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Systems

David Hartman, Student Member, IEEE, Lalit K. Mestha, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract— A new framework is proposed for model-order equivalent [1], the success of deep leaning is attributed to the

reduction in which a neural network is used to learn a reduced use of non-linear, deep-layered autoencoders. Instead of

model of a dynamical system. As technological, social, and extracting a reduced, linear space as in POD, we now extract

biological models become increasingly complex, it has become a reduced, nonlinear space referred to as the feature space.

necessary to find ways of reducing the number of dynamical Step 2 is carried out as before, but now the dynamics are

states of a system while still maintaining model integrity. The

new approach combines ideas from two existing model-order

projected onto the feature space. Considering this, we call this

reduction methods: proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) new technique “feature decomposition.”

and balanced truncation. The previously mentioned methods In Section IV, we discuss feature decomposition for state-

reduce the number of state variables by projecting the dynamics

space systems. We first review the balanced truncation

onto a linear subspace spanned by principal components of a

representative data matrix. Our proposed model-reduction method for model reduction of state-space systems. Unlike in

method has the advantage of projecting the dynamics onto a autonomous systems, in state-space systems, we must ensure

nonlinear space. The proposed method is referred to as feature that the controllable and observable spaces of the dynamics

decomposition,” in light of the nonlinear features extracted by are represented in the reduced model. Balanced truncation

way of neural networks. The method is applied to both takes this into account by projecting the dynamics onto the

autonomous and state-space systems. In feature decomposition “modes” of a system that have the most impact on input-

for state-space systems, empirical Gramians are the output behavior (Hankel modes) [2]. However, if the system

representative training set on which we perform the nonlinear is symmetric, the method of balanced truncation can be

feature learning. It is shown that under certain assumptions,

replaced with the direct truncation method and Hankel modes

feature decomposition applied to state-space systems is

equivalent to balanced truncation. Finally, the method is applied do not need to be considered. In direct truncation, the

to a spreading infectious disease dynamical system and the dynamics are projected onto the principal components of the

results from our reduced order model are compared to POD. cross Gramian, a matrix that incorporates both the

controllable and observable spaces. As this is a data-driven

I. INTRODUCTION technique, the empirical version of the cross Gramian will be

Designing controls for large scale systems is often difficult used instead [3]. It is not surprising that balanced truncation

because of the large number of states in the model. Model and direct truncation are equivalent under the symmetric

order-reduction has historically been used to reduce the size assumption as both techniques account for the controllable

of large-scale structural and fluid dynamics problem. Proper and observable spaces, albeit in different ways (balanced

orthogonal decomposition (POD) or Karhunen-Loeve truncation through the use of Hankel modes and direct

decomposition and balanced truncation are two such model- truncation through the use of cross Gramians).

order reduction methods. POD is a model-order reduction Assuming a symmetric system and therefore the

technique for autonomous systems while balanced truncation equivalence of balanced and direct truncation we have the

is a model-order reduction technique for state-space systems. proper setup to perform feature decomposition. We replace

In Section III, we review proper orthogonal decomposition, PCA of the cross Gramian in the method of direct truncation

a model reduction method that relies on principal component with feature learning of the empirical cross Gramian in the

analysis (PCA). There are two steps to POD. Step 1: Extract method of feature decomposition. In other words, the linear

a lower dimensioned linear subspace of the dynamics by subspace extracted by performing PCA on the cross Gramian

performing principal component analysis on a representative (direct truncation) is replaced by the nonlinear feature space

data matrix. Step 2: Project the dynamics onto the reduced extracted by training on the empirical cross Gramian (feature

subspace thereby attaining a reduced model. decomposition).

