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1

ANYA C. U. and 2OSADEBE, N.N

1

Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.

2

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

ABSTRACT

The dynamic response (natural frequency) of tall building frame models which permit joint ration

and the inclusion of the columns axial load were investigated.

The stiffness co-efficient of axial members were modified by the use of relevant stability functions

through which the contributions of the axial forces were reflected. Comparisons of the responses of

models with flexible horizontal members with the exclusion and /or inclusion of the columns axial

loads to those of identical frames modeled as shear frame s and considering the buildings as multi

degree of freedom systems, based on numerical results were made. The results showed that (a)

model with no restriction on joint rotations gave improved results, (b) the inclusion of the axial

loads further improved the result and hence, the models, (c) The axial load effect became more

significant as the building got taller and (d) at beam to column rigidity (EI) rations below 12 the

sear frame gave result s that different by more than 5% from those obtained using the improved

models. It is, therefore, recommended that for tall buildings with low horizontal to vertical member

rigidity ratios models which permit flexibility of members and joint rotation should be used. For

very tall frames, the axial loads should not be ignored.

1.0 INTRODUCTION.

Tall frame constitute the main load bearing Tall frames are essentially systems

component of tall building [1]. with infinite degrees of freedom. However,

Apart from static loads, structural frames are some simplifications are made in their

also subjected to dynamic forces which have dynamic analyses by considering them as

their possible sources from earthquakes, multi degree of freedom system using the

explosion, impact loads, moving loads, wind shear frame model in which the horizontal

and other disturbances. The common feature members are assumed to be infinitely rigid in

of all dynamic disturbances is that they comparison to the vertical members.

generate vibrations in the structure upon Consequent upon excitation the shear frame

which they act. Consequently, prerequisite to only sways in its plane. The hear frame

the design of such a structures is a good known to give results which may differ

insight into its vibration motions and, in greatly from the actual. Also, it does not

particular, the natural frequency, w. include the effect of axial loads over the years

The knowledge of the natural the form and properties of tall buildings have

frequencies and the associated modes of changed substantially. Lighter floor systems

vibration enable the engineer not only to and curtain wall constructions have are now

evaluate some dynamic parameters necessary very common. Modern designs have also led

for the design of the structure but to also to buildings that are more susceptible to

predict the likelihood of resonance. As far as dynamic excitation [2]. In view of these, it

possible, natural frequencies should, becomes increasingly difficult to justify the

therefore, be determined with some fairly continued use of the shear frame model for

good accuracy. tall frames.

Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, September 2005. Anya and Osadebe 35

In this work an attempt is made to (1) Model 1: the shear frame or vertical pole

investigate the effect of axial loads on the The shear frame model assumes that (i) the

natural frequencies of tall rigid building total mass of the structure is concentrated at

frame with flexible horizontal members as the floor levels; (ii) the floor slab action

multi degrees of freedom systems and (2) integrally with the beams makes the beams

establish a critical value of beam-column EI infinitely rigid when compared to the

ratio, if any below which the shear frame columns, (iii) the deformation of the structure

gives natural frequencies that differ by more is independent of the axial forces in the

than 5% from those obtained when (i) no column. Thus a building frame can then be

restrictions are placed on joint rotations and modeled as a vertical pole with the masses

(ii) axial loads and joint rotations are concentrated at the floor levels and the

considered. A related work has been done on rigidities of the vertical members of the

(1) above for a shear frame [3]. original frame, say at the ith floor level

summed up to give the rigidity o the pole at

2.0 EQUATION OF FREE MOTION the ith floor [8].

Using the principle of superposition, the

equation of free vibration can be written as: Model 2: model with no restriction on joint

[K] [Y] + [M] [ÿ] = [0] where [K] is the radiation

lateral stiffness matrix of the building, [M] is This, like the shear frame model,

the diagonal matrix of the lumped masses at assumes that the masses are lumped at the

the floors. [] is a column matrix of the lateral floor levels but the girders are not assumed to

displacements at the floor levels. [y] is a be of infinite rigidity when compared to the

matrix that contains the second derivatives of columns. The effect of vertical inertia is

the displacements at the floors. negligible and the axial deformation of the

Assuming a periodic solution to structure is independent of the axial force in

equation 1 results to the generalized eigen the columns.

problem:

[K] []=2 [M] [] (2) Model 3; model with joint rotations and

Where, [] is the amplitude array. The n (n column axial loads included

being the degree of freedom of the structure) This is similar to model 2 except that the

solutions to equation 1 can be written as: [K] columns axial loads are include. The effects

[] = [M] [] [] (3) of the axial load are taken into account by

where, [] is an n x n matrix of eigenvectors, treating the columns as beam-column

elements.

