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A Note on “Overview of Seismic Design of Structures”

1. Introduction to Earthquake Engineering

1.1 What is Earthquake


1.2 Damages due to Earthquake
1.3 Discussion

2. Introduction to Dynamics of Structures

2.1 Introduction
2.2 SDOF
2.3 MDOF

3. Earthquake Engineering - Analysis and Design Aspects

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Earth Motions
3.3 Time history Analysis
3.4 Response Spectra Analysis
3.5 Steps to Carry out Seismic Analysis of Structures

4. References

Note on “Overview of Seismic Design of Structures” - 2012


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Section 1: Introduction Earthquake Engineering

1.1 What is Earthquake?

An earthquake is an oscillatory, sometimes violet movement of the ground surface


that follows a release of energy in the Earth’s crust. This energy can be generated by a
sudden dislocation of segments of the crust, a volcanic eruption, or man-made
explosion. Most of the destructive earthquakes, however, are caused by dislocation of
crust [1]. This earth motion is caused due to either sudden slip or slow creep of the
faults. A fault is a fracture in the Earth crust along with two blocs slip relative to each
other.

Figure 1.1 Tectonic Plate Boundaries [2].

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Figure 1.2 Types of Faults [1].

1.2 Damages due to Earthquake

The earth movement caused variable damages based on the behavior of the structural
characteristics.

1.2.1 Ground Behavior

The effects of violent shaking on the ground are temporarily to increase lateral and
vertical forces, to disturb the inter-granular stability of non-cohesive solid and to impose
strains directly on surface material locally if the fault plane reaches the surface. Shear
movements in the ground may be at the surface or entirely below it. If the earthquake
fault reaches the surface, permanent movements of considerable magnitude occur; this
can amount to several meters in large earthquakes.

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Figure 1.3 Damage in the port of Kobe, Japan, 1995 [1]

1.2.2 Structural Damages

Due to violet motion of the earthquake there is appreciable displacement of the top earth,
which led to damages to the structural elements.

Figure 1.4 Undue Settlement and Damage Caused to Structure due to


Liquefaction

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Figure 1.5 Damage to Cranes in the port of Kobe, Japan, 1995.

Figure 1.6 Damages to the Building Structure, Kobe, Japan, 1995 [1]

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Figure 1.7 Damages to the Storage Shed, Bhuj, India, 2001.

Figure 1.8 Damages to Petrol Pump Station, Wong, Bhuj, India, 2001.

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1.3 Discussion

The damages caused due to earthquake are varied. Although this damages cannot be
avoid, but it can be reduce or lessen by taking measures in the design and detailing of the
structures. The earthquake engineering deals with the earthquake resistant design of
structures, passive or active devices to reduce the effect on the structures and retrofitting
measures for the structures.

Conventional Buildings Isolated Buildings

Figure 1.9 Use of Passive Energy Devices to reduce Damage to Buildings[3]

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To understand the behavior of structure subjected to earthquake, one needs to know the
basics of Structural Dynamics. In the next section 2, the basics about the structural
dynamics are prescribed. Whereas in the Section 3, a thrust a made to give knowledge
about the earthquake or seismic analysis and design of structures.

In order to understand the structural behavior, there is enormous literature available on


these topics. Some of the literatures for reference are:

1.3.1 Books

(1) Anil K. Chopra (2002), “Dynamic of structures”, prentice hall of India private
limited, New Delhi.
(2) Mario Paz (1987), “Structural dynamics”, CBS publishers & distributors, Delhi.
(3) Ray W.Clough & Joseph penzien (1975), “Dynamic of structure”, McGraw-hill
Kogakusha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

1.3.2 Websites

(1) www. nisee.berkeley.edu


(2) www.ejse.org
(3) www.icivilengineer.com/Earthquake_Engineering/Structural_Dynamics/
(4) www.mceer.buffalo.edu

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Section 2: Introduction to Structural Dynamics

2.1 Introduction

The term dynamic may be defined simply as time varying; thus a dynamic load is any
load of which its magnitude, direction, and/or position varies with time. Similarly, the
structural response to a dynamic load, i.e., the resulting stresses and deflections, is also
time varying, or dynamic [1].

Figure 2.1 Characteristics and Source of Dynamic Loads

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Almost any type of structural system may be subjected to one form or another of dynamic
loading during its lifetime. From an analytical standpoint, it is convenient to divide
prescribed or deterministic loadings into two basic categories, periodic and nonperiodic.
Some typical forms of prescribed loadings and examples of situations in which such
loadings might be developed are shown in Fig. 2.1. As indicated in this Figure, a periodic
loading exhibits the same time variation successively for a large number of cycles. The
simplest periodic loading has the sinusoidal variation shown in Fig. 11a, which is termed
simple harmonic; loadings of this type are characteristic of unbalanced mass effects in
rotating machinery. Other forms of periodic loading, e.g., those caused by hydrodynamic
pressures generated by a propeller at the stern of a ship or by inertial effects in
reciprocating machinery, frequently are more complex. However, by means of a Fourier
analysis any periodic loading can be represented as the sum of a series of simple
harmonic components; thus, in principle, the analysis of response to any periodic loading
follows the same general procedure[1].

