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N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

STANDARDS

 

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

 

REV: 01 PAGE: 1 OF 21

 

REVISION

O1

02

03

04

05

DATE

7/08/02

ORIG BY

H Sweeney

APP BY

H Sweeney

QA REVIEW:

 

ENGINEERING STANDARD

ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

CONTENTS

Issued

for

ITB

SECTION

SUBJECT

1.

SCOPE

2.

REFERENCES

2.1.

Foster Wheeler Standards

2.2.

National/International Standards

3.

GENERAL

4.

SELECTION OF ANCHOR BOLTS TYPES

4.1.

Types A and B

4.2.

Type C

4.3.

Type D

4.4.

Type E

4.5.

Type F

5.

BOLTS WITH TWO NUTS

6.

BOLTS WITH ONE NUT

7.

SPECIAL ANCHOR BOLTS

7.1.

Large Diameters

7.2.

Low Temperature

7.3.

High Strength Bolts

7.4.

Chemical Attack

7.5.

Marine Installations

8.

CORROSION ALLOWANCE FOR BOLTS

9.

BOLT PROJECTION

10.

USE OF STANDARD ANCHOR BOLT SCHEDULES

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

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N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

11.

BOLT DIAMETERS

12.

PLINTH EDGE DISTANCES

13.

ANCHOR BOLTS IN PLINTHS

14.

MINIMUM SPACING OF ANCHOR BOLTS

15.

CONSTRUCTION NOTES FOR LOCATION AND TOLERANCE OF ANCHOR BOLTS

16.

PARAMETERS FOR DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLTS

16.1.

Bolts Type A and B

16.2.

Bolt Type C

16.3.

Bolt Type D

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

STANDARDS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

REV: 01 PAGE: 3 OF 21

1.

SCOPE

This Standard shall be used for the selection and design of anchor bolts and fixings for equipment and structural steelwork applications to process plants and their attendant facilities.

The CONTRACTOR shall develop a set of specific anchor bolt details and capacity charts based on the principles and design standards defined in this Project Standard, for use by himself, his Suppliers and Sub-Contractors to select appropriate bolts for each situation.

The CONTRACTOR may, where he deems necessary develop alternative embedment anchorage details, where this simplifies their fabrication or use. This shall be subject to review by GULF FARABI

2.

REFERENCES

Anchor bolts and fixings shall conform to the following Standards and Codes of Practice: current at time of Contract Placement. Where conflict exists between Standards and Codes of Practice, the CONTRACTOR shall seek clarification from GULF FARABI before proceeding. In general the most stringent shall govern.

2.1. Foster Wheeler Standards

16940-00-SP-401

16940-00-SP-402

Wind & Earthquake Loading

Design Loadings for Buildings, Equipment, Structures and Buildings

16940-00-SP-407- Design of Concrete Foundations, Structures and Paving

16940-00-SP-409

16940-00-SP-412

16940-00-SP-416

and

Supporting Machinery

Foundations

Structures

Grouting Materials and Workmanship

Structural Steelwork Design

2.2. National/International Standards

ACI 318M

Building

Reinforced Concrete

Code

Requirements

for

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

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N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

AISC

Manual of Steel Construction Allowable Stress Design

ACI 349

Nuclear Safety Structures Code

 

ASTM A153

Zinc

Coating

(Hot

Dip)

on

Iron

and

Steel Hardware

 

ASTM A36

Specification

 

for

Carbon

Structural

Steel

ASTM A307

Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs 60000 psi Tensile

BS 449

The

use

of

Structural

Steel

in

Buildings: Part 2 Metric Units

BS 3643

ISO Metric Screw Threads

 

: Part 1

Principles and Basic Data

: Part 2

Specification for Selected Limits of size

BS 4190

ISO Metric Black hexagon Bolts, Screws and Nuts

BS 4320

Specification for Metal Washers for General Engineering Purposes (Metric Series)

BS 4466

Bending

Dimension

 

for

the

Reinforcement of Concrete

 

BS 5135

Arc Welding of Carbon and Carbon Manganese Steels

BSEN 10025

Hot Rolled Products of Non-alloy Structural Steels and their Technical Delivery Conditions

BSEN 10027

Designation Systems for Steel

 

Part 1

Steel Names, Principal Symbols

Part 2

Steel Numbers

 

ISO 261

General Purpose Metric Screw Threads - General Plan

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

STANDARDS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

REV: 01 PAGE: 5 OF 21

 

ISO 724

ISO Metric Screw Dimensions

Threads -

Basic

Additional reference shall be made to ASCE Publication “Design of Anchor Bolts for Petrochemical Facilities”.

