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# Centurion University of Technology and Management

Odisha

## School of Engineering & Technology

2018..
Electronics and Communication Engineering

Course Structure

## Sl. Course Course Title Course Type T-P-Pr Credit

No. Code
1 ECCC0102 Electromagnetic Field Theory Theory 4-0-0 4
2 ECCC0401 Analog Electronic Circuits Theory &Practice 3-1-0 4
3 ECCC0402 Digital Electronic Circuits Theory & Practice 3-1-0 4
4 ECCC0403 Networks and Systems Theory & Practice 3-1-0 4
5 ECCC0404 Digital Signal Processing Theory & Practice 3-1-0 4
6 ECCC0405 Analog Communication Theory & Practice 2-1-0 3
Systems
7 ECCC0406 Digital Communication Theory & Practice 2-1-0 3
Systems
8 ECCC0407 VLSI Design Theory & Practice 3-1-0 4
9 ECCC0408 ARM Processor Based System Theory & Practice 3-1-0 4
Design
10 ECCC0412 RTOS and its Application Theory & Practice 3-1-0 4
11 ECCC0410 Microwave and Radar Theory & Practice 3-1-0 4
Communications
12 ECCC0413 Antenna and Wave Propagation Theory & Practice 3-1-0 4
TOTAL 45

Page | 1
Syllabus
Electromagnetic Field Theory
Course Title Code Type of course T-P-P Prerequisite
Electromagnetic Field ECCC0102 Theory 4-0-0 Nil
Theory

Objective
 To teach students Maxwell’s equation in static and time varying field, electromagnetic
boundary condition ,wave equation and its solution and concept of transmission line

Learning Outcome
 Student able to solve boundary value problems using Maxwell’s equation, can able to
solve wave equation

Evaluation Systems
Component % of Marks Method of Assessment

## Internal Theory 30 Written Examination

Internal
Examination Report or Presentation +
Assignment 5
Learning Record
Attendance 5 Based on Class Attended
External
External Theory 60 Written Examination
Examination
Total 100

Course Outline

## Vector differential operator, Gradient, Divergence, Curl, Divergence theorem, Stokes

theorem , Capacitance and Capacitors, Laplace’s and Poisson’s Equations, Solution of
Boundary Value Problems in Different Coordinate Systems, Convection and Conduction
Currents, Polarization in dielectrics,Dielectric Constant and strength

## Module II:STATIC ELECTRIC FIELD (10 hours)

Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field & Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law with Application,
Electrostatic Potential, Electric Dipole And Flux Lines, Energy Density in Electrostatic Field,
Equipotential Surfaces, Boundary Conditions For Static Electric Fields, Electrostatic Energy,
Uniqueness of Electrostatic Solutions, Method of Images

Page | 2
Module III: MAGNETOSTATICS (10 hours)
Biotsavart Law, Ampere’s Circuital Law & Applications, Magnetic Flux Density, Maxwell’s
Equations Magnetic Potential (Vector & Scalar), Magnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials,
Forces due to Magnetic Fields & Ampere’s Force Law, Inductance & Magnetic Energy

## Module IV: MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS (TIME VARYING FIELDS) (8 hours)

Faraday’s Law, Transformer EMF &Inconsistency of Ampere’s Law, Displacement Current
Density, Maxwell’s Equations In Final Form, Maxwell’s Equations in Word Form, Boundary
Conditions: Dielectric To Dielectric& Dielectric To Conductor

## Module V: WAVE EQUATIONS (8 hours)

For Conducting & Perfect Dielectric Media, Uniform Plane Waves & Relations Between
E&H and Sinusoidal Variations, Wave Propagation: In Lossless And Conducting Media,
Polarization, Wave Propagation: in Good Conductors and Good Dielectrics

## ModuleVI: EM WAVES CHARACTERISTICS (11 hours)

Plane Waves: Refraction & Reflection, Normal and Oblique Incidences: For Prefect
Conductors and Perfect Dielectrics, Brewster Angle, Critical Angle and Total Internal
Reflection, Surface Impedance, Poynting Vector &Poynting Theorem, Power Loss In Plane
Conductors, Problems

## Module VII:TRANSMISSION LINES (8 hours)

Transmission Line Parameters, Transmission Line Equations, Input Impedance, Standing
Wave Ratio, Power, The Smith Chart, Some Applications Of Transmission Lines

Text Books
1. Mathew N.O.Sadiku,“Elements of Electromagnetic”, Publisher Oxford University Press,
2. G.S.N.Raju, “Electromagnetic Field Theory and Transmission Lines”, Pearson Education

Reference Book
E, C, Jordan & K. G.Balmin, “Electromagnetic waves and Radiating Systems”, 2nd
Edition, PHIPvt. Ltd

Session Plan
Topic No. of Activity Assignment Suggested
(in hrs.)
Module I [8 hrs. Lecture]
Vector Algebra, Coordinate 1 Lecture Assignment 1 Text Book 1,
Systems QN-1 Chapter 1
Vector differential operator, 1 Lecture Assignment 1 Text Book 1,
Gradient, Divergence, Curl, QN-2 Chapter 2

Page | 3
Divergence theorem, Stokes
theorem
Capacitance and Capacitors, 1 Lecture Assignment 1 Text Book 1,
Electrostatic Energy QN-3 Chapter 3

## Laplace’s and Poisson’s 2 Lecture Assignment 1 Text Book 1,

Equations QN-4 Chapter 6

## Boundary Conditions for 1 Lecture Assignment 1 Text Book 1,

Static Electric Fields QN-5 Chapter 5

## Convection and Conduction 1 Lecture Assignment 1 Text Book 1,

Currents QN-6 Chapter 5

## Polarization in dielectrics, 1 Lecture Assignment 1 Text Book 1,

Dielectric Constant and QN-7 Chapter 5
strength
Module II [10 hrs. Lecture ]
Coulombs law, Electric field 1 Lecture Assignment 2 Text Book 1,
intensity QN-1 Chapter 4
Electric Flux Density, 2 Lecture Assignment 2 Text Book 1,
Gauss’s Law with QN-2 Chapter 4
Application
Electrostatic Potential, An 2 Lecture Assignment 2 Text Book 1,
Electric dipole and Flux QN-3 Chapter 4
Lines
Energy density in 1 Lecture Assignment 2 Text Book 1,
Electrostatic field QN-4 Chapter 4
Equipotential Surfaces, 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book 1,
Boundary Conditions for QN-5 Chapter 4
Static Electric Fields
Uniqueness of Electrostatic 2 Lecture Assignment 2 Text Book 1,
Solutions, Method of Images QN-6 Chapter 6
Module III [10 hrs. Lecture]
Biotsavart law 1 Lecture Assignment 3 Text Book 1,
QN-1 Chapter 7
Ampere’s circuital law & 1 Lecture Assignment 3 Text Book 1,
applications QN-2 Chapter 7
Magnetic flux density, 2 Lecture Assignment 3 Text Book 1,
Maxwell’s equations QN-3 Chapter 7
Magnetic potential (vector &
scalar)
Magnetic Scalar and Vector 2 Lecture Assignment 3 Text Book 1,
Potentials QN-4 Chapter 7

Page | 4
Forces due to Magnetic fields 2 Lecture Assignment 3 Text Book 1,
& Ampere’s force law QN-5 Chapter 8
Inductance & Magnetic 2 Lecture Assignment 3 Text Book 1,
energy QN-6 Chapter 8
Module IV [8 hrs. Lecture]
Faraday’s law 1 Lecture Assignment 4 Text Book 1,
QN-1 Chapter 9
Transformer emf& 1 Lecture Assignment 4 Text Book 1,
inconsistency of ampere’s QN-2 Chapter 9
law
Displacement current density 2 Lecture Assignment 4 Text Book 1,
QN-3 Chapter 9
Maxwell’s equations in final 2 Lecture Assignment 4 Text Book 1,
form, Maxwell’s equations in QN-3 Chapter 9
word form
Boundary conditions: 2 Lecture Assignment 4 Text Book 1,
Dielectric to Dielectric& QN-4 Chapter 9
Dielectric to conductor
Module V [8 hrs. Lecture]
Wave equations for 2 Lecture Assignment 5 Text Book 1,
conducting & perfect QN-1 Chapter 10
dielectric media, Uniform
plane waves & relations
between E&H and sinusoidal
variations
Wave propagation: In 2 Lecture Assignment 5 Text Book 1,
lossless and conducting QN-2 Chapter 10
media

## polarization, Wave 2 Lecture Assignment 5 Text Book 1,

propagation: In good QN-3 Chapter 10
conductors

## Wave propagation: In good 2 Lecture Assignment 5 Text Book 1,

dielectrics QN-4 Chapter 10
Module VI [11 hrs. Lecture]
Plane waves: Refraction & 2 Lecture Assignment 6 Text Book 1,
reflection QN-1 Chapter 10
Normal and oblique 2 Lecture Assignment 6 Text Book 1,
incidences: for prefect QN-2 Chapter 102
conductors and perfect
dielectrics
Brewster angle 1 Lecture Assignment 6 Text Book 1,

Page | 5
QN-3 Chapter 10
Critical angle and total 2 Lecture Assignment 6 Text Book 1,
internal reflection QN-4 Chapter 10&2
Surface impedance 2 Lecture Assignment 6 Text Book 1,
QN-5 Chapter 10
Poynting vector &Poynting 1 Lecture Assignment 6 Text Book 1,
theorem QN-6 Chapter 10
Power loss in plane 1
conductors, problems
Module VII [8 hrs. Lecture]
Transmission Line 2 Lecture Assignment 7 Text Book 1,
parameter’s QN-1 Chapter 11
Transmission Line Equations 2 Lecture Assignment 7 Text Book 1,
QN-2 Chapter 11
Input impedance, Standing 1 Lecture Assignment 7 Text Book 1,
Wave Ratio and Power QN-3 Chapter 11
The Smith Chart 2 Lecture Assignment 7 Text Book 1,
QN-4 Chapter 11
Some applications of 1 Lecture Assignment 7 Text Book 1,
Transmission Lines QN-5 Chapter 11
Total (hrs.): 63 63 hrs. Lecture

Page | 6
Analog Electronic Circuits
Course Title Code Type of course T-P-P Prerequisite
Analog Electronic ECCC0401 Theory & Practice 3-1-0 Nil
Circuits

Objective
 This course is preparatory for study in the field of Analog Electronics which focuses
on circuit design techniques and practical issues in Analog Circuit and System
Design

Learning Outcome
 Students will able to Analyze and Design Analog Electronic Circuits using Discrete
Components
 Analyze the frequency response of BJTs and FETs
 Design current sources, single-stage amplifiers, and operational amplifiers

Evaluation Systems
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## Module I: DC BIASING OF BJTS AND FETS(6 Hours)

Theory
Load lines, Operating Point, BJT Biasing: Fixed bias, Emitter bias and Voltage - divider bias,
DC bias with voltage feedback, Design of bias circuits. JFET Biasing: Fixed bias, self-bias
and voltage divider bias. MOSFET Biasing: Enhancement type MOSFET biasing and
Depletion type MOSFET Biasing

Practice
1. Design, Assemble and Test of BJT emitter bias circuits
2. Design, Assemble and Test of BJT Voltage Divider bias circuits
3. Design, Assemble and Test of JFET self-bias circuits
4. Design, Assemble and Test of JFET Fixed-bias circuits

## Module II: SMALL SIGNAL MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF BJT(4 Hours)

Page | 7
Theory
The re transistor model, hybrid model, Low frequency small signal analysis of CE, CC and
CB configurations without feedback

Practice
5. Small signal analysis of BJTs for determination of Voltage gain, Current gain input
impedance and output impedance

## Module III: SMALL SIGNAL MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF JFETs(4 Hours)

Theory
Small Signal Model, Analysis of JFET C-S (fixed bias, self-bias and voltage divider bias) and
C-D configuration

Practice
6. Small signal Analysis of FETs for determination of Voltage gain, Current gain input
impedance and output impedance

## Module IV: BJT AND JFET FREQUENCY RESPONSE(6 Hours)

Theory
General frequency considerations, Low-frequency analysis of R-C combination in single
stage BJT or FET amplifier - Bode Plot, Lower Cut Off frequency for the system, Low
frequency response of BJT and FET amplifiers, Miller Effect Capacitance. High - frequency
modeling of BJT and FET. High frequency analysis of BJT and FET amplifiers - Bode plot

Practice
7. Frequency response of BJT configurations
8. Frequency response of FET configurations

## Module V:COMPOUND CONFIGURATIONS,POWER AMPLIFIERS (6 Hours)

Theory
Cascade, Cascode, Darlington connection, Current Source Circuits, Current mirror circuit,
Differential amplifier circuit; Definition of class A, B and C types power Amplifiers,
Conversion efficiency, Distortion analysis, Push - pull configuration

Practice
9. Design, assemble and testing of Compound configurations using PSPICE
10. Design and testing of Class A & Class B power amplifier using PSPICE

## Module VI: FEEDBACK AND OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT(6 Hours)

Page | 8
Theory
Feedback concept, Type of feedback circuits, Practical feedback circuit, Analysis of only
voltage-series feedback type amplifier, Effects of negative feedback, Positive feedback,
Barkhausen Criterion of Oscillation, Oscillator Operation, R-C phase shift oscillator, Crystal
Oscillator

Practice
11. Design and Simulation of Wien Bridge Oscillator using PSPICE

## Module VII: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS,OP-AMP APPLICATIONS(10 Hours)

Theory
Introduction,Differential and Common mode operation, Differential Amplifier Circuit, Op-
amp basics, Equivalent Circuit Analysis of Inverting and Non - inverting Op-amp circuits,
Input impedance. Practical OP-AMPS, OP-AMP Specifications, DC offset parameters,
frequency parameters, gain – bandwidth, Frequency response of operational amplifiers;
Constant gain multiplier, Voltage summing, Voltage buffer, Integrator, Differentiator and
Controlled sources, Instrumentation Amplifier, Active Filters - low, high and band pass

## Practice (Hardware/Simulation Using PSPICE)

12. Application of Op-Amp as differentiator, integrator, square wave generator
13. Application of Op-Amp as gain multiplier, Voltage summing, Subtractor
14. Design and Simulation of Instrumentation Amplifier using PSPICE
15. Design and Simulation of Low Pass, High Pass and Band Pass Filter using PSPICE

Text Book
Boylestad, R.L. and Nashelsky, L., “Electronic devices and circuit theory”, Prentice Hall,
2012.

