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Specifiers

Resource Book
Concrete Anchoring Concrete Lifting

www.ramset.com.au
WELCOME TO THE RAMSET™
SPECIFIERS RESOURCE BOOK
This concise and systematically presented book contains the information most useful to Architects,
Specifiers and Engineers when selecting the concrete anchoring solution that best suits their project.

Selection of a concrete anchoring product is made on the basis of the basic type of fixing
(male or female, bolt or stud), macro environment, (e.g. coastal or inland), micro environment
(particular chemicals) and of course the capacity that best meets the design load case.

Where the fixing is simple and does not warrant strength limit state calculations, selection on the
basis of load case is made simple and easy with working load limit tables for each concrete anchor.

Where more rigorous design and strength limit state calculation is required, the simplified
step-by-step method presented in this booklet will allow rapid selection and verification of the
appropriate concrete anchor.

The Brick and Block anchoring section gives design professionals guidance as to the behaviour
of a number of fixings suitable for use in a variety of both solid and hollow pre-manufactured
masonry units.

The capacity information presented considers the elemental nature of pre-manufactured masonry
units and advises designers as to suitable locations within the units accordingly.

With the continued growth of Precast Concrete as a construction medium, technical information is
presented here, sufficient to enable the selection of appropriate lifting hardware for precast concrete
components subject to lifting, handling and erection.

In line with current practice, the information is presented in Working Load Limit format,
consistant with capacity information presented for cranes, slings, chains, etc.

We know that you will find this book both useful and informative.

For additional information or any further enquiries, contact your local


Ramset™ engineer at the following email addresses:

Western Australia westeng@ramset.com.au


Victoria/Tasmania southeng@ramset.com.au
Northern Territory/South Australia ntsaeng@ramset.com.au
Queensland northeng@ramset.com.au
New South Wales/A.C.T. easteng@ramset.com.au

2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 LEGEND OF SYMBOLS 5 11 AnkaScrew™ Screw In Anchors
11.1 General Information 79-80
2 NOTATION 6 11.2 Description and Part Numbers 80
11.3 Engineering Properties 80
3 DESIGN PROCESS 7 11.4 Strength Limit State Design 81-86
3.1 Simplified Design Approach 8-11
3.2 Worked Example 12-15 12 DynaBolt™ Sleeve Anchors
12.1 General Information 87-88
4 ANCHOR DESIGN SOFTWARE 16-18 12.2 Description and Part Numbers 88
12.3 Engineering Properties 88
5 SELECTING THE RIGHT ANCHOR 12.4 Strength Limit State Design 89-94
5.1 Environmental Considerations 19
5.2 Anchor Feature Guide 20-21 13 DynaSet™ Drop In Anchors
5.3 Chemical Resistance 22-23 13.1 General Information 95-96
13.2 Description and Part Numbers 96
6 ANCHORING TECHNOLOGY 13.3 Engineering Properties 96
6.1 Derivation of Capacity 24 13.4 Strength Limit State Design 97-102
6.2 Anchoring Principles 25-28
6.3 Base Materials 28-29 14 RediDrive™ Hammer In Anchors
6.4 Design 30 14.1 General Information 103-104
6.5 Tension 31-34 14.2 Description and Part Numbers 104
6.6 Shear 35-36 14.3 Engineering Properties 104
6.7 Bending 37
6.8 Combined Loading 38 15 ShureDrive™ Anchors
6.9 Anchor Groups 39 15.1 General Information 105-106
6.10 Assembly Torque and Preload 40 15.2 Description and Part Numbers 106
6.11 Long Term Preload Degradation 41
6.12 Slip Load and Cyclic Loading 42 16 RamPlug™
6.13 Corrosion 43 16.1 General Information 107-108
6.14 Fire 43 16.2 Description and Part Numbers 108

17 EasyDrive Nylon Anchors


MECHANICAL ANCHORING 17.1 General Information 109-110
17.2 Description and Part Numbers 110
7 SpaTec™ Safety Anchors
7.1 General Information 45-46
7.2 Description and Part Numbers 46 CHEMICAL ANCHORING
7.3 Engineering Properties 46
7.4 Strength Limit State Design 47-52 18 ChemSet™ Anchor Studs & Injection Rod
ChemSet™ Anchor Studs
8 HiShear™ 8.8 Structural Anchors 18.1 General Information 113
8.1 General Information 53-54 18.2 Description and Part Numbers 113
8.2 Description and Part Numbers 54 18.3 Engineering Properties 113
8.3 Engineering Properties 54 ChemSet™ Injection Rod
8.4 Strength Limit State Design 55-60 18.4 General Information 114
18.5 Description and Part Numbers 114
9 Boa™ Coil Expansion Anchors 18.6 Engineering Properties 114
9.1 General Information 61-62
9.2 Description and Part Numbers 62 19 ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsules
9.3 Engineering Properties 62 19.1 General Information 115-116
9.4 Strength Limit State Design 63-68 19.2 Description and Part Numbers 116
19.3 Engineering Properties 116
10 TruBolt™ Stud Anchors 19.4 Strength Limit State Design 117-122
10.1 General Information 69-70
10.2 Description and Part Numbers 70 20 ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series
10.3 Engineering Properties 71 20.1 General Information 123-124
10.4 Strength Limit State Design 72-78 20.2 Description and Part Numbers 124
20.3 Engineering Properties 124
20.4 Strength Limit State Design 125-130

