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Tools, Utensils and Equipment scraper, that is rectangular in shape

Needed In Egg Preparation with a curve on one side. It is used
to scrape off all the contents of
Kitchen Tools
bowls and pans from the sides and
1. Channel Knife – a small hand tool fold in beaten eggs in batter or
used generally in decorative works whipped cream.
such as making garnishes.
6. Sieve – a screen – type mesh
2. Colander – a perforated bowl of supported by a round metal frame
varying sizes made of stainless used for sifting dry ingredients like
steel, aluminum or plastic, used to starch and flour.
drain, wash or cook ingredients
7. Spoons: solid, slotted and
from liquid.
perforated – large stainless spoons
3. Offset spatula – a broad – bladed holding about 3 ounces used for
implement bent to keep the hand mixing, stirring, and serving. Slotted
off hot surfaces. and perforated spoons are large,
long-handled spoons with holes in
It is used for turning and the bowl used to remove larger
lifting eggs, pan cakes, and meats solid particles from liquids.
on griddles, grills, sheet pans, and
the likes and also used to scrape 8. Wire whip or Whisk – a device
and clean griddles. with loops of stainless steel wire
fastened to a handle. It is used for
4. Pastry Brush – a small implement blending, mixing, whipping eggs or
used to brush the surface of batter, and for blending gravies,
unbaked pastries or cookies with sauces, and soups.
egg white, egg yolk or glaze.
Kitchen Utensils
5. Rubber spatula or scraper – a
broad flexible plastic or rubber 1. Egg Poacher – A miniature Bain
Marie with an upper dish
containing indentations each sized Kitchen Equipment
to hold an egg or contains separate
1. Oven - a chamber or
device for poaching.
compartment used for cooking,
2. Omelet Pan – a heavy-based baking, heating, or drying.
frying usually of cast iron or copper,
2. Electric mixer - A hand-held
with rounded sloping sides used
mixer which usually comes with
exclusively for omelets and never
various attachments including a
washed after used but cleaned with
whisk attachment for whisking
absorbent paper.
cream, batters and egg whites, and
3. Measuring cup- a kitchen utensil sugar.
used for measuring liquid or bulk
3. Refrigerator - a kitchen appliance
solid cooking ingredients such as
where you store food at a cool
flour and sugar
4. Measuring spoon- used to
Cleaning and Sanitizing Tools and
measure an amount of an
ingredient, either liquid or dry,
when cooking. Measuring spoons A cleaning program that is an
may be made of plastic, metal, and overall system should be prepared
other materials. to organize all your cleaning and
sanitizing tasks.
5. Sauce pan- deep cooking pan
with a handle used primarily for Ware washing Ware washing is the
cooking sauce. process of washing and sanitizing
dishes, glassware, flatware, and
6. Mixing bowl - these containers
pots and pans either manually or
have smooth, rounded interior
surfaces with no creases to retain
some mixture and is used for
mixing ingredients.
Manual Dishwashing machine does the washing, rinsing,
and sanitizing.
1. Scrape and pre-rinse. The
purpose of this step is to keep the 1. Scrape and pre-rinse.
wash water cleaner longer.
2. Rack dishes so that the
2. Wash. Use warm water at 1100F dishwasher spray will strike all
to 1200F and a good detergent. surfaces.
Scrub well with a brush to remove
3. Run machine for a full cycle.
all traces of leftover and grease.
4. Set the sanitizing temperatures
3. Rinse. Use clean warm water to
at 1800F for machine that sanitizes
rinse off detergent. Change the
by heat and at 1400F for machine
water frequently, or use running
that sanitizes by chemical
water with an overflow.
4. Sanitize. Place utensils in rack
5. Air-dry and inspect dishes. Do
and immerse in hot water at 1700F
not touch food – contact surfaces.
for thirty seconds. (A gas or electric
heating element is needed to hold Physical Structure and
water at this temperature.) Composition of Eggs
5. Drain and air-dry. Do not towel- 1. Shell. - The egg‘s outer
dry. This may contaminate utensils. covering, the shell, accounts
for about 9 to 12 % of its
Mechanical Dishwashing
total weight depending on
The steps in washing dishes by egg size. The shell is the
machine are the same as in the egg‘s first line of defense
manual methods. Except that the against bacterial
2. Air cell. This is the empty depression on the surface of
space between the white the yolk.
and shell at the large end of
the egg which is barely 6. Membranes. There are two
existent in newly laid egg. kinds of membranes, one
When an egg is first laid, it is just under the shell and the
warm. As it cools, the other covering the yolk.
contents contract and the
inner shell membrane - These are the shell
separate from the outer membrane and the
shell membrane to form the vitelline membrane.
air cell. - The vitelline membrane
3. Albumen/Egg white. is the covering that
Albumen - also called egg protects the yolk from
white. breaking.
7. Yolk. The yolk or the yellow
4. Chalaza. This is the ropey to yellow- orange portion
strands of egg white at makes up about 33% of the
both sides of the egg, which liquid weight of the egg.
anchor the yolk in place in - The egg yolk is formed in
the center of the thick the ovary. On the
white. surface of the yolk,
there is a small white
5. Germinal Disc. This is the spot about 2 mm in
entrance of the latebra, the diameter. This is the
channel leading to the germinal disc and it is
center of the yolk. The present even if the egg
germinal disc is barely is infertile.
noticeable as a slight
Nutritive Value of Egg eggs while shell quality
has direct influence on
Egg is indeed one of
microbiological quality.
nature‘s complete food. It
contains high quality
- Egg Grading. Grading is
protein with all the essential
a form of quality control
amino acids, all of the
used to classify eggs for
vitamins except vitamin C,
exterior and interior
and many minerals.
quality. In the
Egg products are Philippines, the grade
particularly good for designations are A, B, C,
fortifying food low in and D.
protein quality. Except for
mother‘s milk, eggs provide - Egg Size. - The egg sizes
the best protein naturally are Jumbo, Extra Large,
available. Large, Medium, Small
and Peewee. Medium,
Egg protein is often used as Large, and Extra Large
a reference standard for are the sizes commonly
biological values of their available.
- Egg quality has two
Market Forms of Egg
general components:
There are three market forms of
shell quality (exterior
eggs namely: fresh, dried (whole,
quality) and interior egg
egg whites/egg yolks), and frozen
quality. Interior egg
(whole, egg whites/egg yolks).
quality has direct
bearing on the
functional properties of
1. Fresh Eggs or shell eggs may be Indeed it can be eaten
purchased individually, by dozen anywhere.
or in trays of 36 pieces.
Effect of Heat on Eggs
2. Frozen Eggs – are made of high
quality fresh eggs. They come in 1. Coagulation of proteins:
the form of whole eggs with extra white at 60-65 0C, yolk at
yolks and whites. Frozen eggs are 65-700C.
pasteurized and must be thawed
before use. Beyond this temperature, over
3. Dried Eggs – are seldom used. coagulation occurs and water is
Their whites are used for squeezed out causing shrinkage
preparing meringue. Dried eggs resulting in a tough product.
are used primarily as ingredients in
2. Formation of greenish
food industry.
discoloration at the interface of the
They are not commonly sold
yolk and white when egg is
directly to consumers.