Reference Books
1. Bell,David A., 1998.Electronic Devices and Circuits. 4th Edition, PHI
2. Gupta, J.B., 2009. Electronic Devices and circuits. Seagull Books Pvt Ltd

Online Resource
http://nptel.ac.in/courses/108102095/[Viewed on : 14-06-2019]

Session Plan
Topic coverage and No. of Activity Assignment Suggested
Internal Test Sessions Reading
(in hrs.)
Module I [6 hrs. Lecture+6 hrs. Practice]
Introduction, Biasing of 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
Transistor, Different 1.1 1(Ch.4) and

Page | 9
biasing condition, Load NPTEL video
line Analysis, Operating
point.
Fixed bias and emitter 2 Practice Assignment- Text Book-
bias circuit analysis 1.2 1(Ch.4) and
NPTEL video
Voltage divider biasing 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
and biasing with voltage 2 hrs. Practice 1.3 1(Ch.4) and
feedback circuits analysis NPTEL video
Design of bias circuits 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
1.4 1(Ch.4) and
NPTEL video
FET bias circuits: fixed, 5 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
self and voltage divider 2 hrs. Practice 1.5 1(Ch.6) and
biasing circuits NPTEL video
Module II [4 hrs. Lecture+2 hrs. Practice]
BJT AC analysis: 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
Introduction, 2 hrs. Practice 2.1 1(Ch.7,Ch8) and
amplification in AC NPTEL video
domain, Transistor ac
model
re model: CB, CE and CC 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
configuration 2.2 1(Ch.7,Ch8) and
NPTEL video
CE fixed bias and emitter 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
bias circuit AC analysis 2.3 1(Ch.7,Ch8) and
using re model NPTEL video
CE voltage divider bias 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1 and
AC analysis using re 2.4 NPTEL video
model
Emitter follower circuit 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1 and
analysis using re model 2.5 NPTEL video
h-model: Introduction, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
two port network system 2.6 1(Ch.7,Ch8) and
parameters analysis NPTEL video
h-model: CB, CE and CC 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
configuration 2.7 1(Ch.7,Ch8) and
NPTEL video
CE fixed bias and emitter 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
bias circuit AC analysis 2.8 1(Ch.7,Ch8) and
using h- model NPTEL video
Module III [4 hrs. Lecture+2 hrs. Practice]
FET AC signal analysis: 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-

Page | 10
Small signal model of 3.1 1(Ch.9) and
FET, transconductance NPTEL video
(gm) . graphical
determination of gm,
mathematical definition of
gm
Small signal (AC signal) 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
analysis of JFET fixed 3.2 1(Ch.9) and
bias circuit NPTEL video
JFET self-bias and 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
voltage divider bias 2 hr. Practice 3.3 1(Ch.9) and
circuit small signal NPTEL video
analysis
Common gate and 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
common source 3.4 1(Ch.9) and
configurations of JFET NPTEL video
small signal analysis
Module IV [6 hrs. Lecture+4 hrs. Practice]
BJT frequency response: 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
Introduction, general 4.1 1(Ch.11) and
frequency considerations, NPTEL video
Low frequency response 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
of BJT/FET amplifier 2 hrs. Practice 4.2 1(Ch.11) and
NPTEL video
Miller effect capacitance 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
4.3 1(Ch.11) and
NPTEL video
High frequency response 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
of BJT/FET amplifier 2 hrs. Practice 4.3 1(Ch.11) and
NPTEL video
Bode plot 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
4.4 1(Ch.11) and
NPTEL video
Module V [6hrs. Lecture+4 hrs. Practice]
Compound 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
Configurations: cascade 2 hrs. Practice 5.1 1(Ch.12) and
and cascode system NPTEL video
Darlington connection 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
and its small signal 5.2 1(Ch.12) and
analysis NPTEL video
Current Source, Current 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
mirror circuit, Differential 5.3 1(Ch.12) and
amplifier circuit NPTEL video

Page | 11
The Power amplifiers: 4 2 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
Class A, class B and class 2 hrs. Practice 5.4 1(Ch.16) and
C type NPTEL video
Conversion efficiency, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
Distortion analysis 5.5 1(Ch.16) and
NPTEL video
Push - pull configuration 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
5.6 1(Ch.16) and
NPTEL video
Module VI [6 hrs. Lecture+2 hrs. Practice]
Feedback and Oscillator 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
Circuit: feedback circuit 6.1 1(Ch.18) and
concept and feedback NPTEL video
topology
Effects of negative 2 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
feedback 6.2 1(Ch.18) and
NPTEL video
Analysis of only voltage- 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
series feedback type 6.3 1(Ch.18) and
amplifier NPTEL video
Positive feedback, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
Barkhausen Criterion of 6.4 1(Ch.18) and
Oscillation, Oscillator NPTEL video
Operation, Oscillator
circuits
R-C phase shift oscillator 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
2 hrs. Practice 6.5 1(Ch.18) and
NPTEL video
Crystal oscillator 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
6.6 1(Ch.18) and
NPTEL video
Module VII [10hrs. Lecture+8 hrs. Practice]
OPAMP: Introduction, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
differential mode and 7.1 1(Ch.14) and
common mode of NPTEL video
operation
Basics of OPAMP, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
equivalent circuit, 7.2 1(Ch.14) and
CMMR, virtual ground NPTEL video
concept, unity gain, slew
rate
Ideal Characteristics of 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
OPAMP 7.3 1(Ch.14) and

Page | 12
NPTEL video
OPAMP specifications: 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
DC offset parameters, 7.4 1(Ch.14) and
frequency parameters NPTEL video
Practical OPAMPS: gain - 2 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
bandwidth. Frequency 7.5 1(Ch.15) and
response of operational NPTEL video
amplifiers
OP-AMP applications on 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
constant gain multiplier 7.6 1(Ch.15) and
NPTEL video
Adder and subtractor 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
circuit using OPAMP 2 hrs. Practice 7.7 1(Ch.15) and
NPTEL video
Integrator, Differentiator 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
and Controlled sources 2 hrs. Practice 7.8 1(Ch.15) and
using OPAMP NPTEL video
Instrumentation Amplifier 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text Book-
2 hrs. Practice 7.9 1(Ch.15) and
Active Filters-low, high 3 1 hr. Lecture + Assignment- Text
NPTELBook-
video
and band pass filter using 2 hrs. Practice 7.91 1(Ch.15) and
OPAMP NPTEL video
Total (hrs.): 70 42hrs. Lecture
+ 28 hrs.
Practice

Page | 13
Digital Electronic Circuits
Course Title Code Type of course T-P-P Prerequisite
Digital Electronic ECCC0402 Theory &Practice 3-1-0 Nil
Circuits

Objective:
 The objective of this subject is to provide a good understanding on digital logic and
different combinational and sequential circuits

Learning Outcome:
 Student will able to Develop, Analyze, Design and Implement combinational and
Sequential Logic Circuits
 Student will able to acquire the skill on Simulating and implementing combinational
and Sequential Circuits using Verilog

Evaluation Systems:
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## Module I: NUMBER SYSTEMS AND CODES (4 Hours)

Theory
Different number systems: Binary, Octal, Decimal and Hexadecimal, Interpretation of base r
system, Number-Base Conversion. Binary Arithmetic, 1’s and 2’s Complements, subtraction
using 2’s complement, Signed Binary Numbers. Codes: BCD, Gray, Excess-3, ASCII
Character Code, BCD Addition

## Module II: BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND LOGIC MINIMIZATION (5 Hours)

Theory
Basic Theorems and Properties of Boolean Algebra, Boolean Functions, Complement of a
function, Canonical and Standard forms- Minterms, Maxterms, SOP, POS, Conversion
between canonical forms. Logic Minimization Techniques: 3, 4, 5 variable K-Map, POS
simplification, don’t care conditions

Practice
1. Study of different digital logic gates

Page | 14
2. Simplification of Boolean function, logic minimization and implementation with logic
gates

## Module III:LOGIC MINIMIZATION ( 5 Hours)

Theory
Prime implicants, Essential prime implicants, Quine-McCluskey technique for simplification,
Circuit Implementation, NAND and NOR implementation, AND-OR-INVERT, OR-AND-
INVERT, Ex-OR function, Parity generation and checking

Practice
3. VERILOG/VHDL Tutorial
4. NAND-NOR implementation of logic circuits

## Module IV: ARITHMETIC CIRCUITS (6 Hours)

Theory
Combinational Circuit- Design and analysis, Code conversion, Binary Adder-Subtractor-
generator, Adder-Subtractor, BCD Adder, Binary Multiplier, Magnitude Comparator

Practice
5. Design, implement and test of Combinational Circuit- Parity Generator
6. Design, implement and test of Code Converters
7. Design, implement and test of Adders
8. Design, implement and test of Subtractor

## Module V: COMBINATIONAL LOGIC (6 Hours)

Theory
Decoders, Function implementation using decoder, Encoders, Multiplexers, function
implementation using multiplexer, De-multiplexers

Practice
9. Design, implement and test of Decoder circuits
10. Design, implement and test of LSB/ MSB Priority Encoder
11. Design, implement and test of Multiplexers
12. Design, implement and test of Magnitude Comparator

## Module VI: SEQUENTIAL LOGIC (6 Hours)

Theory
Sequential Circuits, Latches-SR, JK, Flip-Flops-JK, D, T, Design and Analysis of Clocked
Sequential Circuit, Introduction to FSM, Mealy and Moore Models, Design of sequence

Page | 15
detector using both types of FSM;Registers- SISO, SIPO, PIPO and PISO Registers,
Universal Shift Register.

Practice
13. Design, implement and test of Flip Flop Circuits
14. Design, implement and test of Shift Register

## Module VII: COUNTERS,MEMORY AND PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC (10 Hours)

Theory
Counter- Asynchronous/Synchronous- Up/Down Counter, Termination of Count (MOD
Counter), Ring Counter, Johnson Counter;Memory Characteristics, Memory hierarchy,
Different types of memory, Concept of CPLD and FPGA, Programmable Read Only
Memory, PLA, PAL, Error Detection and Correction- Hamming Code

Practice
15. Design, implementation and test of Counters

## Practice will be through hardware implementation and software simulation using

Xilinx.

Text Book
Mano, M.M., “Digital design”, EBSCO Publishing, 2002

Reference Books
1. Kumar, A.A., Fundamentals of digital circuits. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd,2014.
2. Jain, R.P. and Floyd, T.L., Digital fundamentals, Dorling Kindersley Pvt Ltd,2009.
3. Donald, P.L., Albert, P.M., Goutam. Saha, Malvino, A.P. and Saha, G.K., Digital
Principles & Applications. Tata McGraw-Hill,2010.

Session Plan

No. of
Suggested
Topic coverage and Internal Sessio Assignment
Test ns (in
hrs.)

## Module I: Number Systems and Codes (5 hrs. lecture)

Number System: - Binary, Octal, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Decimal, Hexadecimal, 1.1 Chapter-1
Interpretation of base r system
Number-Base Conversion, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Binary Arithmetic 1.2 Chapter-1
1’s and 2’s Complements, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1

Page | 16
subtraction using 2’s 1.3 Chapter-1
complement, Signed Binary
Numbers
Codes: - BCD, Gray, Excess-3, 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
ASCII Character Code 1.4 Chapter-1
BCD Addition 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
1.5 Chapter-1
Module II: Boolean Algebra and Logic Minimization (6hrs. lecture+3 hrs. practice)
Basic Theorems and Properties 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
of Boolean Algebra No- 2.1 Chapter-2
Boolean Functions, Complement 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
of a Function No- 2.2 Chapter-2
Canonical and Standard Forms- 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Minterms, Maxterms, SOP, POS, No- 2.3 Chapter-2
Conversion between two
canonical form
Logic Gates 1 Practice
The map method-3,4,5 variable 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
K-Map No- 2.4 Chapter-3

## Simplification of Boolean 2 Practice

function, logic minimization and
implementation with logic gates
POS simplification, Don’t care 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
conditions No- 2.5 Chapter-3
Module III:Logic Minimization( 6hrs. lecture+3 hrs. practice)
Prime Implicants, Essential 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Prime Implicants No- 3.1 Chapter-3
Quine-McCluskey Technique for 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
simplification. No- 3.1 Chapter-3
Circuit Implementation, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
No- 3.1 Chapter-3
NAND and NOR 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
implementation, No- 3.1 Chapter-3
AND-OR-INVERT, OR-AND- 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
INVERT, No- 3.1 Chapter-3
Ex-OR function, Parity 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
generation and checking. No- 3.1 Chapter-3
VERILOG/VHDL Tutorial 1 Practice
NAND-NOR implementation of 2 Practice
logic circuits.

## Module IV [6 hrs. lecture+8 hrs. practice]

Page | 17
Combinational Circuit-Design 1 Lecture Text Book-1
and Analysis Chapter-4
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice
Combinational Circuit- Parity
Generator
Code Conversion Circuits 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
4.1 Chapter-4
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice
Code Converters
Binary Adder-Subtractor- Half 2 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Adder/Subtractor, Full 4.2 Chapter-4
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice
Ripple Carry Adder, Carry 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Lookahed Generator 4.3 Chapter-4
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice Lab Manual
Subtractor
Adder-Subtractor, BCD Adder 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
4.4 Chapter-4
Module V [6hrs. Lecture+8 hrs. Practice]
Binary Multiplier 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
5.1 Chapter-4
Magnitude Comparator 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
5.2 Chapter-4
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice Lab Manual
Magnitude Comparator
Decoders, Encoders 2 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
5.3 Chapter-4
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice Lab Manual
Decoder circuits
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice Lab Manual
LSB/ MSB Priority Encoder
Multiplexers, Demultiplexers 2 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
5.4 Chapter-4
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice Lab Manual
Multiplexers
Module VI [6hrs. Lecture+4 hrs. Practice]
Sequential Circuits, Latches- 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
SR,JK 6.1 Chapter-5
Flip-Flops-JK,D,T 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
6.2 Chapter-5
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice Lab Manual

Page | 18
Flip Flop circuits
Analysis and Design of Clocked 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Sequential Circuit 6.3 Chapter-5
Introduction to FSM, Mealy and 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Moore Models, Design of 6.4 Chapter-5
sequence detector using both
types of FSM.
Registers- SISO, SIPO, PIPO 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
and PISO Registers 6.5 Chapter-6
Universal Shift Register 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
6.6 Chapter-6
Design, implement and test of 2 Practice Lab Manual
Shift Register
Module VII[7hrs. Lecture+3 hrs. Practice]
Asynchronous/Synchronous- 2 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Up/Down Counter 7.1 Chapter-6
Termination of Count (MOD 2 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Counter), Ring Counter, Johnson 7.2 Chapter-6
Counter
Design, implementation and test 2 Practice Lab Manual
of Counters
Memory Characteristics, 2 1 hr. Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Memory hierarchy, Different + 1 hrs. 7.3 Chapter-7
types of memory, Concept of Practice
CPLD and FPGA,
Programmable Read Only 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Memory, PLA, PAL, 7.4 Chapter-7
Error Detection and Correction 1 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-1
Code - Hamming Code. 7.5 Chapter-7
Total (hrs.) 70 42 hrs.
Lecture +
28 hrs.
Practice

Page | 19
Networks and Systems
Course Title Code Type of course T-P-P Prerequisite
Networks and Systems ECCC0403 Theory & Practice 3-1-0 Nil

Objective
 Make Understand the Basic Concepts of Circuit Analysis like Networks Topology,
Circuit Theorems, Two-Port Network and Response of Different Networks
 Make Understand about Representation of Signals and Their Manipulations using
Different Techniques for Both Continuous and Discrete Time.

Learning Outcome
 Student will be able to Analyze and Find the Parameters of the Networks Using
Different Theorems and their Transient and Steady State Response.
 Student will be able to Characterize, Develop Mathematical Form of Different
Signals, Systems and Find Response of Different LTI Systems.

Evaluation Systems
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## Module I: NETWORK TOPOLOGY, THEOREMS AND COUPLED CIRCUITS

(16 Hours)
Theory
Graph of a Network, Concept of Tree, Incidence Matrix, Tie-Set Matrix, Cut-Set Matrix;
Network Theorems:-Nodal and Mesh Analysis, Theveninand Norton Theorem, Reciprocity
Theorem, Superposition Theorem, Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, Compensation
Theorem; Coupled Circuits: Dot Convention for Representing Coupled Circuits, Coefficient
of Coupling, Band Width and Q-Factor for Series and Parallel Resonant Circuits.

Practice
1. Verification of Reciprocity Theorem, Superposition Theorem and Compensation
Theorem.
2. Analysis of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem.
3. Plot Instantaneous Voltage, Current & Power for R, L, C and Mixed. Loads. Calculate
Real Power And Power Factor for Single Phase.
4. Calculation of Resonance Frequency for Series RLC Resonant Circuit and Plot the
Response Curves for Impedance, Reactance and Current.