3
TABLE OF CONTENTS cont.
21 ChemSet™ Hammer Capsules CAST-IN LIFTING
21.1 General Information 131-132
21.2 Description and Part Numbers 132 32 LIFTING TECHNOLOGY
21.3 Engineering Properties 132 32.1 Important Notice 189
21.4 Strength Limit State Design 133-138 32.2 Lifting Anchors 190
32.3 Lifting Clutches 190
22 ChemSet™ Injection 101 32.4 Substrate Suitability 191
22.1 General Information 139-140 32.5 References 191
22.2 Description and Part Numbers 140 32.6 Load Case Determination 192-193
22.3 Engineering Properties 140 32.7 Design Considerations 194-195
22.4 Strength Limit State Design 141-146
33 SYSTEMS FOR YARD CAST WALL PANELS
33.1 Applications 197
BRICK AND BLOCK ANCHORING 33.2 Installation 198
33.3 Anchor Types 198
23 TYPICAL PRE-MANUFACTURED 33.4 Lifting Anchor Reinforcement Detail 199
MASONRY UNITS 149-151 33.5 Capacity Information 200
33.6 Description and Part Numbers 201
24 ChemSet™ Injection 101 33.7 Specification 201
24.1 General Information 152-153
24.2 Description and Part Numbers 153 34 SYSTEMS FOR SITE CAST WALL PANELS
24.3 Engineering Properties 153 34.1 Applications 203
34.2 Installation 203
25 AnkaScrew™ Screw In Anchors 34.3 Anchor Types 204
25.1 General Information 154-155 34.4 Capacity Information 204
25.2 Description and Part Numbers 155 34.5 Description and Part Numbers 205
25.3 Engineering Properties 155 34.6 Specification 205

26 DynaBolt™ Anchor Hex Bolt 35 SYSTEMS FOR COMPONENT PRECAST


26.1 General Information 156-157 35.1 Applications 207-208
26.2 Description and Part Numbers 157 35.2 Installation 209
26.3 Engineering Properties 157 35.3 Anchor Types 210
35.4 Lifting Anchor Reinforcement Detail 211
27 RamPlug™ 35.5 Capacity Information 212-217
27.1 General Information 158-159 35.6 Description and Part Numbers 218
27.2 Description and Part Numbers 159 35.7 Specification 219

28 TYPICAL BOLT PERFORMANCE INFORMATION


28.1 Strength Limit State Design Information 161 RESOURCE BOOK DESIGN WORKSHEET 220-221
28.2 Working Load Limit Design Information 161

CAST-IN ANCHORING
29 Elephants’ Feet Ferrules
29.1 General Information 163-164
29.2 Description and Part Numbers 164
29.3 Engineering Properties 164
29.4 Strength Limit State Design 165-170

30 Round Ferrules
30.1 General Information 171-172
30.2 Description and Part Numbers 172
30.3 Engineering Properties 172
30.4 Strength Limit State Design 173-178

31 TCM Ferrules
31.1 General Information 179-180
31.2 Description and Part Numbers 180
31.3 Engineering Properties 180
31.4 Strength Limit State Design 181-186

4
1
1.0 LEGEND OF SYMBOLS
We have developed this set of easily recognisable icons to assist with product selection.

PERFORMANCE RELATED SYMBOLS


Indicates the suitability of product to specific types of performance related situations.
Suitable for elevated temperate applications.
Has good resistance to cyclic and pulse Structural anchor components made from steel.
loading. Resists loosening under vibration. Any plastic or non-ferrous parts make no contribution
to holding power under elevated temperatures.
Anchor has an effective pull-down feature,
or is a stud anchor. It has the ability to clamp May be used close to edges (or another
the fixture to the base material and provide anchor) without risk of splitting the concrete.
high resistance to cyclic loading.

Suitable for use in seismic design. Temporary or removable anchor.

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION SYMBOLS


Indicates the base material and surface finish to assist in selection in regard to corrosion or environmental issues.

Steel Zinc Plated to AS1791-1986. AISI Grade 316 Stainless Steel, resistant to corrosive
Minimum thickness 6 micron. agents including chlorides and industrial pollutants.
Recommended for internal applications only. Recommended for internal or external applications
in marine or corrosive environments.
Steel Hot Dipped Galvanised to AS1650-1989
and AS1214-1983. Corrosion resistant. Impact resistant.
Minimum thickness 42 micron. Not recommended for direct exposure to sunlight.
For external applications.

INSTALLATION RELATED SYMBOLS


Indicates the suitable positioning and other installation related requirements.

Suitable for floor applications. Chemical anchors suitable for use in dry holes.

Suitable for wall applications. Chemical anchors suitable for use in damp holes.

Chemical anchors suitable for use in holes


Suitable for overhead applications.
filled with water.

Suitable for hollow brick/block and hollow Suitable for use in drilled holes.
core concrete applications.

Anchor is cast into substrate by either Suitable for use in cored holes.
puddling, attaching to reinforcing or formwork.

Anchor can be through fixed into substrate Suitable for AAC and lightweight concrete
using fixture as template. applications.

