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Texts for Literary Theories

Handout No. 1
sought after, whom all women envy and whose "Why, my dear, I thought you would be glad. You
attention they all desire. never go out, and this is such a fine opportunity. I had
THE DIAMOND NECKLACE When she sat down to dinner, before the round table great trouble to get it. Everyone wants to go; it is very
by Guy de Maupassant covered with a tablecloth in use three days, opposite select, and they are not giving many invitations to
her husband, who uncovered the soup tureen and clerks. The whole official world will be there."
The girl was one of those pretty and charming young declared with a delighted air, "Ah, the good soup! I
creatures who sometimes are born, as if by a slip of don't know anything better than that," she thought of She looked at him with an irritated glance and said
fate, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no impatiently:
expectations, no way of being known, understood, dainty dinners, of shining silverware, of tapestry that
loved, married by any rich and distinguished man; so peopled the walls with ancient personages and with "And what do you wish me to put on my back?"
she let herself be married to a little clerk of the Ministry strange birds flying in the midst of a fairy forest; and
of Public Instruction. she thought of delicious dishes served on marvellous He had not thought of that. He stammered:
She dressed plainly because she could not dress well, plates and of the whispered gallantries to which you
but she was unhappy as if she had really fallen from a listen with a sphinxlike smile while you are eating the "Why, the gown you go to the theatre in. It looks very
higher station; since with women there is neither caste pink meat of a trout or the wings of a quail. well to me."
nor rank, for beauty, grace and charm take the place of She had no gowns, no jewels, nothing. And she loved
family and birth. Natural ingenuity, instinct for what is nothing but that. She felt made for that. She would He stopped, distracted, seeing that his wife was
elegant, a supple mind are their sole hierarchy, and have liked so much to please, to be envied, to be weeping. Two great tears ran slowly from the corners
often make of women of the people the equals of the charming, to be sought after. of her eyes toward the corners of her mouth.
very greatest ladies. She had a friend, a former schoolmate at the convent,
Mathilde suffered ceaselessly, feeling herself born to who was rich, and whom she did not like to go to see "What's the matter? What's the matter?" he answered.
enjoy all delicacies and all luxuries. She was distressed any more because she felt so sad when she came home.
at the poverty of her dwelling, at the bareness of the But one evening her husband reached home with a By a violent effort she conquered her grief and replied
walls, at the shabby chairs, the ugliness of the curtains. triumphant air and holding a large envelope in his in a calm voice, while she wiped her wet cheeks:
All those things, of which another woman of her rank hand.
would never even have been conscious, tortured her "There," said he, "there is something for you." "Nothing. Only I have no gown, and, therefore, I can't
and made her angry. The sight of the little Breton She tore the paper quickly and drew out a printed card go to this ball. Give your card to some colleague whose
peasant who did her humble housework aroused in her which bore these words: wife is better equipped than I am."
despairing regrets and bewildering dreams. She
thought of silent antechambers hung with Oriental The Minister of Public Instruction and Madame He was in despair. He resumed:
tapestry, illumined by tall bronze candelabra, and of Georges Ramponneau request the honor of M. and
two great footmen in knee breeches who sleep in the Madame Loisel's company at the palace of the Ministry "Come, let us see, Mathilde. How much would it cost,
big armchairs, made drowsy by the oppressive heat of on Monday evening, January 18th. a suitable gown, which you could use on other
the stove. She thought of long reception halls hung Instead of being delighted, as her husband had hoped, occasions--something very simple?"
with ancient silk, of the dainty cabinets containing she threw the invitation on the table crossly, muttering:
priceless curiosities and of the little coquettish She reflected several seconds, making her calculations
perfumed reception rooms made for chatting at five "What do you wish me to do with that?" and wondering also what sum she could ask without
o'clock with intimate friends, with men famous and drawing on herself an immediate refusal and a
frightened exclamation from the economical clerk.

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Texts for Literary Theories
Handout No. 1
"How stupid you are!" her husband cried. "Go look up "Why, yes, certainly."
Finally she replied hesitating: your friend, Madame Forestier, and ask her to lend you
some jewels. You're intimate enough with her to do She threw her arms round her friend's neck, kissed her
"I don't know exactly, but I think I could manage it that." passionately, then fled with her treasure.
with four hundred francs."
She uttered a cry of joy: The night of the ball arrived. Madame Loisel was a
He grew a little pale, because he was laying aside just great success. She was prettier than any other woman
that amount to buy a gun and treat himself to a little "True! I never thought of it." present, elegant, graceful, smiling and wild with joy.
shooting next summer on the plain of Nanterre, with All the men looked at her, asked her name, sought to
several friends who went to shoot larks there of a The next day she went to her friend and told her of her be introduced. All the attaches of the Cabinet wished
Sunday. distress. to waltz with her. She was remarked by the minister
But he said: Madame Forestier went to a wardrobe with a mirror,
took out a large jewel box, brought it back, opened it She danced with rapture, with passion, intoxicated by
"Very well. I will give you four hundred francs. And and said to Madame Loisel: pleasure, forgetting all in the triumph of her beauty, in
try to have a pretty gown." "Choose, my dear." the glory of her success, in a sort of cloud of happiness
comprised of all this homage, admiration, these
The day of the ball drew near and Madame Loisel She saw first some bracelets, then a pearl necklace, awakened desires and of that sense of triumph which is
seemed sad, uneasy, anxious. Her frock was ready, then a Venetian gold cross set with precious stones, of so sweet to woman's heart.
however. Her husband said to her one evening: admirable workmanship. She tried on the ornaments
before the mirror, hesitated and could not make up her She left the ball about four o'clock in the morning. Her
"What is the matter? Come, you have seemed very mind to part with them, to give them back. She kept husband had been sleeping since midnight in a little
queer these last three days." asking: deserted anteroom with three other gentlemen whose
wives were enjoying the ball.
And she answered: "Haven't you any more?"
He threw over her shoulders the wraps he had brought,
"It annoys me not to have a single piece of jewelry, not "Why, yes. Look further; I don't know what you like." the modest wraps of common life, the poverty of which
a single ornament, nothing to put on. I shall look contrasted with the elegance of the ball dress. She felt
poverty-stricken. I would almost rather not go at all." Suddenly she discovered, in a black satin box, a superb this and wished to escape so as not to be remarked by
diamond necklace, and her heart throbbed with an the other women, who were enveloping themselves in
"You might wear natural flowers," said her husband. immoderate desire. Her hands trembled as she took it. costly furs.
"They're very stylish at this time of year. For ten francs She fastened it round her throat, outside her high-
you can get two or three magnificent roses." necked waist, and was lost in ecstasy at her reflection Loisel held her back, saying: "Wait a bit. You will
in the mirror. catch cold outside. I will call a cab."
She was not convinced.
Then she asked, hesitating, filled with anxious doubt: But she did not listen to him and rapidly descended the
"No; there's nothing more humiliating than to look stairs. When they reached the street they could not find
poor among other women who are rich." "Will you lend me this, only this?" a carriage and began to look for one, shouting after the
cabmen passing at a distance.