Page | 20
Module II: TWO PORT NETWORK FUNCTIONS & RESPONSES (10 Hours)

Theory
Two-Port Network Parameters: Z, Y, ABCD and h-Parameters,Interrelationship between
Parameters, Driving Point and Transfer Functions, State Equations for Networks,
Significance of Poles and Zeros.

## Module III: CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE TIME SIGNALS AND SYSTEM

(12 Hours)
Theory
Elementary Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals, Classification of Signals,
Manipulations of Continuous and Discrete Time Signals.
Continuous-Time System:Mathematical Equation Governing LTI Continuous-Time Systems,
Response of LTI Continuous-Time System, Classification of Continuous-Time Systems,
Convolution of Continuous-Time Systems.

Practice
5. Plotting of Elementary Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals.
6. Computation of Energy and Power of a Given Signal.

## Module IV: DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEM (14 Hours)

Theory
Input-Output Description, Classification, Analysis of Discrete-Time LTI Systems:
Techniques, Response of LTI Systems, Convolution of Discrete Time System, Properties of
Convolution, Stability of LTI Systems, Discrete-Time Systems Described by Difference
Equations, Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems, Correlation of Discrete-Time Signals:
Cross Correlation and Autocorrelation of Sequences, Properties of Correlation.

Practice
7. Linear Convolution of Sequences to Obtain Response of the System.
8. Response of an LTI System to Step Input and Impulse Input Analytically and Using
MatLab.
9. Computation of Autocorrelation of a Sequence, Cross Correlation of Two Sequences
10. Stability Analysis of LTI Systems.
11. Obtaining Response of an LTI System Described by Difference and Differential
Equation to an Input using Simulink.

## Module V: CONTINUOUS-TIME FOURIER SERIES AND FOURIER TRANSFORM

(15 Hours)
Theory
Basic Concepts and Development of the Fourier series, Calculation of the Fourier series,
Properties of the Fourier series, Basic Concepts and Development of the Fourier Transform,

Page | 21
Properties of the Continuous-Time Fourier Transform, Fourier transform of Signals and
Analysis of LTI Continuous Time System in Frequency Domain.

## Module VI: DISCRETE TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (DTFT) (9 Hours)

Theory
Developments of Discrete Time Fourier transform, Fourier Transform of Signal, Properties of
DTFT, Analysis of LTI Discrete Time System using DTFT.

Practice
12. Finding Fourier Series and Fourier Transform of Continuous Time Systems.
13. Computation of DTFT of the Discrete Time System and Obtain Magnitude and Phase
Spectrum for Spectral Analysis.

## Module VII: LAPLACE TRANSFORMS AND IT’S APPLICATION (12 Hours)

Theory
Region of Convergence, Properties of Laplace Transform, Poles and Zeros of Rational
Functions of s, Inverse Laplace Transform by Partial Fraction Method, Analysis of LTI
Continuous-Time System, Stability in S-Domain, Linear Constant Coefficient Differential
Equations, Steady State Sinusoidal Analysis Using Phasors, Time Domain Analysis of
Simple RLC Circuits, Solution of Network Equations Using Laplace Transform, Frequency
Domain Analysis of RLC Circuits.

Practice
14. Finding Poles and Zeros of an LTI System and Plotting of Pole-Zero Map in S-Domain
for Stability Analysis
15. Time Domain Analysis of RLC (R-L, R-C, R-L-C) Networks to Study the Transient and
Steady State Behavior of the System to Different Inputs Such as Step, Impulse,
Sinusoidal.

Text Books
1. A.Chakrabarti, “Circuit Theory”, DhanpatRai& Co. Pvt. Ltd. Sixth Edition
[Selected Portions from Chapter2 (2.5),Chapter3 (3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5,3.7,3.9), Chapter4(4.1
to 4.7), Chapter5(5.1,5.2,5.3,5.4,5.5), Chapter8(8.1 to 8.8), Chapter11(11.1 to 11.5,
11.7,11.8), Chapter12 (12.6 to 12.11), Chapter14(14.1 to 14.5), Chapter15(15.1 to
15.16)]
2. A NagoorKani , “Signals and Systems” , Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi
[Selected Portions from Chapter2 (2.2,2.3,2.4,2.6,2.7,2.8,2.9), Chapter3
(3.2,3.33.4,3.5.1,3.6.1,3.6.2,3.6.3,3.6.5),Chapter 4 (4.2.1, 4.2.2, 4.4, 4.5, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11,
4.13, 4.14), Chapter6(6.4,6.5,6.6,6.7,6.8,6.9,6.13), Chapter8(8.3,8.4,8.5,8.6)]

Page | 22
Reference Books
1. P K Satpathy, P Kabisatpathy, S P Ghosh and A K Chakraborty “Network Theory” ,
Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi
2. Alan V. Oppenheim and Alan S. Willsky, “Signals and Systems”, PHI

Session Plan

## Topics No. of Activity Assignment Suggested

(in hrs.)
Module-I [8 hrs. Lecture + 8 hrs. Practice]
Fundamentals of Network 1 Lecture Text Book-1
Theory (Ch-15)
Graph of The Network, Concept 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
of Tree No- No- 1.1, (Ch-15)
1.2
Concept of Tie-Set Matrix & Cut-Set 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Matrix No- No- 1.3, (Ch-15)
1.4
Formulation and Solution of 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Equilibrium Equations No-1.16, 1.17 (Ch-15)
Nodal and Mesh Analysis 2 Lecture+ Practice Text Book-1
(Ch-2)
Theveninand Norton's Theorem 2 Lecture+ Practice Text Book-1
(Ch-3)
Reciprocity Theorem, Superposition 2 Lecture+ Practice Assignment Text Book-1
Theorem No-1.28 (Ch-3)
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem, 2 Lecture+ Practice Assignment Text Book-1
Compensation Theorem No-1.18, 1.19 (Ch-3)
Concept of Coupled Circuit and Dot 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Convention for Representing No- 1.23 (Ch-11)
CoupledCircuits
Coefficient of Coupling, Bandwidth 2 Lecture + Practice Assignment Text Book-1
and Q- Factor of Series and Parallel No-1.26, 1.27 (Ch-11)
Resonant Circuit
Module-II [10 hrs. Lecture]
Introduction to Two Port Network 1 Lecture Text Book-1
Parameters (Ch-12)
Determination of Z- Parameter and Y- 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Parameter of Networks No- 2.8 (Ch-12)
Determination of h Parameter and 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
ABCD Parameter of Networks No- 2.9 (Ch-12)
Two Port Network Functions & 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Responses: Condition for Reciprocity No- 2.7 (Ch-12)
and Symmetry
Driving Point and Transfer Functions, 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1

Page | 23
Significance of Poles and Zeros No-2.10 (Ch-14)
Determination of State Equations for 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
the Networks No-2.15 (Ch-12)
Module-III [8 Hrs. Lecture + 4 Hrs. Practice]
Elementary Continuous-Time and 2 Practice Text Book-2
Discrete-Time Signals (Ch-2,6)
Classification of Continuous Time 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
and Discrete Time Signals No-3.1 to 3.6 (Ch-2,6)
Manipulations of Continuous and 2 Practice Text Book-2
Discrete Time Signals (Ch-2,6)
Mathematical Equation Governing 2 Lecture + Practice Text Book-2
LTI Continuous-Time Systems, (Ch-2,6)
Block Diagram and Signal Flow
Graph Representation
Response of LTI Continuous-Time 3 2hrs. Lecture + 1 Assignment Text Book-2
System in Time Domain hrs. Practice No-3.19 (Ch-2)
Classification of Continuous-Time 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
Systems No-3.20, 3.21 (Ch-2)
Module-IV [4 Hrs. Lecture + 10 Hrs. Practice]
Convolution of Discrete Time 3 1hrs. Lecture + 2 Assignment Text Book-2
System hrs. Practice No-3.22 (Ch-6)
Properties of Convolution And 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
Stability Analysis of LTI System No-3.27 (Ch-6)
Discrete-Time Systems Described 3 1hrs. Lecture + 2 Assignment Text Book-2
by Difference Equations, hrs. Practice No-3.26 (Ch-6)
Implementation of Discrete-Time
Systems
Correlation of Discrete-Time 3 1hrs. Lecture + 2 Text Book-2
Signals: Cross Correlation and hrs. Practice (Ch-6)
Autocorrelation of Sequences
Properties of Correlation 2 Lecture Text Book-2
(Ch-6)
Obtaining Response of An LTI 2 Practice
System Described by Difference
and Differential Equation to an
Module-V [5 Hrs. Lecture]
Basic Concepts and Development 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
of the Fourier Series (Ch-4 Q No: (Ch-4)
Calculation of the Fourier Series 1 Lecture 4.1 to 4.5) Text Book-2
(Ch-4)
Properties of the Fourier Series 1 Lecture Text Book-2
(Ch-4)
Basic Concepts and Development 1 Lecture Text Book-2

Page | 24
of the Fourier Transform (Ch-4)
Properties of the Continuous-Time 1 Lecture Text Book-2
Fourier Transform
Module-VI [5 Hrs. Lecture + 4 Hrs. Practice]
The Discrete Time Fourier 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
Transform of Signal (Ch-8 Q No: (Ch-8)
Properties of DTFT 1 Lecture 8.2 to 8.10) Text Book-2
(Ch-8)
Analysis of LTI Discrete Time 2 Lecture + Practice Text Book-2
System Using DTFT (Ch-8)
Computation of DTFT of The 2 Practice
Discrete Time System
Module-VII [5 Hrs. Lecture + 4 Hrs. Practice]
The Laplace Transform: Region of 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
Convergence (Ch-3 Q No: (Ch-3)
Properties of Laplace Transform, 2 Lecture 3.1 to 3.25) Text Book-2
Poles and Zeros of Rational (Ch-3)
Functions of s
Inverse Laplace Transform by 1 Lecture Text Book-2
Partial Fraction Method (Ch-3)
Analysis of LTI Continuous-Time 2 Lecture + Practice Text Book-2
System, Stability in S-Domain (Ch-3)
Steady State Sinusoidal Analysis 2 Lecture + Practice Assignment Text Book-1
Using Phasors (Ch-8 Q No: (Ch-8)
Time Domain Analysis of Simple 2 Lecture + Practice 1 to 23) Text Book-1
RLC Circuits (Ch-8)
Solution of Network Equations 1 Lecture Text Book-1
Using Laplace Transform (Ch-8)
Frequency Domain Analysis of 2 Lecture Text Book-1
RLC Circuits (Ch-8)
Total (hrs.) 75 45 hrs. Lecture +
30 hrs. Practice

Page | 25
Digital Signal Processing
Course Title Code Type of course T-P-P Prerequisite
Digital Signal Processing ECCC0404 Theory & 3-1-0 Nil
Practice

Objective
 To teach students the Time Domain to Frequency Domain Conversion for Discrete
Time Signal and Digital Filter Design Technique

Learning Outcome
 Students will gain the knowledge in handling DSP processor for real time signal
processing
 Student will acquire skill on Developing and implementing new algorithm in signal
processing

Evaluation Systems
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## Module I: ANALYSIS OF LTI SYSTEMS USING Z-TRANSFORM (12 Hours)

Theory
The Z-Transform: The Direct Z-Transform, Theinverse Z-Transform, Properties of The Z-
Transform, Linearity, Time Shifting, Scaling, Time Reversal, Differentiation, Convolution,
Correlation, Accumulation, Rational Z-Transforms: Poles and Zeros, Pole Location And
Time-Domain Behavior for Causal Signals, The System Function of a Linear Time-Invariant
System

Practice
1. Hands on to MATLAB &Simulink
2. Signal generation using MATLAB &Simulink
3. Analysis of LTI system using MATLAB and Z-transform of signal using MATLAB

## Module II:INVERSION OF THE Z-TRANSFORMS (5 Hours)

Theory
The Inversion of the Z-Transform by Power Series Expansion, The Inversion of The Z-
Transform by Partial-Fraction Expansion, The One-Sided Z-Transform: Definition and

Page | 26
Properties,Analysis and Characterization Of LTI System using Z-Transform, Solution of
Difference Equations.

## Module III: THE DISCRETE FOURIER TRANSFORM (8 Hours)

Theory
Properties and applications, the discrete Fourier transform, Properties of the DFT: periodicity,
linearity, and symmetry properties, relationship of the DFT to other transforms, DFT as a
linear transformation, multiplication of two DFT and circular convolution

Practice
4. MATLAB simulation for DFT & IDFT.

## Module IV: FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM (10 Hours)

Theory
Efficient Computation of the DFT, FFT Algorithms: Radix-2 FFT Algorithms: Decimation-
in-Time (DIT), Decimation-in-Frequency (DIF)

Practice
5. DIT FFT by MATLAB simulation
6. DIF FFT by MATLAB simulation

## Module V: DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF DIGITAL FIR FILTERS (14 Hours)

Theory
Design of FIR Filters: Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric FIR Filters, Design of Linear-Phase
FIR Filters by Using Windowing Techniques, Design of FIR Filter by Frequency Sampling
Realization of FIR Filter: Recursive and Non-Recursive Structure, Factors Influencing
Choice of Structure, Block Diagram Representation of Signal Flow Graph, FIR Filter
Structure: Direct Form-I, Direct Form-II, Linear Phase Structu1e, Frequency Sampling
Structure

Practice
7. MATLAB Simulation of FIR filters using windows technique (Rectangular, Hamming
andHanning)
8. MATLAB simulation of LPF and high pass filter by FIR filter

Module VI: DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF DIGITAL IIR FILTERS (14 Hours)

Page | 27
Theory

Design of IIR Filters from Analog Filters(Butterworth Approximation): IIR Filter Design by
Impulse Invariance, IIR Filter Design By The Bilinear Transformation, Realization of Digital
Filter by using Direct Form-I, Direct Form-II, Cascade Form and Parallel Form Structures.

Practice
9. MATLAB simulation for design of Butterworth filter
10. Design of IIR Butterworth filter from filter specification (both programming & and by
using FDA tool box)
11. Design of IIR low pass Butterworth filter using impulse invariant transformation from
filter specification

## Module VII: DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSOR (12 Hours)

Theory
Introduction,Evolution of Digital Signal Processor,Digital Signal Processor
Architecture,Processor Hardware Unit,Fixed Point and Floating Format,Pipelining,Memory
Access Scheme,VLIW,TMS320c Family

Practice
12. Signal generation (sine wave, step signal) by using processor
13. Linear convolution by using DSP processor
14. Filter design and implementation by using DSP processor

Text Books
1. V. K. Ingle and J.G. Proaksis, J.G, “Digital Signal Processing-A MATLAB Based
Approach”, Cengage Learning Publisher
2. S. Salivahanan, A. Vallavaraj and C. Gnanapriya, “Digital Signal Processing”,
McGraw-Hill Publication

Reference Book
1. Tarun K.Rawat, “Digital Signal Processing”, Oxford University Press India

Online Resource
NPTEL Video:http://nptel.ac.in/courses/117102060 [Viewed on 13-06-2019]

Session Plan

No. of Suggested
Assignment
Topic coverage and Internal Test Sessions Activity Reading
(in hrs.)

