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dynamic friction

N. D. Vuong*, Marcelo Ang H. Jr.*

Y. P. Li**, S. Y. Lim**

**Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (e-mail: {ypli,sylim}@SIMTech.a-star.edu.sg)

Abstract: Conventional dynamic identification procedures for robotic manipulators make use of the

linearity of the dynamic model with respect to the parameters. With these identification procedures, only a

simple friction model such as Coulomb and viscous friction can be incorporated while other dynamic and

nonlinear friction effects cannot be considered. This paper proposes a simple and yet effective scheme to

identify the dynamic friction region of robotic manipulators. These results are then incorporated into the

excited trajectory designing process. The proposed scheme has been verified on the first four link of the

Mitsubishi PA10 manipulator, an improved dynamic model was obtained which proves the effectiveness

of the proposed identification procedures.

using least squares fitting of motion data (position, velocity

1. INTRODUCTION

and acceleration) and joint torque data. In order to maintain

It is well known that the dynamic model of robot the linearity, only linear friction models such as Coulomb and

manipulators is crucial for advanced model-based control viscous friction can be incorporated into the identification

schemes that dynamic decoupling is achieved (An et al., procedures. However, the nonlinear dynamic effects could be

1988, Khatib, 1987). Because dynamic parameters of the significant in low velocity region as can be seen in the next

links are normally not available for industrial manipulators, section; conventional dynamic identification procedures that

proper procedures should be carried out to identify these select sampling data in the full velocity range would

parameters. introduce inaccurate information in the identification results.

One way to identify dynamic parameters is to dismantle the Therefore, an improved identification procedure should be

robot and measure link by link. However, it is obvious that developed to account for the nonlinear dynamic friction

this approach is not always feasible in practice. Another effects.

problem with the dismantling approach is that it does not In this paper, we combine the benefits of the both

account for the effect of joint friction. aforementioned identification methods. By analyzing the

In order to account for joint friction, several methods were experimental data and the dynamic friction effects described

proposed. These methods can be roughly divided into two by the LuGre model (Olsson et al., 1998), it is found that

groups: to identify joint friction and rigid body dynamics there is a boundary velocity that separates the dynamic

separately (Daemi and Heimann, 1998) or to identify joint friction into nonlinear and linear regions. In the nonlinear

friction and rigid body dynamics simultaneously (Armstrong, region, the friction effects mainly consist of stiction, Stribeck

1989, Antonelli et al., 1999, Grotjahn et al., 2001). The and hysteresis. In the linear region, the dynamic friction

former first identifies the friction parameters for each joint converges to only Coulomb and viscous frictions (these two

and then continue to identify the rigid body dynamic friction terms are known to be linear w.r.t. their parameters.).

parameters using the identified friction information. Because Therefore, a simple but effective scheme is proposed in this

friction parameters are identified joint by joint, nonlinear paper to identify the boundary velocity of each joint. With

dynamic friction models such as Stribeck and/or hysteresis this identified boundary velocity, we can model the

effects can be considered (Kermani et al., 2007). The main manipulator dynamics accurately in the full joint velocity

drawback of this method comes from the fact that friction can range. In the high velocity range that is greater than the

be much time-varying (Grotjahn et al., 2001). It is also boundary velocity, the manipulator dynamics is described by

argued that it is more tedious to identify friction parameters the conventional rigid body dynamic model and

and rigid body dynamic parameters separately. Coulomb/viscous friction. In this high velocity region, the

coupling effects of the rigid body dynamics are modelled. In

Because of the drawbacks of the former method, more the low velocity region, as the coupling effects of rigid bodies

researchers adopt the later method, i.e. to identify joint are trivial, we can model the dynamics with purely the LuGre

frictions and the rigid body dynamics at the same time. Based model. This paper focuses the dynamic identification in the

on the well known linearity property of the dynamic model linear (high velocity) region of dynamic friction that the

w.r.t. its parameters, the dynamic parameters can be obtained linearity property of the dynamic model can still be adopted.

