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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
Region VIII– Eastern Visayas


The learners demonstrate an understanding of the digestive system and its interaction with the
circulatory, respiratory, and excretory system in providing the body with nutrients for energy.

The learners should be able to present an analysis of the data gathered on diseases resulting
from nutrient deficiency.

The learners should be able to explain ingestion, absorption, assimilation, and excretion.

At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:
1. identify the parts and its functions of the Digestive System;
2. label the parts of the digestive system; and
3. describe the importance of the Digestive System.



A. Topic: Structure and Functions: Focus on the Digestive System
B. References: Teacher’s Guide page 205
Learner’s Guide pages 291-305
Discover Science (K to 12 Curriculum Compliant) by Ian Mark F. Allas pp. 80-85.
Curriculum Guide page 49
C. Materials: printed pictures, cartolina, activity card, envelope, fill tip pen, adhesive tape,
anatomical structure of Digestive System, metacards, PowerPoint slides, projector, video clips,


Teacher’s Activity Student’s Activity
Preparatory Activities
 Prayer
Everybody please stand and let us pray. (students pray the Interfaith Prayer)

 Greetings
Good morning class. Good morning Ma’am.
Before you take your seats, please (students arrange their chairs and pick up the
arrange your chairs and pick up the pieces pieces of paper)
of paper under your chair, keep it first
inside your bag and throw it in the trash bin

 Attendance (seat plan)

Please go back to your proper seats for I (students go back to their proper seating
will check your attendance. Those who are arrangement)
not in their proper seat will be mark as

Alright. Very Good everyone! Let’s do the 1….2….3 (clap their hand)
“Yes clap” for having the complete 1….2….3 (stamp their feet) YES!

 Review
Before we start, let’s have a review first of Last meeting, we talked about the methods to
our lesson last meeting. So, what did we increase food production.
discuss last meeting?

Very Good! What are these methods that These methods include monoculture, herbicides
we talk about? and insecticides, and chemical fertilizers which
are used by farmers.

That’s right! Why do we need to increase We need to increase our food production
our food production? because we humans are the top consumers of
food and our population is growing from time to

Very Good! But why do we even need We need food because it gives energy to supply
food? our day to day activities.


 Motivation
For us to be really energized in today’s
lesson, let’s play a game. This game is
called Fast Food Chain. The mechanics of
this game is just simple, I will say a food,
then I will point one of your classmates and
he/she will give another food that begins
with a letter which is an end letter of the
given word. Then your seatmate will be the
next one to give a food.

For example, I will say “Pizza” then I will

point one of your classmate, then he/she
will say a food that starts with letter A
“Apple”, his/her seatmate will be the next
with E as the starting letter of the word
“Eggplant” until it reaches the last person
sitting at the back. We will do it in a snappy
way. Do you understand the mechanics of
our game? Yes Ma’am.

Are you ready? Yes Ma’am. (students play the game)

Very Good everyone! Since all of you
participated in the game, you will receive a
bar of chocolate later on.

Now, what will happen to those foods that

you mentioned earlier when you ate it? Those foods will be digested.

Very Good! Then where do you think these

foods will be digested? It will be digested in our stomach.

That’s right! What do you think is the

system that has stomach as an organ? It is the Digestive System.

A. Activity
For you to deeply understand about Digestive
System, you will be performing an activity
entitled “Do I Belong Here?”

I’ll group you into three and each group will

choose their leader to facilitate the activity, a
secretary to write your answers and
representative to report your work. The leader
of each group will pick an envelope containing
pictures, a cartolina where you can paste the
pictures, and a paper containing sets of
questions that you will be answering.

What you will do is to study the pictures

showing different organs of the human body.
Then, identify which organs belong to the
digestive system, paste it in the cartolina that
is being provided and name the organ that you
pasted. Finally, you are going to answer sets
of questions in the paper given.

The work of each group will be rated by a

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
All of the
All of the organs are Some of the
None of the
organs are properly organs are
organs are
Identification properly identified but properly
identified and
identified and only some of identified and
named. them are named.
Only 2 Out of all
All of the None of the
Correctness questions were questions, only
answers are answers are
of the answer answered 1 is correctly
correct. correct.
correctly. answered.
The reporter The reporter
The reporter The reporter
delivers some does not
clearly indirectly
of the sufficiently
Delivery communicates communicates
important communicate
what their work what their work
ideas about what their work
is all about. is all about.
their work. is all about.

I will give each group a copy of this rubric for

you to be guided which will be inside your
envelope. Are there any questions about the
rubric? None Ma’am.

At the back of your envelope there is attached

paper where you can write the names of your
groupmates and you will give me the list
before the representative of your group
presents the answers.

I’ll only give you 10 minutes to work on your

activity. You can start working on your activity
until I say so. Are the instructions clear? Yes Ma’am.

This will be the group 1, group 2 and group 3.

You can now form a circle within your group
but please don’t drag the chairs. Before you
start, please be reminded to minimize your
voice, cooperate with your groupmates and
clean up your mess after doing the activity.
Any violation will be a demerit.