Page | 28
Module-I [6 hrs. Lecture + 6 hrs. Practice]
The Z-Transform: The Direct Z- 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment1 Text Book-
Transform, + 2 hrs. QN-1 1, Chapter 3
Practice
The Inverse Z-Transform, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
1 QN-2 1, Chapter 3
Properties of the Z-Transform 3 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
1 QN-3 1, Chapter 3
Introduction to MatLab and 2 Practice Assignment Text Book-
Simulink. 1 QN-4 2, Chapter
15
Standard Signal Generation by 2 Practice Assignment Text Book-
MatLab& Simulink 1 QN-4 2, Chapter
15
Rational Z-Transforms: Poles and 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
Zeros, Pole Locationand Time- 1 QN-5 1, Chapter 3
Domain Behavior for Causal
Signals
Module-II [5 hrs. Lecture]
Inversion of the Z-Transforms: The 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
Inversion of the Z-Transform by 2 QN-1 1, Chapter 3
Power Series Expansion,
The Inversion of the Z-Transform 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
by Partial-FractionExpansion 2 QN-2 1, Chapter 3
The One-sided Z-Transform: 3 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
Definition and Properties,Solution 2 QN-3 1, Chapter 3
of Difference Equations.
Module-III [6 hrs. Lecture+ 2 hrs. Practice]
Relationship of the DFT to other 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
Transforms 3 QN-1 1, Chapter 5
Properties of the DFT: Periodicity 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
problems on Properties of the 3 QN-2 1, Chapter 5
DFT: Periodicity
Properties of the DFT, Linearity, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
and Symmetry Properties, 3 QN-3 1, Chapter 5
Multiplication of Two DFTs and 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-
Circular Convolution + 2 hrs. 3 QN-4 1, Chapter 5
Practice
Twiddle factor, The DFT as a 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
Linear transformation Overlap 3 QN-5 1, Chapter 5
add method, Overlap Save method
Module-IV [6hrs. Lecture + 4 hrs. Practice]
Fast Fourier Transform 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-

Page | 29
Algorithms, Efficient Computation 4 QN-1 1, Chapter 6
of the DFT, problems on FFT
Algorithms: Direct Computation
of the DFT
Radix-2 FFT Algorithms: 4 2 hrs. Assignment Text Book-
Decimation-In-Time (DIT), Lecture + 2 4 QN-2 1, Chapter 6
problems on Decimation-In-Time hrs. Practice
Radix-2 FFT Algorithms: 4 2 hrs. Assignment Text Book-
Decimation-In-Frequency (DIF), Lecture + 2 4 QN-3 1, Chapter 6
problems on Decimation-In hrs. Practice
Frequency
Module-V [10 hrs. Lecture + 4 hrs. Practice]
Design of FIR Filters: Symmetric 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
and Ant symmetric FIR Filters 5 QN-4 1, Chapter 8
Design of Linear-Phase FIR Filters 4 2 hrs. Assignment Text Book-
by using Windows Lecture + 2 5 QN-5 1, Chapter 8
hrs. Practice
Design of FIR filter By Frequency 4 2 hrs. Assignment Text Book-
Sampling Method Lecture + 2 5 QN-6 1, Chapter 8
hrs. Practice
Realization of FIR Filter: recursive 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
and non-recursive structure, factors 5 QN-7 1, Chapter 8
influencing choice of structure,
Block diagram representation of
Signal flow graph
FIR filter structure: Direct form-I, 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
Direct form-II, Linear phase 5 QN-8 1, Chapter 7
structure, frequency sampling
structure.
Module-VI [8 hrs. Lecture + 6 hrs. Practice]
Implementation of Discrete- 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
TimeSystems, Structure for the 6 QN-1 1, Chapter 7
Realizationof Discrete-Time
Systems
Structure for IIR Systems: Direct 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
Form Structures, Cascade- 6 QN-2 1, Chapter 7
FormStructures, Parallel-Form
Structures
Design of IIR Filters: Design 4 2 hrs. Assignment Text Book-
byImpulse Invariance method Lecture + 2 6 QN-3 1, Chapter 8
hrs. Practice
Design by the Bilinear 3 1 hrs. Assignment Text Book-
Transformation Lecture + 2 6 QN-4 1, Chapter 8

Page | 30
hrs. Practice
Design and realization of IIR 3 1 hrs. Assignment6 Text Book-
Butterworth filter from filter Lecture + 2 QN-7 1, Chapter 8
specification hrs. Practice
Module-VII [4 hrs. Lecture + 8 hrs. Practice]
Introduction, DSP processor 4 2 hrs. Assignment Text Book-
memory Lecture + 2 7 QN-1 2, Chapter
Architecture hrs. Practice 15
Examples of DSP 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-
processor, pipelining 7 QN-2 2, Chapter
15
First generation TMS320c1x 3 1 hrs. Assignment Text Book-
processors, second generation Lecture + 2 7 QN-3 2, Chapter
TMS320c2x processors, third hrs. Practice 15
generation TMS320c3x processors,
fourth generation TMS320c4x
processors
Filter design and implementation by 4 Practice Assignment Text Book-
using DSP processor 6 QN-4 2, Chapter
15
Total (hrs.) 75 45 hrs.
Lecture + 30
hrs. Practice

Page | 31
Analog Communication Systems

## Course Title Course Code Type of Course T-P-Pr Pre-

Requisite
Analog Communication ECCC0405 Theory+ 3-1-0 Nil
Systems Practice

Objective
 To impart the basic concepts of analog modulation schemes
 To develop understanding about the performance of analog communication systems

Learning Outcome
 Students will distinguish different types of noise and its effect on various analog
communication systems
 Students will study the energy and power spectral density of the signal
 Students will realizeabout performance of analog communication systems
 Students will compute bandwidth and power requirements for analog systems
 Students will analyze different characteristics of the receiver

Evaluation System
Evaluation Component Marks Method of Evaluation
Internal Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Evaluation Internal Practice 30 (20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Evaluation External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total Marks 100

Course Outline

## Module I: AMPLITUDE MODULATION (12 Hours)

Theory
Introduction to AM: Time-Domain description, Frequency – Domain description, Generation
of AM wave: square law modulator, switching modulator. Detection of AM waves: square
law detector, envelop detector. Double side band suppressed carrier modulation (DSBSC):
Time-Domain description, Frequency-Domain representation, Generation of DSBSC waves:
balanced modulator, ring modulator. Coherent detection of DSBSC modulated waves. Costas
loop.

Practice

## 1. DSB-SC Modulation and Demodulation

2. DSB+C Modulation
3. DSB+C Demodulation

Page | 32
Module II: SSB&VSB (11 Hours)

Theory
Quadrature carrier multiplexing, SSB modulation, Frequency-Domain description of SSB
wave, Time-Domain description. Phase discrimination method for generating an SSB
modulated wave, Demodulation of SSB waves. Frequency – Domain description, Generation
of VSB modulated wave, Time – Domain description, Comparison of amplitude modulation
techniques, Frequency translation, Frequency division multiplexing, Application: Radio

Practice
4. Quadrature Carrier Multiplexing
5. SSB-SC Modulation and Demodulation
6. Frequency Division Multiplexing

## Module III: ANGLE MODULATION (FM)-I (6 Hours)

Basic definitions, FM, narrow band FM, wide band FM, transmission bandwidth of FM
waves, Generation of FM waves: indirect FM and direct FM.

Practice
7. FM Modulation using Trainer Kit/MATLAB/SCILAB/LABVIEW

## Module IV: ANGLE MODULATION (FM)-II (7 Hours)

Theory
Demodulation of FM waves, FM stereo multiplexing, Phase-locked loop, Non-linear model
of the phase – locked loop, Linear model of the phase-locked loop, Nonlinear effects in FM
systems.

Practice

8. FM Demodulation
9. FM Demodulation using PLL

## Module V: RANDOM PROCESS (6 Hours)

Theory
Random variables,Statistical averages: Function of random variables, moments, mean,
Correlation and Covariance function: Principles of autocorrelation function, cross-correlation
functions, Central limit theorem, and Properties of Gaussian process.

Page | 33
Practice
10. Study of Autocorrelation&Cross-correlation using MATLAB

## Module VI: NOISE (8 Hours)

Theory
Introduction, shot noise, thermal noise, white noise, Noise equivalent bandwidth, Narrow
bandwidth, Noise Figure, Equivalent noise temperature, cascade connection of two-port
networks, Frequency Domain Representation of Noise, Power Spectral Density, Spectral
Components of Noise, Response of a Narrow band filter to noise, Effect of a Filter on the
Power spectral density of noise, Superposition of Noises, Noise Bandwidth, Narrow band
representation of noise and its PSD.
Practice
11. Generation of Gaussian Noise using MATLAB/SCILAB

## Module VII: NOISE IN CONTINUOUS WAVE MODULATION SYSTEMS (12 Hours)

Theory
Introduction, Receiver model, Noise in DSB-SC receivers, Noise in SSB receivers, Noise in
AM receivers, Threshold effect, Noise in FM receivers, FM threshold effect, Pre-emphasis
and De-emphasis in FM

Practice
12. SNR study of DSB-SC using MATLAB/SCILAB
13. SNR study of SSB-SC using MATLAB/SCILAB
14. SNR study of FM using MATLAB/SCILAB

Text Books
1. Simon Haykins, Communication Systems, 5th Edition, John Willey, India Pvt. Ltd,
2009.
2. H. Taub, D. L Schilling, G. Saha,Principles of Communication System, 3rd Edition,
2008. Tata McGraw Hill, India; ISBN: 0070648115.

Reference Books
1. B. P. Lathi, Modern digital and analog Communication systems, Oxford University
Press., 4th ed, 2010.
2. MasoudSalehi, John G. Proakis, Communication System Engineering, Second Edition by,
ISBN: 0130950076.
3. Louis E. Frenzel, Principles of Electronic communication Systems,3rd Edition, Tata
McGraw Hill.
4. Singh and Sapre, Communication Systems: Analog and digital, TMH, 2nd Ed, 2007.

Online Resources
1. https://nptel.ac.in/noc/individual_course.php?id=noc17-ec11 [Viewed on 13.06.2019]

Page | 34
Session Plan
Topics No. of Activity Assignment Suggested
(in hrs.)
Module I [6 Hrs. Theory + 6 Hrs. Practice]
Introduction to AM: Time- 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
domain description, 1.1 Chapter 3
Frequency –Domain Text Book-2
description Chapter 3
Generation of AM wave: 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
square law modulator, + 2 hrs. 1.2 Chapter 3.3
switching modulator. Practice
Detection of AM waves: 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
square law detector, envelop + 2 hrs. 1.3 Chapter 3.3
detector. Practice
Double side band suppressed 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
carrier modulation (DSBSC): 1.4 Chapter 3.3
Time-Domain description, Text Book-2
Frequency-Domain Chapter 3.2
representation
Generation of DSBSC waves: 4 2 hrs. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
balanced modulator, ring + 2 hrs. 1.5 Chapter 3.3
modulator. Coherent detection Practice Text Book-2
of DSBSC modulated waves. Chapter 3.2
Costas loop
Module-II [5 Hrs. Theory + 6 Hrs. Practice]
Quadrature carrier 2 Practice Assignment Text Book-1
Multiplexing 2.1 Chapter 3.4
Single side-band modulation, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Frequency-Domain 2.2 Chapter 3.5
description of SSB wave, Text Book-2
Time-Domain description. Chapter 3.4
Phase discrimination method 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
for generating an SSB + 2 hrs. 2.3 Chapter 3.5
modulated wave & Practice Text Book-2
Demodulation of SSB waves Chapter 3.4
Frequency – Domain 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
description, Generation of 2.4 Chapter 3.6
VSB modulated wave, Time – Text Book-2
Domain description Chapter 3.5
Comparison of amplitude 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
modulation techniques 2.5 Chapter 3.5
Frequency translation, 2 Practice Assignment Text Book-2

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Frequency division 2.6 Chapter 3.5
multiplexing
Application: Radio 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
Module III [4 Hrs. Theory + 2 Hrs. Practice]
Basic definitions, FM 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
3.1 Chapter 4.2
Text Book-2
Chapter 4.1-4.2
Narrow band FM, Wide band 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
FM, Transmission bandwidth 3.2 Chapter 4.3
of FM waves
Generation of FM waves: 4 2 hrs. Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
Indirect FM and Direct FM + 2 hrs. 3.3 Chapter 4.4
Practice
Module IV [3 Hrs. Theory + 4 Hrs. Practice]
Demodulation of FM waves, 4 2hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
FM stereo multiplexing + 2 hrs. 4.1 Chapter 4.4
Practice

## Phase-locked loop, Nonlinear 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1

model of the phase – locked + 2 hrs. 4.2 Chapter 4.4
loop, Linear model of the Practice
phase – locked loop,
Nonlinear effects in FM
systems.
Module V[4 Hrs. Theory + 2 Hrs. Practice]
Mathematical Definition of 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Random Process, Stationary 5.1 Chapter 5.1-5.5
Process Text Book-2
Chapter 2.1-2.5
Random variables: Several 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
random variables 5.2 Chapter 5.1-5.5
Statistical averages: Function Text Book-2
of Random variables, Chapter 2.1-2.5
moments, Mean

## Correlation and Covariance 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1

function: Principles of + 2 hrs. 5.3 Chapter 5.1-5.5
autocorrelation function, cross Practice Text Book-2
– correlation functions. Chapter 2.1-2.5
Central limit theorem,
Properties of Gaussian
process

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Module VI [6 Hrs. Theory + 2 Hrs. Practice]
Introduction, shot noise, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
thermal noise, white noise, 6.1 Chapter 5.10-
Noise equivalent bandwidth, 5.11
Narrow bandwidth Text Book-2
Chapter 7.1-7.5
Noise Figure, Equivalent 2 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
noise temperature, cascade 6.2 Chapter 5.10-
connection of two-port 5.11
networks Text Book-2
Chapter 7.1-7.5
Frequency Domain 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Representation of Noise, 6.3 Chapter 5.10-
Power Spectral Density, 5.11
Spectral Components of Noise Text Book-2
Chapter 7.1-7.5
Response of a Narrow band 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
filter to noise, Effect of a 6.4 Chapter 5.10-
Filter on the Power spectral 5.11
density of noise, Text Book-2
Chapter 7.1-7.5
Superposition of Noises, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Noise Bandwidth, Narrow 6.5 Chapter 5.10-
band representation of noise 5.11
and its PSD Text Book-2
Chapter 7.1-7.5
Generation of Gaussian 2 Practice Assignment Text Book-1
Noise, Study on PSD 6.6 Chapter 5.10-
5.11
Text Book-2
Chapter 7.1-7.5
Module VII [6 Hrs. Theory + 6 Hrs. Practice]
Introduction, Receiver model 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
7.1 Chapter 6.2
Noise in DSB-SC receivers 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
+ 2 hrs. 7.2 Chapter 6.3
Practice Text Book-2
Chapter 8.3
Noise in SSB receivers 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
+ 2 hrs. 7.3 Chapter 8.2
Practice
Noise in AM receivers, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Threshold effect 7.4 Chapter 6.4

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Text Book-2
Chapter 8.4
Noise in FM receivers, FM 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
threshold effect + 2 hrs. 7.5 Chapter 6.5
Practice Text Book-2
Chapter 9.6
Pre-emphasis and De- 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
emphasis in FM 7.6 Chapter 6.6
Text Book-2
Chapter 9.4
Total (hrs.) 62 34 hrs.
Lecture + 28
hrs. Practice

Page | 38
Digital Communication Systems

## Course Title Course Code Type of Course T-P-Pr Pre-

Requisite
Digital Communication ECCC0406 Theory+ 3-1-0 Nil
Systems Practice

Objective
 To impart the fundamentals of modern digital communication system design and to
evaluate the performance of digital signaling schemes on realistic communication
channels
 To develop understanding about the performance of digital communication systems

