Sunteți pe pagina 1din 76

A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ COMPREHENSION

ABOUT CLAUSES OF CONCESSION OF THE NARRATIVE TEXTS


(A Study of Second Grade Students of SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga
in Academic Year of 2013/2014)

GRADUATING PAPER

Submitted to the Board of Examiner as a Partial Fulfillment of the


requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
(S.Pd.I) in the English Education Faculty State Institute of Islamic
Studies (STAIN) Salatiga

By:

Written by:
ULFIANA LAILI
113 09 023

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FACULTY


STATE INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC STUDIES (STAIN) SALATIGA
2013
MOTTO

-Every cloud has a silver lining because the old way is not always the best way, try
something new today-
DEDICATION
This graduating paper is whole heartedly dedicated to:
 My Lord, Allah SWT and the last prophet Mohammad SAW… Thanks for
giving me spirit and power in my life, especially to finish this graduating paper.
No words aside from GREAT Thanks!

 My lovely mother and father, who teaches me in everything with love and
knowledge, thanks for your support and sacrifices.

 My lovely brother and sisters, thanks for your motivation, kindness, and love.

 My honorable consultant (Mrs. Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari, M.Pd) who


always give me advice, suggestion, prayer and the time for the guidance me
accomplish this graduating paper.

 All of the lecturers of Educational faculty State Institute of Islamic Studies


(STAIN) Salatiga, thanks for the time for teach us.

 My beloved friends: Aula, Ditha, Dion, Maya, Zarkoni and Sista Dwi. We
always share together, thanks for everything.

 My dearest classmates in TBI-A 2009, Gratitude for togetherness and friendship


since four years ago, hope we always remember our memorable stories. Thanks
for being my friends.

 All of my friends which cannot mentioned one by one. May Allah bless you!
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful, The Lord of

Universe. Because of Him, the researcher could finish this graduating paper as one of the

requirement for Sarjana Pendidikan Islam in English Department of Educational faculty

of State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga. Peace and salutation always be

given to our prophet Muhammad SAW who has guided us from the darkness to the

lightness.

However, this success would not be achieved without supports, guidance,

advices, helps, and encouragements from individual and institution, and I somehow

realize that an appropriate moment for me to deepest gratitude for:

1. Mr. Dr. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag, the Rector of State Institute of Islamic Studies

(STAIN) Salatiga.

2. Mr. Suwardi, M. Pd., as the Chief of Education Faculty of State Institute of

Islamic Studies (STAIN) of Salatiga.

3. Mrs. Maslihatul Umami, S.Pd.I, M.A, as the Chief of English Department

4. Mrs. Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari, M.Pd as the consultant who has educated,

supported, directed and given the researchers advices, suggestions, prayer and

recommendations for this thesis from beginning until the end.

5. All of the lecturers in English department, the researcher deeply thanks to you all

for your knowledge, advices, kindness and for everything.

6. All of the staffs who have helped the researcher in processing of graduating paper

administration.

Finally this graduating paper is expected to be able to provide useful knowledge

and information to the readers. The researcher is pleased to accept more suggestion and
contribution from the reader for the improvement of the graduating paper.

Salatiga, September 14th, 2013

The Researcher

Ulfiana Laili

NIM. 113 09 023


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE.......................................................................................................... i

DECLARATION ........................................................................................ ii

ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ..................................................... iii

STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION .................................................... iv

MOTTO ...................................................................................................... v

DEDICATION ............................................................................................ vi

ACKNOWLEDGENMENT ...................................................................... vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................... ix

ABSTRACT ................................................................................................ xii

CHAPTER I:INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study ........................................... 1

B. Problems of the Study ............................................... 3

C. Limitation of the Problems ........................................ 3

D. Objectives of the Study ............................................. 3

E. Benefits of the Study ................................................. 4

F. Definition of the Key Terms ..................................... 5

G. Graduating Paper Outline........... ............................... 10

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Previous Research………………………................ 11

B. Definition of Genre………………………………... 12

C. Definition of Grammar…………………………...... 13

D. Definition of Clauses of Concession …………….... 14


CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. General Description of SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga.. 24

B. Methodology of Research……………………………… 26

CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS

A. Data Analysis

1. List of Table
Table 4.1: Simple sentence‟s pattern subject + verb
object………………………………………………. 29

Table 4.2: Simple sentence‟s pattern subject + verb +

object + object……………………………………... 31

Table 4.3: Simple sentence‟s pattern subject + verb +

object + adverbial……………...………………….. 32

Table 4.4: Simple sentence‟s pattern compound

subject………………………………………………. 32

Table 4.5: Simple sentence‟s pattern compound

object……………………………………………… 33

Table 4.6: Simple sentence‟s pattern with a long and

complicated

idea………………………………………………….. 33

Table 4.7: Compound sentence‟s pattern verb +

subject + object……….…………………………….. 34

Table 4.8: Complex sentence‟s using although, though,

even though, however, nonetheless, because

and after subject + verb………………………………. 40

2. The Types of Clauses of Concession………………… 66

3. The Implication of the Research …………………...... 67


CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion………………………………………………... 68

B. Suggestion…………………………………………........... 69

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIXES
ABSTRACT
This study was intended to analyze the students‟ comprehension in using clauses of
concession of the narrative texts in second grade students of SMK Muhammadiyah
Salatiga, the types of clauses of concession and to know the implications of the
research for English language teaching. This study was qualitative research. The
researcher had chosen the second grade students of Electric Power Installation class
and Machine Technique class of SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga in the academic year
of 2013/2014 and the objects of the study were 50 narrative texts produced by second
grade level of SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga. The data were analyzed by using
documentation method. The result of study showed from 240 types of clauses of
concession, 32% of students used the conjunctions of „and‟, 4% of students used
„but‟, 4% of students used „because‟ in front of the sentence, 10% of students used
„because‟ in the middle of sentence, 16% of students used „although‟, 10% of
students used „though‟, 13% of students used „even though‟, 9% of students used
„however‟, 1% of students used the conjunction of „for‟, 0.5% of students used
„after‟ and the last 0.5% of students used „nonetheless‟. The result of this study
showed that there were types of clauses of concession based on the students‟
comprehension such as the use of conjunction, clauses of concession, and
punctuation. The implications of the research for English language teaching as the
references for English teaching material in learning process, especially in grammar
of clauses of concession in second grade level students.

Key Words: Students‟ Comprehension, Clauses of Concession, Narrative Text.


CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

English in vocational high school has been developed since 2006 when the

government decides the curriculum in KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan).

KTSP is operational curriculum which arranged and practiced by every educational unit.

Using KTSP in vocational high school can make easier to understand the material than

the previous curriculum. Then, the education, learning and teaching can be done clearly

since KTSP has arranged the learning programs in whole of the subjects.

English learning in vocational high school presented with four aspects skills, they

are listening, speaking, reading and writing. Reading and writing have been considered

interrelated for many years ago. Both reading and writing as analogous processes of

composing. Although reading and writing are strongly interconnected, they are

frequently treated as discrete subjects. This separation may be due to an over emphasis in

many classrooms on process writing or learning to write, rather than writing to teach

(Frey & Fisher, 2007:42). Writing about narrative texts can help students “unpack”

meaning and solidify their comprehension in writing as quoted by Wallace, et.al.

(2007:42-43).

