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Earthquake Engineering

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Earthquake Engineering

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1.2 Damages due to Earthquake

1.3 Discussion

2.1 Introduction

2.2 SDOF

2.3 MDOF

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Earth Motions

3.3 Time history Analysis

3.4 Response Spectra Analysis

3.5 Steps to Carry out Seismic Analysis of Structures

4. References

Page 1 of 36

Section 1: Introduction Earthquake Engineering

that follows a release of energy in the Earth’s crust. This energy can be generated by a

sudden dislocation of segments of the crust, a volcanic eruption, or man-made

explosion. Most of the destructive earthquakes, however, are caused by dislocation of

crust [1]. This earth motion is caused due to either sudden slip or slow creep of the

faults. A fault is a fracture in the Earth crust along with two blocs slip relative to each

other.

Figure 1.2 Types of Faults [1].

The earth movement caused variable damages based on the behavior of the structural

characteristics.

The effects of violent shaking on the ground are temporarily to increase lateral and

vertical forces, to disturb the inter-granular stability of non-cohesive solid and to impose

strains directly on surface material locally if the fault plane reaches the surface. Shear

movements in the ground may be at the surface or entirely below it. If the earthquake

fault reaches the surface, permanent movements of considerable magnitude occur; this

can amount to several meters in large earthquakes.

Figure 1.3 Damage in the port of Kobe, Japan, 1995 [1]

Due to violet motion of the earthquake there is appreciable displacement of the top earth,

which led to damages to the structural elements.

Liquefaction

Figure 1.5 Damage to Cranes in the port of Kobe, Japan, 1995.

Figure 1.6 Damages to the Building Structure, Kobe, Japan, 1995 [1]

Figure 1.7 Damages to the Storage Shed, Bhuj, India, 2001.

Figure 1.8 Damages to Petrol Pump Station, Wong, Bhuj, India, 2001.

1.3 Discussion

The damages caused due to earthquake are varied. Although this damages cannot be

avoid, but it can be reduce or lessen by taking measures in the design and detailing of the

structures. The earthquake engineering deals with the earthquake resistant design of

structures, passive or active devices to reduce the effect on the structures and retrofitting

measures for the structures.

To understand the behavior of structure subjected to earthquake, one needs to know the

basics of Structural Dynamics. In the next section 2, the basics about the structural

dynamics are prescribed. Whereas in the Section 3, a thrust a made to give knowledge

about the earthquake or seismic analysis and design of structures.

these topics. Some of the literatures for reference are:

1.3.1 Books

(1) Anil K. Chopra (2002), “Dynamic of structures”, prentice hall of India private

limited, New Delhi.

(2) Mario Paz (1987), “Structural dynamics”, CBS publishers & distributors, Delhi.

(3) Ray W.Clough & Joseph penzien (1975), “Dynamic of structure”, McGraw-hill

Kogakusha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

1.3.2 Websites

(2) www.ejse.org

(3) www.icivilengineer.com/Earthquake_Engineering/Structural_Dynamics/

(4) www.mceer.buffalo.edu

Section 2: Introduction to Structural Dynamics

2.1 Introduction

The term dynamic may be defined simply as time varying; thus a dynamic load is any

load of which its magnitude, direction, and/or position varies with time. Similarly, the

structural response to a dynamic load, i.e., the resulting stresses and deflections, is also

time varying, or dynamic [1].

Almost any type of structural system may be subjected to one form or another of dynamic

loading during its lifetime. From an analytical standpoint, it is convenient to divide

prescribed or deterministic loadings into two basic categories, periodic and nonperiodic.