Learning Outcome
 Students will analyze the performance of a baseband and pass band digital
communication system in terms of error rate and spectral efficiency
 Students will accomplish the time and frequency domain analysis of the signals in a
digital communication system
 Students will to express the basic concepts of digital modulation schemes
 Students will calculate bandwidth and power requirements for digital systems

Evaluation System
Evaluation Component Marks Method of Evaluation
Internal Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Evaluation Internal Practice 30 (20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Evaluation External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total Marks 100

Course Outline

## Module I: DIGITAL REPRESENTATION OF ANALOG SIGNAL (9 Hours)

Theory
Sampling Theorem, Signal Reconstruction from uniform samples,Quantization of signals,
Quantization error, PCM, Electrical representation of binary digits, PCM System,
Companding

Practice

## 1. Analysis of Sampling theorem

2. PCM Modulation and Demodulation

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Module II: ISSUES IN DIGITAL TRANSMISSION (10 Hours)

Theory
Line coding, Scrambling, T1Digital System, Multiplexing T1 lines – The T2, T3, T4, E1
lines, Differential PCM: Linear predicted design, Delta Modulation, Adaptive Delta
Modulation

Practice

## 3. Differential PCM Modulation and Demodulation

4. Delta Modulation and Demodulation Adaptive Delta Modulation and Demodulation

## Module III: DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUE (11 Hours)

Theory
Generation, Transmission, Reception, Spectrum and Geometrical Representation in the
Signal Space of BPSK, DPSK, QPSK, QASK, M-ary PSK, BFSK, M-ary FSK, and
Minimum Shifting Keying (MSK)

Practice
5. PSK Modulation and Demodulation
6. FSK Modulation and Demodulation
7. ASK Modulation and Demodulation

## Module IV: NOISE IN PCM AND DM (10 Hours)

Theory
Calculation of Quantization Noise, Output Signal Power, and the Thermal Noise, Output
SNR in PCM, Quantization noise in Delta Modulation, output signal power, output SNR,
Comparison with PCM and DM

Practice

## 8. SNR study of PCM

9. SNR study of Delta Modulation
10. SNR study of Adaptive Delta Modulation

## Module V: PRINCIPLE OF DIGITAL DATA TRANSMISSION (8 Hours)

Theory
Random variables,Statistical averages: Function of random variables, moments, mean,
Correlation and Covariance function: Principles of autocorrelation function, cross-correlation
functions, Central limit theorem, and Properties of Gaussian process.

Page | 40
Practice
11. Study of Scrambling

## Module VI: DIGITAL COMMUNICATION RECEIVERS (5 Hours)

Theory
A base band signal Receiver, Peak signal to RMS noise output voltage ratio, probability of
error, optimum threshold, optimum receiver for both base band and pass band: calculation of
optimum filter transfer function, optimum filter realization using Matched filter, MAP&ML
decoding

Practice
12. Study of Optimum filters realization using MATLAB/SCILAB.

## Module VII: DISCRETE MESSAGES AND INFORMATION CONTENT (7 Hours)

Theory
Information theory- entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem;
Fundamentals of error correction, hamming codes.

Practice
13. Study of Hamming codesusing MATLAB/SCILAB
14. Study of error correction using MATLAB/SCILAB

Text Books
1. H Taub, D. L. Schilling and G Saha, Principles of Communication Systems, 3rdEdition
2008, TMH Education Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi.
2. B.P. Lathi and Z Ding, Modern Digital and Analogue Communication Systems,
4th Edition 2010, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

References
1. SimonHaykin, Communication Systems, 4thEdition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2. Proakis,Salehi, Digital Communications, 5th Edition, Pearson Edu.

Online Resources
https://nptel.ac.in/courses/117101051/ [Viewed on 13.06.2019]

Page | 41
Session Plan
Topics No. of Activity Assignment Suggested
(in hrs.)

## Module I [5 Hrs. Theory + 4 Hrs. Practice]

Sampling Theorem 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
+ 2 hrs. 1.1 Chapter 6.1
Practice
Signal reconstruction from 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
uniform samples 1.2 Chapter 6.1.1
Quantization of signals, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
Quantization error 1.3 Chapter 6.2
PCM, Electrical representation 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
of binary digits, PCM System + 2 hrs. 1.4 Chapter 6.2
Practice
Companding 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
1.4 Chapter 6.2
Module II [4 Hrs. Theory + 6 Hrs. Practice]
Certain issues in Digital 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
transmission: Line coding, 2.1 Chapter 5.1-
scrambling 5.5
T1Digital System, Multiplexing 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
T1 lines – The T2, T3 and T4 2.2 Chapter 6.3
lines,E1 Lines
Differential PCM: Linear 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
predicted design + 2 hrs. 2.3 Chapter 5.6
Practice Text Book-2
Chapter 6.5
Delta Modulation, Adaptive 5 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Delta Modulation + 4 hrs. 2.4 Chapter 5.6
Practice Text Book-2
Chapter 6.6
Module III[8 Hrs. Theory + 6 Hrs. Practice]
Generation, Transmission, 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Reception, Spectrum and + 2 hrs. 3.1 Chapter 6.1
Geometrical Representation in Practice
the Signal Space of BPSK
Generation, Transmission, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Reception, Spectrum and 3.2 Chapter 6.1
Geometrical Representation in
the Signal Space of DPSK

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Generation, Transmission, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Reception, Spectrum and 3.3 Chapter 6.1
Geometrical Representation in
the Signal Space of QPSK
Generation, Transmission, 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Reception, Spectrum and + 2 hrs. 3.4 Chapter 6.2
Geometrical Representation in Practice
the Signal Space of, QASK
Generation, Transmission, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Reception, Spectrum and 3.5
Geometrical Representation in
the Signal Space of M-ary PSK
Generation, Transmission, 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Reception, Spectrum and + 2 hrs. 3.6 Chapter 6.3
Geometrical Representation in Practice
the Signal Space of BFSK
Generation, Transmission, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Reception, Spectrum and 3.7 Chapter 6.3
Geometrical Representation in Reference
the Signal Space of M-ary FSK Book-1
Chapter 6.10
Generation, Transmission, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Reception, Spectrum and 3.8 Chapter 6.3
Geometrical Representation in Reference
the Signal Space of Minimum Book-1
Shifting Keying (MSK) Chapter 6.10
Module IV[4 Hrs. Theory + 6 Hrs. Practice]
Calculation of Quantization 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Noise, Output Signal Power, 4.1 Chapter 12.1
and the Thermal Noise
Output SNR in PCM 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
+ 2 hrs. 4.2 Chapter 12.1
Practice
Quantization noise in Delta 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Modulation, output signal + 2 hrs. 4.3 Chapter 12.2
power, Output SNR Practice
Comparison with PCM and DM 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
+ 2 hrs. 4.4 Chapter 12.3
Practice
Module V[6 Hrs. Theory + 2 Hrs. Practice]
Digital Communication Systems 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
– Source, Line coder, 5.1 Chapter 7.1.1-
Multiplexer 7.1.3

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Regenerative repeater; Line 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
Coding: PSD of various line 5.2 Chapter 7.1.4-
codes 7.2.1
polar signaling, constructing a 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
DC Null in PSD by pulse 5.3 Chapter 7.1.2-
shaping, Equalizers 7.2.3, 7.5.1
On Off signaling, Bipolar 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
signaling; Pulse shaping – ISI 5.4 Chapter 7.1.4,
and effect, 7.3.1
Nyquist first criterion for zero 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
ISI; Scrambling, Digital receiver + 2 hrs. 5.5 Chapter 7.3.2,
and regenerative repeaters Practice 7.5
Timing extraction, Detection 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-2
error, Eye Diagram 5.6 Chapter 7.5.2,
7.5.3, 7.6
Module VI[3 Hrs. Theory + 4 Hrs. Practice]
A base band signal Receiver, 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Peak signal to RMS noise output 6.1 Chapter 11.1
voltage ratio
probability of error, optimum 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
threshold, optimum receiver for 6.2 Chapter 11.2
both base band and pass band
Calculation of optimum filter 3 1hr. Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
transfer function, optimum filter + 2 hrs. 6.3 Chapter 11.3
realization using Matched filter, Practice
MAP&ML decoding
Module VII [3 Hrs. Theory + 4 Hrs. Practice]
The Concept of amount of 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Information, Average 7.1 Chapter 13.1
Information,
Entropy; Information rate 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
7.2 Chapter 13.2
Shanon'sTheorem- Channel 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book-1
Capacity, 7.3 Chapter 13.3
Error Correction, Hamming 4 Practice Assignment Text Book-1
Code 7.4
Total (hrs.) 63 33 hrs. Text Book-2
Lecture + Chapter 14
30 hrs.
Practice

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VLSI Design
Course Name Code Type of course T-P-P Prerequisite
VLSI Design ECCC0407 Theory + Practice 3-1-0 Nil

1. Objective
 This course is preparatory for study in the field of Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI)
digital/analog circuits and engineering practice. The course focuses upon the
systematic analysis and design of basic digital and integrated circuits in CMOS
technology.

2. Learning Outcome
 After completion of this course the students will be familar with modern
Digital/Analog VLSI circuits and will be able to design most of them.
 Ability to Design Complex Analog and Digital, ICS using Advanced and Industry
Level EDA Tools such as Cadence, Microwind and Tanner.

3. Evaluation Systems
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## MODULE I: INTRODUCTION OF MOSFET FABRICATION (6 hours)

Theory
Historical Perspective, Moore’s law, VLSI Design and Packaging Methodologies, VLSI
Design Flow Hierarchy, VLSI Design Styles: Full custom IC Design flow, Cell based IC
design flow, FPGA Design flow, Computer-Aided Design Technology.
Introduction to MOSFET Fabrication, Fabrication Processes Flow – Basic Concepts, The
CMOS n-Well Process, Fabrication of NMOS, PMOS . Twin well CMOS ,LOCOS isolation
technique. Layout Design Rules, Stick Diagrams, Full-Customs Mask Layout Design.

## MODULE II: MOS TRANSISTOR (5Hours)

Theory
The Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Structure, The MOS System under External Bias,
Structure and Operation of MOS Transistor (MOSFET), MOSFET Current-Voltage
Characteristics, MOSFET Scaling and Small-Geometry Effects, MOSFET Capacitance

Page | 45
Practice
1. Introduction to EDA tool.
2. Study of NMOS and PMOS drain current characteristics and transfer characteristics.
3. Extraction of device model parameters.
4. Introduction to layout editor and Layout of NMOS and PMOS transistor.

## MODULE III: MOS INVERTERS- STATIC CHARACTERISTICS (4 Hours)

Theory
Introduction, Resistive-Load Inverters, Inverters with n-Type Depletion and Enhancement
MOSFET Load, CMOS Inverter Voltage transfer characteristics, Noise margins.

Practice
5. Study of resistive load and enhancement load Inverter static characteristics
6. Study of CMOS inverter transfer characteristics.
7. Study of variation of VTC curve with different MOS transistor size.

## MODULE IV: SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS AND INTERCONNECT

EFFECTS (6 Hours)

Theory
Introduction, Delay-Time Definitions, Calculation of Delay-Times, Inverter Design with
Delay Constraints, Estimation of Interconnect Parasitic, Calculation of Interconnect Delay,
Switching Power Dissipation of CMOS Inverters.

Practice
8. Study of CMOS inverter transient characteristics with no load. Calculation of rise time and
fall time.
9. Study of CMOS inverter delay with different capacitive load.

## MODULEV: COMBINATIONAL MOS LOGIC CIRCUITS(6 Hours)

Theory
Introduction, MOS Logic Circuits with Depletion n-MOS Loads, CMOS Logic Circuits,
Complex Logic Circuits, CMOS Transmission Gates (Pass Gates).

Practice
10. Design and simulation of NAND and NOR gate and study of static characteristics.
11. Design and Simulation of complex CMOS logic circuits: half adder, full adder, 2:1 MUX
and 4:1 MUX
12. Study of NMOS and PMOS pass transistor characteristics.
13. Study of transmission gate characteristics.

Page | 46
Page | 47
MODULE VI: SEQUENTIAL MOS LOGIC CIRCUITS(5 Hours)

Theory
Introduction, Bi-stable circuit elements, SR & JK Latch Circuits, Clocked Latch and Flip-
Flop Circuits, CMOS D-Latch and Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop.

Practice
14.Design and simulation of latch circuit
15.Master-slave edge triggered D flip-flop using multiplexer

## MODULEVII: DYNAMIC LOGIC CIRCUITS(10 Hours)

Theory
Introduction, Basic Principles of TG and Pass Transistor Circuits, Voltage Bootstrapping,
Charge leakage, Charge sharing, Synchronous Dynamic Circuit Techniques, Dynamic CMOS
Circuit Techniques, Cascading dynamic gates, High Performance Dynamic CMOS Circuits,
Domino logic, np-CMOS domino logic; Analog circuits: Second order effects in MOSFETs.
Single stage Amplifiers: Common-source stage, Source follower, Common-gate, Cascode
stage, Differential Amplifiers, Passive and Active current mirrors, CMOS operational
amplifierTrends in CMOS technology: SOI, FINFET and multi-gate FET, 2D materials based
FETs, On-chip interconnects

Practice
16. Design and analysis of 6-T conventional SRAM cell
17. Design and analysis of DRAM cell
18. Layout design of NMOS and PMOS transistor
19. Layout design of CMOS inverter
20. Study of Full-custom IC Design flow: Schematic simulation, DRC, LVS, QRC, Post
Layout Simulation.

Text Book
1. Kang, S.M. and Leblebici, Y., “CMOS digital integrated circuits”, Tata McGraw-Hill
Education,2003.
2. Allen, P.E. and Holberg, D.R., “CMOS Analog Circuit Design”,2nd Edition, Oxford
University Press,2002.

Reference Books
1. Rabaey, J.M., Chandrakasan, A.P. and Nikolic, B., “Digital Integrated Circuits” (Vol.
2), Englewood Cliffs: Prentice hall,2002.
2. Wolf, W., “Modern VLSI Design: System-on-Chip Design”,Pearson Education, 2002.
3. Das, D., “VLSI design”, Oxford University Press,2015
4. Uyemura, J.P., “CMOS logic circuit design”, Springer Science & Business
Media,1999.

Page | 48
5. Martin, K., “Digital Integrated Circuit Design”, (The Oxford Series in Electrical and
Computer Engineering), Oxford University Press, Inc,1999. .
6. Eshraghian and N,H,E,Weste, “Principles of CMOS VLSI Design – A Systems
Perspective” , 2nd Edn,, Addison Wesley, 1993

Required Software
Session Plan

## Topics No. of Activity Assignment Suggested

ns (in
hrs.)
MODULE I(6 hrs. Lecture)
Introduction: 3 Lecture Assignment- Text Book-
Historical Perspective, Moore’s 1.1 1(Ch.1,14)
law, VLSI Design and Packaging
Methodologies, VLSI Design
Flow Hierarchy, VLSI Design
Styles: Full custom IC Design
flow, Cell based IC design flow,
FPGA Design flow. Computer-
Aided Design Technology
Fabrication of MOSFETs: 3 Lecture Assignments Text Book-
Fabrication Processes Flow – -1.2,1.3 1(Ch.2)
Basic Concepts, The CMOS n-
Well Process, Fabrication of
NMOS, PMOS . Twin well
CMOS,LOCOS isolation
technique. Layout Design Rules,
Stick Diagrams, Full-Customs
MODULE II (5 hrs. Lecture+ 2 hrs. Practice)
MOS Transistor: 5 Lecture Assignments Text Book-
The Metal Oxide Semiconductor -2.1,2.2 1(Ch2,3)
(MOS) Structure, The MOS
System under External Bias,
Structure and Operation of MOS
Transistor (MOSFET), MOSFET
Current-Voltage Characteristics,
MOSFET Scaling and Small-
Geometry Effects, MOSFET
Capacitance
Practice using EDA tool 2 Practice

Page | 49
1. Introduction to EDA tool.
2.Study of NMOS and PMOS
drain current characteristics and
transfer characteristics.
3.Extraction of device model
parameters.
4.Introduction to layout editor
and Layout of NMOS and
PMOS transistor
MODULE III (5 hrs. Lecture+4 hrs. Practice)
MOS Inverters- Static 5 Lecture Assignments Text Book-1(Ch
Characteristics: -3.1-3.2 5)
Inverters, Inverters with n-Type
Depletion and Enhancement
MOSFET Load, CMOS Inverter
Voltage transfer characteristics,
Noise margins
LAB Practice using EDA tool: 4 Practice
Schematic design and circuit
simulation5.Study of resistive
Inverter static characteristics
6. Study of CMOS inverter
transfer characteristics.
7. Study of variation of VTC
curve with different MOS
transistor size..

