) (40) (50) (63) (80) (100) (125) (160) (225)
8 7.2 3AH1 3AH1 3AH1 3AH1 3AH3 3AH3
3AH2 3AH2
12 3AH5 3AH5 3AH5 3AH5 3AH1 3AH1 3AH1 3AH3 3AH3
3AH1 3AH2 3AH2

9 15 3AH1 3AH1 3AH1 3AH1 3AH3 3AH3


3AH2 3AH2
17.5 3AH1 3AH5 3AH1 3AH1 3AH1 3AH3 3AH3 3AH38*)
3AH2 3AH2
24 3AH1 3AH1 3AH1 3AH3
10 3AH5 3AH2 3AH4
36 3AH5 3AH3 3AH3
3AH4 3AH4
800 A 800 A 800 A 800 A 800 A 800 A 1250 A 2500 A 1250 A 1250 A 1250 A 8000 A
to to to to to to to to to to
1250 A 1250 A 2500 A 1250 A 2500 A 2500 A2) 3150 A 3150 A 4000 A 12000 A
Rated normal current
1) DC component 36% (higher values on request). 2) 3150 A for rated voltage 17.5 kV. *) 3 switches in parallel

Fig. 102: The complete 3AH program

3/74 Siemens Power Engineering Guide · Transmission and Distribution · 4th Edition
Medium-Voltage Devices
Type 3AH

3AH1 3AH2 3AH4


24 kV, 25 kA, 1250 A 24 kV, 25 kA, 2500 A 24 kV, 40 kA, 2500 A 1

4
Fig. 103: Vacuum circuit-breakers type 3AH

Advantages of the 5
vacuum switching principle
The most important advantages of the
principle of arc extinction in a vacuum have
made the circuit-breakers a technically su-
perior product and the principle on which 6
they work the most economical extinction
method available:
■ Constant dielectric:
In a vacuum there are no decomposition
products and because the vacuum inter-
rupter is hermetically sealed there are 7
no environmental influences on it.
■ Constant contact resistance:
The absence of oxidization in a vacuum
keeps the metal contact surface clean.
For this reason, contact resistance can