[] is a diagonal matrix listing the

eigenvalues (square of the free vibration

2.3 Evaluations of the lateral stiffness

frequencies).

matrix elements.

Many methods of solving the

Tall buildings are generally three-dimensional

eigenvalue problem are available such as the

structure. Although a three dimensional

sturm sequence, subspace iteration and the

analysis is possible, the computations are

Jacobi method [4-7].in this work, the Jacobi

often quite involving. A two- dimensional

method will be adopted.

analysis is used except in some special cases.

The major difference in the models lies in

3.0 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

their lateral stiffness matrices, [K] of equation

3.1 Description of models.

3. The element Ku of the lateral stiffness

The basic assumptions for each of the models

matrix is the restoring force at floor level i

to be considered are as given below.

Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, September 2005. Anya and Osadebe 36

when floor level j is given a unit sway. i (i=1 to u, the degree of freedom) is given a

Stiffness matrix elements for model 1 if floor

unit sway then the relevant stiffness matrix joint j, R, Xk is the moment generated at joint

elements are given as: i due to a unit sway at floor level k, = (i=1 to

v) is the unknown rotation at joint 1.

( )

iv. Eq. 4 is solved and the unknown

(4) values of the joint rotation determined. The

final bending moment diagram is then

determined using the relationship.

a. ∑ (6)

Mk is the final bending moment diagram

Stiffness matrix of models 2 and 3

when the structure is given a unit lateral sway

In addition to the assumptions already

at floor level k.

stated the following are also made in the

V The shear force and hence the

analysis of tall buildings: contribution from

stiffness matrix elements, Kik (i=1=n) at each

the out of plane stiffness of floor slabs are

floor level can now be calculated using the

neglected, tensional stiffness of beams,

local equilibrium principle.

columns and planar walls are neglected and

Vi steps (ii) to (v) are repeated for the

the effect of axial load on beams and girders

other floors. It should be noted that only the

is usually negligible.

right hand side of equation changes each time

The stiffness matrix elements can only

the process is repeated.

be obtained after a complete static analysis of

The formulation of the stiffness matrix of tall

the structure, using, say, the classical

frames as described above is not only

displacement method as described below:

complex but also time consuming and prone

i. The joints of the frame are assumed

to errors as equation 2 has to be formulated

fixed and unit rotations applied at each, one at

and solved v times.

a time and the resulting end moment

diagrams, Mi (i=1 to v the total number of 3.2 Computer program

joints) are then drawn using the appropriate A computer program stiffeig, was developed by

element bending stiffness. anya [9] using the stiffness method described

ii. The structure is then assumed to be above for (a) calculating the stiffness matrix

given a lateral displacement of at floor level elements of regular frames for various beam/

k, other lateral displacements of other floor column EI ration for models 1,2,and 3, previously

being assumed to be zero. The resulting fixed described

end moment diagram Mk is drawn. and (b) solving the resulting eigenvalue problem

iii. The compatibility equations are then to determine the natural frequencies and modes of

vibration using the Jacobi method. The input data

set up and are given as

are the number of storey’s and bays, the floor and

roof loads, the member elements' El values and

lengths. Others are the columns axial loads, the

.. .. . .. . . . . . . lumped masses at the floor levels, the Jacobi

tolerance value the model type to be analysed for

(5) and the Jacobi iteration limit stiffeig first

calculates the left hand side coefficients of the

compatibility equation (equation 5) using the

Where r,, (i-1to v,j=1 to v) is the moment

relevant element stiffness for the model type and

generated at join t i due to a unit rotation at stores the in a banded form. For each degree of

Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, September 2005. Anya and Osadebe 37

equation 5 and solves the resulting simultaneous

equation to determine the joint rotations using the 3.3.1 Calculation of design loads

Gaussian elimination method. The final bending The design loads were calculated using BS

moments are then obtained using equation 6 from

811O design code [9] and are as shown in

which the lateral stiffness elements for that degree

Table 3.1

of freedom are calculated. When all the lateral

stiffness elements have been evaluated and

Column axial loads.

stored in a banded form, the program starts the

The column axial loads were calculated using

solving of the eigen problem (equation 3)

the design loads in Table 3.1 and assuming

using the Jacobi iteration method. The mass

that the columns carry half of the loads on the

matrix is decomposed and the generalized

beams spanning into them as shown in Fig 3c.