In Section III, we extend POD by replacing step 1 with the In fact, if the state-space system is linear and symmetric

nonlinear feature learning of a certain type of neural network and a linear autoencoder is used instead of a nonlinear

called the autoencoder. In other words, instead of extracting a autoencoder, we can say even further that the extracted spaces

linear space through PCA, we extract a nonlinear embedded from balanced truncation and feature decomposition

space through an autoencoder. An autoencoder is a neural (principal component subspace and feature space) are the

network that can discover a reduced dimensioned same and linear. A proof sketch will be given for this in

representation of data and is reviewed in Section II. While it Section IV. This is our justification for replacing balanced

has been shown that PCA and linear autoencoders are truncation with our proposed feature decomposition

David Hartman, is with the Electrical Engineering Department, University Lalit K. Mestha is with the GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY 12309

of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 20742 USA (corresponding USA, (e-mail: Lalit.Mestha@ge.com and phone: 518 387 6967)

author email: dhartma2@terpmail.umd.edu and phone: 917 815 9990)

framework. Accounting for the recent advances in deep Additionally, let the parameter equal , } and the output

learning, we believe there are benefits to using nonlinear of ( ) be the hidden representation, y.

autoencoders in finding a nonlinear lower-dimensioned

embedded space in which the states of the nonlinear dynamics B. Decoder Step

lie. PCA and linear autoencoders, on the other hand, are In the decoder step, the hidden representation is

constrained to extracting linear embedded spaces, an transformed back into the original input space. The mapping

unfavorable restriction for nonlinear dynamics. for the decoder reconstructs the original input from the hidden

representation. The decoder mapping is as follows:

In Section V, we show an example of feature

decomposition applied to a spreading infectious disease ( )= ( + )

example. The nonlinear dynamical system of disease spread

W' is a weight matrix and ′ is a vector of dimension

can be used to model the spread of infections, the spread of

n. Let ′ equal ′, ′} and ( ) be the reconstructed

viruses in a computer network, and spread of rumors in social

input, . Note, ′ are not the transposes of and

media.

( and ). However, in some settings, one would set W’

In summary, the goal of this paper is to create a framework to and have one less variable to optimize over. This is

for learning the features of a dynamical system and then called tied weights.

project onto this learnt space creating a reduced model. We

show that our framework for both autonomous and state- When the size of the hidden or feature representation (r)

space systems is nearly equivalent to traditional model-order is less than the size of the original input (n), the encoder

reduction techniques: POD for autonomous systems and mapping is a dimension-reduction mapping. The optimization

balanced truncation for state-space systems. The difference is problem associated with the autoencoder is shown below:

that both these techniques rely on PCA while our framework

relies on nonlinear autoencoders. (ϴ, ϴ′) = min || − ( ( + ) + ′)||

II. AUTOENCODERS

Autoencoders are a feedforward artificial neural network The term inside the summation equals the error between the

algorithm that can be used for dimensionality reduction [4]. original input ( ) and the reconstructed input ( ). The

Given a set of inputs and corresponding outputs, a neural optimization occurs over N training points.

network approximates a function between the input and The autoencoder setup above is only one type amongst

output space. In an autoencoder, the inputs and outputs are the many variants including the stacked denoised autoencoder,

same and a function is estimated that reconstructs the original where multiple encoding and decoding layers are stacked one

input. The reconstruction of training data occurs by way of on top of the other. Once, the variables ϴ and ϴ′

nonlinear transformations. As a byproduct of this ( , , , ′) are learnt by training on N data

reconstruction, features of the data are extracted. Generally, points [ , … … ] one can encode a new data point into its

the more training data employed and the more characteristic dimensionality reduced hidden representation.

the data is of the underlying distribution of the problem, the

more representative the features will be. There is a deep connection between autoencoders and

PCA. Baldi and Hornik [1] showed that the principal

Autoencoders and neural networks have become popular components found from PCA equal the learnt features of the

in this decade as optimization algorithms used to solve them autoencoder under the following assumptions: 1. Only a

improve. Autoencoders are often an improved alternative to linear encoder and decoder are used without any nonlinear

PCA as they are capable of learning non-linear features as activation function 2. The error loss function is the squared

opposed to linear principal components. The autoencoder error loss. 3. Tied weights are used. In other words, the

algorithm as a function estimator for input reconstruction optimization problem associated with linear autoencoders has

consists of two steps: the encoder and decoder step. The a minimum equal to the orthogonal projection onto principal

encoder encodes the input (x) into a hidden or feature components of PCA.

representation (y) and then decodes that representation back

into a reconstructed input ( ). III. MODEL REDUCTION FOR AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS

In the encoder step, a mapping ( ) transforms the The goal of proper orthogonal decomposition is to reduce

original input ( ) into the feature space through an affine the dimension of the states of the following autonomous

dynamical system:

transformation ( + ) followed by a non-linear

transformation, s. The encoder mapping is as follows: ( ) = ( (t)) (1)

( )= ( + ) The method makes use of empirical data X =

[ ( ),…, ( )] to create a data matrix. The data is chosen

S is the sigmoid function defined as: ( ) = , where using the method of snapshots proposed by Sirovich [5].