There are various ways to organize the sentences in a piece of writing. One of

them is narrative text. Narrative text is the form of text that aims to amuse or to entertain

the reader. Narrative is present in myth, legend, fable, tragedy, drama, comedy, history.

The structure of narrative is about two things: the content of the story and the form used

to tell the story.

Some students get the problem when they write narrative text. They still confused
to make good narrative text. They just translate Indonesian into English in the meaning.

Teachers must explain it because there are some differences of language structure

between Indonesia and English.

In many cases some students in second grade of senior high school still confuse to

use some part of grammar like using clauses of concession. They often make some errors

when they are using clauses of concession in sentences such “although, though, even

though”.

Teachers have important roles to make their students understand about English

lesson especially in grammar. They have to teach part of grammar like clauses of

concession until students understand and use it correctly. SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga

is one of senior high school which has this problem. Some students in second grade of

this school have not understood about using clauses of concession correctly. From this

reason, the researcher will describes about students comprehension in clauses of

concession. Here, the researcher will make a research with the title “A DESCRIPTIVE

ANALYSIS ON STUDENTS’ COMPREHENSION ABOUT CLAUSES OF

CONCESSION

OF THE NARRATIVE TEXTS (A Study of Second Grade Students of SMK

Muhammadiyah Salatiga in Academic Year of 2013/2014)”.

B. Problems of the Study

To analyze the problems of students‟ comprehension in using clauses of

concession, the researcher stated the problems as follows:

1. How are the students‟ comprehensions about clauses of concession?


2. What are the types of clauses of concession that can be applied by student of

second grade SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga?

3. What are the implications of the research for English language teaching?

C. Limitation of the Problems

To focus on this research and the result becomes valid; there must be limitation of

the problems. In order to investigate the problem more accurately and correctly, the

researcher would like to limit the area of research, there are:

1. The analysis focusing on the types of clauses of concession; these are introduced

by although, though, even though for second grade students of SMK

Muhammadiyah Salatiga in academic year of 2013/2014.

2. The use of clauses of concession in writing narrative text is analyzed only in the

form of sentences.

D. Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study of this research are as follows:

1. To know the comprehension of the student of SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga in

using clauses of concession.

2. To analyze the types of clauses of concession found in the narrative text that can

be applied by students of second grade SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga

3. To know the implications of the research for English language teaching is as the

references for English teaching material in learning process, especially in

grammar of clauses of concession in second grade level students.

E. Benefits of The Study


It is hoped that the result of the research can be implicated in English education

program, they are:

a) A contribution to field of grammar especially in linguistics feature of narrative

text. The result of this study is hoped to increase the discussion about clauses of

concession in narrative text.

b) A contribution to English Education Faculty State Institute of Islamic Studies

(STAIN) Salatiga especially for English department students or advance learner.

It is hoped that by reading this research the students will be motivated to flesh out

their knowledge in the study of grammar especially about clauses of concession.

c) A contribution to students SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga especially for second

grade in academic year of 2013/2014 and anyone who reads this research. The

result of the study is expected to be valuable to anyone who is interested in

learning English especially about grammar. By learning what discovered this

study, they will be able to use logical way of thinking to interpret the meaning of

clauses of concession.

d) A contribution to people who wants to increase grammar ability, especially for

clauses of concession. It is wished that by reading this research the readers can

understand easily.

F. Definition of the Key Terms

To understand the title of this research, the researcher would like to explain the

terms used in this study as follows:

1. Student‟s on Writing Comprehension

Writing is language in a textual medium through the use of a set of

signs or symbols. As quoted by Paris (2003: 1-2) how do students learn to


comprehend text? The answer is with lots of practice reading a wide variety of

texts, and with explicit teaching about comprehension. Here are five important

foundations:

a) Conceptual Knowledge.

Students need familiarity with the topics they read and some

understanding of the main concepts in narrative and expository text. For

example, student who understands the ideas in narrative picture books, such

as the story plot and characters‟ thoughts and develop well about reading

comprehension.

b) Language Skills.

Effective oral language skills, both expressive and receptive, predict

later reading comprehension. For example, student with good vocabulary

skills who understand many words in text have better reading

comprehension.

c) Text Features.

Beginning readers need to know how titles, pictures, captions, and

headings relate to the meaning of text. They develop concepts about print,

concepts about genres, and concepts about text structures that help them

construct meaning from different types of text.

d) Strategies.

Comprehending text requires readers to use a variety of strategies

such as making and checking predictions, asking and answering questions,


looking back in text to monitor understanding, and occasionally stopping to

paraphrase or summarize the important information.

e) Fluent Decoding.

Comprehension is difficult when student focus all their energy and

cognitive resources on saying the words correctly. Comprehension is easier

when decoding is automatic, therefore young readers must learn to

recognize words quickly and accurately.

Writing to learn is writing for comprehension and provides students with

an opportunity to recall, clarify, and question what they have read, and it provides

them with a venue to voice questions or curiosities that still remain. In a meta-

analysis conducted, it was found that writing to learn increased both content

learning and overall student achievement in classrooms and increased students‟

metacognition. As quoted by Wallace, et.al. (2008: 42-43).

2. Clauses of Concession

Clause of Concession is part of grammar in adverbial clauses. According

to Azar (1999:359) adverb clause are dependent clauses. They cannot stand alone

as a sentence in written English. They must be connected to an independent

clause. Independent clause is a complete sentence. It contains the main subject

and verb of a sentence. (It is also called a main clause.”). Dependent Clause is not

a complete sentence; it must be connected to an independent clause.

3. Sentence

According to McGraw -Hill (2012:1) a sentence is a group of words


that express a complete thought. Every sentence begins with a capital letter.

There are 3 types of sentences:

a. Simple Sentence: A simple sentence is the first type of sentence one

learns to speak. It is the first type of a sentence that children learn to

speak, remaining by far the most common type of sentence in the

spoken and written language of people of all ages (Demirezen,

2012:1). The basic English language sentence is called a simple

sentence. Primarily, it requires a subject and a verb. It can be as short

as one word, or it may appear in any of these five combinations:

Subject + Verb, Subject + Verb + Object, Subject + Verb +

Complement, Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object, and

Subject + Verb + Object + Complement.

b. Compound Sentence: A compound sentence contains two sentences

joined by and, but, or or. It expresses more than one complete thought

(McGraw-Hill, 2012:18). Two simple sentences may be joined to form

a compound sentence, which contains two subjects and two predicates.

It contains two complete thoughts.

c. Complex Sentence: A sentence that contains two related ideas joined

by a conjunction although, after, because, since is called a complex

sentence. A complex sentence features an independent clause and one

or more dependent clauses. It does not always need a comma.

4. Narrative
According to Ermawati (2010:22) narrative is a basic and constant form of

human expression regardless of ethnic origin, primary language and

enculturation.Narrative may include genres of sets of clauses with the following

functions, often roughly in this order:

a) Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the place and time.

b) Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to

do with.

c) Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises better or

worse.

According to Feez and Joyce (1998:90) narratives are usually written in

the past. The simplest narratives use mostly:

a) The past simple tense

b) Processes verbs and

c) Temporal conjunction.

Narratives are story texts which are more demanding because they

highlight an orientation, complication in the sequence of events and resolution.

Narratives also written in the past in order to the text becomes more demanding

for students.