3.

GENERAL

Plant equipment and steel structures are subjected to wind, thermal or vibratory forces, which may produce tension, and shear on the foundation anchor bolts and these must be securely anchored to their foundations with adequate factors of safety.

Anchor bolts are not designed to be pretensioned unless noted otherwise on the detail drawings. Nuts shall be tightened to a "snug fit" and then locked with a lock nut where specified on the detail drawings.

The safe working loads and the range of bolt lengths given in this standard are for Bid purposes only and GULF FARABI does not

accept any responsibility for their validity under actual design load combinations. The CONTRACTOR shall establish all the safe working loads and bolt length under each condition of loading

based on "The Parameters for Design of HD Bolts". Section 16.0).

(Refer to

4.

SELECTION OF ANCHOR BOLTS TYPES

 

The following shall be used as a guide to the selection of anchor bolt types:

4.1. Types A and B

All plant equipment including vertical towers, process columns, horizontal drums, exchangers, pumps, steel structures, platforms, minor equipment and pipe supports requiring bolts 42mm diameter or smaller.

4.2. Type C

Compressors and all as for Types A and B, but for use where larger location tolerances are required.

4.3. Type D

Vertical towers, process columns, and horizontal drums requiring bolts 48mm dia. or larger.

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

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PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

4.4.

Type E

 

As an alternative to Type A & B bolts resin anchor fixings may be used for pumps and minor equipment subject to vibration and drilled in expanding anchor fixings maybe used for minor equipment not subject to vibration, pipe supports, platforms and

 

stairs.

In all cases where Type E bolts are used there must be a

 

minimum 100mm high plinth below the base plate in addition to

the thickness of paving.

 

4.5.

Type F

 

All as for type A, B and C where significant or repetitive tension loads are envisaged, but location tolerances are controlled by using robust precise templates to equipment items supplied by equipment supplier. Where necessary, for large bolt assemblies, top and bottom templates shall be obtained from the equipment supplier. This is particularly relevant where bolts are located on a circle.

5.

BOLTS WITH TWO NUTS

 

Bolts with two nuts shall be used under the following conditions:

All bolts designed to take tension

Steel section bases designed as fixed bases

Vertical towers and columns

Sliding ends for exchangers and horizontal drums

Vibrating Equipment

6.

BOLTS WITH ONE NUT

 

Bolts

with

one

nut

shall

be

used

under

the

following

conditions:

 

Fixed ends for exchangers and horizontal drums with no uplift.

Steel stanchion bases with no uplift

 

Non-vibrating equipment

 

Tanks and drums with no uplift

 

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

STANDARDS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

REV: 01 PAGE: 7 OF 21

7.

SPECIAL ANCHOR BOLTS

Special anchor bolts are defined as follows:

7.1. Large Diameters

Bolt Types A, B and C which require a larger diameter than 42mm shall be designed as a specific.

Bolt Type D greater than 64mm diameter shall be designed as a specific.

7.2. Low Temperature

Bolts

temperatures shall be designed as specific using steel grades specified below:

subject to cold service minimum

up

to

64mm

dia.

Down to -20 C

BSEN 10025 Grade S275J2G3 or equivalent grade to ASTM A36 with minimum Charpy V-notch impact test value of 27 Joules at -20 o C.

7.3. High Strength Bolts

High strength steel bolts may be used provided that the bolts will not be damaged prior to or during erection. These bolts should only be considered where large diameter bolts are required to resist high tensions and shears and shall be designed as a specific.

7.4. Chemical Attack

Where there is a high risk of the bolt being subject to chemical attack, the use of other steel shall be considered and designed as a specific.

7.5. Marine Installations

For marine installations where bolts, washers and nuts are exposed to a corrosive atmosphere they shall be galvanised or other steel shall be considered and designed as a specific.

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

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PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

8.

CORROSION ALLOWANCE FOR BOLTS

The following corrosion allowance shall be made for design of anchor bolts in tension and shear:

Tension:

the effective tensile stress diameter shall be reduced by 3mm

Shear:

the nominal bolt diameter shall be reduced by 3mm

9.

BOLT PROJECTION

Bolt projection (P) above structural concrete shall be calculated as follows:

Projection P

t + b + (n + 0.5)d. + (50mm for bolts > 36mm diameter to allow for taper)

Where

t

thickness of grout

b

thickness of baseplate or frame

n

number of nuts

d

diameter of bolt

0.5

allowance for one washer and a small projection beyond the nuts.