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They went toward the Seine in despair, shivering with "Yes, probably. Did you take his number?" "We must consider how to replace that ornament."
cold. At last they found on the quay one of those
ancient night cabs which, as though they were ashamed "No. And you--didn't you notice it?" The next day they took the box that had contained it
to show their shabbiness during the day, are never seen and went to the jeweler whose name was found within.
round Paris until after dark. "No." He consulted his books.

It took them to their dwelling in the Rue des Martyrs, They looked, thunderstruck, at each other. At last "It was not I, madame, who sold that necklace; I must
and sadly they mounted the stairs to their flat. All was Loisel put on his clothes. simply have furnished the case."
ended for her. As to him, he reflected that he must be
at the ministry at ten o'clock that morning. "I shall go back on foot," said he, "over the whole Then they went from jeweler to jeweler, searching for
route, to see whether I can find it." a necklace like the other, trying to recall it, both sick
She removed her wraps before the glass so as to see with chagrin and grief.
herself once more in all her glory. But suddenly she He went out. She sat waiting on a chair in her ball
uttered a cry. She no longer had the necklace around dress, without strength to go to bed, overwhelmed, They found, in a shop at the Palais Royal, a string of
her neck! without any fire, without a thought. diamonds that seemed to them exactly like the one they
had lost. It was worth forty thousand francs. They
"What is the matter with you?" demanded her husband, Her husband returned about seven o'clock. He had could have it for thirty-six.
already half undressed. found nothing.
So they begged the jeweler not to sell it for three days
She turned distractedly toward him. He went to police headquarters, to the newspaper yet. And they made a bargain that he should buy it back
offices to offer a reward; he went to the cab companies- for thirty-four thousand francs, in case they should find
"I have--I have--I've lost Madame Forestier's -everywhere, in fact, whither he was urged by the least the lost necklace before the end of February.
necklace," she cried. spark of hope.
Loisel possessed eighteen thousand francs which his
He stood up, bewildered. She waited all day, in the same condition of mad fear father had left him. He would borrow the rest.
before this terrible calamity.
"What!--how? Impossible!" He did borrow, asking a thousand francs of one, five
Loisel returned at night with a hollow, pale face. He hundred of another, five louis here, three louis there.
They looked among the folds of her skirt, of her cloak, had discovered nothing. He gave notes, took up ruinous obligations, dealt with
in her pockets, everywhere, but did not find it. usurers and all the race of lenders. He compromised all
"You must write to your friend," said he, "that you the rest of his life, risked signing a note without even
"You're sure you had it on when you left the ball?" he have broken the clasp of her necklace and that you are knowing whether he could meet it; and, frightened by
asked. having it mended. That will give us time to turn round." the trouble yet to come, by the black misery that was
about to fall upon him, by the prospect of all the
"Yes, I felt it in the vestibule of the minister's house." She wrote at his dictation. physical privations and moral tortures that he was to
suffer, he went to get the new necklace, laying upon
"But if you had lost it in the street we should have At the end of a week they had lost all hope. Loisel, who the jeweler's counter thirty-six thousand francs.
heard it fall. It must be in the cab." had aged five years, declared:

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Texts for Literary Theories
Handout No. 1
At the end of ten years they had paid everything,
When Madame Loisel took back the necklace Madame everything, with the rates of usury and the "No. I am Mathilde Loisel."
Forestier said to her with a chilly manner: accumulations of the compound interest. Her friend uttered a cry.
"Oh, my poor Mathilde! How you are changed!"
"You should have returned it sooner; I might have Madame Loisel looked old now. She had become the
needed it." woman of impoverished households--strong and hard "Yes, I have had a pretty hard life, since I last saw you,
and rough. With frowsy hair, skirts askew and red and great poverty--and that because of you!"
She did not open the case, as her friend had so much hands, she talked loud while washing the floor with
feared. If she had detected the substitution, what would great swishes of water. But sometimes, when her "Of me! How so?"
she have thought, what would she have said? Would husband was at the office, she sat down near the
she not have taken Madame Loisel for a thief? window and she thought of that gay evening of long "Do you remember that diamond necklace you lent me
ago, of that ball where she had been so beautiful and to wear at the ministerial ball?"
Thereafter Madame Loisel knew the horrible existence so admired.
of the needy. She bore her part, however, with sudden "Yes. Well?"
heroism. That dreadful debt must be paid. She would What would have happened if she had not lost that "Well, I lost it."
pay it. They dismissed their servant; they changed their necklace? Who knows? who knows? How strange and "What do you mean? You brought it back."
lodgings; they rented a garret under the roof. changeful is life! How small a thing is needed to make
or ruin us! "I brought you back another exactly like it. And it has
She came to know what heavy housework meant and taken us ten years to pay for it. You can understand that
the odious cares of the kitchen. She washed the dishes, But one Sunday, having gone to take a walk in the it was not easy for us, for us who had nothing. At last
using her dainty fingers and rosy nails on greasy pots Champs Elysees to refresh herself after the labors of it is ended, and I am very glad."
and pans. She washed the soiled linen, the shirts and the week, she suddenly perceived a woman who was
the dishcloths, which she dried upon a line; she carried leading a child. It was Madame Forestier, still young, Madame Forestier had stopped.
the slops down to the street every morning and carried still beautiful, still charming. "You say that you bought a necklace of diamonds to
up the water, stopping for breath at every landing. And replace mine?"
dressed like a woman of the people, she went to the Madame Loisel felt moved. Should she speak to her? "Yes. You never noticed it, then! They were very
fruiterer, the grocer, the butcher, a basket on her arm, Yes, certainly. And now that she had paid, she would similar."
bargaining, meeting with impertinence, defending her tell her all about it. Why not?
miserable money, sou by sou. And she smiled with a joy that was at once proud and
She went up. ingenuous.
Every month they had to meet some notes, renew
others, obtain more time. "Good-day, Jeanne." Madame Forestier, deeply moved, took her hands.

Her husband worked evenings, making up a The other, astonished to be familiarly addressed by this "Oh, my poor Mathilde! Why, my necklace was paste!
tradesman's accounts, and late at night he often copied plain good-wife, did not recognize her at all and It was worth at most only five hundred francs!"
manuscript for five sous a page. stammered:

This life lasted ten years. "But--madame!--I do not know---- You must have

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Texts for Literary Theories
Handout No. 1
It was not Aksionov's habit to sleep late, and, wishing Suddenly the officer drew a knife out of a bag, crying,
to travel while it was still cool, he aroused his driver "Whose knife is this?"
GOD SEES THE TRUTH, BUT WAITS before dawn, and told him to put in the horses.
Leo Tolstoy Aksionov looked, and seeing a blood-stained knife
Then he made his way across to the landlord of the inn taken from his bag, he was frightened.
In the town of Vladimir lived a young merchant named (who lived in a cottage at the back), paid his bill, and
Ivan Dmitrich Aksionov. He had two shops and a continued his journey. "How is it there is blood on this knife?"
house of his own.
When he had gone about twenty-five miles, he stopped Aksionov tried to answer, but could hardly utter a
Aksionov was a handsome, fair-haired, curly-headed for the horses to be fed. Aksionov rested awhile in the word, and only stammered: "I--don't know--not mine."
fellow, full of fun, and very fond of singing. When passage of the inn, then he stepped out into the porch, Then the police-officer said: "This morning the
quite a young man he had been given to drink, and was and, ordering a samovar to be heated, got out his guitar merchant was found in bed with his throat cut. You are
riotous when he had had too much; but after he married and began to play. the only person who could have done it. The house was
he gave up drinking, except now and then. locked from inside, and no one else was there. Here is
Suddenly a troika drove up with tinkling bells and an this blood-stained knife in your bag and your face and
One summer Aksionov was going to the Nizhny Fair, official alighted, followed by two soldiers. He came to manner betray you! Tell me how you killed him, and
and as he bade good-bye to his family, his wife said to Aksionov and began to question him, asking him who how much money you stole?"
him, "Ivan Dmitrich, do not start to-day; I have had a he was and whence he came. Aksionov answered him
bad dream about you." fully, and said, "Won't you have some tea with me?" Aksionov swore he had not done it; that he had not seen
But the official went on cross-questioning him and the merchant after they had had tea together; that he
Aksionov laughed, and said, "You are afraid that when asking him. "Where did you spend last night? Were had no money except eight thousand rubles of his own,
I get to the fair I shall go on a spree." you alone, or with a fellow-merchant? Did you see the and that the knife was not his. But his voice was
other merchant this morning? Why did you leave the broken, his face pale, and he trembled with fear as
His wife replied: "I do not know what I am afraid of; inn before dawn?" though he went guilty.
all I know is that I had a bad dream. I dreamt you
returned from the town, and when you took off your Aksionov wondered why he was asked all these The police-officer ordered the soldiers to bind
cap I saw that your hair was quite grey." questions, but he described all that had happened, and Aksionov and to put him in the cart. As they tied his
then added, "Why do you cross-question me as if I feet together and flung him into the cart, Aksionov
Aksionov laughed. "That's a lucky sign," said he. "See were a thief or a robber? I am travelling on business of crossed himself and wept. His money and goods were
if I don't sell out all my goods, and bring you some my own, and there is no need to question me." taken from him, and he was sent to the nearest town
presents from the fair." and imprisoned there. Enquiries as to his character
Then the official, calling the soldiers, said, "I am the were made in Vladimir. The merchants and other
So he said good-bye to his family, and drove away. police-officer of this district, and I question you inhabitants of that town said that in former days he
because the merchant with whom you spent last night used to drink and waste his time, but that he was a good
When he had travelled half-way, he met a merchant has been found with his throat cut. We must search man. Then the trial came on: he was charged with
whom he knew, and they put up at the same inn for the your things." murdering a merchant from Ryazan, and robbing him
night. They had some tea together, and then went to of twenty thousand rubles.
bed in adjoining rooms. They entered the house. The soldiers and the police-
officer unstrapped Aksionov's luggage and searched it.