G. Graduating Paper Outline

In this section, there are five chapters and the researcher want to discuss some

parts of systematic of writing paper.


Chapter I is introduction. It contains of the background of the study, problems of

the study, limitation of the problems, objectives of the study, benefit of the study,

definition of key terms, research methodology and systematic of writing paper. Chapter

II is review of related literature. It contains of the previous research, definition of genre,

definition of grammar, definition of clauses of concession there are although, though,

even though also related theory about them and definition of authentic material. Chapter

III is research methodology. It contains of the general description of SMK

Muhammadiyah Salatiga, methodology of research, technique of data collection and

technique of data analysis. Chapter IV is present the data analysis which have been

collected. The researcher analyzes the table of types of clauses of concession, table of

simple sentence patterns, table of compound sentences, table of complex sentences and

the implication of the research. Chapter V is closure. It contains of conclusion and

suggestion.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Previous Research

There is a researcher that discuss about grammar. In this paper the researcher

takes review of related literature from other graduating paper as comparison of this
research. The researcher uses other graduating paper from Muhammad Daim Abadi in

the year 2012. A Descriptive Analysis of Students’ Ability in Identifying Independent

Clause And Dependent Clause in Complex Sentence of s paper Eleven Year Students of

SMK N 2 Salatiga in the Academic Year 2012/2013. Salatiga: English Education Faculty

STAIN Salatiga.

Muhammad DaimAbadi gave explanation on his paper about independent and

dependent clause in SMK N 2 Salatiga. This case might be happen because they have

learned about grammar about independent and dependent clause especially in complex

sentence before. Therefore, Muhammad Daim Abadi would like to identify the ability of

students in using dependent and independent clause in complex sentence. In this paper,

the researcher intended to analyze students‟ comprehension in using grammar that

focusing on the use of clauses of concession in writing narrative text. The researcher also

identifies the types of clauses of concession with simple sentences, compound sentences

and complex sentences patterns.

B. Genre

Language also occurs simultaneously in a broader cultural context. Recognizable

patterns of structure and language within texts have evolved in the cultural context. These

patterns within texts have evolved to achieve particular purposes and the same general patterns

recur in texts which achieve similar purposes. These patterns are called genres. (Feez and

Joyce,1998:6). According to Hartono (2005:6) genre is used to refer to particular text-types

not to traditional varieties of literature.It is a type or kind of text, defined in terms of its

social purposes; also the level of context dealing with social purpose. The meaning of the

genres intended is that students are able to understand the concept and they would be able
to identify a kind of texts that students will have to write. According to Hartono

(2005:6), there are fifteen types of genre text,they are:

1. Recount: is a kind of genre used to retell events for the purpose of informing or

entertaining.

2. Narrative: is a kind of genre used to amuse, to entertain and to deal with actual or

various experiences in different ways.

3. News story is a factual text which informs reader‟s events of the day which are

considered news worthy or important.

4. Exemplum: is a kind of genre used to deal with incidents that are in some respects

out of the usual and point to some general values.

5. Anecdote: is a kind of genre used to share with others an account of an unusual or

amusing incident.

6. Spoof: is a kind of genre used to retell an event with a humorous twist.

7. Procedure: is a kind of genre used to describe how something is accomplished

through a sequence of actions or steps.

8. Explanation: is a kind of genre used to explain the processes involved in the

formation or workings of natural or socio-cultural phenomena.

9. Report: is a kind of genre used to describe the way things are, with reference to

arrange or natural and social phenomena in our environment.

10. Analytical exposition: is a kind of genre used to persuade the reader or listener to

take action on some matter.

11. Discussion: is a kind of genre used to present (at least) two points of view about

an issue.

12. D e s c r i p t i o n: is a kind of genre used to describe a particular person, place or

thing.
13. Review: is a kind of genre used to critique an art work or event for a public

audience.

14. Commentary: is a kind of genre used to explain the processes involved in the

information (evolution) of a social-cultural phenomenon, as though a natural

phenomenon.

15. Hortatory exposition: is a kind of genre used to persuade the reader or listener

that something should or should not be the case.

C. Definition of Grammar

Learning English cannot be separated from learning grammar, because it

alwaysplays the central role of a language. Grammar is a description of certain

organizing aspects of particular language. It usually includes phonological (sound),

morphological (word composition) and syntactical (sentence composition) points

(Eugene, 1993:3). Grammar is the system of rules by which words are formed and put

together to make a sentence or the study of composing some types of word exactly to

form a sentence. It is the crucial part of language.

The term of grammar uses in this context to refer a device that tells thereader how

to construct a narrative text. All of them have some meaning. Studying grammar helps

someone to learn about a language. Learning aboutlanguage is very different form being

able to use the language. A grammar should serve as a reference by helping correct

deviation from standard usage and by improving clarity and style. Particular grammar

has its own system of organization, its major parts are arranged according to the most

important of English sentences, and they are subject, verb, object and so on.

D. Clauses of Concession
Clauses of Concession are part of grammar in adverbial clauses.According to

Azar (1999:359) adverb clause are dependent clauses. They cannot use stand

alone as a sentence in written English. They must be connected to an independent clause.

Summary list of words used to introduce adverb clauses:

Time Cause and Contrast Condition

effect

After, before, when, Because, now Even though, If, unless, only

while, as, as soon as, that, since. although, if, whether or

since, until, by the time though. not, even if, in

(that), once, as/so long as, case, in the

whenever, every time event that.

(that), the first time (that),

the last time (that), the

next time (that).

Azar (1999:395) also showing the specific contrast in adverb clauses, they are:

Adverb clauses Even though

Although

Though

Conjunctions But

Yet

Transitions Nevertheless

Nonetheless

However
Prepositions Despite

In spite of

1. Using Although and Though

A simple way of expressing concession is by the use of the conjunctions although

and though.

The structure:

Although/though + subject + verb

The example:

a) Although they are brothers, they never write to each other.

b) Although he has a car, he often uses buses and trains.

c) Though he is so rich, he has made his money honestly.

d) Though the restaurant was crowded, we managed to find a table.

Though may have its place at the end of the sentence which would be the main

clause if the sentence were complex. It means about the same as „nevertheless‟ or „all

the same‟.

The example:

a) He is very rich. He is made his money quite honestly, though.

b) He did not tell me where he had been, but I knew it, though.

2. Using Even Though


A concessive clause is a clause which begins with although or even though and

which expresses an idea that suggests the opposite if the main part of the sentence.

Even though is used to express unexpected results.

The structure:

Although/even though + subject + verb

The example:

a. Even though the weather was cold, I went swimming.

b. Even though she is very old, she runs fast.

3. Using Because

Because introduces an adverb clauses, it showing in cause and effect patterns.

The structure:

Because + subject + verb

The example:

a. Because the weather was cold, we stayed home

b. Sue is eyes were red because she had been swimming in a chlorinated pool.

4. Using However, Nevertheless and Nonetheless

However nevertheless and nonetheless is introduces an adverb clauses, it

showing in transitions as clauses of contrast.

The structure:

However/nevertheless/nonetheless + subject + verb


The example:

a. However I washed my hands, they still looked dirty.

b. Bob ate a large dinner. Nevertheless, he is still hungry.

c. It was cold, nonetheless, I went swimming.