Dynamic identification results will be shown for the first four friction are normally used to describe the friction

joints (joints contribute the most to the dynamic model) of phenomenon for all joint(s):

the PA10 manipulator in order to illustrate the effectiveness fric _ i Fci sign(qi ) Fvi qi (2.5)

of the proposed methods.

The contributions of this work are as follows: dynamic where Fci and Fvi are Coulomb and viscous friction

friction effects are shown experimentally to be significant; a coefficients respectively. Additional linear friction forms can

simple scheme is proposed to identify the boundary velocity be found in the literature such as (Grotjahn et al., 2001),

that separate the dynamic friction into nonlinear and linear however, most of the add-on terms have no physical

regions; an improved procedure is developed to identify meaning. Using the linear friction model such as (2.5), the

dynamic parameters in the linear region and result in a more equation (2.2) can be re-cast into the following form:

accurate dynamic model.

W (q, q , q, DH )c hc (2.6)

The rest of this paper is organized as a systematic procedure

(i.e. step by step) for dynamic identification of robot where Wc , hc are the combinations of inertial parameters and

manipulators. The focus is given to the friction identification friction coefficients:

and its use on the identification process.

h

W1,: sign(q1 ) q1 ... 0 0 F (2.7)

2. IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURES

Wc ... ... ... ... ... ... , hc c1

Fv1

2.1 Model the dynamics of the manipulator Wn ,: 0 0 ... sign(qn ) qn

...

Assume that the robot consists of only multi-rigid bodies; it is One obvious benefit of this representation is that friction can

well known that the dynamic model of n-degree-of-freedom be identified together with the inertial parameters at the same

manipulator can be expressed in the following analytical time.

form: It is worth noting that equation (2.6) indicates that in order to

M (q)q C (q , q ) G (q ) fric (2.1) re-solve for hc , Wc matrix has to be full rank. It is well-

known that not all the inertial parameters contribute to the

where dynamic behaviour of the robot (Khosla, 1989, An et al.,

- q, q , q are n by 1 vector of joint acceleration, 1988, Gautier and Khalil, 1990); thus, a set of identifiable

velocity and position, n is the number of joint. parameters should be deduced from h , resulting to the so

- M (q) is n by n inertial matrix in joint space. This called the base parameters (Gautier and Khalil, 1990). For

instance, the original dynamic parameters of the 7-DOF

matrix is positive definite for all configuration.

Mitsubishi PA10 manipulator h has 70 parameters but the

- C (q , q), G(q) are n by 1 vector of Coriolis-

final identified dynamics of the manipulator is reduced into

Centrifugal and gravity in joint space. 18 lumped-parameters (Ngoc Dung and Marcelo H. Ang,

- fric is a n by 1 vector of joint friction. 2008). The final form of the dynamic model becomes:

- is a n by 1 vector of torque at each joint. Wb hb (2.8)

For identification purpose, the above equation is re-written in

the linear form: Where hb is comprised of the base parameters and linear

W (q, q , q, DH )h fric (2.2) friction model as in (2.6) and (2.7). Theoretically, by re-

solving (2.8), one can accurately estimate the inertial

Here, DH is the kinematic parameters from the Denavit- parameters hb provided that (2.8) can describe the real

Hartenberg parameters and h is a 10n by 1 vector of the

inertial parameters: dynamic model of the robot and the observation matrix Wb

which can be obtained accurately. Practically, both of these

h h1 ... hn

T

(2.3)

assumptions can be violated. This paper will focus on the

validity of the model because joint frictions are found to be

hi XX i , XYi , XZ i , YYi , YZ i , ZZ i , mX i , mYi , mZ i , mi (2.4) significantly nonlinear at least for the PA10 manipulator.