Uses of Eggs in culinary Due to the reaction between the

Egg is cooked in many ways. iron in the yolk and the hydrogen
 It can be the main protein sulfide liberated from the sulfur
dish; containing ferrous sulfide.
 it can be a main or
Reaction is favored by - High
accessory ingredient in
cooking temperature - Prolonged
dishes from appetizers to
 It can be cooked by dry Reaction is prevented by
heat, moist heat, with or immediate cooling of the egg (e.g.
without oil, as simply or as immersing in cold water) after
elaborately as one‘s cooking
inclination for the moment.
Why do you need to eat eggs? 1. Eggs are cooked in the shell
to make hard- and soft-
 Eggs may be considered as
cooked and coddled eggs.
"functional foods".
Functional foods are foods
2. Poached eggs are prepared
that may have health
by slipping shelled eggs into
benefits beyond their
barely simmering water and
traditional nutritional value.
gently cooking until the egg
 Eggs as functional foods
holds its shape. The fresher
contain lutein and
the egg, the more centered
zeaxanthin that reduce the
the yolk, the less likely the
risk of cataracts and
white is spread and become
macular degeneration.
 Eggs may also belong to
"designer foods". Designer
Standard Qualities of
foods are foods that have
Poached Eggs and Cooked
been modified through
Eggs in the Shell
biotechnology to enhance
1. Bright, shiny appearance
their quality or nutritional
2. Compact, round shore,
not spread or flattened
 Eggs as designer foods
3. Firm but tender whites
contain omega-3-
4. Warm, liquid yolks.
polyunsaturated fatty acids
and vitamin E. So learn now
3. Fried eggs call for perfectly
and explore the various egg
fresh eggs, the correct heat
dishes below.
level, an appropriate
Variety of Egg Dishes amount of cooking fat, and
a deft hand.
Cooking Eggs in the Shell
Fried eggs may be served 3. Relatively compact,
sunny side up (not turned) standing high. Not spread
or over (turned once). out and thin.
Fried eggs may be basted
with fat as they fry. 5. A fried egg should have a
Using very fresh eggs is the yolk covered with a thin film
only way to ensure a rich of coagulated egg white and
flavor and good appearance still remain slightly fluid.
of the finished dish.
6. The egg white should be
Standard Qualities of Fried opaque, firm and tender,
Eggs not chewy, crisp or brown.