5
2
2.0 NOTATION
GENERAL NOTATION
a = actual anchor spacing (mm) h = anchor effective depth (mm) Xnai = anchor spacing effect, internal to a row,
ac = critical anchor spacing (mm) hn = nominal effective depth (mm) tension
am = absolute minimum anchor spacing (mm) g = gap or non-structural thickness (mm) Xnc = concrete compressive strength effect,
tension
As = stress area (mm2) L = anchor length (mm)
Xne = edge distance effect, tension
bm = minimum substrate thickness (mm) Le = anchor effective length (mm)
Xuc = characteristic ultimate capacity
db = bolt diameter (mm) Lt = thread length (mm)
Xva = anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear
df = fixture hole diameter (mm) n = number of fixings in a group
Xvc = concrete compressive strength effect, shear
dh = drilled hole diameter (mm) PL = long term, retained preload (kN)
Xvd = load direction effect, concrete edge shear
e = actual edge distance (mm) PLi = initial preload (kN)
Xvn = multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear
ec = critical edge distance (mm) Pr = proof load (kN)
Xvs = corner edge shear effect, shear
em = absolute minimum edge distance (mm) t = total thickness of fastened
material(s) (mm) Xvsc = concrete compressive strength effect,
f’c = concrete cylinder compressive combined concrete/steel shear
strength (MPa) Tr = assembly torque (Nm)
Z = section modulus (mm3)
f’cf = concrete flexural tensile strength (MPa) Xe = edge distance effect, tension
ß = concrete cube compressive
fu = characteristic ultimate steel Xna = anchor spacing effect, tension strength (N/mm2)
tensile strength (MPa) Xnae = anchor spacing effect, end of a row, µT = torque co-efficient of sliding friction
fy = characteristic steel yield strength (MPa) tension
x = mean ultimate capacity

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE NOTATION


M* = design bending action effect (Nmm) Nus = characteristic ultimate steel tensile Vus = characteristic ultimate steel shear
Mu = characteristic ultimate moment capacity (kN) capacity (kN)
capacity (Nm) Nusr = factored characteristic ultimate Vusc = characteristic ultimate combined
N* = design tensile action effect (kN) steel tensile capacity (kN) concrete/steel shear capacity (kN)
Ntf = nominal ultimate bolt tensile capacity (kN) Ru = characteristic ultimate capacity Ø = capacity reduction factor
Nu = characteristic ultimate tensile V* = design shear action effect (kN) Øc = capacity reduction factor, concrete
capacity (kN) Vsf = nominal ultimate bolt shear capacity (kN) tension recommended as 0.6
Nuc = characteristic ultimate concrete Vu = ultimate shear capacity (kN) Øm = capacity reduction factor, steel bending
tensile capacity (kN) recommended as 0.8
Vuc = characteristic ultimate concrete
Nucr = factored characteristic ultimate edge shear capacity (kN) Øn = capacity reduction factor, steel tension
concrete tensile capacity (kN) recommended as 0.8
Vur = design ultimate shear capacity (kN)
Nur = design ultimate tensile capacity (kN) Øq = capacity reduction factor, concrete edge
Vurc = design ultimate concrete edge shear shear recommended as 0.6
Nurc = design ultimate concrete tensile capacity (kN)
capacity (kN) Øv = capacity reduction factor, steel shear
recommended as 0.8

PERMISSIBLE STRESS NOTATION


fs = factor of safety Na = working load limit tensile capacity (kN) Ra = working load limit capacity
fsc = factor of safety for substrate = 3.0 Nac = working load limit concrete tensile V = applied shear load (kN)
fss = factor of safety for steel in tension capacity (kN) Va = working load limit shear capacity (kN)
and bending = 2.2 Nar = factored working load limit tensile Var = factored working load limit shear
fsv = factor of safety for steel in shear = 2.5 capacity (kN) capacity (kN)
M = applied moment (Nm) Nas = working load limit steel tensile Vas = working load limit steel shear
capacity (kN) capacity (kN)
Ma = working load limit moment capacity (Nm)
Nasr = factored working load limit steel
N = applied tensile load (kN) tensile capacity (kN)

6
3
3.0 DESIGN PROCESS
This information is provided for the guidance of qualified Ramset™ has developed this Simplified Design Approach
structural engineers or other suitably skilled persons in the to achieve strength limit state design, and to allow for rapid
design of anchors. It is the designers responsibility to ensure selection of a suitable anchor and through systematic
compliance with the relevant standards, codes of practice, analysis, establish that it will meet the required design
building regulations, workplace regulations and statutes criteria under strength limit state principles.
as applicable.
The necessary diagrams, tables etc. for each specific product
This manual allows the designer to determine load are included in this publication.
carrying capacities based on actual application and
installation conditions. Ramset™ has also developed a software tool “Ramset
Anchor Design” to enable engineers to quickly select
The designer must first select the anchor style/type to suit suitable anchors for a specific set of design conditions and
application and environmental conditions through the use output the results for project file reference.
of tables 5.1, 5.2 & 5.3 to identify the specific product
features, dimensional properties and environmental
See section 4 of this publication for further details and
characteristics required.
an example of how to use the “Ramset Anchor Design”
software.
Then select an appropriate anchor size to meet the required
load case through the use of either the working load
information provided or by use of the simplified design
process described on the page opposite to arrive at
recommendations in line with strength limit state
design principles.

7
3 Simplified Design Approach

3.1 SIMPLIFIED DESIGN APPROACH


We have developed this design process to provide accurate
anchor performance predictions and allow appropriate design
solutions in an efficient and time saving manner.

Our experience over many years of anchor design has enabled


us to develop this process which enables accurate and quick
solutions without the need to work labourously from first
principles each time.

PRELIMINARY SELECTION
Establish the design action effects, N* and V* (Tension and
Shear) acting on each anchor being examined using the
appropriate load combinations detailed in the AS1170 series
of Australian Standards.

Refer to charts 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 in order to select an anchor


type that best meets the needs of your application.

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE DESIGN

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Refer to table 1a, ‘Indicative combined loading – interaction This is an important structural dimension that will be
diagram’ for the anchor type selected, looking up N* and V* referred to in subsequent tables.
to select the anchor size most likely to meet the design
requirements. Typically, greater effective depths will result in greater
tensile capacities.
Note that the Interaction Diagram is for a specific concrete
compressive strength and does not consider edge distance and ACTION Note down the anchor effective depth, h.
anchor spacing effects, hence is a guide only and its use Note also the product part no. referenced.
should not replace a complete design process.