Some typical forms of prescribed loadings and examples of situations in which such

loadings might be developed are shown in Fig. 2.1. As indicated in this Figure, a periodic

loading exhibits the same time variation successively for a large number of cycles. The

simplest periodic loading has the sinusoidal variation shown in Fig. 11a, which is termed

simple harmonic; loadings of this type are characteristic of unbalanced mass effects in

rotating machinery. Other forms of periodic loading, e.g., those caused by hydrodynamic

pressures generated by a propeller at the stern of a ship or by inertial effects in

reciprocating machinery, frequently are more complex. However, by means of a Fourier

analysis any periodic loading can be represented as the sum of a series of simple

harmonic components; thus, in principle, the analysis of response to any periodic loading

follows the same general procedure[1].

Nonperiodic loadings may be either short duration impulsive loadings or long duration

general forms of loads. A blast or explosion is a typical source of impulsive load; for such

short duration loads, special simplified forms of analysis may be employed. On the other

hand, a general, long duration loading such as might result from an earthquake can be

treated only by completely general dynamic analysis procedures [1].

A structural dynamic problem differs from its static loading counterpart in two important

respects. The first difference to be noted, by definition, is the time varying nature of the

dynamic problem. Because both loading and response vary with time, it is evident that a

dynamic problem does not have a single solution, as a static problem does; instead the

analyst must establish a succession of solutions corresponding to all times of interest in

the response history. Thus a dynamic analysis is clearly more complex and time-

consuming than a static analysis.

The essential physical properties of any linearly elastic structural or mechanical system

subjected to an external source of excitation or dynamic loading are its mass, elastic

properties (flexibility or stiffness), and energy loss mechanism or damping.

concentrated in a single physical element. A sketch of such a system is shown in Fig. 2.2.

The entire mass m of this system is included in the rigid block which is constrained by

rollers so that it can move only in simple translation; thus, the single displacement

coordinate v (t) completely defines its position. The elastic resistance to displacement is

provided by the weightless spring of stiffness k, while the energy loss mechanism is

represented by the damper c. The external dynamic loading producing the response of

this system is the time varying force p (t).

2.2.1 Free Vibration Analysis

(Excerpt Taken from Reference Book)

2.2.2 Forced Vibration Analysis

Figure 2.3 SDOF system under Forcing Function and Free Body Diagram.

(Excerpt Taken from Reference Book)

Figure 2.4 Forced vibration response.

Figure 2.5 Amplitude responses for SDOF System.

Most of the buildings, we have degree of freedom more than one, hence in order to study

the dynamic behavior of the building under earthquake excitation, we need to study the

multi-degree of freedom system.

Figure 2.7 Free Body Diagram for MDOF system.

Using the Sub-iteration Technique, the Eigen Values (Frequency) and Eigen Vectors

(Mode Shapes) can be evaluated.

The forced vibration analysis for the structure subjected to dynamic loads can be

performed using any of the procedures:

2. The response spectrum method

In the next section, we will talk about detail procedure to carry out the Time history

Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis, subjected to earthquake excitation.

Section 3: Earthquake Engineering - Analysis and

Design Aspects

3.1 Introduction

Richter magnitude scale to measure earthquake strength. The magnitude, M, of an

earthquake is determined from the logarithm to base ten of the amplitude recorded by

seismometer.

The damage to the structures and environmental features due to the earthquake is

measured by Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. An Intensity scale consists of a series of

responses, such as people awakening, furniture moving, and chimneys being damaged.

The modified Mercalli scale consists of 12 increasing levels of intensity (expressed as

Romans numerals following the initials MM) that range from imperceptible shaking to

catastrophic destruction. The lower numbers of the intensity scale generally are based on

the manner in which the earthquake is felt by people. The higher numbers are based on

observed structural damage. The numeral do not have mathematical basis and therefore

are more meaningful to nontechnical people than those in technical fields.

Figure 3.2 Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.

3.2 Seismic Waves and Record time history

Seismic waves are of three types: compression, shear and surface waves. Compression

and shear waves travel from the hypocenter through the earth interior to distant points on

the surface. Shear waves (also known as transverse waves) do no travel as rapidly (3000

m/s) thought the earth crust and mantel as do compression waves. Because thy ordinarily

reached the surface late they are known as S-Waves. While S-waves travel more slowly

than P-waves, they transmit more energy and cause the majority of damages to structures.