where ( XX i , XYi , XZi , YYi , YZi , ZZi ) are the inertial tensor of 2.2 Identify the linear region of dynamic friction

link i, (mX i , mYi , mZi , mi ) are the first moments and the link

As can be seen from the above dynamic model, in order to

mass. Noting that, here, we only focus on the inertial maintain the linearity, only viscous and Coulomb friction are

parameters of the links. The rotor inertias of motors are accounted. However, if the real friction behaviour is

assumed to be known because these values are normally significantly complex, further investigation should be made

available from the motor specs. before going to identify the parameters using the equation

Although the friction model in the real manipulator is (2.8). Let us consider the equation of motion of one joint:

complicated, simple model with viscous and Coulomb

Iq g (q) friction (2.9)

where I is the inertia of the link. By appropriately mounting The mathematical model of the LuGre model is:

the robot (depending on the joint of interest), it is easily to friction 1 z 0 z Fv q (2.12)

see that the gravity terms g ( q ) can be set to zero for that

joint. Assume that the Coulomb and viscous friction model where z describes the average deflection of bristles (please

are sufficient to describe the friction effects, a time-efficient refer to (Olsson et al., 1998) for detailed discussions):

least square technique should be able to estimate the 0 q

parameters in the following linear form: z q z (2.13)

V (q )

Iq FC sign(q ) FV q (2.10)

For the cleanness of joint torque, an open loop sinusoidal The function V ( q ) characterizes the Coulomb and Stribeck

torque command is applied to the one-link system, motion effect and is normally chosen as:

, q , q)i 1:N and joint torque data i 1:N are then

2

data ( q q

Vs

recorded ( N is total number of recorded points). If equation V (q ) FC ( FS FC )e (2.14)

(2.10) can describe real dynamic behaviour of the link then q

2

with a sufficient number of data points ( q , q , q, )i , the It is worth noting that if q 3

Vs

then e

Vs

0 , (2.14)

result of the following linear system should converge to the 2

true values of ( I , FC , FV ) becomes V ( q ) FC and (2.13) reduces to:

... z q z z z C (2.15)

... ... FC ... (2.11) FC 0 q 0

qM sign(q M ) q M FV M (2.15) is actually a first-order system w.r.t to the non-

measurable state z . The time constant of this system is

where M N is the number of data points which are used

for the identification. reduced when q is increased implies that z 0 for any

Let us now define a positive scalar qthres as threshold value in Vs

initial state. In other words, when q 3 , the z state

, q , q, )i which have

such a way that only the data points ( q 2

will quickly converge to its static state (SS):

qi qthres are used in the least-squares estimator (2.11). In

sign(q )V (q )

other words, M N if qthres 0 and M 0 if z 0 zSS (2.16)

0

qthres max( qi ) . Figure 1a shows the value of the

and (2.12) will be equivalent to the Coulomb and viscous

estimated Iˆ from (2.11) w.r.t different qthres of joint 1 of model:

the PA10: zSS 0

Iˆ

(2.17)

15 V (q ) FC

2.1

z sign (

q ) sign (

q )

10

SS

0 0

Torque (Nm)

2.0 5

0

1.9 5 friction SS 1 z 0 z Fv q

10 (2.18)

1.8

15 sign(q ) FC Fv q

q ( rad / s )

1.7

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 q t h r e s 0 .2 .4 .6 .8

Figure 2 shows the simulation result of a simple mass system

Figure 1: (a) qthres vs. Iˆ , (b) q vs. friction of the first joint

with LuGre friction model which is used to verify the above

of the PA10 manipulator. observation.

friction

qthres 0.25 even if more data are used inside the least- 3

2

squares estimator ( qthres 0 .25 ) which implies that the 1

q

0

friction model in (2.10) is not able to describe the joint 3

VS 0.21

2

friction if the joint velocity < 0.25 (rad/s).

In order to have an insight of what the qthres really is, let us

analyse one of the state-of-the-art friction model, the LuGre 0 0.2 0.4

friction model (Olsson et al., 1998) which is able to capture Figure 2: Simulation of single mass system with LuGre

many nonlinear friction effects such as: Stribeck and friction model (2.12).

hysteresis effect.