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only God can know the truth; it is to Him alone we from, and what they were sentenced for. Among the
His wife was in despair, and did not know what to must appeal, and from Him alone expect mercy." rest Aksionov sat down near the newcomers, and
believe. Her children were all quite small; one was a listened with downcast air to what was said.
baby at her breast. Taking them all with her, she went And Aksionov wrote no more petitions; gave up all
to the town where her husband was in jail. At first she hope, and only prayed to God. One of the new convicts, a tall, strong man of sixty,
was not allowed to see him; but after much begging, with a closely-cropped grey beard, was telling the
she obtained permission from the officials, and was Aksionov was condemned to be flogged and sent to the others what be had been arrested for.
taken to him. When she saw her husband in prison- mines. So he was flogged with a knot, and when the
dress and in chains, shut up with thieves and criminals, wounds made by the knot were healed, he was driven "Well, friends," he said, "I only took a horse that was
she fell down, and did not come to her senses for a long to Siberia with other convicts. tied to a sledge, and I was arrested and accused of
time. Then she drew her children to her, and sat down stealing. I said I had only taken it to get home quicker,
near him. She told him of things at home, and asked For twenty-six years Aksionov lived as a convict in and had then let it go; besides, the driver was a personal
about what had happened to him. He told her all, and Siberia. His hair turned white as snow, and his beard friend of mine. So I said, 'It's all right.' 'No,' said they,
she asked, "What can we do now?" grew long, thin, and grey. All his mirth went; he 'you stole it.' But how or where I stole it they could not
stooped; he walked slowly, spoke little, and never say. I once really did something wrong, and ought by
"We must petition the Czar not to let an innocent man laughed, but he often prayed. rights to have come here long ago, but that time I was
perish." not found out. Now I have been sent here for nothing
In prison Aksionov learnt to make boots, and earned a at all... Eh, but it's lies I'm telling you; I've been to
His wife told him that she had sent a petition to the little money, with which he bought The Lives of the Siberia before, but I did not stay long."
Czar, but it had not been accepted. Saints. He read this book when there was light enough
in the prison; and on Sundays in the prison-church he "Where are you from?" asked some one.
Aksionov did not reply, but only looked downcast. read the lessons and sang in the choir; for his voice was
still good. "From Vladimir. My family are of that town. My name
Then his wife said, "It was not for nothing I dreamt is Makar, and they also call me Semyonich."
your hair had turned grey. You remember? You should The prison authorities liked Aksionov for his
not have started that day." And passing her fingers meekness, and his fellow-prisoners respected him: Aksionov raised his head and said: "Tell me,
through his hair, she said: "Vanya dearest, tell your they called him "Grandfather," and "The Saint." When Semyonich, do you know anything of the merchants
wife the truth; was it not you who did it?" they wanted to petition the prison authorities about Aksionov of Vladimir? Are they still alive?"
anything, they always made Aksionov their
"So you, too, suspect me!" said Aksionov, and, hiding spokesman, and when there were quarrels among the "Know them? Of course I do. The Aksionovs are rich,
his face in his hands, he began to weep. Then a soldier prisoners they came to him to put things right, and to though their father is in Siberia: a sinner like ourselves,
came to say that the wife and children must go away; judge the matter. it seems! As for you, Gran'dad, how did you come
and Aksionov said good-bye to his family for the last here?"
time. No news reached Aksionov from his home, and he did
not even know if his wife and children were still alive. Aksionov did not like to speak of his misfortune. He
When they were gone, Aksionov recalled what had only sighed, and said, "For my sins I have been in
been said, and when he remembered that his wife also One day a fresh gang of convicts came to the prison. In prison these twenty-six years."
had suspected him, he said to himself, "It seems that the evening the old prisoners collected round the new
ones and asked them what towns or villages they came "What sins?" asked Makar Semyonich.