ACTION Note down the anchor size selected. Checkpoint 1


Having selected an anchor size, check that the design
values for edge distance and anchor spacing comply Anchor size selected ?
with the absolute minima detailed in table 1b.
Absolute minima compliance achieved ?
If your design values do not comply, adjust the design layout.
Anchor effective depth calculated ?
Calculate the anchor effective depth as detailed in step 1c.

If the above questions are answered satisfactorily,


proceed to step 2.

8
Simplified Design Approach 3
STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor

Referring to table 2a, determine the reduced characteristic For designs involving more than one anchor, consideration
ultimate concrete tensile capacity (ØNuc). This is the basic must be given to the influence of anchor spacing on tensile
capacity, uninfluenced by edge distance or anchor spacings and capacity. Use either of tables 2d or 2e to establish the anchor
is for the specific concrete compressive strength(s) noted. spacing effect, tension, Xnae or Xnai.

ACTION Note down the value for ØNuc ACTION Note down the value of Xnae or Xnai

Calculate the concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


by referring to table 2b. This multiplier considers the influence Checkpoint 2
of the actual concrete compressive strength compared to that
used in table 2a above.
Design reduced concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc
ACTION Note down the value for Xnc
ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai ) (kN)
If the concrete edge distance is close enough to the anchor
being evaluated, that anchors tensile performance may be
reduced. Use table 2c, edge distance effect, tension, Xne to This calculation takes into consideration the influences of
determine if the design edge distance influences the anchors concrete compressive strength, edge distance and anchor
tensile capacity. spacing to arrive at the design reduced concrete tensile capacity.

ACTION Note down the value for Xne ACTION Note down the value of ØNurc

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Having calculated the concrete tensile capacity above (ØNurc),


consideration must now be given to other failure mechanisms. Checkpoint 3
Calculate the reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile
Now that we have obtained capacity information for all
capacity (ØNus) from table(s) 3a.
tensile failure mechanisms, verify which one is controlling
the design.
ACTION Note down the value of ØNus

For internally threaded anchoring products that utilise a Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur
separate bolt such as the range of Cast-In Ferrules and the
DynaSet™ anchor, make use of step 3b to verify the reduced ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus, ØNtf
characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity (ØNtf).
Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

This completes the tensile design process, we now look to


verify that adequate shear capacity is available.

9
3 Simplified Design Approach

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor

Referring to table 4a, determine the reduced characteristic Examples


ultimate concrete edge shear capacity (ØVuc). This is the
basic capacity, uninfluenced by anchor spacings and is for
the specific edge distance and concrete compressive
strength(s) noted.
n=3
ACTION Note down the value for ØVuc
V*TOTAL
Calculate the concrete compressive strength effect, shear, Xvc
by referring to table 4b. This multiplier considers the influence
of the actual concrete compressive strength compared to that
used in table 4a above.

ACTION Note down the value for Xvc

The angle of incidence of the shear load acting towards an edge n=2
is considered by the factor Xvd, load direction effect, shear. V*TOTAL

Use table 4c to establish its value. Assume slotted holes to


prevent shear take up.
ACTION Note down the value for Xvd

For a row of anchors located close to an edge, the influence of


the anchor spacing on the concrete edge shear capacity is
considered by the factor Xva, anchor spacing effect, concrete
edge shear.
n=2
Note that this factor deals with a row of anchors parallel to V*TOTAL
the edge and assumes that all anchors are loaded equally.
Note: Consider capacity of two anchors in row
If designing for a single anchor, Xva = 1.0 closest to edge only,
ie. anchor load = V*TOTAL/2 to each anchor.
ACTION Note down the value for Xva
ACTION Note down the value for Xvn
In order to distribute the concrete edge shear evenly to all
anchors within a row, calculate the multiple anchors effect,
concrete edge shear, Xvn. Checkpoint 4
If designing for a single anchor, Xvn = 1.0
Design reduced concrete shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn (kN)

This calculation takes into consideration the influences of


concrete compressive strength, edge distance and anchor
spacing to arrive at the design reduced concrete shear capacity.

For a design involving two or more anchors in a row parallel


to an edge, this value is the average capacity of each anchor
assuming each is loaded equally.

ACTION Note down the value of ØVurc

10
Simplified Design Approach 3
STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Having calculated the concrete shear capacity above (ØVurc),


consideration must now be given to other failure mechanisms. Checkpoint 5
Calculate the reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear
capacity (ØVus) from table(s) 5a. Design reduced shear capacity, ØVur

ACTION Note down the value for ØVus


Now that we have obtained capacity information for all
For internally threaded anchoring products that utilise a shear failure mechanisms, verify which one is controlling
separate bolt such as the range of Cast-In Ferrules and the the design.
DynaSet™ anchor, make use of step 5b to verify the reduced
characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity (ØVsf).
ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus, ØVsf

Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

This completes the shear design process, we now look to verify


that adequate combined capacity is available for load cases
having both shear and tensile components.

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

For load cases having both tensile and shear components,


verify that the relationship represented here is satisfied. Checkpoint 6
Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify the product to be used


as detailed.

11
3 Worked Example

3.2 WORKED EXAMPLE


Verify capacity of the anchors detailed below:

Given data:
Concrete compressive strength f’c 50 MPa
Design tensile action effect N*TOTAL 80 kN
Design shear action effect V*TOTAL 180 kN 150 150 150
Edge distance e 250 mm
Anchor spacing a 150 mm
Fixture plate + grout thickness t 42 mm A B C D
250
No. of anchors in shear n 4 V*TOTAL

As the design process considers design action effects α = 30°


PER anchor, distribute the total load case to each anchor
as is deemed appropriate.