In summary, by applying the following steps to each of the researchers which normally take into account all data points

joint: along the optimum trajectory. Because the optimum

- Step 1: re-mount the manipulator in such a way that the trajectory will be executed on the real manipulator,

gravity has no effect on the joint of interest. Apply a parameterizing the optimum trajectory is also an important

sinusoidal torque to the joint. Notice that the frequency step. Two most common type(s) of trajectory are the quintic

and magnitude of this signal have to be chosen in such a polynomial trajectory and periodic trajectory (Swevers et al.,

way that the result joint motion is within the joint limit 2007). The former is suitable for most of industrial

and the motion also excites the dynamic friction. During manipulator(s) which only accepts simple velocity command

, )i 1:N is recorded.

this step, ( q , q , q while the later targets the open-architecture controller which

allows user to program an arbitrary trajectory. For the work

- Step 2: slowly increasing qthres from 0 to max( qi ) . on this paper, periodic trajectory is adopted because of their

Solving (2.11) using all the data points which have advantages in terms of signal processing (Swevers et al.,

1997).

qi qthres .

and analyzing the convergence of the inertial parameter Iˆ , 2.4 Estimate the inertial parameters

one can experimentally find out the region in which the linear

Although the unknown inertial parameters can be estimated

friction model is held. Based on this result, we can actually

by a least-square technique as in (2.20), there will be a

reconstruct the joint velocity vs. friction torque plot (or

potential problem on the identified result, the so-called

friction map). For instance, Figure 1b shows the friction map

physical feasibility of the result (Yoshida and Khalil, 2000).

of the first joint of the PA10 manipulator.

One promising solution for this problem is to use a

The experiment is then repeated for the rest of the joints. The

constrained optimization tool to adjust the least-squares result

resulting qthres will be used as constraints in designing the (Mata et al., 2005). By doing this, the physical meaning of

excited trajectory as presented in the next section. the identified parameters can be imposed to satisfy the

constraints. As a result, the identified result will be always

2.3 Design the optimum trajectory physically feasible. The physically feasible characteristic is

especially useful for advanced control because it implies that

In order to estimate hb from (2.8), we need to acquire the mass matrix M ( q ) in (1.1) is always positive definite.

W (q, q, q)b , b i along the excited trajectory. By stacking Motivated by the idea of virtual parameters (Yoshida and

Khalil, 2000), a constrained optimization is proposed in order

the matrix together, the observation matrix can be formed as

follows: to find the unknown inertial parameters. The input vector X

to the optimization problem is:

Wb1 b1

X h701 Fv1 ... ...

T

Fc1 (2.21)

Wo ... , o ...

(2.19)

WbN bN where h is the standard dynamic parameters of links as in

(2.3). Constraints on the parameters h will be imposed in

Theoretically, as long as the determinant of the observation order to make sure that the result will always physically

matrix Wo , which depends on the excited trajectory, is non- feasible. Based on this input, the base parameters vector hb

is calculated. This base parameters vector is then compared to

zero, the unknown parameters hb can be estimated by any

linear estimator such as least-squares estimator: the least-squares solution hˆb from (2.20). The cost function

is constructed as:

hˆb WoT Wo WoT o

1

(2.20)

CF min 1 Wo X b o 2 X b hc (2.22)

However, if the measured torque is corrupted by noise, a

constraint should be imposed on the experiment trajectory to Here, the two scalars 1 , 2 define how believable the

ensure the excitation of the dynamic parameters as well as the least-squares solution is. Clearly the result of the above non-

robustness of the identified result with respect to the noise in linear optimization problem will give us a set of physically

the measured torque. Several criterions have been proposed feasible parameters which minimizes the error between the

in literature (Siciliano and Khatib, 2007). For our case, measured and predicted torque. It is worth noting that the

method proposed in this paper differs from the one in (Mata

minimizing the condition number of Wo and maximizing the et al., 2005) because it does not require the initial guess of the

smallest singular value as in (Antonelli et al., 1999) is virtual parameters which are not always available.

adopted.