τ in this case equals + . The sigmoid function is applied Proper orthogonal decomposition consists of two steps: 1.

element-wise to its column vector argument. W is a PCA is applied to the covariance data matrix ( ). 2. Using

weight and is a vector of dimension r. The value of r is Galerkin projection, the dynamical equations are projected

specified by the user. Autoencoders can be viewed as a onto the subspace spanned by the principal components. We

dimension reduction scheme if is chosen to be less than . first start with a review of PCA.

1918

B. Principal Component Analysis IV. MODEL REDUCTION FOR STATE-SPACE SYSTEMS

Define: Empirical Covariance matrix, = where In this section, we extend feature decomposition of

is n x N matrix, N is the number of data points, and n is the autonomous systems to state-space systems. As we turn to

dimension of each data point. One defines this matrix as state-space systems, we notice that instead of one space, we

follows: are now concerned with two spaces: input to state

(controllable space) and state to output (observable subspace).

The state-space system is as follows:

= ( ) ( )

( ) = ( ( ), ( ))

The subspace of the principal components of can be ( )=ℎ ( ) (4)

characterized by the projection function . This can be

formulated as minimizing E. While the method of snapshots was sufficient to capture

the dynamics of an autonomous system, we need an improved

data matrix that captures both the controllable and observable

( )= || − || spaces of a state-space system.

The next method uses the empirical cross Gramian, an

Where is constrained to a subspace of dimension r. approximate version of the cross Gramian [3], to capture the

controllable and observable spaces of a system. An

Lemma 1: The minimizer of the above optimization autoencoder learns the parameters, , , , , by training

problem, ∗ equals with equal to a matrix on the empirical cross Gramian and then a Galerkin projection

whose rows are equal to the eigenvectors of the covariance is performed using these parameters. In autonomous systems,

matrix [6]. the data matrix on which we train is created by the method of

Additionally, the eigenvalues of show how close of an snapshots; in state-space systems the data matrix is created by

approximation the data is to the r dimensional subspace the empirical cross Gramian, Before, we discuss feature

decomposition for state space systems, we introduce balanced

Lemma 2: The minimum of the solution, truncation, the traditional model-order reduction technique

( ∗)

equals ∑ , where λ ’s are eigenvalues of for state-space systems.

and ≥ ≥⋯≥ [7].

A. Balanced Truncation

C. Galerkin Projection Balanced truncation is a model reduction method that

In POD, after the principal components are extracted from ensures reduced systems retain properties of controllability

the dynamical system, the dynamics are projected onto the and observability. In these methods, the least controllable and

subspace spanned by the largest principal components of the observable states are truncated. To understand balanced

covariance matrix . This projection is called the Galerkin truncation, we introduce the Hankel operator. The Hankel

projection. The Galerkin projection is a method of projecting operator is given by map H: O∙C, where equals the

a vector field onto a subspace. It has been used extensively in observability Gramian ( ) and equals the

numerical analysis of PDEs [8]. Applying the Galerkin controllability Gramian ( ). This holds for square systems

projection in POD to (1), the reduced model becomes: where the dimensions of inputs and outputs are equal. The

controllability and observability Gramians are a measure of

( )= ( ( )) (2) degrees in which a system is controllable and observable. A

Note, is used instead of , where x is in and is in system is observable if the states of a system can be recovered

from its outputs; a system is controllable if there exists a

and ≪ . Also note that while this method can be applied

controller to move a state from any initial state to any final

to both linear and non-linear equations, it suffers from the

state.

deficiency of only being able to project the vector field

trajectory onto a linear subspace. is described in lemma 1. In balanced truncation, the projected subspace is a set of