In this case, equal load distribution is considered


appropriate hence,

Design tensile action effect (per anchor) N* 20 kN


Design shear action effect (per anchor) V* 45 kN

Given that each of the ‘interior’ anchors is influenced by two


adjacent anchors, verify capacity for anchor ‘B’ in this case.

From the information presented in tables 5.1 – 5.3, it


is established that SpaTec™ anchors will be suitable
for selection.

Having completed the preliminary selection component of the


design process, commence the Strength Limit State Design
process.

12
Worked Example 3
STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Refer to table 1a, ‘Indicative combined loading – interaction The effective depth, h, is calculated by making reference to
diagram’ on page 45. Applying both the N* value and V* value the ‘Description and Part Numbers’ table on page 44 and
to the interaction, it can be seen that the intersection of the calculating effective depth, h = Le - t. Two options are available
two values falls within the M16 “band”. for the M16 SpaTec™. Given that the fixture thickness value ‘t’
is quite large, select the longer of the two M16 SpaTec™
ACTION M16 anchor size selected. anchors available.

Confirm that absolute minima requirements are met. Hence, h = 150 - 42


= 108 mm
From table 1b (page 45) for SpaTec™, it is required that
edge distance, e > 170 mm. and that anchor spacing, ACTION h = 108
a > 120 mm. Anchor selected is SA16167

The design values of e = 250 mm and a = 150 mm comply


with these minima, hence continue to step 1c. Checkpoint 1
Anchor size selected ? M16
Absolute minima
compliance achieved ? Yes
Anchor effective
depth calculated ? h = 108 mm with SA16167

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor

Referring to table 2a, consider the value obtained for an As we are considering anchor ‘B’ for this example, use
M16 anchor at h = 110 mm (closest to our design value table 2e on page 47 to verify the anchor spacing effect,
of h = 108 mm). internal to a row, tension, Xnai value. If we were inspecting
anchors ‘A’ or ‘D’ we would use table 2d for anchors at the
ACTION ØNuc = 54.6 kN end of a row.

Verify the concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc ACTION Xnai = 0.45
value from table 2b.

ACTION Xnc = 1.25 Checkpoint 2


Verify the edge distanced effect, tension, Xne value from
table 2c.
Design reduced concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc
ACTION Xne = 1.00 (no effect)
ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * Xnai (kN)
= 54.6 * 1.25 * 1.00 * 0.45
= 30.7 kN

ACTION ØNurc = 30.7 kN

13
3 Worked Example

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

From table 3a, verify the reduced characteristic ultimate steel


tensile capacity, ØNus. Checkpoint 3
For an M16 SpaTec™, ØNus = 100.5 kN.
ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus
ACTION ØNus = 100.5 kN
In this case ØNur = 30.7 kN
(governed by concrete capacity).

Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
20 / 30.7 = 0.65 ≤ 1
Tensile design criteria satisfied, proceed to Step 4.

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor

Referring to table 4a, consider the value obtained for an M16 In order to distribute the shear load evenly to all anchors in
anchor at e = 250 mm. the group, the multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
value is retrieved from table 4e.
ACTION ØVuc = 80.2 kN
The ratio of (a / e) for this design case is 150 / 250 = 0.6.
Verify the concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xvc
value from table 4b. ACTION Xvn = 0.69

ACTION Xvc = 1.25

Verify the load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Checkpoint 4
value using table 4c.

ACTION Xvd = 1.32 for angle of 30 degrees to normal. Design reduced concrete shear capacity, ØVurc

Verify the anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn (kN)
value using table 4d. = 80.2 * 1.25 * 1.32 * 0.62 * 0.69
= 56.6 kN
ACTION Xva = 0.62
ACTION ØVurc = 56.6 kN

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

From table 5a, verify the reduced characteristic ultimate


steel shear capacity, ØVus. Checkpoint 5
The shear capacity available from the SpaTec™ anchor is
subject to its effective depth, h value. As was noted earlier ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus
h = 108 mm for this example, hence,
In this case ØVur = 56.6 kN
for an M16 SpaTec™ at h = 108 mm, ØVus = 104.5 kN (governed by concrete capacity).

ACTION ØVus = 104.5 kN Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,


45 / 56.6 = 0.80 ≤ 1
Shear design criteria satisfied, proceed to Step 6.

14
Worked Example 3
STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6
Check that the combined loading relationship Re-consider the design using the adjusted values with anchor
is satisfied: spacing, “a” set at 200 mm.

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2, ØNuc = 54.6 kN


Xnc = 1.25
20 / 30.7 + 45 / 56.6 = 1.44 > 1.2 Xne = 1.00
Xnai = 0.61
Combined loading criteria FAILED.
Hence ØNurc = 41.6 kN (at a = 200 mm).

Reviewing the design process, examine the critical factors ØVuc = 80.2 kN
influencing the overall anchor capacity. Xvc = 1.25
Xvd = 1.32
For tension (governed by concrete failure), Xva = 0.66
Xvn = 0.74 (at a = 200 mm, hence a / e = 0.8)
ØNuc = 54.6 kN
Xnc = 1.25 Hence ØVurc = 64.6 kN (at a = 200 mm).
Xne = 1.00
Xnai = 0.45 Now,

It can be seen from the above values that whilst the concrete N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,
compressive strength effect, Xnc improves the design ultimate
tensile capacity, the anchor spacing effect, Xnai significantly 20 / 41.6 + 45 / 64.6 = 1.17 < 1.2
reduces design ultimate tensile capacity.
Combined loading criteria PASSES.
Possible solution: Increase anchor spacing to raise the value
of Xnai.