Nonperiodic loadings may be either short duration impulsive loadings or long duration
general forms of loads. A blast or explosion is a typical source of impulsive load; for such
short duration loads, special simplified forms of analysis may be employed. On the other
hand, a general, long duration loading such as might result from an earthquake can be
treated only by completely general dynamic analysis procedures [1].

A structural dynamic problem differs from its static loading counterpart in two important
respects. The first difference to be noted, by definition, is the time varying nature of the
dynamic problem. Because both loading and response vary with time, it is evident that a
dynamic problem does not have a single solution, as a static problem does; instead the
analyst must establish a succession of solutions corresponding to all times of interest in
the response history. Thus a dynamic analysis is clearly more complex and time-
consuming than a static analysis.

2.2 Single Degree of Freedom system (SDOF)

The essential physical properties of any linearly elastic structural or mechanical system
subjected to an external source of excitation or dynamic loading are its mass, elastic
properties (flexibility or stiffness), and energy loss mechanism or damping.

In the simplest model of a SDOF system, each of these properties is assumed to be


concentrated in a single physical element. A sketch of such a system is shown in Fig. 2.2.
The entire mass m of this system is included in the rigid block which is constrained by
rollers so that it can move only in simple translation; thus, the single displacement
coordinate v (t) completely defines its position. The elastic resistance to displacement is
provided by the weightless spring of stiffness k, while the energy loss mechanism is
represented by the damper c. The external dynamic loading producing the response of
this system is the time varying force p (t).

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2.2.1 Free Vibration Analysis

Figure 2.2 SDOF system and Free Body Diagram.


(Excerpt Taken from Reference Book)

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2.2.2 Forced Vibration Analysis

Figure 2.3 SDOF system under Forcing Function and Free Body Diagram.
(Excerpt Taken from Reference Book)

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Figure 2.4 Forced vibration response.

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Figure 2.5 Amplitude responses for SDOF System.

2.3 Multi-Degree of Freedom System (MDOF)

Most of the buildings, we have degree of freedom more than one, hence in order to study
the dynamic behavior of the building under earthquake excitation, we need to study the
multi-degree of freedom system.

Figure 2.6 Simple Model of MDOF system (Framed Structure).

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Figure 2.7 Free Body Diagram for MDOF system.

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Using the Sub-iteration Technique, the Eigen Values (Frequency) and Eigen Vectors
(Mode Shapes) can be evaluated.

Figure 2.8 Mode Shape for the MDOF system.

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The forced vibration analysis for the structure subjected to dynamic loads can be
performed using any of the procedures:

1. The time history method


2. The response spectrum method

In the next section, we will talk about detail procedure to carry out the Time history
Analysis and Response Spectrum Analysis, subjected to earthquake excitation.

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Section 3: Earthquake Engineering - Analysis and
Design Aspects

3.1 Introduction

In 1935, Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology developed the


Richter magnitude scale to measure earthquake strength. The magnitude, M, of an
earthquake is determined from the logarithm to base ten of the amplitude recorded by
seismometer.

Figure 3.1 Typical Seismometer Amplitude Trace.

The damage to the structures and environmental features due to the earthquake is
measured by Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. An Intensity scale consists of a series of
responses, such as people awakening, furniture moving, and chimneys being damaged.
The modified Mercalli scale consists of 12 increasing levels of intensity (expressed as
Romans numerals following the initials MM) that range from imperceptible shaking to
catastrophic destruction. The lower numbers of the intensity scale generally are based on
the manner in which the earthquake is felt by people. The higher numbers are based on
observed structural damage. The numeral do not have mathematical basis and therefore
are more meaningful to nontechnical people than those in technical fields.

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Figure 3.2 Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.

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3.2 Seismic Waves and Record time history

Seismic waves are of three types: compression, shear and surface waves. Compression
and shear waves travel from the hypocenter through the earth interior to distant points on
the surface. Shear waves (also known as transverse waves) do no travel as rapidly (3000
m/s) thought the earth crust and mantel as do compression waves. Because thy ordinarily
reached the surface late they are known as S-Waves. While S-waves travel more slowly
than P-waves, they transmit more energy and cause the majority of damages to structures.
Surface waves, also known as R-waves (for Rayleigh waves”) or L-waves (for “Love
waves”), may or may not form. They arrive after the primary and secondary waves. In
granite, R-waves move at approximately 2700 m/s.