May I call the leader of each group to choose

the envelope and get the materials needed
for your activity.

Your 10 minutes starts now! (students start doing their activity)

(after 10 minutes) Time is up! Please go back

to your respective seats. May I call again the
leader of the group to pick a piece of paper
here which will represent the order for the
presentation of answers. Again, before you
present your work, give me the list of your

B. Analysis
Who got number 1? Since you pick number 1,
you will be the first presenter. Please post
your cartolina on the board and let the
representative of the group explain your work. (first group present their answers)

Very good first presenter. Let’s give their 1….2….3 (clap their hand)
group “Very Good clap by Mommy D” 1….2….3 (stamp their feet) Very Good! Very
Good! Very Good!

Let’s move to the group who picks number 2.

Please post your answers and present your
work. (second group present their answers)

Great job second presenter. Let’s give their 1….2….3 (clap their hand)
group “Check na Check clap” 1….2….3 (stamp their feet) Check na Check!

The last group, please present your work. (last group present their answers)

Excellent! Let’s give the last group “Hooray 1….2….3 (clap their hand)
Clap” 1….2….3 (stamp their feet) Hooray!

Do you think these organs belong to the Yes Ma’am.

digestive system?
What are your basis in choosing these I based it on the organs present because some of
organs? the organs belongs to another system in our

Very Good! Base on your output, what are the The organs that belong to the digestive system
organs that belong to the digestive system? are mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small
intestine, large intestine, anus, pancreas, liver,
and gall bladder.
That’s right!

C. Abstraction
I have here a video clip regarding the
adventures of Chloe and Nerve. Listen to it
and take note where their adventures take
them. (the teacher plays the video)

What was shown in in the video clip? The video clip shows how our body digest foods
in the digestive system.

That’s right! Today, we will be discovering the

digestive system and the processes involved
during digestion of foods. This is the
anatomical structure of our digestive system.
Based on the video clip shown earlier, where
does digestion begins? The digestion begins in our mouth.

Very Good! Can you put it on the anatomical

structure where mouth can be located? (the student paste in the anatomical structure)

That’s right! Digestion begins in our mouth that The mouth breaks the food down with the aid of
serves as the gateway in the digestive system. our teeth and saliva.
What happens to the food as it enters our

Correct! Inside our mouth are our teeth,

tongue, and digestive enzymes just like our
saliva. Saliva contains salivary amylase which
is an enzyme produced in our salivary gland.
These three things help the food to be broken
down into tiny pieces not just to have a smooth
digestion but in order for the enzymes to easily
convert it into useful energy. That’s why we
need to chew our food very well.

The act of act of chewing and taking the food

to our body is the first process which is called:


Very Good! As it breaks down into tiny pieces

it forms into a ball called bolus. After that,
where did the food go next? The food was pushed down into the esophagus.
Excellent! But before it travels through the
esophagus, the food enters the pharynx. In the
pharynx, there is a flap like structure called the
epiglottis which closes down when food pass
through it so that the food can enter into the
esophagus and not in the trachea. That’s why
our parents usually say “Don’t talk if your
mouth is full” because the epiglottis is
confused whether to close or to open it which
usually causes us to cough or in layman’s term

Who can identify where the pharynx is? How (the student label the pharynx and esophagus in
about the esophagus? the anatomical structure)

Very Good! What happens in the esophagus? Esophagus transacts food from the mouth to the

That’s right! This movement is caused by

waves of muscle contractions called
peristalsis. Peristalsis is so strong that even
when you are upside down, the bolus can still
move to another organ of the digestive
system, which is? The stomach Ma’am.

Excellent! Can you point out where is the (the student points out the stomach in the
stomach? anatomical structure)

Very Good! What is the role of our stomach. The stomach serves as a warehouse of food or
this is where the food is being stored.

That’s right! And what does our stomach Our stomach produces gastric juices.

Very Good! Gastric juices are mix of acid and

enzymes which churns the partially digested
food into semi-liquid and mushy called chyme.
When you vomit the food that you eat, that’s
what chyme looks like.

Even though our stomach produces acid it

does not rupture easily because it has mucous
on its lining if that mucous is not enough that’s
the time that you will have peptic ulcer. Our
stomach also has two sphincters, namely the
esophageal sphincter which is muscle found
at the end of the esophagus before it enters
our stomach. Another one is the pyloric
sphincter which is found at the end of our
stomach before it enters another organ of our It enters another organ of our body called the
body, which is? small intestine.

Excellent! Who can identify where the small (the student label the small intestine in the
intestine is located? anatomical structure)
That’s right! What happens to the food as it In the small intestine, the vitamins and minerals
enters the small intestine? in the food is being absorbed.

Correct! It absorbs nutrients and minerals

which is the second process called:


Very Good! Small intestine has three parts

namely the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
which absorbs different nutrients. The
duodenum is the first and shortest point in the
small intestine next to it is the jejunum which
absorbs carbohydrates and proteins and lastly
the ileum which absorbs products that are not
absorbed by the jejunum.