5. Sentence

According to Azar (1999:359) Sentence is a grammatical unit consisting

of one or more words that are grammatically linked. Sentence also divided into

three parts, they are:

a) Simple sentence: simple sentence also a complete thought called an

independent clause contains a subject and a verb and it expresses a complete

thought. These are possible structures in a simple sentence:

(1) Subject + Verb

The example: The visitors have arrived

S V

A verb in this structure is called an intransitive verb.

(2) Subject + Verb + Object

The example: The shop sells computers

S V O

A verb in this structure is called a transitive verb.

(3) Subject + Verb + Complement

The example: This cake is nice


S V Comp.

A verb n this structure is called a linking verb.

(4) Subject + Verb + Adverbial

The example: The match is tomorrow

S V Adv.

An adverbial can be adverb of time.

(5) Subject + Verb + Object + Object

The example: Sarah sent me a text message

S V O O

Here there is a direct object (a text message) and indirect object (me).

(6) Subject + Verb + Object + Complement

The example: The project kept everyone very busy

S V O Comp.

Here the complement (very busy) to the object of the clause (everyone).

(7) Subject + Verb + Object + Adverbial

The example: I put my mobile in my pocket

S V O Adv.

Here the adverb of place (in my pocket) relates to the object (my

mobile).

The subject, predicate or object can be compound, but the simple sentence

is a single unit.

(1) Simple sentence with compound subject

The example: The Beatles and Bob Dylan dominated in the

market in 1960‟s.
(2) Simple sentence with compound predicate

The example: One weekend I left my car at home and went by

P P

train to a large car centre.

(3) Simple sentence with compound object

The example: Punk bands condemned disco and heavy metal.

(4) Simple sentence with a short and uncomplicated idea

The example: Punk bands have a nasal vocal.

(5) Simple sentence with a long and complicated idea

The example: We have lost thousands of potential young people,

including musicians to drug abuse.

b) Compound sentence: compound sentence contains two independent clauses

joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but,

or, yet, so. Compound sentences express more than one complete thought

and a conjunction always followed by comma, except for short sentence.

The example: Sweety did not have any money, so she went to the
I.C
Automatic Teller Machine to get some money.

I.C

c) Complex sentence: complex sentence has an independent clause joined by

one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a

subordinator such as when, because, since, after, although, though and even

though.

The example: I like dancing because it is a good exercise.


I.C D.C

6. Punctuation

According to Beene and Kopple (1992:489) position and punctuation of

adverbial clauses has three possible positions:

a) Initial Position

Here the adverbial clause adds one means of variety to a sentence

opening. An introductory adverbial clause is usually set off by commas,

especially if the clause is long. (However, there are variations in usage).

Example: He did not tell me where he had been, but I knew it, though.

This position gives more emphasis to the adverbial clause; it may also relate

the clause more closely to the preceding sentence. Generally, a long

adverbial clause before a short main clause should be avoided to prevent the

sentence from appearing “top heavy”.

b) Mid Position

Mid position often after the subject of the main clause. Here the

adverbial clause must be set off by commas, since it acts as an interrupting

element. An adverbial clause in mid-position helps to vary the rhythm of the

sentence.

Example: Although he has a car, he often uses buses and trains.

c. Final position

This is the most usual place for the adverbial clause. Clauses of time

and place (often also result, purpose, degree) in final position are generally

not set off by commas. For the other clauses, the writer uses a comma if
would pause before one of them in speech, especially if the clause is long or

is added as an afterthought.

Example: He is very rich. He is made his money quite honestly, though.

7. Authentic Material

As a redeeming measure, substantial input of authentic materials that are

pegged to learners' levels and interests naturally increases their sensitivity to and

competence in the target language (Hwang, 2005:2). Furthermore, current popular

materials, such as clips from mass media and best-selling essays or short stories,

have been found most appealing because of their realistic, ready-to-use language

and relevance to learners' mindsets and experiences. The example of authentic

material in narrative text:

My Lovely City

My name is Jojo, and I lived in Salatiga Central Java, Indonesia.

Although Salatiga is a small city, I am very proud to live in Salatiga.

Though I lived in a small city, I can found anything from the small

things until the big things easily.

If we talk about the weather condition, Salatiga has cold weather,

because it is near from Merbabu mount. Even though the weather was

cold, I always take a bath with cold water. It makes me felt comfort,

fresh and healthy.

However, Salatiga city usually called by miniature of Indonesia

because many cultures, ethnics and religions live side to side peacefully.

I love Salatiga!!

The source taken from: Mrs. Risda Mila Shanti S.Pd as the English teacher of
second grade level SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. General Description of SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga

SMK Muhammadiyah is located in Jl. KH.Ahmad Dahlan, Sidorejo-Lor Salatiga,

and Central Java-Indonesia 50714. It is about 5 km from Salatiga Central Bussiness

Market. It is part of Muhammadiyah Institution in Salatiga, Central Java. Total of school

large area is 8.373 m2 which the school building stands in 2.835 m2. SMK

Muhammadiyah have four expertise programs, they are electric power installation

program, engineering program, minor vehicle program and garment. All of the programs

have good accreditation from ISO 9001:2008. This school is easy to find because the

location near from Diponegoro street. This street is the main road of Semarang-Solo trip.

Many transportations such small, medium and big bus pass of this road, therefore it

makes people who want to visit in this school do not get transportations‟ problem. At the

same time both students and teachers can go over there easily.

SMK Muhammadiyah has some facilities to support learning and teaching

process as follows:
Table 3.1 Facilitation of SMK Muhammadiyah
1. Classroom 21
2. Machine Class 6
3. Laboratory 3
4. Library 1
5. Mosque 1
6. Healthy Room 1
7. Administration Room 1
8. Headmaster Office 1
9. Teacher Room 4
10. Toilet 7

1. School Vision

Vision is educations‟ aim achieves by an institution. In this case, the

vision of SMK Muhammadiyah is to create an excellent graduate in high quality,

innovative, Islamic, expert and capable to respond globalization era.

The purpose of this vision is to make all of students ready to face the

world outside their environment with expert skill which they have got from their

school. Skill emphasize in their technical practice until they are hoped become

creative person who create new invention in the future. Meanwhile, the Islamic

means that every student must obligate and obey about all of the Islam‟s rules.

Then, they will be practiced in their daily activities. In conclusion, SMK

Muhammadiyah prepares and builds student characters who have good behavior

which balanced with wide knowledge because between religion and skill walk

together.
2. School Mission

Mission is practical steps that are done by subject to achieve certain aims.

In this case, the subject is SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga. The mission is:

a) To increase believing in God and the professionalism for all of the school

personnel based on their profession.

b) To organize the quality of education and learning, Islamic and innovative.

c) To create science and human resources which competent and competitive in

every sector.

d) To produce the excellent graduate, capable and also can develop themselves

appropriate with their skills.

e) To lead the students and alumnus in competitive skills.

B. Methodology of Research

1. Type of Research

The researcher used a qualitative research, which is defined as a research

of which the data in the form of written or oral words that is descriptively

analyzed. According to Moleong (2003:3) a qualitative research deals with a kind

of research which does not use statistic procedures in analyzing the data. In a

qualitative research, the researcher tends to prior in accurate explanation to

analyze and present what have been found.

2. Data Analysis

The object of the study is 50 narrative texts produced by second grade

level students of SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga. It consists of 27 students of

electric class and 23 students of machine technique class.