eigen problem is transformed to the standard

Thus at each floor level a column, say,

form. A unit eigenvector array is then set up

column C1 carries the portion of the floor

and the iteration value is set to zero, its initial

load demarcated by adcd while that for

value. The program then searches for the

column C2 is cdef and that by column C3 is

largest off diagonal stiffness matrix element

efgh, The loads on the various panels are then

and calculates the effective zero value, The

as in Table 3.2.

updating of the stiffness and eigen vector

matrices is done until the largest off diagonal

Lumped masses

stiffness matrix element is less than the

The lumped masses at the floors are: At roof

effective zero value or the iteration limit is

= 300 x 10 x 3.6 = 10800kg Other floors =

reached. The eigenvector array is then

360 x 10 x 3.6 13000kg

normalized and the natural frequencies are

calculated. A check is then carried out to test 4.0 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

the accuracy of the results obtained. The plots of natural frequencies of the 5 and 10

storey buildings against beam to column E.I ratios

3.3 Test problems. for the models are as given in Figs. 4.1and Fig

Stiffeig was used to determine the natural 4.2.

frequencies of some tall building frames. From fig. 4.1 and 4.2 the following are

The first building is the 15 storey-2 bay office discernable; (i) the natural frequency curves for

building, the plan and section of which are as model 1 (ii) the inclusion of the axial loads did

shown in Fig 3a and 3b respectively. The improve the results. The frequencies obtained for

model 3(when the axial loads were included) were

other building is a 10 storey whose plan is the

constantly less than those for models 1and 2.

same as that of the 15 storey building but

However the values did not differ very much from

whose elevation was obtained from that of the those of obtained for model 2 where only joint

15 storey building by removing the rotations are allowed. In fact the two curves could

appropriate number of floors from the top. All be plotted as one. It is expected that as the number

the beams are 585 x 250mm. The material of of storeys increases the differences between the

construction is concrete of unit weight of two models will increases (iv) The beam to

24kN/m2 and modulus of elasticity, E of 20 x column EI ration below which model 1(the

106 kN/m2. shear frame) gave results that differ from

The structural properties of the buildings are those of models 2 and 3 by 5% are

assumed uniform along the length of the respectively 12.5 for the 10 storey building

building and an analysis of an interior frame approximately. The ratio increases with

is assumed to yield the response of the entire increase in the numbers of storeys.

Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, September 2005. Anya and Osadebe 38

4.0 RECOMMENDATIONS/CONCLU

SION 3. Varbanov C.P and kapitanow N. Effects of

The following recommendations are made from Axial force on the dynamic characteristics

the study; and loads of multe-story frames, Annuire De

(i)The effect of axial forces should not be ignored L. Institute D. architecture et De Genie civil,

in the dynamic analysis of very tall building Sofia, vol xxvii No 3, pp 7-14, 1980.

especially when light flooring systems are used.

however for moderately tall building where the 4. Bathe, K. J finite Element procedures in

axial loads are not considerable much, the effect Engineering analysis, prentice-Hall N.I. 1982.

of the axial loads may be ignored and the

structure depending on the beam-column EI ratio, 5. Bathe, K.J. and Wilson E.L. large eigenvalue

be analysed as one with flexible horizontal problem in dynamic analysis, ASCE,

members or as a shear frame (ii) Tall building mechanics division pp 1471-1485, 1972.

whose floor slabs are constructed with lightweight

material or those whose beam to column EI ratios 6. Bathe, K.J and Wilson, E.L “Solution

are less than 20 should not be analysed as shear methods for Eigenvalue problems in

frames. Such buildings should be modeled as one structural mechanics” international journal of

with flexible members with/without the inclusion Numerical methods in Engineering, vol 6 pp

of the column’s axial loads 213-226, 1973

[K] Building lateral stiffness matrix. by sturm sequence Method International

[M] Mass matrix. Journal of Numerical Methods in

E Modulus of elasticity Engineering. Vol 4 pp 379-404, 1972.

I Second moment of area.

8 Ymanskago, A. A Handbook for designer n

W Natural frequency

(m Russian language) Stroiizdat, Moscow,

n dynamic degrees of freedom

1973.

v number of joints.

9 Nya, C.U. Dynamic Analysis of Tall

REFERENCES Buildings Unpublished Msc project report,

1. Apostolov,G Tall buildings, Technika Department of civil engineering, university of

sofia 1980. Nigeria, 1995.

Tree vibration of tall building using structural use of concrete, part I, British

Timoshenko beams with enable cross – Standards Institution, London, 1997

section. In Jones, N and Brebbia, C.A

Editor) structures under shock and impact

Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, September 2005. Anya and Osadebe 39

Nigerian Journal of Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, September 2005. Anya and Osadebe 40

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