The next method learns from empirical data a non-linear the largest Hankel singular values, σ(H).

projection that better captures the space on which the

dynamical data points reside. The reduced-order equations for balanced truncation are as

follows [9]:

D. Feature Decomposition for Autonomous Systems

( )= ( ( ), ( ))

The proposed substitution for proper orthogonal

decomposition replaces PCA of POD with an autoencoder. ( )=ℎ ( ) (5)

Using the learnt parameters of the autoencoder, , , , ′,

we perform a Galerkin projection on the autonomous Where T is a change of coordinates such that

dynamical system shown in (1) producing the following and are equal and diagonal (balanced).

system: is the controllability Gramian and is the observability

Gramian. Additionally, P is a projection matrix in the

( ) = ( ( ( ( ′ ( ) + ′))) + ) (3) form of [ 0], where is an r r identity matrix. In other

Equation (3) is similar to (2) with replaced by ( + ) words, in balanced truncation we project the dynamics onto

and replaced by ( ′ + ′). Remember, s is the sigmoid the r largest Hankel singular values, σ(H).

function and operates element-wise on a column vector.

1919

B. Direct Truncation E. Equivalence of Balanced Truncation and Direct

As explained in the introduction, if the system is also Truncation

symmetric, the balanced truncation method can be replaced Here, we will give the result for the near equivalence of

with direct truncation. In direct truncation, the principal balanced truncation and direct truncation. First, we state a

components of the cross Gramian ( ), defined as C∙O are lemma on the equivalence of the empirical cross Gramian to

truncated. The cross Gramian captures both controllable and the cross Gramian for linear systems..

observable properties of a system. For linear state space

Lemma 3: For nonempty sets of and , the empirical

systems, [ ( ) = ( ) + ( ); ( ) = ( ) ], the cross

cross Gramian, is equal to the cross Gramian for linear state

Gramian is defined as follows:

space systems.

= See [3] for proof.

Result: Assuming a square, symmetric, linear system,

Theorem 1: If (A,B,C,D) is a symmetric system, then balanced truncation is equivalent to projecting the dynamical

projecting onto the set of Hankel singular values (balanced system onto the eigenspace of the empirical cross Gramian.

truncation) is the same as projecting onto the eigenspace of

the cross Gramian (direct truncation) [10]. By the symmetric property of the system, one can replace

balanced truncation with a projection of the dynamics onto

Proof: In a symmetric system, the Hankel operator is the eigenspace of the cross Gramian (Theorem 1). By the

symmetric or, in other words, O∙C = ( ∙ ) . Therefore, σ(H) linearity assumption the empirical cross Gramian equals the

= σ(O∙C) = (OC( ) ) = (OC( ) ) = cross Gramian (Lemma 3).

(COCO) = ( ) = | ( )| [3]. Looking ahead, we will replace the principal component

analysis of the empirical cross Gramian with an autoencoder

just as we replaced the principal component analysis of the

C. Definition of Empirical Cross Gramian covariance matrix ( ) with an autoencoder in the autonomous

Himpie defines an empirical version of the cross Gramian case. In Part E, we compare the different training sets used for

for square, symmetric systems where input and output spaces finding the lower-dimensioned embedded spaces in the

are dimensioned M and the state variables are dimensioned N. autonomous and state-space systems.

The empirical cross Gramian is a data matrix populated by the F. Comparison of Covariance and Cross Gramian

state and output of the system perturbed by different inputs

and initial states [3]. It is an analog to Lall’s [2] empirical Below, we compare using the empirical covariance matrix

controllability and observability Gramians. We show in the method of snapshots for the autonomous system and the

Himpie’s full definition below. empirical cross Gramian for the state-space system. In both,

we highlight the data matrix for which PCA was applied.

Define: Empirical Cross Gramian ( ) Subsequently, in our framework, PCA is replaced by

nonlinear autoencoders, which train on these same data

1 1 matrices.