Figure 3.3 Types of Seismic


Waves.

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Figure 3.4 Ground motions recorded during several earthquakes.

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3.3 Design Aspects

The structures are classified as regular or irregular Buildings based on the type of the
configuration. The behavior of the structure may vary based on the configuration of the
building. An irregular building has more damage than a regular one. For regular buildings
or structures which have no significant discontinuities in the plan or vertical
configuration or in their force resisting systems, the code permits equivalent static
analysis up to some heights. But for irregular buildings, the code specifies to carry out
dynamic analysis.

Figure 3.5 Vertical Irregularities in Buildings.

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Figure 3.6 Plan discontinuities in Building.

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3.4 Development of Analytical Model

An analytical model is developed by appropriately ascertaining the degrees of freedom,


evaluating lumped masses and stiffness properties of the connecting structural elements
etc. Development of analytical model is key to the efficiency of analysis process and the
success of aseismic design.

3.4.1 Modeling of a Structures

The seismic response of a structure shall be determined by preparing a mathematical


model of a structure and calculating the seismic response of the model to the prescribed
seismic input.

The model shall represent the actual locations of the centre of the masses and centre of
rigidity, thus accounting for the torsion effects caused by the eccentricity.

Different types of model can be developed for the structures depending on the objective
of the analysis. Normally it can be divided in two groups.

1) Stick model
2) 3-Dimensional model

3.4.1.1 Modeling of Mass

The inertial mass properties of a structure may be modeled by assuming that the
structural mass and associated rotational inertia are discretize and lumped at node points
of the model. Alternatively, the consistent mass formulation may be used.
When appropriate, three translational and rotational degrees of freedom shall be
used at each node point. Some degrees of freedom such as rotation may be neglected
provided that their exclusion does not affect response significantly. The following
conditions shall be met
1 structural mass shall be lumped so that the total mass, as well as the center of
gravity is preserved.
2. The number of dynamic degrees of freedom and hence the number of lumped
masses shall be selected so that all significant vibration modes of the structure can be
evaluated.

3.4.1.2 Damping

Damping is a common designation for all kinds of energy absorption of vibratory


system. In structural analysis the representation of energy dissipation through equivalent
viscous damping is very popular because it leads to linear differential equation of motion
which are readily solvable.

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Viscous damping is represented by following equations:

F  CV
Where C is coefficient of viscous damping

Tthe damping value of the material is expressed in terms of dimensionless value called
damping ratio given by,
  CC
cr
where  is the damping ratio of material

Ccr is critical damping


The critical damping of a material is a value for which the oscillatory motion gets seized.
Damping ratios for structural materials are generally less than 20% and for
different materials damping values are different. In order to obtain modal response, in
case the structure contains materials with different damping. The percentage of critical
damping in each mode has to be evaluated using the weighted strain energy principle.

Evaluation of Modal Damping

 J  T  K  i  J 


N

J   i 1 
2
j
where
 = damping ratio of the element (subsystem)
K = stiffness matrix of the ith element (subsystem)

3.5 Analysis of Structures

For seismic response analysis, any one of the following four analysis methods is
acceptable. The methods are:

1. The time history method


2. The response spectrum method

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Figure 3.7 Recommended damping ratios.

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3.5.1 Time-History Method

The time history analysis of a structure subjected to dynamic seismic load may be
performed by linear or nonlinear methods. Dynamic analyses of both linear and nonlinear
system are based on solution of simultaneous differential equations subject to a set of
initial conditions and forces.

The response of multi degrees of freedom linear system subjected to seismic excitation is
represented by the following differential equations of motion.

 M   X    C   X    K  X    M  ub  u g
.. . ..

   
where,

 C  = damping matrix
 K  = stiffness matrix
 X  = column vector of relative displacements
 ub  = influence vector
..
u g = ground acceleration

In the modal superposition method the equations of motion can be decoupled using
transformation,

 X    Y 

  = normalized mode shape matrix


Y  = vector of normal or generalized coordinates
m = number of modes considered

The decoupled equation for each mode may be written as

.
.. ..
2
Y j
 2 j j Y j   j Y j   j U g
Y=j generalized coordinate of the jth mode

=j circular frequency of jth mode the system (rad./sec.)

=j modal participation factor for the jth mode


= { Φ}T [M] (Ub)

These single dof equations shall be integrated for evaluating the response.

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3.5.2 Response Spectrum Method

When the response spectrum method is used, the basic equations of motion
for multi-dof system can be written as,

 M   X    C   X    K  X    M  u b  u g
.. . ..

   
where,

 C  = damping matrix
 K  = stiffness matrix
 X  = column vector of relative displacements
 ub  = influence vector
..
u g = ground acceleration

In the modal superposition method the equations of motion can be decoupled using
transformation,

 X    Y 

  = normalized mode shape matrix


Y  = vector of normal or generalized coordinates
m = number of modes considered

= normalized mode shape matrix


= vector of normal or generalized coordinates
m = number of modes considered

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Figure 3.5 Response spectra displacement computation.