3. Data Collection
Obtaining the data, the researcher used documentation to analyze the

capability of students in writing narrative texts using clauses of concession. The

researcher took the students‟ writing on narrative texts that has not been revised

before. The collecting data was held on August, 23rd and 24th 2013.

After all the data was collected, the researcher analyzed the data by

selecting and categorizing into the sentences contains clauses of concession. The

first step is classifying into the table, such:

a) Table 4.1: The types of clauses of concession

b) Table 4.2: Simple sentence‟s pattern subject + verb + object

c) Table 4.3: Simple sentence‟s pattern subject + verb + object + object

d) Table 4.4: Simple sentence‟s pattern subject + verb + object

+ adverbial

e) Table 4.5: Simple sentence‟s pattern compound subject

f) Table 4.6: Simple sentence‟s pattern compound object

g) Table 4.7: Simple sentence‟s pattern with a long and complicated

idea.

h) Table 4.8: Compound sentence‟s pattern verb + subject + object

i) Table 4.9: Complex sentence‟s using although, though, even though,

however, nonetheless, because and after + subject + verb and categorize it

based on the contents.


CHAPTER IV

DATA ANALYSIS

This chapter presents the result of the research to answer the problem statements

in this research. The capability of students in writing narrative text using clause of

concession. The researcher attempts to elaborate more completely of how the data are

analyzed. The complete discussions are described below:


1. The Students‟ Comprehension about Clauses of Concession

The students‟ comprehension about clauses of concession in simple

sentence patterns had applied by some of the students with the type of clauses of

concessions namely: and, for

Table 4.1

Simple Sentence patterns Subject + Verb + Object

No Code Sentence
1. NT-03-4 I love Bandungan city
S V O

2. NT-05-2 I will do the best for my mother


S V O

3. NT-06-7 I love Jakarta Indonesia


S V O

4. NT-07-4 I love Macanan village


SV O

5. NT-08-4 I love Ambarawa


S V O

6. NT-09-7 I love Semarang city


S V O
7. NT-10-1 My hobby is listen music
S V O

8. NT-11-8 I love Kenangkan


S V O

9. NT-13-4 I love football


S V O

10. NT-17-5 I love my family


S V O

11. NT-20-3 Indonesia has many popular singers as Iwan Fals,


S V
Agnes Monica and many more.
O

12. NT-22-3 I love my village


S V O
13. NT-24-6 I love Tuntang
S V O

14. NT-27-3 I lived with my big family


S V O

15. NT-28-1 I often hiking big mountain as Ungaran mount,


S V O

Merbabu mount Andong mount and so on.

16. NT-30-1 I have a best friend


S V O

NT-30-2 He lived in Pulutan


S V O

NT-30-3 His hobby is dancing


S V O

17. NT-31-1 I have a best friend


S V O

18. NT-31-2 He lived in Candran


S V O
19. NT-34-8 I love Pulutan Salatiga
S V O
20. NT-35-5 I love Dliko Indah
S V O

21. NT-36-8 I love Beran


S V O

22. NT-37-8 I love Rembes Watuagung


S V O

23. NT-43-6 I love Ambarawa


S V O

24. NT-45-6 I love Pabelan


S V O

25. NT-50-6 I love my hobby


S V O

From the table above, there were 25 students appropriate in writing simple
sentence with patterns Subject+Verb+Object. They have understood about the

structure of simple sentence well.

Table 4.2

Simple Sentence patterns Subject + Verb + Object + Object


No Code Sentence
1. NT-23-2 I am take electric power installation and yesterday
S V O
my class is The championship in SMK

Muhammadiyah Salatiga.
O

2. NT-27-3 Temperature in this city is very cool and has


S V

many kinds of recreation places/objects to refresh


O
like‟s Kalitaman pool and Eagle Sari‟s pool.
O
From the table above, it can be found that only 2 students which were appropriate in

writing simple sentence. The type of simple sentence that they used was simple

sentence‟s pattern: subject+verb+object+object.

Table 4.3

Simple Sentence patterns Subject + Verb + Object + Adverbial

No Code Sentence

1. NT-15-1 I lived in Pancuran Salatiga and my hobby is


S V O Adv

football

2. NT-20-2 Beginning I hear the music of Ebiet .G. Ade my


S V O

heart sensation very pleasant and happy.


Adv
From the table above, it can be found that only 2 students which were appropriate

in writing simple sentence. The type of simple sentence that they used was simple

sentence‟s pattern: subject+verb+object+Adverbial.

Table 4.4

Simple Sentence patterns Compound Subject

No Code Sentence
1. NT-27-4 Father, mother, sister, grandmother and me lived in
Compound Subject
the beautiful city of Salatiga.

2. NT-28-2 I and my friends look for the scenery and fog.


Compound Subject
From the table above, it can be found that only 2 students which was appropriate

in writing simple sentence. The type of simple sentence that he used was simple

sentence‟s pattern: compound subject.

Table 4.5

Simple Sentence‟s pattern Compound Object

No Code Sentence
1. NT-14-2 The personnel are Travis Barker in drummer,
Compound

Tom in guitar and Lenon in bass and vocal.


Object

2. NT-27-2 Salatiga city is one of the small towns between


Compound

the cities of Semarang and Solo and has a motto


Object

“be faithful Salatiga”.

3. NT-17-1 If I talk about my family, there is father, mother


Compound
and 3 brothers.
Object
From the table above, it can be found that only 3 students which appropriate in
writing simple sentence. The type of simple sentence that they used was simple

sentence‟s pattern in compound object

Table 4.6

Simple Sentence patterns with a long and complicated idea

No Code Sentence
1. NT-41-1 I am not just playing game, I editing and drawing after

then I started to play games and enjoy my games.

From the table above, it can be found that only 1 student which appropriate in

writing simple sentence. The type of simple sentence that he used was simple

sentence‟s pattern with a long and complicated idea.

Table 4.7

The Compound Sentence patterns had applied by some of the students with the

type of clauses of concessions, namely: and,for

No Code Sentence

1. NT-01-1 My name is Beni, and I lived in Kadipaten Harjosari

S V O S V

Bawen Central Java, Indonesia.

2. NT-02-1 My name is Yoga, and I lived in Sraten, Tuntang.

S V O S V O

3. NT-03-1 My name is Irvan, and I lived in Bandungan Central Java

S V O S V

Indonesia.

4. NT-04-1 Hai, my name is Arvi Fakta Aulia, and I lived in

S V O S V
Rowosari Semarang Central Java, Indonesia.

5. NT-05-1 Hello, my name is Ricky, and I lived in Ungaran,

S V O S V

Semarang Central Java, Indonesia.

6. NT-06-1 My name is Sodiq, and I lived in Jakarta, Indonesia.

S V O S V O

7. NT-09-1 My name is Ridho, and I lived in Semarang, Central

S V O S V O

Java Indonesia.

8. NT-11-1 My name is Wiwid Adi, and I lived in Kenangkan.

S V O S V O

9. NT-13-1 My name is Deni, and my hobby is football.

S V O S V O

10. NT-14-1 My name is Rahmad, and my hobby is playing bass.

S V O S V O

11. NT-16-1 My name is Monk, and I lived in Tempuran Central

S V O S V O

Java, Indonesia.