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went away. All that night Aksionov lay awake. He felt and emptying it out every day on the road when the
But Aksionov only said, "Well, well--I must have terribly unhappy, and all sorts of images rose in his prisoners were driven to their work.
deserved it!" He would have said no more, but his mind. There was the image of his wife as she was when
companions told the newcomers how Aksionov came he parted from her to go to the fair. He saw her as if "Just you keep quiet, old man, and you shall get out
to be in Siberia; how some one had killed a merchant, she were present; her face and her eyes rose before too. If you blab, they'll flog the life out of me, but I will
and had put the knife among Aksionov's things, and him; he heard her speak and laugh. Then he saw his kill you first."
Aksionov had been unjustly condemned. children, quite little, as they: were at that time: one
with a little cloak on, another at his mother's breast. Aksionov trembled with anger as he looked at his
When Makar Semyonich heard this, he looked at And then he remembered himself as he used to be- enemy. He drew his hand away, saying, "I have no
Aksionov, slapped his own knee, and exclaimed, young and merry. He remembered how he sat playing wish to escape, and you have no need to kill me; you
"Well, this is wonderful! Really wonderful! But how the guitar in the porch of the inn where he was arrested, killed me long ago! As to telling of you--I may do so
old you've grown, Gran'dad!" and how free from care he had been. He saw, in his or not, as God shall direct."
mind, the place where he was flogged, the executioner,
The others asked him why he was so surprised, and and the people standing around; the chains, the Next day, when the convicts were led out to work, the
where he had seen Aksionov before; but Makar convicts, all the twenty-six years of his prison life, and convoy soldiers noticed that one or other of the
Semyonich did not reply. He only said: "It's wonderful his premature old age. The thought of it all made him prisoners emptied some earth out of his boots. The
that we should meet here, lads!" so wretched that he was ready to kill himself. prison was searched and the tunnel found. The
Governor came and questioned all the prisoners to find
These words made Aksionov wonder whether this man "And it's all that villain's doing!" thought Aksionov. out who had dug the hole. They all denied any
knew who had killed the merchant; so he said, And his anger was so great against Makar Semyonich knowledge of it. Those who knew would not betray
"Perhaps, Semyonich, you have heard of that affair, or that he longed for vengeance, even if he himself should Makar Semyonich, knowing he would be flogged
maybe you've seen me before?" perish for it. He kept repeating prayers all night, but almost to death. At last the Governor turned to
could get no peace. During the day he did not go near Aksionov whom he knew to be a just man, and said:
"How could I help hearing? The world's full of Makar Semyonich, nor even look at him.
rumours. But it's a long time ago, and I've forgotten "You are a truthful old man; tell me, before God, who
what I heard." A fortnight passed in this way. Aksionov could not dug the hole?"
sleep at night, and was so miserable that he did not
"Perhaps you heard who killed the merchant?" asked know what to do. Makar Semyonich stood as if he were quite
Aksionov. unconcerned, looking at the Governor and not so much
One night as he was walking about the prison he as glancing at Aksionov. Aksionov's lips and hands
Makar Semyonich laughed, and replied: "It must have noticed some earth that came rolling out from under trembled, and for a long time he could not utter a word.
been him in whose bag the knife was found! If some one of the shelves on which the prisoners slept. He He thought, "Why should I screen him who ruined my
one else hid the knife there, 'He's not a thief till he's stopped to see what it was. Suddenly Makar life? Let him pay for what I have suffered. But if I tell,
caught,' as the saying is. How could any one put a knife Semyonich crept out from under the shelf, and looked they will probably flog the life out of him, and maybe
into your bag while it was under your head? It would up at Aksionov with frightened face. Aksionov tried to I suspect him wrongly. And, after all, what good would
surely have woke you up." pass without looking at him, but Makar seized his hand it be to me?"
and told him that he had dug a hole under the wall,
When Aksionov heard these words, he felt sure this getting rid of the earth by putting it into his high-boots, "Well, old man," repeated the Governor, "tell me the
was the man who had killed the merchant. He rose and truth: who has been digging under the wall?"

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"It is easy for you to talk," said Aksionov, "but I have It must be understood that neither by word nor deed
Aksionov glanced at Makar Semyonich, and said, "I suffered for you these twenty-six years. Where could I had I given Fortunato cause to doubt my good will. I
cannot say, your honour. It is not God's will that I go to now?... My wife is dead, and my children have continued, as was my in to smile in his face, and he did
should tell! Do what you like with me; I am your forgotten me. I have nowhere to go..." not perceive that my to smile now was at
hands." the thought of his immolation.
Makar Semyonich did not rise, but beat his head on the He had a weak point —this Fortunato —
However much the Governor! tried, Aksionov would floor. "Ivan Dmitrich, forgive me!" he cried. "When although in other regards he was a man to be respected
say no more, and so the matter had to be left. they flogged me with the knot it was not so hard to bear and even feared. He prided himself on
as it is to see you now ... yet you had pity on me, and his connoisseurship in wine. Few Italians have the true
That night, when Aksionov was lying on his bed and did not tell. For Christ's sake forgive me, wretch that I virtuoso spirit. For the most part their enthusiasm is
just beginning to doze, some one came quietly and sat am!" And he began to sob. adopted to suit the time and
down on his bed. He peered through the darkness and opportunity, to practise imposture upon the British and
recognised Makar. When Aksionov heard him sobbing he, too, began to Austrian millionaires. In painting and gemmary,
weep. "God will forgive you!" said he. "Maybe I am a Fortunato, like his countrymen, was a quack, but in the
"What more do you want of me?" asked Aksionov. hundred times worse than you." And at these words his matter of old wines he was sincere. In this
"Why have you come here?" heart grew light, and the longing for home left him. He respect I did not differ from him materially; —I was
no longer had any desire to leave the prison, but only skilful in the Italian vintages myself, and bought
Makar Semyonich was silent. So Aksionov sat up and hoped for his last hour to come. largely whenever I could. It was about dusk, one
said, "What do you want? Go away, or I will call the evening during the supreme madness of
guard!" In spite of what Aksionov had said, Makar Semyonich the carnival season, that I encountered my friend. He
confessed, his guilt. But when the order for his release accosted me with excessive warmth, for he had been
Makar Semyonich bent close over Aksionov, and came, Aksionov was already dead. drinking much. The man wore motley. He had on a
whispered, "Ivan Dmitrich, forgive me!" tight–fitting parti–striped dress, and his head was
surmounted by the conical cap and bells. I was so
"What for?" asked Aksionov. THE CASK OF AMONTILLADO. pleased to see him that I thought I should never have
by Edgar Allan Poe done wringing his hand.
"It was I who killed the merchant and hid the knife I said to him —”My dear Fortunato, you are
among your things. I meant to kill you too, but I heard THE thousand injuries of Fortunato I had luckily met. How remarkably well you are looking to–
a noise outside, so I hid the knife in your bag and borne as I best could,but when he ventured upon insult day. But I have received a pipe of what passes for
escaped out of the window." I vowed revenge. You, who so well know the nature of Amontillado, and I have my doubts.”
my soul, will not suppose, however, that gave utterance “How?” said he. “Amontillado, A pipe? Impossible!
Aksionov was silent, and did not know what to say. to a threat. At length I would be avenged; this was a
Makar Semyonich slid off the bed-shelf and knelt upon point definitely, settled —but the very definitiveness And in the middle of the carnival!”
the ground. "Ivan Dmitrich," said he, "forgive me! For with which it was resolved “I have my doubts,” I replied; “and I was silly enough
the love of God, forgive me! I will confess that it was precluded the idea of risk. I must not only punish but to pay the full Amontillado price without consulting
I who killed the merchant, and you will be released and punish with impunity. A wrong is unredressed when you in the matter. You were not to be found, and I was
can go to your home." retribution overtakes its redresser. It is equally fearful of losing a bargain.”
unredressed when the avenger fails to make himself “Amontillado!”
felt as such to him who has done the wrong. “I have my doubts.”