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The decoupled equation for each mode may be written as
.
.. ..
2
Y j
 2 j j Y j   j Y j   j U g
Y=j generalized coordinate of the jth mode

=j circular frequency of jth mode the system (rad./sec.)

=j modal participation factor for the jth mode


= { Φ}T [M] (Ub)

the generalized response of each mode shall be determined from following equation
using response spectrum.

 S aj 
Y j (max)   j  2 
 
 j 

Where S aj is the spectral acceleration corresponding to frequency  j

The maximum displacement of node i relative to the base due to node j is obtained by,

X ij (max)   ij Y j (max)

3.6 Selection of Number of modes

The following two criteria to be adapted while choosing the minimum number of modes
to be considered.
1. the number of modes extracted is such that highest mode corresponding to a
frequency greater than or equal to 33 Hz.
2. The numbers of modes extracted are such that the cumulated modal mass is more
than 90% in each of the three directions.
Any one of the two methods can be used to determine the no of modes to be
considered in modal superposition analysis.

3.7 Missing Mass Correction:

Number of modes included in the analysis shall be sufficient to ensure that inclusion of
all remaining modes does not result in more than 10% increase in total responses of
interest. Alternatively, ASCE standard (4-98) permits to include all the modes in the
analysis having frequencies less than the ZPA frequency or cut-off frequency provided
that the residual rigid response due to the missing mass calculated from the following
equation is added

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 K  X ij (max)  M U b    i   i  S A max
m

 i 1 

where, S A max = highest spectral acceleration at the cut-off frequency

for the modal combination purposes the above response will be considered as an
additional mode having frequency equal to the ZPA or cut-off frequency and will be
combined using the SRSS rule.

3.8 Combination of Modal response:

1) SRSS method
2) CQC method
3) 10% method
4) ABSOLUTE SUM method

Combination of modal responses

With No Closely Spaced Modes

In a response spectrum modal dynamic analysis if the modes are not


closely spaced (two consecutive modes are defined as closely spaced if their
frequency differ from each other by 10% or less of the lower frequency) the
representative maximum value of particular response of interest for design should be
obtained by taking the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS). Mathematically
this can be expressed as follows.

1/ 2
N 
R   Rk2 
 k 1 

Where R is the representative max value of particular response of a given


element to a given component of an earthquake and Rk is the peak value of the
response of the element due to the k th mode and N is the number of significant
modes considered in the modal response combination.

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Combination of modal responses

With No Closely Spaced Modes

In a response spectrum modal dynamic analysis if the modes are not


closely spaced (two consecutive modes are defined as closely spaced if their
frequency differ from each other by 10% or less of the lower frequency) the
representative maximum value of particular response of interest for design should be
obtained by taking the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS). Mathematically
this can be expressed as follows.

 
1/ 2  j  i
 0 .1
R

 Rk2 
2 Ri R j 

i j
i
 
also1  i  j  N

Where R is the representative max value of particular response of a given


element to a given component of an earthquake and Rk is the peak value of the
response of the element due to the k th mode and N is the number of significant
modes considered in the modal response combination.

• Spatial Combination

Spatial combination of response due to three components of earthquake is carried out by


SRSS method.

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3.9 Ductile Detailing Aspects.

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3.10 Step for Carrying out Seismic Analysis of Structures

Step 1: Ascertain the Seismic Design Parameter, Seismic Zone, Type of Soil,
Importance factor, Response Reduction factor based on the structure type.

Step 2: Model the geometry, prescribed the mass, damping ratio.

Step 3: Carry out the Free Vibration Analysis, evaluate Frequency and Mode
Shapes.

Step 4: Carryout the Forced Vibration Analysis, Either Time History Method or
Response Spectra Method.

Step 5: Combine the response as per CQC or SRSS.

Step 6: Check the Drift limits of the structure.

Step 7: Design the structural element based the force response.

Step 8: Detail as per the Code and Standards to achieve the ductility assumed.

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4 References

[1] “Seismic Design Handbook”, by Naeim.

[2] “Seismic Design of Building Structures”, Masjid B (2001), Professional Publications.

[3] Anil K. Chopra (2002), “Dynamic of structures”, prentice hall of India private limited,
New Delhi.

[4] Mario Paz (1987), “Structural dynamics”, CBS publishers & distributors, Delhi.

[5] Ray W.Clough & Joseph penzien (1975), “Dynamic of structure”, McGraw-hill
Kogakusha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan.

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