10. USE OF STANDARD ANCHOR BOLT SCHEDULES

The CONTRACTOR shall provide standard anchor bolt schedules for use on the project.

Anchor bolts shall be designated on the drawings and the Anchor Bolt Material Requisition e.g. A243/2. The letter indicates the

type of bolt, the first two digits of the number denote the bolt

diameter in millimetres and the

identification number. The oblique stroke and the suffix '2' indicate that two nuts are required. Construction drawings shall call up the bolts to the appropriate designation and shall state the required projection above the top of structural concrete level.

last digit

denotes the bolt

STANDARDS

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

PART V SECT 2.5

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REV: 01 PAGE: 9 OF 21

11.

BOLT DIAMETERS

The diameter of anchor bolts shall be designed in accordance with Section 16.0 of this Standard, or obtained from equipment and structural drawings, provided that it is checked that they have been designed to the same design parameters. The minimum bolt diameter to be used for vertical vessels/columns shall be 30mm.

Where equipment drawings show only the size of the hole in the base plate, the bolt diameter shall be agreed with the equipment supplier.

Anchor bolts greater than 80mm diameter and less than 16mm diameter (except Type E) shall not be used.

Anchor bolts greater than 42mm diameter shall conform to the following standard range only:

48mm

56mm

64mm

72mm

80mm

12.

PLINTH EDGE DISTANCES

12.1.

Minimum distance from the centre line of bolt to edge of concrete plinth shall be as follows:

Up to and including

20 mm dia. = 125 mm

24

mm dia. = 150 mm

30

mm dia. = 160 mm

36

mm dia. = 180 mm

42

mm dia. = 210 mm

48

mm dia. = 240 mm

56

mm dia. = 280 mm

64

mm dia. = 320 mm

PART V SECT 2.5

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PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

12.2.

Bolt edge distance for compressors shall not be less than 150 mm.

12.3.

Minimum distance from edge of baseplate to edge of concrete shall be as follows:

Base plates up to and including 500 mm width = 50 mm

Base plates greater than 500 mm width = 75 mm.

The minimum plinth width dimension shall be calculated from the worst case of Clauses 12.1, 12.2 and 12.3 above.

13.

ANCHOR BOLTS IN PLINTHS

 

Adequate vertical reinforcement shall be provided in plinths and shall have sufficient anchorage above and below the bottom of the

bolt to transfer tension from the bolts and anchor the plinth to the foundation. When the anchor bolts project below the plinth into the foundation, then consideration shall be made, where practical

to

fully anchoring the bolts with the minimum required embedment

length into the foundation,

and

providing only normal

reinforcement in the plinth.

This must be clearly shown on the

detail drawing.

 

14.

MINIMUM SPACING OF ANCHOR BOLTS

Vertical towers, columns and drums shall have a bolt spacing not less than 6 x bolt diameter.

Horizontal drums, exchangers and structural steelwork shall have bolt spacings not less than 4 x bolt diameter.

15.

CONSTRUCTION NOTES FOR LOCATION AND TOLERANCE OF ANCHOR BOLTS

A template of a suitably robust material shall be provided to locate the anchor bolts in their correct position and alignment. This is

particularly relevant when bolts are located on a circle. Fixing the

position

reinforcement is not allowed.

of

anchor

bolts

by

welding

sleeves or bolts to

Bolt Types A, B and F provide no allowances for setting out or location tolerance.

STANDARDS

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

REV: 01 PAGE: 11 OF 21

Bolt Type C provided limited tolerance by the bolt being aligned within the tube.

The portion of the anchor bolt projecting above the top of the structural concrete level shall be protected from corrosion by densotape, or similar, prior to erection of equipment or steelwork.

Bolt Type D bolt box is to be located centrally on the bolt circle

diameter (BCD)

tangential to the BCD. Anchor bolts are to be removed and the bolt box plugged before fixing the bolt box rigidly in position and placing concrete. Tolerance is provided along the BCD within the length of the slot in the washer plate, and can be tilted slightly normal to the BCD. Bolt type F shall also be debonded along its length cast within the concrete.

with the

long side

of

the washer plate slot

Bolt Types C & D shall be debonded along their length within the tube and up to the underside of the baseplate to ensure that the induced load is transferred to the foundation via the washer plate. Bolt type F shall also be debonded along its length cast within the concrete.

16. PARAMETERS FOR DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLTS

Use bolt materials of the following steel BS EN 10025 grade or equivalent grades ASTM A36 for temperatures down to 0 C:

Bolts Type A, B, & C up to and including

42 mm dia.

Bolts Type A, B & C greater than 42 mm dia.