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to be cautious as he followed. We came at length to the “The Montresors,” I replied, “were a great and
“Amontillado!” foot of the descent, and stood together upon the damp numerous family.”
“And I must satisfy them.” ground of the catacombs of the Montresors. The gait of “I forget your arms.”
“Amontillado!” my friend was unsteady, and the bells upon his cap “A huge human foot d’or, in a field azure; the foot
“As you are engaged, I am on my way to Luchesi. If jingled as he strode. crushes a serpent
any one has a critical turn it is he. He will tell me —” “The pipe,” he said. rampant whose fangs are imbedded in the heel.”
“Luchesi cannot tell Amontillado from Sherry.” “It is farther on,” said I; “but observe the white web– “And the motto?”
“And yet some fools will have it that his taste is a work which gleams from these cavern walls.” “Nemo me impune lacessit.”
match for your own. He turned towards me, and looked into my eves with “Good!” he said.
“Come, let us go.” two filmy orbs that distilled the rheum of intoxication. The wine sparkled in his eyes and the bells jingled. My
“Whither?” “Nitre?” he asked, at length. own fancy grew warm with the Medoc. We had passed
“To your vaults.” “Nitre,” I replied. “How long have you had that through long walls of piled skeletons, with casks and
“My friend, no; I will not impose upon your good cough?” puncheons intermingling, into the inmost
nature. I perceive you have an engagement. Luchresi— “Ugh! ugh! ugh! —ugh! ugh! ugh! —ugh! ugh! ugh! recesses of the catacombs. I paused again, and this time
” —ugh! ugh! ugh! —ugh! ugh! ugh!” I made bold to seize Fortunato by an arm above the
“I have no engagement; —come.” My poor friend found it impossible to reply for many elbow.
“My friend, no. It is not the engagement, but the severe minutes. “The nitre!” I said; “see, it increases. It hangs like moss
cold with which I perceive you are afflicted. The vaults “It is nothing,” he said, at last. upon the vaults. We are below the river’s bed. The
are insufferably damp. “Come,” I said, with decision, “we will go back; your drops of moisture trickle among the bones. Come, we
They are encrusted with nitre.” “Let us go, health is precious. You are rich, respected, admired, will go back ere it is too late.
nevertheless. The cold is merely nothing. Amontillado! beloved; you are happy, as once I was. You are a man Your cough —”
You have been imposed upon. And as for Luchresi, he to be missed. For me it is no matter. We will go “It is nothing,” he said; “let us go on. But first, another
cannot distinguish Sherry from Amontillado.” back; you will be ill, and I cannot be responsible. draught of the Medoc.”
Thus speaking, Fortunato possessed himself Besides, there is Luchesi —” I broke and reached him a flagon of De Grave. He
of my arm; and putting on a mask of black silk and “Enough,” he said; “the cough’s a mere nothing; it will emptied it at a breath. His eyes flashed with a fierce
drawing a roquelaire closely about my person, I not kill me. I shall not die of a cough.” light. He laughed and threw the bottle upwards with a
suffered him to hurry me to my palazzo. “True —true,” I replied; “and, indeed, I had no gesticulation I did not understand. I looked at him in
There were no attendants at home; they had absconded intention of alarming you unnecessarily —but you surprise. He repeated the movement —a grotesque one.
to make merry in honour of the time. I had told them should use all proper caution. A draught of this Medoc “You do not comprehend?” he said.
that I should not return until the morning, and had will defend us from the damps. Here I knocked off the “Not I,” I replied.
given them explicit orders not to stir from the house. neck of a bottle which I drew from a long row of its “Then you are not of the brotherhood.”
These orders were sufficient, I well knew, to insure fellows that lay upon the mould. “How?”
their immediate disappearance, one and all, as soon as “Drink,” I said, presenting him the wine. “You are not of the masons.”
my back was turned. He raised it to his lips with a leer. He paused and “Yes, yes,” I said; “yes, yes.”
I took from their sconces two flambeaux, and nodded to me familiarly, while his bells jingled. “You? Impossible! A mason?”
giving one to Fortunato, bowed him through several “I drink,” he said, “to the buried that repose around us.” “A mason,” I replied.
suites of rooms to the archway that led into “And I to your long life.” “A sign,” he said, “a sign.”
the vaults. I passed down a long and winding staircase, He again took my arm, and we proceeded. “It is this,” I answered, producing from beneath the
requesting him “These vaults,” he said, “are extensive.” folds of my roquelaire a trowel.