## MODULE IV(5 hrs. Lecture+2 hrs. Practice)

MOS Inverters- Switching 5 Lecture Assignments Text Book-1(Ch
Characteristics and -4.1-4.2 6)
Interconnect Effects
Introduction, Delay-Time
Definitions, Calculation of
Delay-Times, Inverter Design
with Delay Constraints,
Estimation of Interconnect
Parasitic, Calculation of
Interconnect Delay, Switching
Power Dissipation of CMOS
Inverters

Page | 50
LAB Practice using EDA tool: 2 Practice
Schematic design and circuit
simulation
8. Study of CMOS inverter
transient characteristics with no
load. Calculation of rise time and
fall time.
9. Study of CMOS inverter delay
with different capacitiveMODULE
load. V(6 hrs. Lecture+8 hrs. Practice)
Combinational MOS Logic 6 Lecture Assignments Text Book-1(Ch
Circuits -5.1,5.2 7)
Introduction, MOS Logic Circuits
with Depletion n-MOS Loads,
CMOS Logic Circuits, Complex
Logic Circuits, CMOS
Transmission Gates (Pass Gates).
LAB Practice using EDA tool: 8 practice
Schematic design and circuit
simulation
10.Design and simulation of
NAND and NOR gate and study
of static characteristics.
11.Design and Simulation of
complex CMOS logic circuits:
and 4:1 MUX
12.Study of NMOS and PMOS
pass transistor characteristics
13.Study of transmission gate
characteristics.
MODULE VI (5 hrs. Lecture+4 hrs. Practice)
Sequential MOS Logic Circuits 5 Lecture Assignments Text book-1(Ch.
Introduction, Bi-stable circuit -6.1,6.2 8)
elements, SR & JK Latch
Circuits, Clocked Latch and Flip-
Flop Circuits, CMOS D-Latch
and Edge-Triggered Flip-Flop.
LAB Practice using EDA tool: 4 Practice
Schematic design and circuit
simulatio14.Design and
simulation of latch circuit
15.Master-slave edge triggered D
flip-flop using multiplexer

## MODULE VII( 10 hrs. Lecture+8 hrs. Practice)

Page | 51
Dynamic Logic Circuits 10 Lecture Assignments Text book-
Introduction, Basic Principles of -7.1,7.2,7.3 2(Ch.4,5,6)
TG and Pass Transistor Circuits,
Voltage Bootstrapping, Charge
leakage, Charge sharing,
Synchronous Dynamic Circuit
Techniques, Dynamic CMOS
dynamic gates, High Performance
Dynamic CMOS Circuits,
Domino logic, np-CMOS domino
logic. Analog circuits: Second
order effects in MOSFETs.
Single stage Amplifiers:
Common-source stage, Source
follower, Common-gate, Cascode
stage, Differential Amplifiers,
Passive and Active current
mirrors, CMOS operational
amplifier. Trends in CMOS
technology: SOI, FINFET and
multi-gate FET, 2D materials
based FETs, On-chip
interconnects,Static Random
Access Memory,Dynamic
Random Access Memory
LAB Practice using EDA tool: 8 Practice
Schematic design and circuit
simulation
16. Design and analysis of 6-T
conventional SRAM cell
17. Design and analysis of
DRAM cell
LAB Practice using EDA tool:
Layout design
18. Layout design of NMOS and
PMOS transistor
19. Layout design of CMOS
inverter
20. Study of Full-custom IC
Design flow: Schematic
simulation, DRC, LVS, QRC,
Post Layout Simulation.

Page | 52
Total (hrs.) 70 42 hrs.
Lecture +
28 hrs.
Practice

Page | 53
ARM Processor Based System

## Course Title Code Type of course T-P-P Prerequisite

ARM Processor Based ECCC0408 Theory &Practice 3-1-0 Nil
System Design

Objective
 To teach the Architecture, Design & Application of 32-bit ARM Processor and
LPC2148 Microcontroller

Learning Outcome
 Students will gain knowledge of 32-bit ARM Processor and Controller
 Students will develop skill of designing 32-bit Processor and Controller for a
particular application

Evaluation Systems
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## Module I: ARM Processor (5 Hours)

Theory
ARM related Companies & its Opportunities; ARM Processor families; RISC Design
Philosophy, ARM Design Philosophy; Embedded System Hardware; ARM Bus Technology;
Embedded System Software;Current Program Status Register; Pipeline; Exception, Interrupt
and Vector Table; Core Extension & Architecture Revisions

Practice
1. Familiarization of Different Microcontroller & Microprocessor Boards

## Module II: ARM7TDMI (8 Hours)

Theory
About the ARM7TDMI Core, Architecture, Programmer’s Model- Memory Formats, Data
Types Operating Modes, Registers, Exceptions, Interrupt Latencies & Memory Interface;
Tools used for LPC2148: Keil µVision & Flash Magic& Proteus Professional Simulator

Page | 54
Practice
2. Creating a Project file, C file, Hex file using Keil µVision for LPC2148 Microcontroller
3. Uploading the Hex file into LPC2148 using Flash Magic
4. Simulate the Virtual Circuit in Proteus Professional

## Module III: LPC2148 Features & Interfacing (10 Hours)

Theory
LPC2148 Features, Block Diagram, Pin Configuration & Functional Description; GPIO
Register Description; Interfacing of LED, Switches, Relay & Buzzer

Practice
5. LED Interfacing using LPC2148 (Dancing Sequence of LED)
6. LED & Switch Interfacing using LPC2148 (Control Multiple LED Through Switches )
7. Relay actuation using LPC2148 (Control Home Appliance Like Light & Fan )
8. Buzzer Interfacing using LPC2148

## Module IV: System Control & VIC (10 Hours)

Theory
PLL, Reset & Wakeup Timer, Brown Out Reset; LPC2148 Memory Mapping, LPC2148
Memory Accelerator Module & System Control; LPC2148 VICFeatures, Description,
Register Description, VIC Register & Interrupt Programming.

Practice
9. Software Interrupt generation (Timer Interrupt, Serial Interrupt)
10. Hardware Interrupt Generation using External Hardware Interrupt Pins

## Module V: GPIO, UART & SPI (15 Hours)

Theory
LPC2148 GPIO Programming - Seven Segment Display, Keypad, LCD & Motor; LPC2148
UART0 & UART1 Features, Pin Diagram, Register Description & Serial Programming;
LPC2148 SPI Features, Pin Diagram, Register Description &SPI interfaced Seven Segment
Display Interfacing Programming

Practice
11. Seven segment Interfacing using LPC2148 (Digital Counter)
12. Keypad Interfacing using LPC2148 (Control Peripheral through 4*4 Keypad )
13. LCD Interfacing with LPC2148 (Display of Strings)
14. Different types of Motor Interfacing using LPC2148 (DC Motor, Stepper Motor &Servo
Motor )
15. Serially Data Transmit and Receiving using UART (Bluetooth Controlled Devices)
16. SPI Protocol based Seven Segment Display using LPC2148

Page | 55
Module VI: I2C, Timer & PWM (15 Hours)

Theory
LPC2148 I2C Features, Pin Diagram, Register Description &I2C Interfaced EEPROM
Programming;LPC2148 Timer Features, Application, Pin Diagram, Register Description &
Delay generation Programming; LPC2148 PWM Features, Pin Diagram, Application
&Register Description

Practice
17. I2C Protocol based EEPROM Programming using LPC2148
18. Delay Generation Programming
19. Speed Control of a DC Motor using PWM

## Module VII: WDT, ADC & DAC (12 Hours)

Theory
LPC2148 WDT Features, Pin Diagram, Applications & Register Description; LPC2148 RTC
Features, Pin Diagram, Application &Register Description;LPC2148 ADC Features, Pin
Diagram, Application & Register Description; Analog Sensor Interfacing; LPC2148
DACFeatures, Pin Diagram, Application& Register Description

Practice
20. Watch Dog Timer Creation
21. Real Time Clock Interfacing using LPC2148
22. Analog Sensor Interfacing (LM35 Temperature Sensor, Potentiometer, Soil Moisture
Sensor)

Text Book
Sloss, Andrew, Dominic Symes and Chris Wright, “ARM System Developer Guide:
Designing and Optimizing System Software”, Elsevier, 2004.

Reference Books
1. ARM7TDMI Technical Reference Manual
2. UM10139 LPC214x User Manual

Online Resource
http://freevideoLectures.com/Course/2341/Embedded-Systems/5 , IIT Delhi, Electrical
Engineering Video Lectures by Prof. SantanuChaudhary [Viewed on 11-06-2019]

Page | 56
Session Plan
Topics No. of Activity Assignment Suggested
(in hrs.)
Module I [4hrs.Lecture + 1hrs. Practice]
ARM Processor 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book (TB)
ARM related Companies & its No- 1.1 - 1.3 Chapter(CH)-1
opportunities; ARM Processor
Family.
RISC Design Philosophy, ARM 1 Lecture Assignment TB CH- 1
Design Philosophy, Embedded No- 1.4 &
System Hardware 1.5
ARM Bus Technology, 2 Lecture Assignment TB CH- 2
Embedded System Software, No-1.6 -
Registers, Current Program 1.15
Status Register, Pipeline,
Exception, Interrupt and Vector
Table, Core Extension,
Architecture Revisions
Familiarization of Different 1 Practice
Microcontroller
&Microprocessor Boards.

## Module II[4hrs. Lecture + 4hrs. Practice]

ARM7TDMI 2 Lecture Assignment TB CH- 3
ARM7TDMI Core, Architecture, No- 2.1 - 2.9
Programmer’s Model: Memory
Formats, Data Types Operating
Modes, Registers, Exceptions,
Interrupt Latencies, Memory
Interface
Tools used for LPC2148- 2 Lecture Assignment Online Resource
KeilµVision, Flash Magic & + No- 2.9 -
Simulator- Proteus Professional Practice 2.12
Creating a Project file, C file, 2 Practice
Hex file using Keil µVision for
LPC2148
LPC2148 using Flash magic
Simulate the Virtual Circuit in 2 Practice
Proteus Professional
Module III[6hrs. Lecture + 4hrs. Practice]
LPC2148 Features & 3 Lecture Assignment Reference Book
Interfacing No- 3.1-3.5 (RB)- 2

Page | 57
Features, Block Diagram, Pin Chapter(CH)- 1
Configuration, Functional
Description
LPC2148 GPIOFeatures, 3 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 8
Application, Pin Diagram, No- 3.6-
Register Description, LED, 3.11
switches, Relay &Buzzer
LED Interfacing Programming. 1 Practice
Switches Interfacing and 1 Practice
Programming
Relay, Buzzer Interfacing and 2 Practice
Programming

## Module IV[6hrs.Lecture + 4hrs.Practice]

System Control & VIC 2 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 4
Crystal Oscillator, PLL, Reset & No- 4.1- 4.6,
Wakeup Timer, Brownout Reset;
LPC2148 Memory Mapping, 2 Lecture RB- 2 CH- 4
LPC2148 Memory Accelerator
Module, LPC2148 system
control;
LPC2148 VIC Features, 2 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 5
Description, Register Description No- 4.7-4.14
& VIC Register
Interrupt Programming 2 Practice Assignments
External Hardware Interrupt 2 Practice Assignments
Generation
Module V[9 hrs.Lecture + 6hrs.Practice]
GPIO, UART & SPI 3 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 8
LPC2148 GPIO Programming: No- 5.1- 5.4
Seven Segment Display, keypad,
LCD & Motor
Seven Segment Display 1 Practice
Interfacing and Programming
Keypad Interfacing and 1 Practice
Programming
LCD Interfacing and 1 Practice
Programming
Motor Interfacing and 1 Practice
programming
PC2148 UART0 & UART1 3 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 9,10
Features, Pin Diagram&Register No- 5.5- 5.7
Description
Transmitting And Receiving Data 1 Practice

Page | 58
using Serial Programming
(Bluetooth Device)
LPC2148 SPI Features, Pin 3 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 12,13
Diagram&Register Description. No-5.7- 5.10
SPI interfaced Seven Segment 1 Practice
Display Interfacing Programming
Module VI[9hrs. Lecture + 6hrs. Practice]
I2C, Timer & PWM 3 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 11
LPC2148 I2C Features, Pin No- 6.1 - 6.3
Diagram&Register Description
I2C Interfaced EEPROM 2 Practice
Programming
LPC2148 Timer Features, 3 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 15
Application, Pin Diagram& No-6.4 - 6.6
Register Description
Delay Generation Programming. 2 Practice
LPC2148 PWM Features, Pin 3 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 16
Diagram, Application &Register No- 6.7- 6.9
Description
Speed Control Programming 2 Practice Assignments
Module VII [7hrs. Lecture + 5hrs. Practice]
WDT, ADC & DAC 1 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH- 20
LPC2148 WDT Features, Pin No-7.1 - 7.3
Diagram, Application &Register
Description
Watch Dog timer creation 1 Practice
LPC2148 RTC Features, Pin 2 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH-19
Diagram, Application &Register No-7.4 - 7.6
Description
Program for Real Time Clock 2 Practice
Interfacing with LPC2148.
LPC2148 ADC Features, Pin 2 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH-17
Diagram, Application &Register No- 7.7- 7.9
Description
Analog Sensor (Soil Moisture 2 Practice
Sensor, LM35 Sensor)
Interfacing Programs.
LPC2148 DAC Features, Pin 2 Lecture Assignment RB- 2 CH-18
Diagram, Application &Register + No- 7.10-
Description Practice 7.12
Total (hrs.) 75 45 hrs.
Lecture
+ 30 hrs.
Practice

Page | 59
RTOS and Its Application

## Course Title Code Type of course T-P-Pr Prerequisite

RTOS and its ECCC0412 Theory & 3-1-0 Nil
Application Practice

Objective
 To teach the basic fundamental concepts of Real Time Operating System and provide a
thorough understanding of principles behind the structure and operation of RTOS in
ARM7 Processors

Learning Outcome
 Student will gain knowledge on Real Time System and its Applications
 Students will develop the skill to implement the Real Time Operating System
FreeRTOS in LPC2148 Microcontroller

Evaluation Systems
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## ModuleI:FUNDAMENTAL OF REAL TIME OPERATING SYSTEM (5 Hours)

Theory
RTOS Basic: System, Operating System, Need of Operating System, Computer System
Components, Abstract View of System Components, Functions of Operating Systems, Four
main tasks of OS, Shell, Kernel, Types of OS, Batch Processing OS, Time-Sharing Systems–
Interactive Computing; Real Time Operating System: Types of RTOS, Embedded OS, Types
of System, Multi-Tasking, GPOS Vs RTOS, Types of RTS, Soft real-time, Hard real-time,
Real Time Spectrum, Need of RTOS; Polled Loop Systems: (sequence of all activities),

## ModuleII:TASK SYNCHRONIZATION (10 Hours)

Theory
Real Time Operating Systems: Advantage of using RTOS, RTOS Tracking Mechanisms,
Kernel, Functioning of RTOS. Possible states of Tasks, Elements of RTOS: Scheduler, Task
Control Block (TCB), Idle Task, Context Switch, Preemption Vs Context switch, Starvation,
Task Synchronization, Race Condition, FreeRTOS Porting for LPC2148 Using Keil: Create

Page | 60
the project, FreeRTOS LCD Interfacing with LPC2148: LED Blinking, LCD Scroll, Heap
Memory Management

Practice
1. FreeRTOS Porting with KeiluVision IDE
2. LED interfacing using FreeRTOS
3. LCD interfacing with LPC2148 using freeRTOS

## Module III: TASK & its API (10 Hours)

Theory

Practice
4. Multiple Task Creation
6. Changing Task Priority Creation
7. Deleting a Task after Creating

## Module IV: RTOS TASK SCHEDULING (10 Hours)

Theory
FreeRTOS Scheduling Algorithms: Types of Scheduling Algorithms; Semaphore: Binary
Semaphore, Counting Semaphores, Mutex, Deadlock.
Practice
8. Cooperative Scheduling.
9. Priority Based Preemptive scheduling.
10. Round Robin with time slicing.
11. Round Robin without time slicing.