For shear (governed by concrete failure),


Specify
ØVuc = 80.2 kN
Xvc = 1.25 Ramset SpaTec™ Anchor,

Xvd = 1.32 M16 (SA16167).


Xva = 0.62 Maximum fixed thickness to be 42 mm.
Xvn = 0.69
To be installed in accordance with
Ramset Technical Data Sheet

Again, the concrete compressive strength effect, Xvc improves


the design ultimate shear capacity. Anchor spacing effect, Xva
reduces the design ultimate shear capacity.

Possible solution: Increase anchor spacing to raise the value


of Xva.

Note that increasing the anchor spacing for this design will
improve Xnai, Xva and Xvn.

15
4
4.1 ANCHOR DESIGN SOFTWARE
4.1.1 RAMSET™ ANCHOR DESIGN 4.1.2 USE OF THE RAMSET™ DESIGN
SOFTWARE v1.3 SOFTWARE
Ramset™ Anchor Design Software is provided to assist in the Having installed and run the program proceed to the toolbar at
choice of a suitable fastener which meets a specific set of the top of the screen and select the "New" button, this will
design inputs and is intended for use by suitably qualified bring you to the first of four input screens.
design professionals.
Project/Customer Details
The program attempts to acquire the minimum data needed to
fully specify the anchoring problem, On the first screen (Fig. 1) enter Project/Customer Details.
These are simply details that will help identify the project you
~ substrate details are designing and will form part of the printed output that can
~ adverse environments be stored as part of the project documentation.
~ interfering edges and anchors
~ load case information

and to offer a range of anchors which meet the requirement.

Additional information prompts with defaults, ensuring it has


been considered. Once a selection has been made all inputs,
calculated values and installation details are available as output.

The Ramset™ Anchor Design Software is ideal for considering


complex anchor layouts and grouped anchor configurations.
Note that the calculations being performed relate to the single
fastener currently at the reference location. The software
provides a calculation of the viability of THAT anchor and
assumes that all other anchors: Fig. 1

~ are the same type On completion of these details, the "Next" button located on
~ have the same installation conditions, the bottom of the screen will move you onto the second input
~ are subject to the same force. screen.
For multiple anchor connections, the design professional must
Material Details
therefore distribute the applied load case(s) to each anchor in
the group and evaluate each anchor separately.
On the second screen (Fig. 2) enter the Material Details.
These refer directly to the substrate properties of the project
This approach allows the designer flexibility in distributing
you are designing.
loads to anchors so as to optimise the connection detail
without the constraints of a software imposed distribution
Fields which must be completed are;
method.

The software will check that the substrate thickness is ~ Fixture and Non Structural Space Thickness
This refers to the thickness of the fixture and the non
adequate for allowing anchor capacity to be generated. The
structural gap which is any non structural material
Structural Engineer should check the substrates sectional
(e.g. plaster, grout, packer, foam) in between the substrate
capacity for resisting the applied load.
and the fixture.
By default the software will select from a wide range of
fasteners types that suit the design parameters of the specific ~ Structural Depth and Compressive Strength
This refers to the substrate thickness and its compressive
anchor.
strength. Note that the program assumes the substrate is a
solid homogeneous material with a particular compressive
strength. Therefore it cannot design hollow block fixings,
however core-filled blockwork can be analysed using an
equivalent compressive strength value.

16
Anchor Design Software 4
Fields which may be completed to help define the anchor The screen should then be similar to the following.
selection criteria are:

(Note if these fields are left blank then the program will
consider all possible anchors in the range that would be
suitable for the design conditions you impose.)

~ Fastener Environment
These boxes can be "ticked" if there is a particular attribute
the anchor must exhibit. e.g. Selecting the "Corrosive"
attribute will ensure only galvanised and stainless steel
fixings are considered and eliminate zinc plated anchors.

~ Anchor for Consideration


You can individually select specific anchor types to be
considered in the design, and eliminate any that you do not Fig. 3
wish to be evaluated.
You will notice from the above diagram the fastener in the
cross hairs is the reference fastener location upon which all
calculations are made. You are able to change the fastener to
one of the other anchors - details on how to do this can be
found by selecting the "Help" button.

The "Concrete Compaction Factor" represents the quality of


the concrete. For well vibrated and compacted concrete, this
value should be set at 1.0. For poorly finished or unsupervised
edge concrete, set the value at 1.5.

On Completion of all details, the "Next" button moves you


onto the final input screen, or alternatively select "Previous"
to make any changes to the second input screen.
Fig. 2
Limit State or Working Load Design
On completion of the details, the "Next" button will move you
onto the third input screen, or alternatively hit "Previous" to The fourth screen (Fig. 4) requires you to enter either the
make any changes to the first input screen. Limit State or Working Load Design Loads - applied load
on the single anchor position selected. This refers to the
Layout of Dimensional Considerations. loads applied on the anchor in question, and can either be
entered in as a Limit State Load or a Working Load.
On the third screen (Fig. 3) enter the layout of edges and
other fasteners which may affect the design. To design in Limit State, select the "Change to Limit State
Design" button. You can then adjust the reduction factors
These are details on the anchor layout, which enable any loss as required.
in capacity due to being close to an edge or a neighbouring
fastener, of the particular connection you are designing to be Finally input the applied loads on the anchor you are designing,
taken into account. remembering that this load is applied to the single anchor
position only.
Select the "Layout" button.
You will note that the Shear force is split into "Y" and "Z" axis
Select your anchor group configuration, e.g. for a 2 x 2 anchor components. Entering a +ve load in the "Y" box will mean it
layout select the "four" line. Now fill out all the applicable edge will be directed toward the top of the screen, if you wish to
distances and spacings. Note that you do not have to enter in direct the load in the opposite direction simply input the value
all the edges if the anchors are located internally within a slab as a -ve load. Likewise for the "Z" axis.
or panel. Once you are satisfied with the layout, select the
"Finish" button.