12. NT-19-1 My name is Aji Darmawan, and I lived in Asinan

S V O S V

Krajan, Bawen.

O
13. NT-20-1 My name is Saefudin, and I lived in Semarang

S V O S V

Central Java, Indonesia.

14. NT-21-1 My name is Zaki, and I lived in Sraten Central Java,

S V O S V O

Indonesia.

15. NT-23-1 My name is Yudha Prasetiyo, you can call me

S V O S V

Yudha, and I studied at SMK Muhammadiyah

O S V O

Salatiga.

16. NT-24-1 My name is Adi Lie, and I lived in Cikal Tuntang,

S V O S V O

Kab. Semarang.

NT-24-2 Study is obligation, for all of the students.

S V O S V O

17. NT-27-1 My name is Dimas, and I lived in Salatiga Central

S V O S V O

Java, Indonesia.

18. NT-29-1 My name is Danang, and I school in SMK

S V O S V

Muhammadiyah Salatiga.

O
19. NT-32-1 My name is Didik, and I lived in Gudang, Lopait

S V O S V

Central Java, Indonesia.

NT-32-4 It makes me felt comfort, fresh and healthy.

S V O

20. NT-33-1 My name is Joko, and I lived in Kopeng, Central

S V O S V O

Java, Indonesia.

21. NT-34-1 My name is Benny Fajar Sitaroni, and I lived in

S V O S V

Pulutan Salatiga Central Java, Indonesia.

NT-34-5 It makes me felt comfort, fresh and healthy.

S V O

22. NT-35-1 My name is Joko Susilo, and I lived in Jl. Dliko

S V O S V

Indah Gg. 17 Salatiga Central Java, Indonesia.

23. NT-36-1 My name is Maryanto, and I lived in Beran, Karang

S V O S V O

Tengah.

NT-36-5 It makes me felt comfort, fresh and healthy.

S V O
24. NT-37-1 My name is Farij, and I lived in Rembes,

S V O S V O

Watuagung.

NT-37-6 It makes me felt comfort, fresh and healthy.

S V O

25. NT-38-1 My name is Vino, and I lived in Bawen Central

S V O S V O

Java, Indonesia.

26. NT-39-1 My name is Dwi, and I lived in Bandungan Central

S V O S V O

Java, Indonesia.

NT-39-4 It makes me felt comfort, fresh and healthy.

S V O

27. NT-40-1 My name is Tukiman, and I lived in Bandungan

S V O S V

Central Java, Indonesia.

28. NT-42-1 My name is Billy, and I lived in Bugel, Central Java,

S V O S V O

Indonesia.

NT-42-6 It makes me felt comfort, fresh and healthy.

S V O

29. NT-43-1 My name is Kevin, and I lived in Ambarawa Central

S V O S V O
Java, Indonesia.

30. NT-45-1 My name is Bahtiar, and I lived in Pabelan.

S V O S V O

31. NT-46-1 My name is Fajar, and I lived in Bancaan Salatiga,

S V O S V

Central Java, Indonesia.

32. NT-47-1 My name is Fahrul, and I lived in Tuntang Central

S V O S V O

Java, Indonesia.

NT-47-5 It makes me felt comfort, fresh and healthy.

S V O

33. NT-49-1 My name is Rizal, and I lived in Salatiga Central

S V O S V O

Java, Indonesia.

34. NT-50-1 My name is Kharis, and I lived in Salatiga, Central

S V O S V O

Java, Indonesia.

NT-50-3 My hobby is very comfort, very happy and very healthy

S V O

From the table above 34 of 50 students used the compound sentence

appropriately. It consists of two independent clauses joined by a coordinator.

The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so.

Table 4.8
The Complex Sentence patterns had applied by some of the students with the

type of clauses of concessions, namely: although, though, even though, because,

after and however

No No Code Sentence

1. NT-01-2 Although Kadipaten is a small village, I am very

S V S

proud to live in Kadipaten.

S O

NT-01-3 Though I lived in a small village, I can found

S V S V

anything from the small things until the big things

easily.

NT-01-4 If we talk about the weather condition, Kadipaten has

S V O S V

cold weather because it is near from Kendalisodo

O SV

mount.

NT-01-5 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

2. NT-02-2 Although Sraten is a small village, I am very happy

S V S
to live in Sraten.

V O

NT-02-3 Although my hobby is fishing, I am often playing

S V S V

football

3. NT-03-2 Although Bandungan is a new city, I am proud to live

S V S V

in Bandungan.

NT-03-3 However, Bandungan city is the best and very-very

S V

good.

4. NT-04-2 Although my body is small, I am very smart in the

S V S V

class.

NT-04-3 Though I lived in small city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

NT-04-4 If we talk about Rawa Pening condition, Rawa Pening

S V O S
has natural view, because around Rawa Pening there

V O S

is Merbabu mountain, Gajah Mungkur and

Telomoyo‟s mountain.

NT-04-5 Even though Rawa Pening was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

NT-04-6 However, Rowosari usually called by miniature of

S V

Indonesia, because many cultures,ethnics and

religions live side to side peacefully.

5. NT-06-2 Although Jakarta is a big city, I am very proud to live

S V S V

in Jakarta.

NT-06-3 Jakarta has hot weather because it is near from

S V O SV

Monas.

6. NT-07-1 Although Macanan is a small village, I am very


S V S

proud to live in Macanan.

V O

NT-07-2 Though I lived in a small village, I can found

S V S V

anything from the small things until the big things

easily.

NT-07-3 However, Macanan has beautiful rubber trees,

S V

though you see definitely fun.

S V

7. NT-08-1 Although Ambarawa is a history city, I am very

S V S

proud to live in Ambarawa.

V O

NT-08-2 Though I lived in a history city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

NT-08-3 However, Ambarawa is a history city.

S V

8. NT-09-2 Although Semarang is a beautiful city, I am very

S V S
proud to live in Semarang.

V O

NT-09-3 Though I lived in beautiful city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

NT-09-4 Even though Semarang was hot, it has beautiful golf

S V S V

stadion.

NT-09-5 However, Semarang is my city.

S V

9. NT-10-2 Even though I am young, but I am very- very love

S V S V

Didi Kempot.

NT-10-3 If we talk about song from Didi Kempot, he is a

S V O S V

jenious because the song from Didi Kempot can

O S V

accepted in Java people although the song is

S V

campursari.

10. NT-11-2 Although Kenangkan is a small village, I am very

S V S
proud to live in Kenangkan.

V O

NT-11-3 Though I lived in a small village, I can found

S V S V

anything from the small things until the big things

easily.

NT-11-4 If we talk about the weather condition, Kenangkan

S V O S

has cold weather, because it is near from Ungaran

V O SV

mount.

NT-11-5 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

NT-11-6 However, Kenangkan village usually called by

S V

miniature of Ungaran, because many cultures,

ethnics and religions live side to side peacefully.

S V

11. NT-12-2 Although I like it, I am not forgetting to study.

S V S V O
NT-12-3 Even though I usually playing game, I am not

S V S

forgetting with my obligation.

V O

12. NT-13-2 Although I love football, I am still loving other sports

S V S V

like volleyball, swimming, basketball and badminton.

NT-13-3 Though in every player has eleven team, I like

S V S V

football very much.

13. NT-14-2 Although music is my life, I am very proud of music.

S V S V O

14. NT-15-2 Even though football make me tired, but I like it.

S V S V O

NT-15-3 However, football is my favorite hobby, and I have a

S V S

dream to play in Timnas Indonesia.