## Module V:SEMAPHORE (15 Hours)

Theory
FreeRTOS Binary Semaphore in LPC2148: Introduction, Semaphore, Binary Semaphore,
Counting Semaphores, Mutexes, API Used: vSemaphoreCreateBinary(), xSemaphoreTake(),
xSemaphoreGive(); FreeRTOS Binary Semaphore from ISR in LPC2148: API Used:
vSemaphoreCreateBinary(), xSemaphoreTakeFromISR(), xSemaphoreGiveFromISR();
FreeRTOS Counting Semaphore in LPC2148: Applications of Counting Semaphore:
Counting events, Resource management, APIs Used:xSemaphoreCreateCounting(),
xSemaphoreGetCount().

Page | 61
Practice
12. Interrupt Processing using Binary Semaphore to synchronize a task
13. Interrupt Processing using Counting Semaphore to synchronize a task
14. Producer consumer problem using Semaphore in LPC2148

## Module VI:MUTEX AND PRIORITY INVERSION (10 Hours)

Theory
FreeRTOSMutex using LPC2148:Mutexvs Semaphore: Using Mutex, Using Semaphore,
APIs Used, xSemaphoreCreateMutex(), xSemaphoreGetMutexHolder(); Priority Inversion:
Priority inheritance protocol, Ceiling priority protocol, Mutexvs Semaphore

Practice
15. FreeRTOS Resources Management based Mutual Exclusion in LPC2148
16. Priority Inheritance Problem Solving

## Module VII:IPC AND ITS APIS (15 Hours)

Theory
Communications: Pipe, Message Queue, Interrupt Handling; FreeRTOS Queue in LPC2148:
Introduction, APIs Used, xQueueCreate(), vQueueDelete(),
end(),QueueSendToFront(),xQueueSendToBack(),xQueueSendFromISR(),xQueueSendToBa
ckFromISR(), xQueueSendToFrontFromISR().

Practice
17. Creating Queue for task to task communication
18. Sending data to a Queue
19. Receiving data from a Queue
20. Managing the store data
21. Blocking on a Queue
22. Effect of task priority when sending to & receiving from a Queue

Text Books
1. K.V.K Prasad, “Embedded / Real-Time Systems: Concepts, Design and Programming”,
Dreamtech Press; New edition , 2003.
2. Richard Barry, “Mastering the FreeRTOS Real Time Kernel-A Hands-On Tutorial
Guide”,Real Time Engineers Ltd, 2016.

Reference Book
FreeRTOS V10.0.0 Reference Manual

Online Resources
1. https://www.freertos.org/Documentation/RTOS_book.html [Viewed on 11-06-2019 ]

Page | 62
2. https://www.embetronicx.com/tutorials/rtos/freertos/rtos-basic-tutorial-for-
beginners/[Viewed on 11-06-2019 ]
3. https://www.freertos.org/Documentation/FreeRTOS_Reference_Manual_V10.0.0.pdf/[Vi
ewed on 11-06-2019 ]
4. https://www.freertos.org/Documentation/161204_Mastering_the_FreeRTOS_Real_Time
_Kernel-A_Hands-On_Tutorial_Guide.pdf/[Viewed on 11-06-2019 ]

Session Plan
No. of
Suggested
Topics Sessions Activity Assignment
(in hrs.)
Module I [5 hrs.Lecture]
RTOS Basic, System, Operating 1 Lecture Question Online
System, Need of Operating System, No-1.1-1.2 Resource-
Computer System Components, 2(P1) Topic
Abstract View of System 1-5
Components.
Functions of Operating Systems, 1 Lecture Question Online
Four main tasks of OS, Shell, No-1.3-1.5 Resource- 2
Kernel, Types of OS, Batch Topic 6-10.1
Processing OS.
Time-Sharing Systems–Interactive 1 Lecture Question Online
Computing, Real Time Operating No-1.6 Resource- 2
System: Types of RTOS, Embedded Topic 10.2-
OS. 10.4
What is a Real Time System? Multi- 1 Lecture Question Online
Tasking, OS VS RTOS, Types of No-1.7-1.10 Resource- 2
RTS, Soft real-time, Hard real-time, Topic 11-16
Real Time Spectrum, What is the
need of an RTOS?
Polled Loop Systems: (sequence of 1 Lecture Question Online
all activities), Advantages, No-1.11 Resource- 2
Disadvantages, Interrupt Driven Topic 16.1-
Module II [6 hrs. Lecture + 4 hrs. Practice]
Real Time Operating Systems: 2 Lecture Question Online
Where we opt for RTOS?Advantage No-2.1-2.5 Resource-
of using RTOS, RTOS Tracking 2(P2) Topic
Mechanisms, Kernel, Functioning of 1-5
RTOS. Possible states of Tasks.
Basic elements of RTOS: 1 Lecture Question Online
Scheduler, Task Control Block No-2.6 Resource-
(TCB). 2(P2) Topic

Page | 63
6.1-6.2
Idle Task, Context Switch, 1 Lecture Question Online
Preemption Vs Context switch, No-2.7-2.9 Resource-
Starvation, Task Synchronization, 2(P2) Topic
Race Condition. 6.3-9
FreeRTOS Porting for LPC2148 1 Lecture Question Online
Using Keil, Initial Steps(Installing No-2.10 Resource-
Time), Create the project(Each 2(P3) Topic
time), 1-4
FreeRTOS Porting with KeiluVision 2 Practice Practice 1 Online
IDE Resource-
2(P3) Topic
1-4
FreeRTOS LCD Interfacing with 2 Practice Practice 2 Online
LPC2148. LCD Scroll, LED Resource-
11.1-11.4
Heap Memory Management 1 Lecture Question Online
No- 2.11 Resource- 4
Chapter 2
Module III [6 hrs. Lecture + 4 hrs. Practice]
Task Creation: Introduction, 3 Lecture Question Online
APIUsed: xTaskCreate, No- 3.1-3.2 Resource- 3
2.6,2.9, 2.31
Task Creation with Parameters: 3 Lecture Question Online
Introduction, API Used, No- 3.3-3.4 Resource- 3
Multiple Task Creation. 2 Practice Practice 3 Online
Periodic Task & Idle Task Creation. Resource- 3
Chapter 2
Changing Task Priority Creation. 2 Practice Practice 4 Online
Deleting a Task after Creating. Resource- 3
Chapter 2
Module IV [6 hrs. Lecture + 4 hrs. Practice]
FreeRTOS scheduling algorithms: 2 Lecture Question Online
types of scheduling algorithms No- 4.1-4.4 Resource-
2(P2) Topic 6
Scheduling Problem solving 2 Lecture Question Online
No- 4.5-4.6 Resource-
2(P2) Topic 6

Page | 64
Cooperative Scheduling. 2 Practice Practice 5 Online
Priority Based Preemptive resource
scheduling
Round Robin with time slicing. 2 Practice Practice 6 Online
Round Robin without time slicing. resource
Semaphore: Binary Semaphore, 2 Lecture Question Online
Counting Semaphores, Mutexes, No- 4.7-4.10 Resource-
10-12
Module V [8 hrs. Lecture + 7 hrs. Practice]
Semaphore in LPC2148: 1 Lecture Question Online
Introduction, Semaphore, Binary No-5.1 Resource-
Semaphore, Counting Semaphores, 2(P6) Topic
Mutexes. 2-3
FreeRTOS Binary API Used: 2 Lecture Question Online
vSemaphoreCreateBinary (), No- 5.2 Resource- 3
xSemaphoreTake (), Chapter 4.2,
xSemaphoreGive (). 4.13, 4.16
FreeRTOS Binary Semaphore 2 Lecture Question Online
from ISR in LPC2148: API Used: No-5.3 Resource- 3
vSemaphoreCreateBinary (), Chapter 4.2,
xSemaphoreTakeFromISR (), 4.13, 4.16
xSemaphoreGiveFromISR().
Interrupt Processing using Binary 2 Practice Practice 7 Online
Semaphore to synchronize a task. Resource- 3
Chapter 4.2,
4.13, 4.16
FreeRTOS Counting Semaphore 1 Lecture Question Online
in LPC2148: Applications of No-5.4 Resource- 3
Counting Semaphore: Counting Chapter 4.2,
events, Resource management. 4.13, 4.16
APIs 2 Lecture Question Online
Used:xSemaphoreCreateCounting() No-5.5-5.6 Resource- 3
, uxSemaphoreGetCount(). Chapter
4.4,4.11
Interrupt Processing using Counting 2 Practice Practice 8 Online
Semaphore to synchronize a task. Resource- 3
Chapter 4
Producer consumer problem using 3 Practice Practice 9 Online
Semaphore in LPC2148. Resource- 3
Chapter 4
Module VI [6hrs. Lecture + 4 hrs. Practice]
FreeRTOSMutex using LPC2148: 2 Lecture Question Online

Page | 65
Mutexvs Semaphore: Using Mutex, No-6.1 Resource-
Using Semaphore. 2(P2) Topic
10-11
APIs 2 Lecture Question Online
Used:xSemaphoreCreateMutex(), No-6.2 Resource- 3
xSemaphoreGetMutexHolder(). Chapter
4.6,4.12
Priority Inversion: Priority 2 Lecture Question Online
inheritance protocol, Ceiling priority No-6.3-6.6 Resource-
protocol, Mutexvs Semaphore. 2(P2) Topic
13
Priority Inversion Programming 2 Practice Practice 10 Online
Resource-
2(P2) Topic
13
FreeRTOS Resources Management 2 Practice Practice 11 Online
based Mutual Exclusion in Resource-
LPC2148 2(P2) Topic 6
Module VII [8 hrs. Lecture + 7 hrs. Practice]
Messaging: Pipe, Message Queue, 2 Lecture Question Online
Interrupt Handling No-7.1-7.5 Resource-
2(P2) Topic
15
FreeRTOS Queue in LPC2148: 2 Lecture Question Online
Introduction, 4 APIs Used, No-7.6-7.8 Resource- 3
xQueueCreate(), vQueueDelete(), Chapter 3.3,
xQueuePeek(). 3.6, 3.14
xQueuePeekFromISR(), 2 Lecture Question Online
xQueueReceive(), No-7.9 Resource- 3
3.17
xQueueSend(), 2 Lecture Question Online
xQueueSendToFront(), No-7.10 Resource- 3
xQueueSendToBack(), Chapter
xQueueSendFromISR(), 3.22,3.33
xQueueSendToBackFromISR(),
xQueueSendToFrontFromISR().
Creating Queue for task to task 3 Practice Practice 11 Online
communication, Resource- 3
Sending data to a Queue, Chapter
Receiving data from a Queue, 3.22,3.33

Page | 66
Managing the store data, 4 Practice Practice 12 Online
Blocking on a Queue, Resource- 3
Effect of task priority when sending Chapter
to & receiving from a Queue 3.22,3.33
Total (hrs.) 75 45 hrs.
Lecture +
30 hrs.
Practice

Page | 67
Microwave and Radar Communication

## Course Title Code Type of course T-P-Pr Prerequisite

Microwave and Radar ECCC0410 Theory& Practice 3-1-0 Nil
Communication

Objective
 To teach the basics of Microwave and Radar and its application

Learning Outcome
 Students will gain knowledge of Analyze performance of Microwave components
from field point of view and Maintain microwave components and Set up of
microwave bench for optimum operation
 Students will develop skill ofDesign and Simulate Microwave Circuits and
Microwave Filters using HFSS software.

Evaluation Systems
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## ModuleI: INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (10 Hours)

Theory
Microwave engineering, Revisit of Transmission lines: Solution of transmission line
equation, Reflection and Transmission coefficients, Input impedance of transmission line,
Standing waves, Attenuation and distortion in transmission line; Field theoretic analysis of
coaxial transmission line; Smith chart and Impedance matching

Practice
1. Design, simulation and analysis of Microstrip line (Using HFSS tool)
2. Calculation of unknown impedance by using test bench

## ModuleII:RECTANGULAR AND CYLINDRICAL WAVEGUIDE (15 Hours)

Theory
Introduction, phase velocity and group velocity in a wave guide. Design & analysis to support
various modes, Field solution for TE and TM modes, Field patterns of power flow through
waveguide, Attenuation due to conductor and dielectric losses.

Page | 68
Practice
3. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Rectangular wave guide
4. Design, Simulation and Analysis of circular wave guide

## Module III: POWER DIVIDERS AND COUPLERS (13 Hours)

Theory
Basic Properties, T -Junction Power Divider, Wilkinson Power divider, Waveguide
Directional Couplers, Ferrite Isolator. Rectangular Cavities Resonator, Resonant frequencies
of Cavity Supporting dominant mode only, Dielectric resonator. Strip line and micro strip.

Practice
5. Design, Simulation and Analysis of E plane Tee, H plane Tee
6. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Magic Tee
7. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Directional Couplers
8. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Isolator and circulator

## Module IV: KLYSTRON AND REFLEX KLYSTRON (10 Hours)

Theory
Klystron: construction and operation only Reflex klystron- Principle of Operation, Velocity
Modulation, Output Power and Efficiency; Multicavity Magnetron: Principle of Operation,
Rotating Field, Π-Mode of Operation, Frequency of Oscillation, Output Power and
Efficiency; TWT - Principle of Operation as an amplifier.

Practice
9. Test bench verification and analysis of Reflex klystron characteristic

## Module V:MICROWAVE TRANSISTORS (7 Hours)

Theory
Physical structure, principles operation, applications of microwave bipolar transistor and
HBT; Operation and characteristic of Tunnel diode; Gunn Oscillator Principle and
performance and Microwave hazards

Practice
10. Test bench verification and analysis of Gunn diode characteristic
11. Design, Simulation and Analysis of microwave Transistors

## Module VI: MICROWAVE FILTERS (10 Hours)

Theory

Page | 69
Filter parameters. Filter design by image parameter method and insertion loss method.