Bolts Type D for all diameters

Grade S275J0

Grade S275J2G3

Grade S275J2G3

Bolts subject to temperatures below 0 0 C shall be considered a "Special Anchor Bolt" (Refer to Clause 7.2).

Threads shall be ISO Metric screw threads, coarse series, free fit. Bolts greater than 64 diameter to have constant 6 mm pitch.

Maximum allowable stresses shall be as follows:

Maximum tensile stress

120N/mm 2

Maximum shear stress

80N/mm 2

No increase in stresses will be allowed for wind loading.

PART V SECT 2.5

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N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

For tall structures where the predominant load is wind, consideration should be given to post tensioning the foundation bolts. Where bolts are post tensioned the appropriate Grades of steel shall be used.

To allow for combined tension and shear the tables and graphs (Refer Appendix A and B) indicate the permissible loads.

For design of maximum tensile capacity the effective tensile stress diameter has been reduced by 3mm to allow for corrosion in accordance with Section 8.0 of this Standard.

For design of maximum shear capacity the nominal bolt diameter has been reduced by 3mm to allow for corrosion in accordance with Section 8.0 of this Standard.

All tabulated loads are working loads.

All concrete design and stresses to ACI 318 using concrete with a specified cylinder strength of 25 MPa (20/N/mm 2 ).

Tensile loads shall be increased by factors commensurate with the relevant load case in accordance with ACI 318.

The ultimate horizontal shear force on the anchor bolt shall be resisted by the horizontal bearing of the bolt on the concrete. In the case of bolts Type A and B the depth of the bolt within the pocket, if provided, shall be included in the determination of the bearing resistance. In the case of bolts Type C the depth of the bolt within the tube shall be used in the determination of the bearing resistance.

16.1. Bolts Type A and B

Ultimate loads are resisted by bond excluding the length within the pocket if provided. Embedment lengths are to be designed in accordance with ACI 318. Ultimate anchorage bond stress shall not exceed 1.4N/mm 2 .

16.2. Bolt Type C

Ultimate loads are resisted by the shear cone through the concrete from the washer plate bearing on the concrete.

The critical shear perimeter is to be designed in accordance with ACI 318, design concrete shear stress shall not exceed 0.35N/mm 2 . To allow for close grouping of bolts the perimeter calculated in accordance with ACI 318 shall be reduced to one eighth of that calculated.

STANDARDS

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

PART V SECT 2.5

16940-00-SP-403

REV: 01 PAGE: 13 OF 21

In plinths where the washer plate is within the height of the plinth and the faces of the plinth are inside the shear perimeter, then reinforcement shall be provided above and below the point where the shear line crosses the reinforcement for full anchorage bond length.

16.3. Bolt Type D

Ultimate loads shall be designed to be resisted by:

The shear cone through the concrete from the washer plate bearing on the concrete for a bolt spacing greater than 10 x bolt diameter.

The shear from the concrete taken by the plinth reinforcement for a bolt spacing between 10 x bolt diameter and 6 x bolt diameter.

The critical shear perimeter shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318, design concrete shear stress shall not exceed

0.35N/mm 2 .

calculated in accordance with ACI 318 shall be reduced for bolt spacing of 10 x bolt diameter. In plinths where the washer plate is within the height of the plinth and the face of the plinth is inside the shear perimeter, then reinforcement shall be provided above and below the point where the shear line crosses the reinforcement for full anchorage bond length.

To allow for close grouping of bolts the perimeter

For

diameter the embedment depth of the washer plate, shown in the standard Anchor Bolt Type D Table is insufficient to resist the ultimate load purely by shear on the concrete and the ultimate load must be transferred to the plinth reinforcement. Provide, as a minimum, the following deformed high yield reinforcement to ASTM A615 for full anchorage bond length both sides of the points where the shear line crosses the reinforcement in the plinth:

bolt spacings between 10 x bolt diameter

and

6

x

bolt

30

dia. Bolts

15mm dia. at 150 crs

36

dia. Bolts

20mm dia. at 200 crs

42

dia. Bolts

20mm dia. at 150 crs

48

dia. Bolts

25mm dia. at 175 crs

64

dia. Bolts

25mm dia. at 150 crs

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N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

NOTE:

For a large number of bolts in close proximity, the above noted reinforcement may be conservative. In these situations, the required reinforcement may be calculated for actual details and geometry of foundation.

APPENDIX 1: TABLE OF PERMISSIBLE LOADS (KN)

NOM

EFF. TENSILE STRESS

EFF. SHEAR STRESS

V

= TENSION (N/mm 2 )

 

DIA.