Surface waves, also known as R-waves (for Rayleigh waves”) or L-waves (for “Love

waves”), may or may not form. They arrive after the primary and secondary waves. In

granite, R-waves move at approximately 2700 m/s.

Waves.

Figure 3.4 Ground motions recorded during several earthquakes.

3.3 Design Aspects

The structures are classified as regular or irregular Buildings based on the type of the

configuration. The behavior of the structure may vary based on the configuration of the

building. An irregular building has more damage than a regular one. For regular buildings

or structures which have no significant discontinuities in the plan or vertical

configuration or in their force resisting systems, the code permits equivalent static

analysis up to some heights. But for irregular buildings, the code specifies to carry out

dynamic analysis.

Figure 3.6 Plan discontinuities in Building.

3.4 Development of Analytical Model

evaluating lumped masses and stiffness properties of the connecting structural elements

etc. Development of analytical model is key to the efficiency of analysis process and the

success of aseismic design.

model of a structure and calculating the seismic response of the model to the prescribed

seismic input.

The model shall represent the actual locations of the centre of the masses and centre of

rigidity, thus accounting for the torsion effects caused by the eccentricity.

Different types of model can be developed for the structures depending on the objective

of the analysis. Normally it can be divided in two groups.

1) Stick model

2) 3-Dimensional model

The inertial mass properties of a structure may be modeled by assuming that the

structural mass and associated rotational inertia are discretize and lumped at node points

of the model. Alternatively, the consistent mass formulation may be used.

When appropriate, three translational and rotational degrees of freedom shall be

used at each node point. Some degrees of freedom such as rotation may be neglected

provided that their exclusion does not affect response significantly. The following

conditions shall be met

1 structural mass shall be lumped so that the total mass, as well as the center of

gravity is preserved.

2. The number of dynamic degrees of freedom and hence the number of lumped

masses shall be selected so that all significant vibration modes of the structure can be

evaluated.

3.4.1.2 Damping

system. In structural analysis the representation of energy dissipation through equivalent

viscous damping is very popular because it leads to linear differential equation of motion

which are readily solvable.

Viscous damping is represented by following equations:

F CV

Where C is coefficient of viscous damping

Tthe damping value of the material is expressed in terms of dimensionless value called

damping ratio given by,

CC

cr

where is the damping ratio of material

The critical damping of a material is a value for which the oscillatory motion gets seized.

Damping ratios for structural materials are generally less than 20% and for

different materials damping values are different. In order to obtain modal response, in

case the structure contains materials with different damping. The percentage of critical

damping in each mode has to be evaluated using the weighted strain energy principle.

N

J i 1

2

j

where

= damping ratio of the element (subsystem)

K = stiffness matrix of the ith element (subsystem)

For seismic response analysis, any one of the following four analysis methods is

acceptable. The methods are:

2. The response spectrum method

Figure 3.7 Recommended damping ratios.

3.5.1 Time-History Method

The time history analysis of a structure subjected to dynamic seismic load may be

performed by linear or nonlinear methods. Dynamic analyses of both linear and nonlinear

system are based on solution of simultaneous differential equations subject to a set of

initial conditions and forces.

The response of multi degrees of freedom linear system subjected to seismic excitation is

represented by the following differential equations of motion.

M X C X K X M ub u g

.. . ..

where,

C = damping matrix

K = stiffness matrix

X = column vector of relative displacements

ub = influence vector

..

u g = ground acceleration

In the modal superposition method the equations of motion can be decoupled using

transformation,

X Y

Y = vector of normal or generalized coordinates

m = number of modes considered

.

.. ..

2

Y j

2 j j Y j j Y j j U g

Y=j generalized coordinate of the jth mode

= { Φ}T [M] (Ub)

These single dof equations shall be integrated for evaluating the response.