Practice
12. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Low pass filter
13. Design, Simulation and Analysis of High pass filter
14. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Band pass filter

## Module: VII: Introduction to RADAR (13 Hours)

Theory
Basic principles, Simple RADAR systems, RADAR range equations. Power and frequencies
used in RADAR; Types of RADAR & its applications; RADAR indicators; Factors
influencing maximum range: Effects of noise, Detection of signal in noise, receiver noise and
SNR, probability of detection and false alarm, integration of radar pulses, radar cross section
of targets, PRF, system losses; MTI RADAR- Introduction, delay line cancellers, Doppler
filter banks, limitation of MTI, Staggered PRF, Pulse Doppler RADAR, Tacking with

Practice
15. Design of antenna used for Radar range equation: (Using Test Bench)

Text Books
1. D. M. Pozor, “Microwave Engineering”, 2nd Edition, John Willy & Sons
2. Merrill I Skolnik, “Introduction to RADAR System”, 3rd edition, Tata McGraw Hill

Reference Books
1. Sammuel Y, Liao, “Microwave Device and Circuit”, 3rd Edition ,Pearson Edu
2. Roger F. Harrington Fields, “Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic”, 2nd edition, John Willy
& Sons

Online Resource
NPTEL video courses on Microwave Engineering

Session Plan
Topics No. of Activity Assignment Suggested Reading
Session
s (in
hrs.)
Module I [6 hrs. Lecture+4 hrs. Practice]
Transmission 1 Lecture Assignment Text Book 1 (TB1)
LineIntroduction, history and No- 1.1 Chapter(CH)-2
application of Microwave
engineering.
Distributed circuit model for 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-2

Page | 70
a transmission line. No- 1.2
Solution of transmission line 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-2
equation No- 1.3
Field theoretic analysis of 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-2
coaxial transmission line No- 1.4
Smith chart 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-2
No- 1.5
Impedance matching 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-2
No- 1.6
Design, simulation and 2 Practice Assignment TB1 CH-2
analysis of Microstrip line No- 1.7

## Calculation of unknown 2 Practice Assignment TB1 CH-2

impedance by using test No- 1.8
bench

## Module II[11 hrs. Lecture+4 hrs. Practice]

Wave Guide 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
Wave propagation in a No- 2.1
transmission line and
Lossless transmission line.
Reflection and transmission
coefficient. Standing wave
ratio. Line impedance and
impedance.
Problems on transmission 1 Tutorials Assignment TB1 CH-3
line No- 2.2
Introduction to wave guide 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
and comparison with No- 2.3
transmission line
Maxwell’s equation analysis 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
in waveguide No- 2.4
Group velocity and phase 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
velocity in wave guide No- 2.5
Field solution for TE modes 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
in rectangular wave guide No- 2.6
Field solution for TM modes 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
in rectangular wave guide No- 2.7
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-3
Analysis of Rectangular HFSS No- 2.8
wave guide software

## Design of rectangular 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3

Page | 71
waveguide to support No- 2.9
Dominant TE10
Field solution for TE modes 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
in circular wave guide No- 2.10
Field solution for TE modes 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
in circular wave guide. No- 2.11
Design of Cylindrical
waveguide to support
dominant TE11 mode
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-3
Analysis of circular wave HFSS No- 2.12
guide software
Field patterns of power flow 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-3
through waveguide, No- 2.13
Attenuation due to conductor
and dielectric losses.
Module III[5 hrs. Lecture+ 8 hrs. Practice]
Basic properties of dividers 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-7
and couplers No-3.1
T -Junction Power Divider, 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-7
Wilkinson Power divider No- 3.2
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-7
Analysis of E plane Tee, H HFSS No- 3.3
plane Tee software
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-7
Analysis of Magic Tee HFSS No- 3.4
software
Waveguide Directional 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-7
Couplers, Ferrite Isolator No- 3.5
Rectangular Cavities 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-7
Resonator, Resonant No- 3.6
frequencies of Cavity
Supporting dominant mode
only
Dielectric resonator. Strip 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-7
line and micro strip. No- 3.7
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-7
Analysis of Directional HFSS No- 3.8
Couplers software
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-7
Analysis of Isolator and HFSS No- 3.9
circulator software
Module IV [6 hrs. Lecture+2 hrs. Practice]
Introduction to Klystron, 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12

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velocity modulation No-4.0
Reflex Klystron: principle of 2 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
operation, output power and No- 4.2
efficiency
Test bench verification and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-12
analysis of Reflex klystron Microwave No- 4.3
characteristic test bench
Multicavity Magnetron: 2 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
Principle of Operation, No- 4.4
Rotating Field
∏-mode of Operation, 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
Frequency of Oscillation. No- 4.5
TWT - Principle of Operation 2 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
as an amplifier No-4.6
Module V[5 hrs. Lecture+ 2 hrs. Practice]
Physical structure, principles 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
operation of microwave No- 5
transistor
Applications of microwave 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
bipolar transistor and HBT No- 5
Operation and characteristic 1 lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
of Tunnel diode No- 5
Gunn Oscillator Principle 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
and performance No- 5
Test bench verification and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-12
analysis of Gunn diode Microwave No- 5
characteristic test bench
Microwave hazards 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-12
No- 5
Module VI[2 hrs. Lecture+ 8 hrs. Practice]
Microwave filter parameters. 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-8
Filter design by image No-6
parameter method
Filter design by insertion loss 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH-8
method No-6
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-8
Analysis of Low pass filter HFSS No-6
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-8
Analysis of High pass filter HFSS No-6
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-8
Analysis of Band pass filter HFSS No-6
Design, Simulation and 2 Practice using Assignment TB1 CH-8
Analysis of microwave HFSS No-6
Transistors
Subtotal (Hours) 28 Assignment
No-6
Module VII [8 hrs. Lecture+ 2 hrs. Practice]
Basic principles of RADAR, 1 Lecture Assignment TB2 CH-1

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Simple RADAR systems No-6
RADAR range equations. 1 Lecture Assignment TB2 CH-1
Power and frequencies used No-6
Types of RADAR & its 1 Lecture Assignment TB2 CH-1
indicators.
Effects of noise, Detection of 1 Lecture Assignment TB2 CH-1
signal in noise, receiver noise No-6
and SNR
probability of detection and 1 Lecture Assignment TB2 CH-1
false alarm, integration of No-6
section of targets, PRF,
system losses
MTL RADAR block diagram 1 Lecture Assignment TB2 CH-1
No-6
Delay line cancellers, 1 Lecture Assignment TB2 CH-1
Doppler filter banks, No-6
limitation of MTI, Staggered
PRF
Pulse Doppler RADAR, 1 Lecture Assignment TB2 CH-1
Tacking with RADAR No-6
Design of antenna used for 2 Practice Assignment TB2 CH-1
Radar range equation No-6
Total (hrs.) 75 45 hrs.
Lecture + 30
hrs. Practice

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Antennas and Wave Propagation
Course Title Code Type of course T-P-P Prerequisite
Antennas and Wave ECCC0413 Theory & Practice 3-1-0 Nil
Propagation

Objective
 To teach the different types of antennas, antenna array and its need and applications
of the electromagnetic waves in free space.

Learning Outcome
 Students will gain knowledge of applying the fundamentals to design different types
of antennas.
 Students will develop skill of optimize the gain, other parameter and design skill of
array antenna systems from specifications.

Evaluation Systems
Internal Component % of Marks Method of Assessment
Examination Internal Theory 20 Written Examination
Internal Practice 30(20+10) Lab Work + Learning Record
External External Theory 30 Written Examination
Examination External Practice 20 Lab Work
Total 100

Course Outline

## Module I: FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS OF ANTENNA(07 Hours)

Theory
Principle of Radiation-Field & power pattern, Radiation Pattern – Isotropic, Directional and
Omni directional patterns, Radiation Patterns lobes, Field regions, radian and Steradian;
Radiation Power Density, Radiation Intensity, Beam width– FNBW & HPBW, Directivity,
Antenna Efficiency, Gain, Beam efficiency, Polarization – Linear, Circular and Elliptical

Practice
1. Analysis, Visualizations and measurement of Isotropic patterns, Directional patterns and
Omni Directional of different antennas.

## Module II:WAVE EQUATION AND DIPOLE ANTENNAS (08 Hours)

Theory
Wave equation in terms of potential functions: Vector potential A for an electric current
source J and Vector potential F for a magnetic current source M, Solution of vector potential
wave equation; Infinitesimal Dipole, half wavelength Dipole- Current distribution, Radiated
Fields, Power density and Radiation resistance, Field regions & Directivity

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Practice
2. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Dipole antenna.

## Module III: LOOP ANTENNA (07 Hours)

Theory
Current distribution, Radiated Fields, Power density and Radiation resistance, Field regions,
Directivity. Earth as perfect conductor –Image theory, vertical and horizontal electric dipole;
Ground effects –vertical and horizontal electric dipole.

Practice
3. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Small loop antenna.

## Module IV: DIFFERENT TYPES OF ANTENNAS (16 Hours)

Theory
Horn Antenna, Log periodic antenna and helical antenna, Reflector antenna: – Operation &
Design; Micro strip Antenna: – Characteristics, types, Feeding methods, Design procedure

Practice
4. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Helical antenna
5. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Horn antenna
6. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Reflector antenna
7. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Rectangular and Circular Microstrip patch antenna at
different frequencies
8. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Rectangular and Circular Microstrip patch antenna at
different frequencies
9. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Microstrip antenna for different feeding technique

Module: V ANTENNA ARRAYS ,HF, VHF AND UHF ANTENNAS (14 Hours)

Theory
Antenna Arrays: linear arrays of two element & N elements, Broadside & End fire array,
array factor; HF, VHF and UHF antennas- V-Antenna, Inverted V-Antenna, Rhombic
Antenna, Yagiuda Antenna, Whip Antenna, Turnstile Antenna, Discone Antenna, Notch
Antenna

Practice
10. Design, Simulation and Analysis of two element antenna array
11. Design, Simulation and Analysis of V and Inverted V Antenna
12. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Rhombic Antenna
13. Design, Simulation and Analysis of YagiudaAntenna
14. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Notch Antenna

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15. Design, Simulation and Analysis of Discone Antenna

## Module VI:WAVE PROPAGATION (04 Hours)

Theory
Wave Propagation – Ground Wave, Space Wave, Sky Wave; Ground Wave- Reflection of
waves by surface of earth,Tilt of wave front due to ground losses, Reflection due to
roughness of earth, earth’s behaviour at different frequencies; Space Wave Propagation-
Tropospheric Wave Propagation, Effect of imperfection of earth, curvature of earth,height
above the earth &polarization, Shadowing effect of hills & building, Atmospheric effects in
space wave & duct propagation,Fading& scattering in Troposphere, LOS

## Module VII:SKY WAVE (04 Hours)

Theory
Sky WaveStructure & characteristic of ionosphere, Effective refractive index of ionosphere,
Plasma frequency,Ionospheric propagation (reflection & refraction), characteristic Parameters
of Ionospheric propagation – virtual height, critical frequency,MUF, LUF, skip
distance,criticalangle,Impact solar activity,Fading& diversity in sky Wave.

Text Books:
1. C Balanis, “Antenna Theory Analysis and Design”, 2ndEdition, John Willey & Sons
2. J.D. Kraus, “Antenna”, 2ndEdition, TATA McGraw Hill.
3. G.S.N. Raju, “Antennas and Wave Propagation”, Person Education.

Reference Books:
1. E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balmain,”Electromagnetic Wave and Radiating Systems” 2ndEd.
PHI
2. John Griffiths and R. E. Collins, “Radio Wave Propagation and Antennas, an
Introduction” PHI International 4Antenna & Wave Propagation

Session Plan
Topic coverage and Internal Test No. of Activity Assignment Suggested
ns (in
hrs.)

## Module I [05hrs.Lecture + 02 hrs. Practice]

Fundamental parameters of Antenna 3 Lecture + Assignment Text Book
Introduction, Principle of Radiation- Practice No- 1.1 (TB1)(CH)-
Field & power pattern, Radiation 2
Pattern – Isotropic, Directional and
Omni directional patterns, Radiation

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Patterns
Field regions, radian and Steradian 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH- 2
No- 1.2
Radiation Power Density, Radiation 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH- 2
Intensity No- 1.3
Beam width – FNBW & HPBW, 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH- 2
Directivity, Antenna Efficiency, Gain No- 1.4
Polarization – Linear, Circular and 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH- 2
Elliptical Polarization No- 1.5
Module II [06 hrs. Lecture + 02 hrs. Practice]
Wave equation & Dipole 2 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH- 3
Vector potential A for an electric No- 2.1
current source J & Vector potential F
for a magnetic current source
Solution of vector potential wave 1 Lecture Assignment TB1 CH- 3
equation No- 2.2
Infinitesimal Dipole, half wavelength 5 Lecture + Assignment TB1 CH- 4
Dipole – Current distribution, Radiated Practice No- 2.3
Fields, Power density and Radiation
resistance, Field regions, Directivity
Module III[05hrs.Lecture +02hrs. Practice]
Loop Antenna&Earth as perfect 4 Lecture + Assignment TB1 CH- 5
conductor Practice No- 3.1
Current distribution, Radiated Fields,
Power density and Radiation resistance,
Field regions, Directivity
Earth as perfect conductor –Image 2 Lecture Assignment TB1CH- 5
theory, vertical and horizontal electric No- 3.1
dipole; Ground effects –vertical and
horizontal electric dipole
Module IV [04 hrs. Lecture +12hrs. Practice]
Different types antennas 8 Lecture + Assignment TB1 CH-
Horn Antenna, Log periodic antenna Practice No- 4.1 11,12,13
and helical antenna, Reflector antenna:
–Operation & Design.
Micro strip Antenna: – Characteristics, 8 Lecture + Assignment TB1 CH- 14
types, Feeding methods, Design Practice No- 4.2
procedure
Module V [04 hrs. Lecture +12hrs. Practice]
Antenna Arrays , HF, VHF and UHF 4 Lecture + Assignment TB1 CH- 6
antennas Practice No- 5.1
linear arrays of two element & N
elements, Broadside & End fire array,

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array factor
HF, VHF and UHF antennas: v- 10 Practice Assignment TB2 CH- 5
antenna, inverted v-antenna, rhombic No- 5.2
antenna, yagiuda antenna, whip
antenna, turnstile antenna, Discone
antenna, notch antenna.
Module-VI [04 hrs. Lecture]
Wave propagation 1 Lecture Assignment TB3 CH- 9
Ground Wave, Space Wave, Sky No- 6.1
Wave.
Ground Wave: – reflection of waves by 1 Lecture Assignment TB3 CH- 9
surface of earth, Tilt of wave front due No- 6.2
to ground losses, Reflection due to
roughness of earth, earth’s behavior at
different frequencies
Space Wave Propagation: – 2 Lecture Assignment TB3 CH- 9
Tropospheric Wave Propagation, Effect No- 6.3
of imperfection of earth, curvature of
earth, height above the earth
&polarization, Shadowing effect of
hills & building, Atmospheric effects in
space wave & duct propagation, Fading
& scattering in Tropospheric LOS.
Module-VII [04 hrs. Lecture]
Sky Wave 4 Lecture Assignment TB3 CH- 9
Structure & characteristic of No- 7.1
ionosphere, Effective refractive index
of ionosphere, Plasma frequency,
Ionospheric propagation (Reflection &
refraction), characteristic Parameters of
Ionospheric propagation – virtual
height, critical frequency, MUF, LUF,
skip distance, critical angle, Impact
solar activity, Fading & diversity in sky
Wave.
Total (hrs.) 60 30 hrs.
Lecture + 30
hrs. Practice

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