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from each other about two feet, horizontally. From one throat of the chained form, seemed to thrust me
“You jest,” he exclaimed, recoiling a few paces. “But of these depended a short chain, from the other a violently back. For a brief moment I hesitated, I
let us proceed to the Amontillado.” padlock. Throwing the links about his waist, it was but trembled. Unsheathing my rapier, I began to grope
“Be it so,” I said, replacing the tool beneath the cloak the work of a few seconds to secure it. He was too with it about the recess; but the thought of an instant
and again offering him my arm. He leaned upon it much astounded to resist. Withdrawing the key I reassured me. I placed my hand upon the solid fabric
heavily. We continued our route in search of the stepped back from the recess. of the catacombs, and felt satisfied. I reapproached the
Amontillado. We passed through a range of low “Pass your hand,” I said, “over the wall; you cannot wall; I replied to the yells of him who clamoured. I re–
arches, descended, passed on, and descending again, help feeling the nitre. Indeed, it is very damp. Once echoed, I aided, I surpassed them in volume and in
arrived at a deep crypt, in which the foulness of the air more let me implore you to return. strength. I did this, and the clamourer grew still. It was
caused our flambeaux rather to glow than flame. At the No? Then I must positively leave you. But I must first now midnight, and my task was drawing to a close. I
most remote end of the crypt there appeared another render you all the little attentions in my power.” had completed the eighth, the ninth and the tenth tier. I
less spacious. Its walls had been lined with human “The Amontillado!” ejaculated my friend, not yet had finished a
remains, piled to the vault overhead, in the fashion of recovered from his astonishment. portion of the last and the eleventh; there remained but
the great catacombs of Paris. “True,” I replied; “the Amontillado.” a single stone to be fitted and plastered in. I struggled
Three sides of this interior crypt were still ornamented As I said these words I busied myself among the pile with its weight; I placed it partially in its destined
in this manner. From the fourth side the bones had been of bones of which I have before spoken. Throwing position. But now there came from out the
thrown down, and lay promiscuously upon the earth, them aside, I soon uncovered a quantity of building niche a low laugh that erected the hairs upon my head.
forming at one point a mound of some size. Within the stone and mortar. With these materials and with It was succeeded by a sad voice, which I had difficulty
wall thus exposed by the displacing of the bones, we the aid of my trowel, I began vigorously to wall up the in recognizing as that of the noble Fortunato.
perceived a still interior crypt or recess, in depth about entrance of the The voice said— “Ha! ha! ha! —he! he! he!
four feet, in width three, in height six or seven. It niche. —a very good joke, indeed —an excellent jest. We will
seemed to have been constructed for no especial use I had scarcely laid the first tier of the masonry have many a rich laugh about it at the palazzo —he!
within itself, but formed merely the interval between when I discovered that the intoxication of Fortunato he! he! —over our wine —he! he! he!”
two had in a great measure worn off. The earliest indication “The Amontillado!” I said. “He! he! he! —he! he! he!
of the colossal supports of the roof of the catacombs, I had of this was a low moaning cry from the depth of —yes, the Amontillado. But is it not getting late? Will
and was backed by one of their circumscribing walls of the recess. It was not the cry of a drunken man. There not they be awaiting us at the palazzo, the Lady
solid granite. It was in vain that Fortunato, uplifting his was then a long and obstinate silence. I laid the second Fortunato and the rest? Let us be gone.”
dull torch, endeavoured tier, and the third, and the fourth; and then I heard the “Yes,” I said, “let us be gone.”
to pry into the depth of the recess. Its termination the furious vibrations of the chain. The noise lasted for “For the love of God, Montresor!”
feeble light did not enable us to see. several minutes, during which, that I might hearken to “Yes,” I said, “for the love of God!”
“Proceed,” I said; “herein is the Amontillado. As for it with the more satisfaction, I ceased my labours and But to these words I hearkened in vain for a reply. I
Luchresi —” sat down upon the bones. grew impatient.
“He is an ignoramus,” interrupted my friend, as he When at last the clanking subsided, I resumed I called aloud —
stepped un steadily forward, while I followed the trowel, and finished without interruption the fifth, “Fortunato!”
immediately at his heels. In niche, and finding an the sixth, and the seventh tier. The wall was now nearly No answer. I called again —
instant he had reached the extremity of the niche, and upon a level with my breast. I again paused, and “Fortunato!”
finding his progress arrested by the rock, stood stupidly holding the flambeaux over the mason–work, threw a No answer still. I thrust a torch through the remaining
bewildered. A moment more and I had fettered him to few feeble rays upon the figure within. A succession of aperture and let it fall within. There came forth in
the granite. In its surface were two iron staples, distant loud and shrill screams, bursting suddenly from the return only a jingling of the bells. My heart grew sick;

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Children who did not specially want it to happen, We passed the Fields of Gazing Grain –
it was the dampness of the catacombs that made it so. skating We passed the Setting Sun –
I hastened to make an end of my labour. I forced the On a pond at the edge of the wood:
last stone into its position; I plastered it up. Against the They never forgot Or rather – He passed us –
new masonry I re– That even the dreadful martyrdom must run its course The Dews drew quivering and chill –
erected the old rampart of bones. For the half of a Anyhow in a corner, some untidy spot For only Gossamer, my Gown –
century no mortal has disturbed them. In pace Where the dogs go on with their doggy life and the My Tippet – only Tulle –
requiescat! torturer's horse
Scratches its innocent behind on a tree. We paused before a House that seemed
A Swelling of the Ground –
AUNT JENNIFER'S TIGERS In Breughel's Icarus, for instance: how everything The Roof was scarcely visible –
By Adrienne Rich turns away The Cornice – in the Ground –
Quite leisurely from the disaster; the ploughman may
Aunt Jennifer's tigers prance across a screen, Have heard the splash, the forsaken cry, Since then – 'tis Centuries – and yet
Bright topaz denizens of a world of green. But for him it was not an important failure; the sun Feels shorter than the Day
They do not fear the men beneath the tree; shone I first surmised the Horses' Heads
They pace in sleek chivalric certainty. As it had to on the white legs disappearing into the Were toward Eternity –
Aunt Jennifer's fingers fluttering through her wool Water; and the expensive delicate ship that must have OLD MAID WALKING ON A CITY STREET
Find even the ivory needle hard to pull. seen By Angela Manalang-Gloria
The massive weight of Uncle's wedding band Something amazing, a boy falling out of the sky,
Sits heavily upon Aunt Jennifer's hand. had somewhere to get to and sailed calmly on. She had a way of walking through concupiscence
And past the graces her fingers never twirled:
When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie Because her mind refused the heavy burden,
Still ringed with ordeals she was mastered by. BECAUSE I COULD NOT STOP FOR DEATH Her broad feet shovelled up the world.
The tigers in the panel that she made by Emily Dickinson
Will go on prancing, proud and unafraid. QUERIDA
Because I could not stop for Death – By Angela Manalang-Gloria
MUSÉE DES BEAUX ARTS He kindly stopped for me –
By W.H. Auden The Carriage held but just Ourselves – The door is closed, the curtains drawn within
And Immortality. One room, a brilliant question mark of light...
About suffering they were never wrong, Outside her gate an empty limousine
The Old Masters; how well, they understood We slowly drove – He knew no haste Waits in the brimming emptiness of night.
Its human position; how it takes place And I had put away
While someone else is eating or opening a window or My labor and my leisure too,
just walking dully along; For His Civility –
How, when the aged are reverently, passionately
waiting We passed the School, where Children strove
For the miraculous birth, there always must be At Recess – in the Ring –