Our small intestine also has tiny hair-like

projections called villi which increases the
surface area of tissue available to absorb
nutrients from the gut contents. Inside the villi
are nerves which digested foods are absorbed
while the undigested food continues to move
on to the process.

Since absorption takes place in the small

intestine, more digestive juices are found here
just like the bile.

Where does bile being produced? Bile is produced in the liver.

That’s right! Will you point out where the liver (the student points out the liver in the anatomical
is? structure)

Very Good! And what organ in our body is Bile is stored in the gall bladder until our body
responsible in storing the bile? needs it.

Excellent! Who can identify where the gall (the student points out the gall bladder in the
bladder is? anatomical structure)

That’s right! Also, bile and enzymes from the

pancreas called pancreatic juices breaks
down the proteins, fats and carbohydrates. (the student points out the pancreas in the
Will you point out where is the pancreas? anatomical structure)

Very good! After absorbing all the nutrients

and minerals from the food, it is now the time
that our body utilizes it through the process of:

ASIITOLIAMSN It is through the process of ASSIMILATION.

Very Good! After it undergoes the process of

assimilation, what organ will now the food go? The food will now enter the large intestine.
Excellent! Another name for large intestine is (the student points out the large intestine in the
colon. Will you point out where the large anatomical structure)
intestine is?

What will happen as it enters the large The large intestine absorbs water and salt.

That’s correct! The undigested food first

enters the cecum which is the starting point of
the large intestine. At the end of the cecum is
a tube-like structure called the appendix.
Many years ago, they say that appendix has
no function at all but now it has. Appendix
serves as a safehouse for your good bacteria
that also helps to digest food it also helps
when you get you get poisoned.

The remains after water has been absorbed is

considered as waste or what we call feces
then it will be stored in the rectum then lastly
eliminated to the anus through the last
process which is:


The organs of the digestive system have two

main groups namely the digestive tract and
the accessory organs. The Digestive tract is a
muscular and mucous membrane-lined tube
where food is digested and absorbed. Based
on the anatomical structure that we label The organs that belong to the digestive tract are
earlier, what do you think are the organs that mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small
belong to the digestive tract? intestine, large intestine, and anus.

That’s right! On the other hand, accessory

organs secrete digestive enzymes that aid in
the digestion process. Based on the
anatomical structure that we label earlier, The accessory organs include liver, gall bladder,
what are these accessory organs? and pancreas.

Do you now understand how our Digestive
System works? Yes Ma’am.

Are there any questions? Clarification? None Ma’am.

Let’s see if you really understand the lesson. I

have here a concept map and metacards. You
are going to place these metacards in their
proper places. And after that I will call a
student to explain the concept map.
I want you to post it one after the other so that (the student being called will place the metacards
the front area will not be crowded and your in the right place.)
classmates at the back can see it.

Very Good class! I like to hear from _______

his/her idea about the concept map in the

Any other students who wants to share their

thoughts about the concept map? (another student explains the concept map)

It looks like you really understand our lesson

this morning.

D. Application
Here is the bar of chocolate that I promised
earlier for participating in the game. Please
pass it so that everyone can have it. I want you
to eat it.

What happens to the chocolate bars when you It was digested and digestive system do the work
eat it? in order for this food be converted into useful
energy needed by our body.

Very Good! What do you think will happen to

the human body if the digestive system will The human body will be weak, malnourished, and
continue to digest unhealthy foods? will have less energy.

That’s right! How about if the digestive system The digestive system cannot do its functions
will be infected by severe disease? properly and effectively, therefore, the person will
be prone to diseases.

Correct! With that, what shall we do so that our We should make sure that our digestive system
digestive system will function properly and is healthy and taken good care of.

Very Good! How can we do it? The key to a healthy digestive system is proper
nutrition – a balanced diet of carbohydrates,
proteins and fats, plus essential minerals and
Excellent! We should always remember that.

I. Multiple Choice
Direction: Choose the letter which corresponds to the correct answer.

1. What is the system in our body that aids the process of breaking down food into absorbable
a. Digestive System
b. Lymphatic System
c. Respiratory System
d. Skeletal System
2. Which of these organs does not belong to the group?
a. Liver
b. Lungs
c. Small intestine
d. Stomach

3. What organ of the digestive system serves as a passageway of both air and foods?
a. Esophagus
b. Liver
c. Pharynx
d. Small intestine

4. What process is involved when the materials that are not needed in our body is being
eliminated outside our body?
a. Absorption
b. Assimilation
c. Excretion
d. Ingestion

5. How to keep our digestive system healthy?

a. Eating too much food.
b. Eating junk foods and too much chocolates.
c. Smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, and sleeping late at night.
d. Observing proper nutrition by having a balanced diet of carbohydrates, proteins, and
fats plus essential minerals and vitamins.

II. Labeling
Direction: Label the parts of the Digestive System.
In a long bond paper, cut out and paste five disorders or diseases of the digestive system and give
its symptoms and treatments.



Prepared by:


Junior High Teacher I Applicant