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Vibrations

of Soils
and Foundations
F, E. Richart, Jr,
/. R, Hall, Jr.
R, D. Woods

PRENTICE-HALL INTERNATIONAL SERIES H. /I/I. Newmark


BditorsI
IN THEORETICAL ANO APPLIED MECHANICS W. J. Hall I
CONTENTS

1 Introduction I

1.1 Design Criteria 2


L2 Relations Between Applied Loads and Quantities which
Govern Criteria 2
13 Evaluation of Soil Properties 3
1.4 Design Procedures 3

2 Vibration of Elementary Systems 5

2.1 Vibratory Motion 6


2.2 Vector Representation of Harmonic Motion 10
23 Single-Degree-of-Lreedom Systems 11
2.4 Phase-Plane Analysis of Single-Degree-of-Freedom
Systems 32
2.5 ^ t e m s with Two Degrees of Freedom 48
2.6 Natural Frequencies of Continuous Systems 57

3 Wave Propagation in an Elastic,


Hmnogeneous, Isotropic Medium 60

33 Waves in a Bounded Elastic Medium 60


1.2 Waves in an Infinite, Homogeneous, Isotropic Elastic
MEdimn 75
3 3 Wwes in an Elastic Half-Space 80
vii
viii CONTENTS CONTENTS
4 Elastic Waves In Layered Systems 93
8 Isolation Of Foundations 244
4.1 Distribution of Wave Energy at Boundaries 93 8.1 Isolation by Location 244
4.2 Elements of Seismic Methods 100 8.2 Isolation by Barriers 247
4.3 Steady-State Vibration Techniques 111
9 Instrumentation for Laboratory and Field
5 Propagation of Waves in Saturated Media 111
Measurements 263
5.1 Introduction 121 9.1 Basic Electrical Elements 264
5.2 Compression Waves in Ideal Fluids 123 9.2 Instruments for Electrical Measurements 269
5.3 Wave Propagation in Porous Saturated Solids 132 9.3 Vibration Transducers and Their Calibration 275
5.4 Effect of Water Table on Wave Propagation in Soils 136 9.4 Cables and Connectors 289
5.5 Summary 139 9.5 Vibration Measurements for Field Tests 292
9.6 The Resonant-Column Test 300
6 behavior of Dynamically Loaded Soils 140

6.1 Introduction 140 10 Design Procedures for Dynamically Loaded


6.2 Behavior of Elastic Spheres in Contact 141 Foundations 308
6.3 Behavior of Soils Under Small-Amplitude Vibratory
Loading 151 10.1 Introduction 308
6.4 Behavior of Soil Under Large-Amplitude Loading 170 10.2 Design Criteria 309
10.3 Dynamic Loads 322
10.4 Brief Review of Methods for Analyzing Dynamic
7 Theories for Vibrations of Foundations on Response of Machine Foundations 336
Elastic Media 191 10.5 Lumped-Parameter Vibrating Systems 345
7.1 Introduction 191 10.6 Analysis and Design for Vertical Vibrations of
Foundations 353
7.2 Lamb (1904) and the Dynamic Boussinesq Problem 192 10.7 Analysis and Design for Rocking Vibrations of
Foundations 369
7.3 Vertical Oscillation of Footings Resting on The Surface 10.8 Conclusions 379
of The Elastic Half-Space 194
7.4 Torsional Oscillation of Circular Footings on the Elastic Appendix 381
Half-Space 213
7.5 Rocking Oscillation of Footings Resting on the Elastic References 387
Half-Space 216
7.6 Sliding Oscillation of a Circular Disk Resting on the Index 403
Elastic Half-Space 221
7.7 Geometrical Damping Associated with Vibrations of
Rigid Circular Footings on the Elastic Half-Space 224
7.8 Coupled Rocking and Sliding of the Rigid Circular
Footing on the Elastic Half-Space 227
7.9 Oscillation of the Rigid Circular Footing Supported by
an Elastic Layer 230
7.10 Vibrations of Rigid Foundations Supported by Piles or
Caissons 235