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Texts for Literary Theories
Handout No. 1
BONSAI by Paolo Manalo Paolo Manalo
by Edith L. Tiempo
1. I’m like tripping right now I have suitcase fever. 1 See cell yeah, who bought
All that I love 2 Who bad, sew cat cut
I fold over once 2. Dude, man, pare, three people can be the same. 3 A one, mass a rough
And once again
4 He mass in. Moo
And keep in a box 3. Except he’s not who he says he is, pare. He’s a
5 Comma put la, seek
Or a slit in a hollow post sneeze with Chinese blood: Ha Ching!
6 Moo rah mass socket
Or in my shoe.
4. Naman, it’s like our Tagalog accent, so they won’t 7 The hill doom ooh do
All that I love? think we’re all airs; so much weight it means nothing 8 Wall doom ooh do wall
Why, yes, but for the moment- naman. 9 Pay roe Hindi boon tease
And for all time, both.
Something that folds and keeps easy, 5. Dude, man, pare, at the next stop we’ll make BULIMIA
Son's note or Dad's one gaudy tie, buwelta. So they can see we know how to look where
A roto picture of a queen, we came from. (translation)
A blue Indian shawl, even
A money bill. 6. It’s hirap kaya to find a connection. Who ba’s Si Celia, hubo’t
It's utter sublimation, puwede to be our guide? Hubad, suka’t kat-
A feat, this heart's control Awan, masarap
Moment to moment 7. Dude, man, can you make this areglo naman?
To scale all love down Himasin mo
To a cupped hand's size 8. Make it pabalot kaya in the mall. So they can’t guess Ko maputla, sik-
what you’re thinking. That’s what I call a package deal. Mura masaket
Till seashells are broken pieces
From God's own bright teeth, 9. Who says ’coz should be shot. Dahil dumudu-
And life and love are real Wal dumuduwal
Things you can run and 10. Only kolehiyalas make tusok the fishballs. Us guys, Pero hindi buntis.
Breathless hand over dude, pare, we make them tuhog.
To the merest child.

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Handout No. 1
If he is a devil, a saint PAKSIW NA AYUNGIN
BREAKING THROUGH With a staff to his fork ni Jose F. Lacaba
Myrna Pena Reyes And his horns a crown.
I hope my contrast Ganito ang pagkain
Haltingly I undo the knots To make nil ng paksiw na ayungin:
around your parcel that came this morning. Our old resemblance to each other bunutin ang palikpik
A small box should require little labor, And my twin will walk me out (para sa pusa iyan
but you’ve always been thorough, Without a frown at ang matirang tinik),
trying things tight and well. Pretending I am another. at ilapit sa labi
The twine lengthens, When my Father comes ang ulo, at sipsipin
curls beside the box. Make me one so like ang mga matang dilat;
I see your fingers bind and pull, His child once eating his white bread in trance pagkatapos ay mismong
snapping the knots into place Philomela before she was raped. I hope by likeness ang ulo ang sipsipin
(once your belt slapped sharply against my skin). To make him believe this is the same kind hanggang sa maubos ang
You hoped the package would hold its shape The chaste face he made, katas nito.
across 10,000 miles of ocean. And my blind Lear will walk me out Saka mo
It’s not a bride’s superstition Without a word umpisahan ang laman.
that leaves the scissors in the drawer. Fearing to peer behind.
Unraveling what you’ve done with love If my lover comes Unti-unti lang, dahan-
I practice more than patience Yes, when my Seducer comes dahan, at simutin nang
a kind of thoroughness Make me the face husto--kokonti iyang
I couldn’t see before. That will in color race ulam natin, mahirap
I shall not let it pass. The carnival stars humagilap ng ulam.
My father, this undoing is And change in shape Damihan mo ang kanin,
what binds us. Under his grasping hands. paglawain sa sabaw.
Make it bloody At huwag kang maangal.
When he needs it white Payat man ang ayungin,
ORDER FOR MASKS Make it wicked in the dark pabigat din sa tiyan.
Virginia R. Moreno Let him find no old mark
Make it stone to his suave touch
To this harlequinade This magician will walk me out
I wear a black tights and a fool’s cap Newly loved.
Billiken, make me three bright masks Not knowing why my tantalizing face
For the three tasks in my life. Is strangely like the mangled parts of a face
Three faces to wear He once wiped out.
One after the other Make me three masks.
For the three men in my life.
When my Brother comes
Make me one opposite

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