V O

15. NT-16-2 Although Tempuran is a small village, I am very

S V S

proud to live in Tempuran.

V O
Though I lived in a small village, I can found

NT-16-3 S V S V

anything.

16. NT-17-2 Although Tuntang is a small village, I am very proud

S V S

to live in Tuntang.

V O

NT-17-3 Though I lived in a small village, I am very happy to

S V S

live in small village.

V O

NT-17-4 However, my family is everything.

S V

17. NT-18-2 Even though futsal make me tired, I am very happy

S V S

playing futsal.

V O

NT-18-3 Although I am busy, I did not forget to study,

S V S V O

because I like futsal.

S V

NT-18-4 Though in school there are extracurricular of futsal,


S V

maybe I would follow it, because I have some tricks

S V S V

for my rival.

18. NT-19-2 Although Asinan is a small village, I am very happy

S V S

to live in Asinan Krajan.

V O

NT-19-3 Although my hobby is fishing, I am often playing

S V S V

football.

19. NT-20-2 Although Indonesia‟s music is not popular, I am very

S V S

proud to live in Indonesia.

V O

NT-20-3 Though I lived in a big nationality country, but I am

S V

very happy, because Indonesia has some beautiful

S V

music.

NT-20-4 Even though the music of Ebiet G. Ade is formally

S V

music, but I like it.

S V O
20. NT-21-3 However, football game needs more stamina.

S V

NT-21-4 Even though hard be as football player, but I like

S V S V

football to against the adrenaline.

21. NT-22-1 However, Sraten is a small village and the village is

S V S V

beautiful and comfort.

22. NT-23-2 Although my school is distance with my home, but I

S V S

am always spirit.

NT-23-3 Even though the subject is too much, I am very

S V S

happy to study in here.

V O

NT-23-4 However, SMK Muhammadiyah is the best.

S V

23. NT-24-3 Although Cikal Tuntang is a small village, I am very

S V S

proud to live in Cikal Tuntang village.


V O

NT-24-4 Though I lived in a small village, I am very happy,

S V

because I can play in Rawa Pening.

S V

NT-24-5 Even though there is time for fishing, I am not

S V S

forgetting to study.

V O

24. NT-25-1 Although Salatiga is a small city, I am very proud to

S V S

live in Salatiga.

V O

NT-25-2 Though I lived in a small city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

25. NT-26-1 Although Tengaran is cold village, I am very proud

S V S

to live in Tengaran.

V O

NT-26-2 Though I lived in cold village, I always take a bath

S V S V

with cold water.


O

NT-26-3 Even though Tengaran is small and cold village, I

S V S

always happy in Tengaran, because in Tengaran

O S

everybody very friendly and easy going.

26. NT-28-1 Even though my mother is often angry, but I am very

S V S

happy to do it.

VO

27. NT-29-1 Even though in SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga few

S V

of girls, I like to school in here.

S V O

28. NT-32-3 Even though Lopait is a small village, I am very

S V S

happy to live in Lopait.

V O

NT-32-4 Although I lived in a small village, I can found

S V S V

anything from the small things until the big things

easily .
NT-32-5 The weather condition in Lopait sometimes cold

S V O

sometimes hot because it is near from Guarong

SV

Mount.

NT-32-6 Even though the weather was unstable, I always take

S V S V

a bath with hot water.

NT-32-7 Nonetheless, Lopait is a small village.

S V

29. NT-33-2 Although Kopeng is cold village, I am very proud to

S V S

live in Kopeng.

V O

NT-33-3 Though I lived in cold village, I always take a bath

S V S V

with cold water.

NT-33-4 Even though Kopeng is small and cold village, I

S V S

always happy to live in Kopeng, because in here

V O S

everybody very friendly.


O

30. NT-34-3 Although Pulutan Salatiga is a small village, I am

S V S

very proud to live in Pulutan Salatiga.

V O

NT-34-4 Though I lived in a small city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

NT-34-5 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

NT-34-6 However, Pulutan Salatiga usually called by

S V

miniature of Indonesia, because many cultures,

ethnics and religions live side to side peacefully.

31. NT-35-2 Dliko Indah has cold weather because it is near from

S V S V

Merbabu mount.

NT-35-3 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V
bath with cold water.

NT-36-2 Although Beran is a small village, I am very proud to

32. S V S

live in Beran.

V O

NT-36-3 Though I lived in a small village, I can found

S V S V

anything easily.

NT-36-4 Even though the weather was hot, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

NT-36-6 However, Beran village usually called by miniature

S V

of Indonesia, because many cultures, ethnics and

religions live side to side peacefully.

33. NT-37-3 Although Rembes Watuagung is a small village, I am

S V S

very proud to live in Rembes Watuagung.

V O

NT-37-4 Though I lived in a small village, I can found


S V S V

anything from the small things until the big things

easily.

NT-37-5 Rembes Watuagung has cold weather because it is

S V O SV

near from Pangul mount.

NT-37-6 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

NT-37-7 However, Rembes Watuagung village is the best.

S V

34. NT-38-2 Although Bawen is unlike city, but there is my home

S V S V O

overthere.

NT-38-3 However, Bawen usually called by miniature of

S V

Indonesia because many culture, ethnics and religion

live side to side peacefully.

35. NT-39-2 Bandungan has cold weather because it is near from

S V O S V
Ungaran mount.

NT-39-3 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

36. NT-40-2 Although Bandungan is a small city, but Bandungan

S V S

is a beautiful city.

V O

NT-40-3 Though I lived in a small city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

NT-40-4 Bandungan has cold weather because it is near from

S V O SV

Ungaran mount.

NT-40-5 Even though the weather was cold, in Bandungan so

S V S V

much tourism and recreation objects as Gedong

Songo temple.

NT-40-6 However, Bandungan usually called by miniature of

S V

Hollywood, America.
37. NT-41-2 Although Salatiga is a small city, I am very proud to

S V S

live in Salatiga.

V O

NT-41-3 Though I live in a small city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

NT-41-4 If I talk about my hobby, my hobby is playing

S V O S V

computer like a boss because every day I wake up at

O S V

04.00 p.m but I am not forget to pray Subuh and after

S V

pray Subuh I started to play a game until the rising

S V O

sun.

38. NT-42-2 Although Bugel is a small village, I am very proud to

S V S

live in Bugel village.

V O

NT-42-3 Though I lived in a small city, I can found anything.

S V S V O

NT-42-4 Bugel has cold weather because it is near from

S V O S V
Merbabu mount.

NT-42-5 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

39. NT-43-2 Though I live in a small city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

NT-43-3 Ambarawa has hot weather because there is no

S V O S V

mountain over there

NT-43-4 Even though the weather was hot, I always take a

S V S

bath with cold water.

NT-43-5 However, Ambarawa city usually called by miniature

S V

of Indonesia because many cultures, ethnics and

religions live side to side peacefully.

40. NT-44-1 Although Tuntang is a small village, I am very proud

S V S

to live in Tuntang.
V O

NT-44-2 Though I lived in a village, I am very happy to live in

S V S V

a village.

NT-44-3 Even though the weather was hot, I am very proud to

S V S

live in Tuntang.

V O

NT-44-5 However, Tuntang is my lovely village.