= ( )

Summary of Empirical Covariance Matrix ( )

Where: (autonomous case):

i. X = [x(t )…, x(t ), … x(t )], where x(t ) is the state

= standard unit vector in for 1 ≤ ≤

trajectory at time t of a dynamical system. [Data Matrix]

= standard unit vector in for 1 ≤ ≤ ii. R= ∑ x(t ) x(t ) where T is the number of snapshots

( )= ( ) ( ) and R is the empirical covariance. [Gramian]

iii. Principal components of X = eigenvectors of R = XX .

( ) is the i-th component of the state of the system for [PCA]

impulsive input ( )= ( ) and zero initial state.

( ) is the m-th component of the output of the state with Summary of Empirical Cross-Gramian ( ) (state-space

case): Note: To simplify, we take = = = = 1 in

initial state = and zero input. the empirical cross Gramian definition and are left with =

The empirical cross Gramian has K∙M state trajectories for ∑ ∑ ( ).

perturbed impulse input with zero steady state, and L∙ N

output trajectories for initial states with zero input. The sets i. X = [φ (t )...φ (t ), …….φ (t )…φ (t ),

{ : = 1 … } and { : = 1 … } are chosen based on the ……., φ (t )…φ (t )]. φ (t) is a matrix of size R

operating region of the underlying system. M is the dimension where M is the size of input and output system, N is the

of input and output and is indexed by m. In short, the dimension of the states and T is the number of snapshots.

empirical cross Gramian is an inner product between state So X is of size x . [Data Matrix]

trajectories with perturbed input and output trajectories with ii. = ∑ ∑ φ (t )φ (t )

perturbed initial state [3].

where T is the number of snapshots and is the

empirical cross Gramian. [Gramian]

1920

iii. Principal components of X = eigenvectors of . Furthermore, since different individuals recover and infect

[PCA] their neighbors at different rates, a networked version of the

epidemic model was proposed and is described in [11]. In an

G. Feature Decomposition for State-Space Systems SIS epidemic network autonomous model, we consider a

Using the empirical cross Gramian described above, the directed graph of N nodes corresponding to N individuals and

autoencoder algorithm now learns the controllable and the associated connecting edges. The state variables of this

observable space on which to project the state-space networked dynamical system are the probabilities ( ( ))

equations. The Galerkin projection is then performed by node is infected where 1 ≤ ≤ . Let,

projecting the state space equations onto the features learnt by ( ) equal the probability node is infected at time ,

the autoencoder. δ ( ) equal the recovery rate of node ,

The reduced state-space system then becomes: β ( ) equal the rate at which node is infected by node .

differential equations corresponding to nodes (one such

( )=ℎ ( ( )+ ) (6) node is shown in fig. 1) and is described below in (7) [11].

Where W, W’, b, and b’ are learnt variables from training the = (1 − )∑ β −δ =1 (7)

autoencoder on the empirical cross Gramian and s is the

sigmoid function. Compare this to (5), the balanced truncation The matrix version of (7) is (8):

equations. Equation (6) is similar to (3), the reduced model =( − ) − (8)

for autonomous systems. However, remember that the

parameters , , , ′ in both these equations are learnt by Where is a matrix whose diagonal entries are ( , … , ),

training on different training sets, namely the method of is a row vector whose entries are ( , … , ),

snapshots matrix for (3) and the empirical cross Gramian for

(6). is a matrix whose entries are β and is a matrix whose

diagonal entries are (δ , … . , δ ).

H. Summary of Replacing Balanced Truncation with Feature

Decomposition

Below, we outline the algorithmic steps for replacing the

model-order reduction technique of balanced truncation with

feature decomposition of the state-space systems. The steps

are as follows:

1: Replace balanced truncation with direct truncation of cross

Gamian under symmetric assumption (Theorem 1) Figure 1. Example of a single node in SIS infectious disease graph with

infection rate β and recovery rate δ.

2: Approximate cross Gramian by empirical cross Gramian

(Lemma 3) Courtesy of Nowzari, et al. "Analysis and control of epidemics: A survey of

3: Train auotencoder on empirical cross Gramian with a spreading processes on complex networks."

hidden representation of size .