 

(mm)

AREA (mm 2 )

AREA (mm 2 )

     

H

= SHEAR

(N/mm 2 )

     

V

@ 48

V

@ 67.2

V

@ 90

V

@ 100

V

@ 110

V

@ 120

H @ 80

H

@ 67.2

H

@ 52

H

@ 45.3

H

@ 38.67

H

@ 32

     

4.68

 

6.55

 

8.77

 

9.74

 

10.71

 

11.69

16

97.4

132.7

10.62

 

8.92

 

6.90

 

6.02

 

5.13

 

4.25

     

8.10

 

11.34

 

15.19

 

16.88

 

18.57

 

20.26

20

168.8

227.0

18.16

 

15.25

 

11.80

 

10.29

 

8.78

 

7.26

     

12.49

 

17.49

 

23.42

 

26.02

 

28.62

 

31.22

24

260.2

346.4

27.71

 

23.28

 

18.01

 

15.70

 

13.40

 

11.08

     

21.22

 

29.71

 

39.79

 

44.21

 

48.63

 

53.05

30

442.1

572.6

45.81

 

38.48

 

29.78

 

25.96

 

22.14

 

18.32

     

32.26

 

45.17

 

60.49

 

67.21

 

73.93

 

80.65

36

672.1

855.4

68.43

 

57.48

 

44.48

 

38.78

 

33.08

 

27.37

     

45.56

 

63.78

 

85.42

 

94.91

 

104.40

 

113.9

42

949.1

1194

95.52

 

80.24

 

62.00

 

54.12

 

46.17

 

38.21

     

61.1

 

85.6

 

114.6

 

127.3

 

140.1

 

152.8

48

1273

1591

127.3

 

106.9

 

82.7

 

72.1

 

61.5

 

50.9

     

86.3

 

120.8

 

161.7

 

179.7

 

197.7

 

215.6

56

1797

2206

176.5

 

148.2

 

114.7

 

100.2

 

85.3

 

70.6

     

115.8

 

162.1

 

217.1

 

241.2

 

265.3

 

289.4

64

2412

2922

233.8

 

196.4

 

151.9

 

132.5

 

113.0

 

93.5

NOTES:

1) Effective Stress Areas include 3mm reduction in diameter for corrosion.

2) Maximum Stresses derived using the following relationship

(fs

+

ft)

1.4 (BS 449: Part 2 Clause 50(d))

(ps

pt)

Where:

fs and ps are actual and permissible shear stresses respectively.

ft and pt are actual and permissible tensile stresses respectively.

STANDARDS

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

PART V SECT 2.5

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APPENDIX 2 GRAPH OF PERMISSIBLE LOADS SHOWING COMBINED TENSION AND SHEAR RATIOS FOR H.D BOLTS

REV: 01 PAGE: 15 OF 21 APPENDIX 2 GRAPH OF PERMISSIBLE LOADS SHOWING COMBINED TENSION AND

PART V SECT 2.5

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PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

APPENDIX 3 ANCHOR BOLT TYPE A

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS PROJECT SPECIFICATION STANDARDS APPENDIX 3 ANCHOR BOLT

STANDARDS

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

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APPENDIX 4 ANCHOR BOLT TYPE B

AND FIXINGS PROJECT SPECIFICATION PART V SECT 2.5 16940-00-SP-403 REV: 01 PAGE: 17 OF 21 APPENDIX

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N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

APPENDIX 5 ANCHOR BOLT TYPE C

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS PROJECT SPECIFICATION STANDARDS APPENDIX 5 ANCHOR BOLT

STANDARDS

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

PART V SECT 2.5

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APPENDIX 6 ANCHOR BOLTS TYPE D (Sheet 1 of 2)

PROJECT SPECIFICATION PART V SECT 2.5 16940-00-SP-403 REV: 01 PAGE: 19 OF 21 APPENDIX 6 ANCHOR

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PROJECT SPECIFICATION

STANDARDS

APPENDIX 7 ANCHOR BOLT TYPE D (Sheet 2 of 2)

LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS PROJECT SPECIFICATION STANDARDS APPENDIX 7 ANCHOR BOLT TYPE D

STANDARDS

N-PARAFFINS & LAB PLANT PROJECT ANCHOR BOLTS AND FIXINGS

PROJECT SPECIFICATION

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APPENDIX 8 ANCHOR BOLT TYPE F

AND FIXINGS PROJECT SPECIFICATION PART V SECT 2.5 16940-00-SP-403 REV: 01 PAGE: 21 OF 21 APPENDIX