S V

41. NT-45-2 Although Pabelan is a small village, I am very proud

S V S

to live in Pabelan.

V O

NT-45-3 Although I lived in a small village, I can found

S V S V

anything from to small things until the big things

easily.

NT-45-4 However, Pabelan village usually called by miniature

S V

of Indonesia because many cultures, ethnics and

O
religions live side to side peacefully.

42. NT-46-2 Although Bancaan is a small village, I am very proud

S V S

to live in Bancaan.

V O

NT-46-3 Though I lived in a small village, I can found

S V S V

anything from the small things until the big things

easily.

NT-46-4 If we talk about the weather condition, Bancaan has

S V O S V

cold weather because it is near from Merbabu mount.

O SV

NT-46-5 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

43. NT-47-2 Although Tuntang is a small village, I am very proud

S V S

to live in Tuntang.

V O

NT-47-3 Though I lived in a small village, I can found

S V S V
anything from the small things until the big things

NT-47-4 easily.

44. NT-48-1 Even though the weather was cold, I always take a

S V S V

bath with cold water.

NT-48-2 My hobby is drawing although drawing is rather

S V O S V

hard, I am very proud with drawing.

S V O

NT-48-3 Even though drawing is hard, I am not giving up for

S V S V

draw.

NT-48-4 Though my mother always gives me support, she

S V S

commands me to study hard.

V O

45. NT-49-2 However, drawing is my life.

S V

Although Salatiga is a small city, I am very proud to

S V S
live in Salatiga.

V O

NT-49-3 Though I lived in a small city, I can found anything

S V S V

from the small things until the big things easily.

NT-49-4 Even though run make me tired, I like it.

S V S V O

46. NT-50-2 Even though my hobby is playing football, I like

S V S V

playing futsal too.

NT-50-4 I like this hobby because it make me comfort and

S V O S V

healthy.

NT-50-5 Although it is tired, I am very happy because I found

SV S V

some new friends.

Based on the analysis result, it can be found that 46 from 50 students appropriate

in used clauses of concession in writing narrative text. The types of complex

sentence it consists of the used of clauses of concession such although, though,

even though and because, the uses of conjunction such but, the uses of transition

such nevertheless and however also the uses of punctuation.

Students have understood about the complex sentence. Complex sentence


has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex

sentence always has a subordinator such as when, because, since, after, although,

though and even though.

From the table above only 4 students which inappropriate in used clauses

of concession in writing narrative text. They still confused with complex sentence

and clauses of concession such although, though, even though and because, the

uses of conjunction such but, the uses of transition such nevertheless and

however, and the uses of punctuation.

2. The Types of Clauses of Concession

The table shows the result and types of clauses of concession that can be

applied by student of second grade SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga.

Table 4.2

The Types of Clauses of Concession

No The Types of Clauses Total in Total in


of Concession Number Percentage
1. …and… 75 32 %
2. …but… 9 4%
3. Because (in front of) 9 4%
4. ..because.. (in the middle) 26 10 %
5. Although 40 16 %
6. Though 26 10 %
7. Even Though 32 13 %
8. However 20 9%
9. …for… 2 1%
10. …after… 1 0.5%
11. Nonetheless 1 0.5%

Total 240 100%

From the table above, the researcher can found that every student in SMK

Muhammadiyah has appropriate in used clauses of concession. It contains of the

types of clauses of concession, namely: and, but, for as compound sentence and

because, although, though, even though, however, after, nonetheless as complex

sentence.

3. The Implication of the Research

The implication of the research for English language teaching is as

references for English teaching material in learning process especially in

grammar of clauses of concession in second grade level students. The result of

the study is expected to be valuable to anyone who is interested in learning

English especially about grammar. By learning what discovered this study, they

will be able to use logical way of thinking to interpret the meaning of clauses of

concession. It is hoped the students will be motivated to flesh out their

knowledge in the study of grammar especially about clauses of concession.

Besides that, the narrative texts that were produced by the students are a good

example of authentic material. The narrative texts provide realistic stories which

are relevance to learners' mindsets and experiences.


CHAPTER V
CLOSURE

A. CONCLUSION

Based on the data result, the researcher concludes the finding of the research as

below:

1. The students‟ comprehensions about clauses of concession in simple sentences,

complex sentences and compound sentences pattern in this result is only 27% of

students used simple sentence in their sentence, 23% of students used complex

sentence and 50% of students used compound sentence. It means most of them

comprehend in using clauses of concession in writing narrative text.

2. The types of clauses of concession that can be applied by students‟ of second grade

SMK Muhammadiyah Salatiga is: and, but, for, because, after, although, though,

even though, however and nonetheless. The data showed that 32% from 50 students

used the conjunctions of „and‟, 4% from 50 students used „but‟, 4% from 50

students used „because‟ in front of the sentence, 10% from 50 students used

„because‟ in the middle of sentence, 16% from 50 students used „although‟, 10%

from 50 students used „though‟, 13% from 50 students used „even though‟, 9%

from 50 students used „however‟, 1% from 50 students used the conjunction of

„for‟, 0.5% from 50 students used „after‟ and the last 0.5% from 50 students used

„nonetheless‟.

3. The implication of the research for education as the additional of references for English

teaching material in learning process, especially in grammar of clauses of concession in

second grade level students.

B. Suggestion
Based on the conclusion above, the researcher proposes the following suggestion

to the teacher, student and the other writers who are interested in studying clauses of

concession as follow:

1. To the Teachers

The teacher can make this research as additional teaching material in grammar

lesson and writing class.

2. To the Students

a. They have to study more in grammar especially in clauses of concession.

b. They have to study more to improve their ability in writing narrative text.

3. To other Readers

The research based on analysis of clauses of concession in narrative text,

therefore this research paper can be useful as starting point to investigate the topic more

completely. A contribution for the others who want to increase their grammar ability,

especially in clauses of concession. It is wished that by reading this research the readers

can understand easily.


Bibliography

Demirezen, Mehmet. 2012. An Analysis of The Problem-Causing Structures of


Simple Sentence in Volume 1, 1

Ermawati, Emi. 2010. Narrative Structures of Short Stories.

Malang: UIN Maliki Press.

Eugene, Chris. 1993. Grammar and How to Teach it. C.A: Continuum

Echols, John M. and Hassan, Shadily. 2005. Kamus Inggris-Indonesia. Jakarta: PT.
Gramedia.

Feez, Susan and Helen, Joyce. 1998. Text- Based Syllabus Design. Sydney:
Macquarie University.

Grace, Eudia and Sudarwati. 2007. Look Ahead: An English Course. Jakarta:
Erlangga.

Hill, McGraw. 2012. Grammar Practice Book. New York: Macmillan

Hwang, John. 2005. An Authentic Learning in Volume 1, 2

Kopple, Vande and Lynn, Beene. 1992. The Riverside Handbook. USA: Houghton
Mifflin Company

L.J, Moleong. 2002. Manajemen Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Remaja Rosda


Karya.

Manser, Martin H. 1991. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary; New Edition. New
York: Oxford University Press.

Paris, Scott. 2003. Developing Comprehension Skills in Volume 1, 1

Schramfer Azar, Betty. 1999. Understanding and Using English Grammar.

New York: Pearson Education.

Wallace.et.all. 2007. Writing For Comprehension in Volume 1, 42-43