3. CASE STUDY: MITSUBISHI PA10 7-DOF

Notice that, because we want to minimize the effect of the

MANIPULATOR

non-linear friction on the identified result(s), only the data

In order to validate the proposed identification method, the

points which have velocities above a threshold value (from

identification procedures were applied to the first four links

the previous section) are considered. This differs from other of the Mitsubishi PA10 manipulator.

green colour represents the re-constructed torque using hˆb

A

command

(RTthres Wb hˆb ). Noting that the time scale for the x-axis

QNX Custom Mitsubishi A

(6.3) controller PA10

q , q , q

is time 10 (ms).

Figure 3: Experimental test bed.

Joint qthres (rad / s )

1 0.25

2 0.27

3 0.3 RTall

4 0.6

RTthres

Table 1: Threshold velocity for the first four links of the

PA10. MT

As mentioned above, the following steps were carried out in

order to identify the dynamic model:

1. Derive the rigid dynamic model of the robot as in (2.1). a) Joint 1

Noting that the Coriolis-Centrifugal and gravity term is

included in this model. Gravity terms can only be set to

zero when robot joints are considered separately as in RTall

section 2.2.

2. Identify the threshold velocity in which the dynamic

friction model becomes linear for each joint (see Table 1

for the experimental results). RTthres

3. Carry out the optimum exciting trajectory as in section

2.3. By making use of the Matlab Genetic Algorithm MT

(GA) Toolbox, the excited or optimum trajectory for the

PA10 manipulator with the minimum condition number

is around 65.

4. Execute the optimum trajectory on the PA10; obtain the b) Joint 2

joint motion and joint torque data. Note that because the

PA10 manipulator does not have joint torque sensor, the

joint torques are obtained by measuring the motor

currents. In addition, a custom controller has been

implemented to replace the original PA10’s controller in

order to achieve a full torque controlled capability as

RTall

well as a hard real-time performance (Figure 4). A

conventional PID controller (independent joint control)

is used at each joint to make the joints follow the RTthres

reference trajectory.

5. The inertial parameters are estimated using the method MT

as in section 2.4.

In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme,

c) Joint 3

two sets of data have been used to identify hˆb . The first set

RTall

(set A) only includes the data points which have q qthres

while the second set (set B) includes all the experimental MT

points. In the case of the PA10 manipulator, the number of

data points in set A is about 30% of the number of data points

in set B.

Figure 4 shows the measured torques vs. the re-constructed

torques of joint 1-4 for an arbitrary and different trajectory in

joint space. Motion data (q , q, q) and joint torque (namely

RTthres

“measured torque”) was recorded. The “re-constructed

torque” is then computed as (2.8). In Figure 4, red colour

represents the measured torque (MT), blue colour represents d) Joint 4

the re-constructed torque using hˆb (RTall Wb hˆb ) and

B B

Figure 4: Measured torque vs. Re-constructed torque

The root-mean-square (RMS) errors between the measured Daemi, M. & Heimann, B. (1998) Separation of Friction and

torque and re-constructed torque are shown in Table 2: Rigid Body Identification for an Industrial Robot. Courses

Joint RT(thres): Set A RT(all): Set B and lectures - Centre for mechanical sciences, 35-42.

1 4.1 3.9 Gautier, M. & Khalil, W. (1990) Direct calculation of

2 5.9 7.1 minimum set of inertial parameters of serial robots. IEEE

3 1.5 2.1 Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 6, 368-373.

4 3.7 5.8 Grotjahn, M., Daemi, M. & Heimann, B. (2001) Friction and

Table 2: RMS errors between the measured and re- rigid body identification of robot dynamics. 10-13 ed. Rio

constructed torque. de Janeiro, Brazil, Elsevier.