1. White should be shiny, 7. A perfectly fried egg is a

uniformly set, and glory to behold – crispy
tender, not browned, edges and a wobbly, pinkish
blistered or crisp at yolk.
8. It will provide a fried egg
2. Yolk should be set with a slightly crispy, frilly
properly according to edge; the white will be set
desired doneness. Sunny and the yolk soft and runny
side-up yolks should be
Types of Fried Eggs
yellow and well rounded. In
other styles, the yolk is 1. Sunny side up
covered with a thin layer of 2. Basted
coagulated white. 3. Over easy
4. Over medium
5. Over hard
4. Scrambled eggs can be that its internal
made in two ways: the eggs temperature never has time
can be stirred constantly to get too high.
over low heat for a soft 2. A conditioned omelet pan.
delicate curd and a creamy The pan must have sloping
texture, or stirred less sides and be of the right size
frequently as they cook for so the omelet can be
a larger curd and a firm shaped properly. It must be
texture. well seasoned or
Whether prepared to order conditioned to avoid
or to serve on a buffet line, sticking.
scrambled eggs must be 6. Baked Eggs - are also quick
served hot, fresh and moist. and easy to prepare.
5. Omelets - The rolled, or 1. Place a little
French-style, omelets start butter in a custard cup. Put
out like scrambled eggs, but the cup in 1750C (3500F)
when the eggs start to set, oven until the butter melts.
they are rolled over. A 2. Break an egg into
folded or American style, the cup, and sprinkle with
omelet is prepared in much salt and pepper, then top
the same manner. the egg with a little milk.
3. Bake 15 to 20
Two Factors for Making Quality
minutes or until the egg
white is set.
1. High Heat. This is an
opposite to the basic Basic Food Microbiology
principle of low
temperature egg cookery.  Certain microscopic
The omelet cooks so fast organisms, such as
bacteria, are able to invade
the human body and cause toxins from bacteria, molds
illness and sometimes or certain plants or animals.
The common causes of outbreaks
 Because contaminated
of food borne illness are:
foods are the major
sources of organisms 1. Failure to properly refrigerate
transmitted to people, it is food
essential that food
production must have a 2. Failure to thoroughly heat or
clear understanding of food cook food
microbiology and the
3. Infected employees/workers
conditions involve in it.
because of poor personal hygiene
What is food borne illness? practices