In MATLAB, the SIS network model is modelled with 30

4: Project the original dynamics onto the learnt feature space individuals. This is an autonomous system as there are no

(Galerkin projection) to obtain the following reduced model: control inputs. Both the POD and the proposed feature

decomposition algorithm for autonomous systems are applied

( )= ( ( ( ( )+ ), ( ) ) + ) to this problem to reduce the state variables p(t) in are to

( )=ℎ ( ( )+ ) ( ) in . The original dynamics in is simulated for

100 time steps. This data is then accumulated into a data

matrix of size . Both PCA and an autoencoder are

V. SIMULATION

run on the data, each extracting 3 “features”. The dynamical

In this section, we highlight the performance of feature equations are projected onto the principal components as in

decomposition of an autonomous system on an infectious POD as well as the nonlinear feature space learnt from the

disease model. The recent outbreak of Ebola and Zika virus autoencoder. We now have two separate parameters for

have necessitated finding more accurate models for the spread reducing the dynamics: POD reduction and feature

of infectious diseases. One such model is the SIS decomposition.

(Susceptible/Infected/Susceptible) epidemic model, which

characterizes individuals as residing in one of two Using the parameters from these two reduction

compartments: “Susceptible” and “Infected.” Susceptible techniques, the initial conditions from the original problem in

individuals are healthy individuals who can transition from are reduced to 3 state variables and then simulated for 100

“susceptible” to “infected” with an infection rate β. Infected time steps using the reduced order equations. Once the

individuals are individuals harboring the disease who can reduced model results ( ) are found for 100 time steps, they

transition from “infected” to “susceptible” with a recovery are decoded (reconstructed) back to as in the decode step

rate δ. of the autoencoder (see autoencoder section).

1921

Three plots are shown below: 1. original dynamics (fig. 2) VI. CONCLUSION

2. the reconstructed output of POD (fig. 3) 3. the The paper shows a framework for model-order reduction

reconstructed output of our proposed framework (fig. 4). that taps into the power of deep learning. Many model-order

Figure 3 is obtained by first reducing the original initial state reduction techniques at their heart rely on linear-based

of the model from to using POD (2). 2. Propagating principal component analysis [12], a less than ideal technique

the initial state via the reduced dynamics and retrieving a for reducing nonlinear systems. The feature decomposition

matrix in , where the columns are the reduced state framework allows for extracting a nonlinear feature space on

variables for each of the propagated 100 time steps. 3. which to project the dynamics. Furthermore, for state-space

Decoding or reconstructing these 100 data points in back model reduction, we showed that training on the empirical

to to get a matrix of size, . These data points are cross Gramian data set will give results similar to balanced

referred to as the reconstructed POD data points. Figure 4 is truncation. Additionally, the example of the infectious disease

obtained in a similar fashion, but replace step 2 by reducing model showed that the feature decomposition method can

the dynamics via the feature decomposition framework, outperform the traditional PCA-based model-order reduction

instead of POD. Note the improvement of figure 4 over figure technique.

3 as an approximation of figure 2.

While bounds exist for proper orthogonal decomposition

To obtain a metric of success, a mean square error is and balanced truncation, currently no such bounds exist for

computed between the reconstructed data points (POD and our framework due to the non-convexity of the optimization

Feature Decomposition) and the original propagated data problem associated with the autoencoder. Future work is

points. Averaged over five runs, the mean squared error for needed to find bounds for this non-convex problem. On a final

the POD-based algorithm is 0.1667 and the mean squared note, the feature decomposition framework described above

error for the autoencoder-based algorithm is better at 0.0873. extracts features using only a single hidden layer in the

The experiments were repeated for a reduction from 100 to 3 autoencoder. More powerful features can be extracted by

states and a reduction from 20 to 3 states. For a reduction from using multiple hidden layers in the stacked version of the

100 to 3 states, averaged over five runs, the mean squared autoencoder.

error for the POD-based algorithm is 0.5870 and the mean

squared error for the autoencoder-based algorithm is better at REFERENCES

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1922

- principalcomponentanalysisunsupervisedclassificationÎncărcat deapi-250771197
- Sensory Analysis - Section 5Încărcat deCathy Chiu
- Marketing at Major PortsÎncărcat deVangelis Kounoupas
- Network Anomaly Detection and Visualization using Combined PCA and Adaptive FilteringÎncărcat deijcsis
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