3.5.2 Response Spectrum Method

When the response spectrum method is used, the basic equations of motion

for multi-dof system can be written as,

M X C X K X M u b u g

.. . ..

where,

C = damping matrix

K = stiffness matrix

X = column vector of relative displacements

ub = influence vector

..

u g = ground acceleration

In the modal superposition method the equations of motion can be decoupled using

transformation,

X Y

Y = vector of normal or generalized coordinates

m = number of modes considered

= vector of normal or generalized coordinates

m = number of modes considered

Figure 3.5 Response spectra displacement computation.

The decoupled equation for each mode may be written as

.

.. ..

2

Y j

2 j j Y j j Y j j U g

Y=j generalized coordinate of the jth mode

= { Φ}T [M] (Ub)

the generalized response of each mode shall be determined from following equation

using response spectrum.

S aj

Y j (max) j 2

j

The maximum displacement of node i relative to the base due to node j is obtained by,

X ij (max) ij Y j (max)

The following two criteria to be adapted while choosing the minimum number of modes

to be considered.

1. the number of modes extracted is such that highest mode corresponding to a

frequency greater than or equal to 33 Hz.

2. The numbers of modes extracted are such that the cumulated modal mass is more

than 90% in each of the three directions.

Any one of the two methods can be used to determine the no of modes to be

considered in modal superposition analysis.

Number of modes included in the analysis shall be sufficient to ensure that inclusion of

all remaining modes does not result in more than 10% increase in total responses of

interest. Alternatively, ASCE standard (4-98) permits to include all the modes in the

analysis having frequencies less than the ZPA frequency or cut-off frequency provided

that the residual rigid response due to the missing mass calculated from the following

equation is added

K X ij (max) M U b i i S A max

m

i 1

for the modal combination purposes the above response will be considered as an

additional mode having frequency equal to the ZPA or cut-off frequency and will be

combined using the SRSS rule.

1) SRSS method

2) CQC method

3) 10% method

4) ABSOLUTE SUM method

closely spaced (two consecutive modes are defined as closely spaced if their

frequency differ from each other by 10% or less of the lower frequency) the

representative maximum value of particular response of interest for design should be

obtained by taking the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS). Mathematically

this can be expressed as follows.

1/ 2

N

R Rk2

k 1

element to a given component of an earthquake and Rk is the peak value of the

response of the element due to the k th mode and N is the number of significant

modes considered in the modal response combination.

Combination of modal responses

closely spaced (two consecutive modes are defined as closely spaced if their

frequency differ from each other by 10% or less of the lower frequency) the

representative maximum value of particular response of interest for design should be

obtained by taking the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS). Mathematically

this can be expressed as follows.

1/ 2 j i

0 .1

R

Rk2

2 Ri R j

i j

i

also1 i j N

element to a given component of an earthquake and Rk is the peak value of the

response of the element due to the k th mode and N is the number of significant

modes considered in the modal response combination.

• Spatial Combination

SRSS method.

3.9 Ductile Detailing Aspects.

A Note on “Overview of Seismic Design of Structures” - 2012 Page 36 of 36

3.10 Step for Carrying out Seismic Analysis of Structures

Step 1: Ascertain the Seismic Design Parameter, Seismic Zone, Type of Soil,

Importance factor, Response Reduction factor based on the structure type.

Step 3: Carry out the Free Vibration Analysis, evaluate Frequency and Mode

Shapes.

Step 4: Carryout the Forced Vibration Analysis, Either Time History Method or

Response Spectra Method.

Step 8: Detail as per the Code and Standards to achieve the ductility assumed.

4 References

[3] Anil K. Chopra (2002), “Dynamic of structures”, prentice hall of India private limited,

New Delhi.

[4] Mario Paz (1987), “Structural dynamics”, CBS publishers & distributors, Delhi.

[5] Ray W.Clough & Joseph penzien (1975), “Dynamic of structure”, McGraw-hill

Kogakusha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

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