Food borne infection? 4. Foods prepared a day or more

before they are served
Food borne intoxication?
5. Raw, contaminated ingredients
 Food-borne illness is a incorporated into foods that
disease that is carried and receive no further cooking
transmitted to people by
food. 6. Cross-contamination of cooked
 Food-borne infection is a food through improperly cleaned
disease that results from equipment
eating food containing
7. Failure to reheat food to
harmful micro-organism.
temperature that kills bacteria
 Food-borne intoxication is
a disease that results from 8. Prolonged exposure to
eating food containing temperatures favorable to bacterial
Aside from food safety we should surfaces. Clean vents when oil is
also be aware of the different cool.
hazards in our workplace such as
8. Keep floor surfaces clean and dry
kitchen hazards, electrical hazards
to prevent slipping or falling onto
and others.
hot surfaces.
To avoid or control these kind of
9. Wear slip-resistant shoes. Floors
hazards the following should be
should be cleaned often with
greasecutting solutions.
1. Use caution when working
10. Do not work closely to hot
around hot oil.
fryers when the floor is wet.
2. Get trained in the proper use and
11. Do not spill water or ice into hot
maintenance of your deep fryer.
oil as this may cause a flare-up.
3. Observe all safety procedures
12. Do not overfill or pour excessive
and wear all protective equipment
amount of frozen fries into deep
provided for your use while
fryer at one time.
preparing hot items.
13. Overfilling causes excessive
4. Use gloves, scrapers, and other
splashing and bubbling over of hot
cleaning tools with handles.
5. Use the correct grease level and
14. Do not pour excess ice from fry
cooking temperatures for your
packages into the fryer.
deep fryer
15. Do not overheat the oil; use
. 6. Keep stove surfaces clean to
only manufacturers recommended
prevent grease flare-ups.
cooking temperatures.
7. Avoid reaching over or climbing
on top of fryers and other hot
16. Do not move or strain hot oil 4. Cook thoroughly.
containers; wait until the oil is cool!
5. Wash container used for egg
17. Extinguish hot oil/grease fires thoroughly.
by using a class K fire extinguisher.
6. Use egg separator
Here are some tips on how to
handle eggs:
1. Serve promptly after cooking.
Purchasing: Do not buy dirty,
cracked, or outdated eggs. 2. Keep cold food cold, hot food
3. Use ice or cold packs when
1. Store at 45 o F or below.
2. Store in closed container.
4. Avoid eating raw eggs or food
3. Store away from strong odors. that contain raw eggs.

4. Refrigerate leftover egg dishes in Store Egg Dishes

shallow containers.
 Storage is done to maintain
5. Do not allow drippings to the quality of food, prolong
contaminate eggs. the shelf-life, maintain an
adequate supply of food
and ensure its safety for
1. Keep refrigerated before and consumption.
after cooking.
 Proper storage of food is
2. Keep everything clean. very crucial in keeping food
safe because the manner
3. Use only clean, not cracked eggs.
and temperature of storage
will affect the food‘s  After you have chosen your
susceptibility to bacterial eggs by size, grade,
growth, other contaminants freshness, and type, proper
and infestation. Storing food storage will help maintain
will not improve its quality, their quality.
it will only delay the rate of
Tips for Storing Raw and Cooked
deterioration, and thus the
Eggs: 1. Put eggs in the refrigerator
proper period of storage
as soon as possible after purchase.
should also be observed.
2. Keep them in their covered
carton (large end up) to preserve
 Eggs should be stored moisture and assure darkness. Do
properly to prevent increase not put them in the egg box at the
in alkalinity and bacterial door of the refrigerator.
3. Keep eggs away from strong
 They should be stored in an odors. These can be absorbed
oval, dry place to retard through the shells, which are
deterioration, as enzymatic porous.
activity is greater at room
4. Whole eggs can be beaten
slightly and placed in a container
with a tight seal and stored in the
freezer for up to one year.
 Keeping eggs as fresh as
possible depends on the 5. Egg whites also can be stored for
care taken by the farmer, up to a year in a tightly sealed
wholesaler, and grocer to container in the freezer.
refrigerate them at all
6. When storing egg yolks in the
freezer, a small amount of sugar or
salt should be added to prevent the for several days or as long as they
yolks from becoming too thick and do not have any odor. They can
gelatinous over time. also be frozen, although when
thawed the white is thinner.
7. Add a pinch of salt per yolk if the
However, you can use them
yolks will be used for savory dishes,
successfully in recipes calling for
or add about a ¼ teaspoon of sugar
egg whites.
per yolk if the yolks will be used for
sweet dishes. Recommended Storage Time for
8. Do not wash eggs before storing
them. This destroys the mineral-oil Fresh shell eggs Buy best before
film that coats the shells and helps date Left-over yolks or whites
keep them fresh. Within 2 to 4 days

9. Dip the eggs in oil to cover the Hard-Cooked eggs Within 1 week
pores and to delay its deteriorative
Prepared egg dishes Within 3 to 4
changes, reduce mold penetration
and retard spoilage.
Pickled eggs Within 1 month
10. Do not keep eggs longer than 2
weeks in the refrigerator. Frozen whole eggs (blended)
Within 4 months
11. Left-over raw yolks can be
refrigerated for several days when
covered with water, milk, or oil.
Two yolks can be used in place of 1
whole egg in a recipe.

12. Left-over raw whites can be

stored in a tightly covered plastic or
glass container in the refrigerator