Kermani, M. R., Patel, R. V. & Moallem, M. (2007) Friction

Theoretically, one should expect the quality of the identified identification and compensation in robotic manipulators.

parameter hˆbA using set A is worse than the one using set B IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement,

56, 2346-2353.

hˆ B because there are more data in set B. However, as can be

b

Khatib, O. (1987) A unified approach for motion and force

seen in Table 2, an opposite result was obtained. The RMS

control of robot manipulators: the operational space

errors in the first case (set A) are smaller than the second case

formulation. IEEE Robotics and Automation, RA-3, 43-53.

(set B) for most of the joints. This observation implies that

the extra data points in set B contribute negatively to the Khosla, P. K. (1989) Categorization of parameters in the

dynamic robot model. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and

accuracy of the identified result hˆbB in low velocity regions. Automation, 5, 261-8.

One explanation for this phenomenon, as the discussion in Mata, V., Benimeli, F., Farhat, N. & Valera, A. (2005)

section 2.3, is that the linear friction model (2.5) cannot Dynamic parameter identification in industrial robots

account for the complicated friction behaviour at joints. As a considering physical feasibility. Advanced Robotics, 19,

result, an improved dynamic model is obtained because 101-19.

identified model (2.8) and experimental data (set A) is more

Ngoc Dung, V. & Marcelo H. Ang, J. (2008) Dynamic model

consistent (i.e. hˆbA is more reliable than hˆbB ). Intuitively, one identification for industrial manipulator subject to

can observe that the higher joint velocity for the excited advanced model based control. 4th HNICEM. Manila,

trajectory, the better identified result is. This observation Philippines.

comes from the fact that linear friction is best excited at high Olsson, H., Astrom, K. J., Canudas De Wit, C., Gafvert, M.

velocity. However, due to the limitation on the power of the & Lischinsky, P. (1998) Friction models and friction

actuator, one cannot arbitrarily increase the joint velocity of compensation. European Journal of Control, 4, 176-95.

the excited trajectory. This paper answers the question of Siciliano, B. & Khatib, O. (2007) Springer Handbook of

how high is enough to excite the linear friction model (2.5) Robotics, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.

by experimentally identifying the threshold or boundary

Swevers, J., Ganseman, C., Tukel, D. B., De Schutter, J. &

velocity at each joint as presented in section 2.2.

Van Brussel, H. (1997) Optimal robot excitation and

4. CONCLUSION identification. Robotics and Automation, IEEE

We have presented in this paper an improved procedure for Transactions on, 13, 730-740.

identifying the dynamic model of robot manipulators taking Swevers, J., Verdonck, W. & De Schutter, J. (2007) Dynamic

into account the effects of dynamic friction. As the linearity Model Identification for Industrial Robots. Control

property of dynamic model is valid only in the linear region Systems Magazine, IEEE, 27, 58-71.

of dynamic friction, a scheme was proposed to identify Yoshida, K. & Khalil, W. (2000) Verification of the positive

boundary velocity that separates the dynamic friction into definiteness of the inertial matrix of manipulators using

nonlinear and linear (steady state) regions. Important base inertial parameters. International Journal of Robotics

constraints such as the steady state of dynamic friction and Research, 19, 498-510.

positive definitiveness of the inertia matrix were also

conveniently incorporated into the optimization problem.

Experimental results for the first four joint of the Mitsubishi

PA10 manipulator were provided in order to validate the

effectiveness of the proposed identification procedures.

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An, C. H., Atkeson, C. G. & Hollerbach, J. M. (1988) Model-

based control of a robot manipulator, MIT Press.

Antonelli, G., Caccavale, F. & Chiacchio, P. (1999) A

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Armstrong, B. (1989) On finding exciting trajectories for

identification experiments involving systems with nonlinear

dynamics. Int. Journal of Robotics Research, 8, 28-48.

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