17
4 Anchor Design Software

Fig. 4 Fig. 6
On completion, the "Finish" button will commence the The icons in the top right hand corner of the screen enable you
computation of all the possible solutions for the parameters to navigate through the completed design.
you have entered. The possible solutions will be displayed in
the "Possible Acceptable Anchors" dialogue box. The first four from the left are actually the four design input
screens you have just completed.
It is important to note that if the input design parameters
were incomplete or no possible solutions could be found, The fifth icon (calculator icon) allows you to recalculate for
the program will advise as to the reasons why, possible solutions in case you make any amendments or would
(e.g. anchors too close to edge). You are then able to like to select a different anchor.
adjust the design as detailed, using the design input icons
on the summary output screen (Fig. 6). The next icon (printer icon) allows you to print a summary of
the design, which will show the project description, anchor
layout, design inputs and outputs. More detailed printouts are
available if you go to "File" then "Print..." then select the
printout you would like.

The next icon (disk icon) allows you to save the design for
future reference and can be retrieved at a later date.

For a copy of our latest Design Software, contact your local


specialist Ramset™ Sales Engineer (details on inside front
cover) for a demonstration.

Fig. 5
You will notice on the above screen that the anchors are listed
in order of capacity utilised and also display a relative cost,
which is an index cost allowing you to compare the
approximate installed cost of the various types of suitable
anchors.

Select your preferred anchor via the "Select" button and the
screen will then show the design output screen. This screen
shows you the Design Inputs, parameters which you have
entered and computed Design Outputs which includes
capacities, governing factors and installation dimensions. If you
would like to see the detailed calculations, then select the
relevant tabs, i.e. Design, Layout, Cross Section and Installation.

18
5
5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
ANCHOR
SpaTec HiShear Boa Coil TruBolt AnkaScrew DynaBolt DynaSet RediDrive ShureDrive RamPlug EasyDrive ChemSet ChemSet ChemSet ChemSet
8.8 Nylon Spin 800 Series Hammer 101
Coastal Environment
External ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS)
Coastal Environment
Internal ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal)
Inland Environment
External ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn)
Inland Environment
Internal ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓ ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn)
Tropical Environment
External ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal)
Tropical Environment
Internal ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn)
Alpine Environment
External ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal)
Alpine Environment
Internal ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓ ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn) ✓(Zn)
Industrial Enviro.
External ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS)
Industrial Enviro.
Internal ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS)
Internal Wet Areas ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal)
Dry Hole ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Damp Hole ✓(Gal) ✓(Gal) ✓(SS) ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Water Filled Hole ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS)
Submerged Hole
After Set ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS) ✓(SS)
Fire Resistant ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Solid Concrete ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Hollow Block
(Web) ✓
Hollow Block
(Cavity) ✓ ✓ ✓ ● ✓ ● ✓*
Solid Clay Brick ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ● ✓ ● ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Wire Cut Clay Brick ✓ ✓ ✓ ● ✓ ● ✓*
* With accessories. LEGEND ✓ = Recommended ● = Possible

19
5
5.2 ANCHOR FEATURE GUIDE
The following chart provides a quick guide for selecting the
appropriate Ramset™ Concrete Anchor to suit your needs.
Please refer to page 5 for the Legend of Symbols for a detailed
explanation of the symbols used.

PRODUCT PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

SpaTec™ Safety Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓


HiShear 8.8 Anchor

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Boa™ Coil Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
TruBolt™ Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
AnkaScrew Screw In Anchor

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
DynaBolt™ Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
DynaBolt Anchor Hex Bolt

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
DynaSet™ Drop In Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
RediDrive™ Anchor ✓ ✓
ShureDrive Anchor

✓ ✓
RamPlug™ Nylon Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓
EasyDrive Nylon Anchor

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ChemSet Maxima Capsule & Stud
™ ™
✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series Mortar & Stud ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule & Stud ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ChemSet™ Injection 101 Series Mortar & Stud ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Ferrules – Elephants Feet ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Ferrules – Round ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Ferrules – TCM Stainless Steel ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓

20
5

PRODUCT INSTALLATION RELATED

SpaTec™ Safety Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓


HiShear 8.8 Anchor

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Boa™ Coil Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
TruBolt™ Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
AnkaScrew Screw In Anchor

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
DynaBolt™ Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
DynaBolt Anchor Hex Bolt

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
DynaSet Drop In Anchor

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
RediDrive™ Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ShureDrive Anchor

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
RamPlug™ Nylon Anchor ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
EasyDrive Nylon Anchor

✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Capsule & Stud ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ChemSet™ Inj. 800 Series Mortar & Stud ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule & Stud ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
ChemSet™ Inj. 101 Series Mortar & Stud ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Ferrules – Elephants Feet ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Ferrules – Round ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
Ferrules – TCM Stainless Steel ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓
LEGEND ✓ = Recommended

21
5
5.3 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
Resistance of anchors exposed to:

ENVIRONMENT Concentrate % Hammer Caps Spin Capsule 100 Series 800 Series SS Fixings Gal Zinc
Acetic Acid 10 ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Acetic Acid 30 ✓ – ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗
Acetic Acid Concentrate ✓ – ✗ ✗ – ✗ ✗
Acetone 25 ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ – ✗ ✗
Acetone 100 ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ – – –
Ammonia (aq) Concentrate ✗ – – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Ammonia Gas – – ✓ – – ✓ – –
Aniline 100 ✗ ✗ – – – – –
Battery (Accumulator) Acid – ✓ – ✓ ✓ – ✗ ✗
Beer – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Benzene – ✗ ✗ – – ✓ – –
Benzol ✗ – – – ✓ – –
Boric Acid (aq) ✓ – – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Bromine Any – – – – ✓ – –
Butanol 100 – – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Calcium Carbonate All ✓ – – – ✓ – –
Calcium Chloride (aq) Any ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Calcium Hydroxide (aq) – ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Carbon Dioxide 100 – ✓ – – ✓ – –
Carbon Monoxide 100 – ✓ – – ✓ – –
Carbon Tetrachloride 10 – – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Carbon Tetrachloride Concentrate ✗ – – – ✓ – –
Cement Suspension Saturated – ✓ – – ✓ – –
Citric Acid 15 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Citric Acid Any ✓ – ✓ ✓ – ✗ ✗
Common Salt Solution Any ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Copper Nitrate Any – – – – ✓ – –
Copper Sulphate Any – – – – ✓ – –
Diesel Fuel 100 ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Distilled Water ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Engine Oil 100 – – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Ethanol 10 – ✓ ✗ ✓ ✓ – –
Ethanol 40 – ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ – –
Ethanol 50 ✗ ✗ – – ✓ – –
Ethyl Acetate 100 – ✗ – – ✓ – –
Formaldehyde (aq) 30 ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Formic Acid 10 ✓ – ✓ ✓ – ✗ ✗
Formic Acid 40 ✓ – ✗ ✓ – ✗ ✗
Formic Acid 100 ✓ – ✗ ✓ – ✗ ✗
Fuel Oil – ✓ – – – ✓ – –
Freon – ✓ – – – ✓ – –
Gasoline – – – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Glycerine – ✓ – – – ✓ – –
Ethylene Glycol 100 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Heptane 100 – ✗ – – ✓ – –
Hydrochloric Acid 1 ✗ – ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Hydrochloric Acid 10 ✗ – ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗ ✗
Hydrochloric Acid 20 ✗ – ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗ ✗
Hydrochloric Acid Concentrate ✗ – ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗
Hydrogen Fluoride 20 – ✓ – – – ✗ ✗
Hydrogen Peroxide 10 – ✗ ✗ ✗ – ✗ ✗
Hydrogen Peroxide 30 – ✗ ✗ ✗ – ✗ ✗
Iodine 100 – – – – ✗ ✗ ✗
Isopropyl Alcohol 100 ✓ – – – ✓ – –
Lactic Acid 10 ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Lactic Acid Any ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗

aq = aqueous solution (diluted) LEGEND ✓ = Resistant ✗ = Not Resistant


% = % by weight

22
5

ENVIRONMENT Concentrate % Hammer Caps Spin Capsule 100 Series 800 Series SS Fixings Gal Zinc
Laitance – ✓ – – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Linseed Oil 100 ✓ – – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Machine Oil 100 – – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Magnesium Chloride All ✓ – – – – – –
Methanol 10 – ✓ ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Methanol 100 ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ – –
Motor Oil 100 ✗ ✗ – – ✓ – –
Nitric Acid 10 ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Nitric Acid 20 ✗ ✓ – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Nitric Acid 30 ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗
Nitric Acid 50 ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗
Nitric Acid Concentrate ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗
Oleic Acid 100 ✓ – – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Perchlorethylene 100 ✗ ✗ – – ✓ – –
Petrol 100 – – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Petroleum 100 – – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Phenol 1 ✓ – – – – ✗ ✗
Phenol 100 ✗ ✗ – – – ✗ ✗
Phosphoric Acid 10 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ – ✗ ✗
Phosphoric Acid 20 – – ✓ ✓ – ✗ ✗
Phosphoric Acid 30 – – ✗ ✓ – ✗ ✗
Phosphoric Acid Concentrate ✗ ✗ ✗ – – ✗ ✗
Potassium Carbonate Any ✓ – – – ✓ – –
Potassium Chloride All ✓ – – – ✓ – –
Potassium Hydroxide 10 ✓ ✓ – – ✓ – –
Potassium Hydroxide 40 ✓ ✓ – – ✓ – –
Potassium Nitrate Any ✓ – – – – – –
Rain Water 100 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗
River Water – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Sea Water – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Sewerage – – – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Soap Water Any ✓ ✓ ✓ – ✓ ✗ ✗
Sodium Carbonate (aq) Any ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Sodium Chloride (aq) Any ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Sodium Hydroxide 10 ✓ – ✗ ✓ ✓ – –
Sodium Hydroxide 20 ✓ – ✗ ✓ – – –
Sodium Hydroxide 40 ✓ – ✗ – – – –
Sodium Hydroxide 50 ✗ – ✗ – – – –
Sodium Phosphate Any ✓ – – – – – –
Sodium Silicate Any ✓ – ✓ ✓ – – –
Sulphuric Acid 1 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Sulphuric Acid 10 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗
Sulphuric Acid 20 ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗ ✗ ✗
Sulphuric Acid 30 ✓ ✓ – – ✗ ✗ ✗
Sulphuric Acid Concentrate ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗
Swimming Pool Water Any ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗
Tannic Acid 10 – – – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Tap Water – ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✗
Tataric Acid Any ✓ – – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Tetrochloroethylene 100 ✓ – – – ✓ – –
Toluene 100 ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ – –
Trichloroethylene 100 ✗ – – – ✓ – –
Turpentine – ✓ – ✓ ✓ ✓ – –
Washing Powder 100 – ✓ – – ✓ ✗ ✗
Xylene 100 ✗ ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ – –

aq = aqueous solution (diluted) LEGEND ✓ = Resistant ✗ = Not Resistant


% = % by weight

23
6

ANCHORING
TECHNOLOGY
6.1 DERIVATION OF CAPACITY
Internationally, design standards are becoming more From this value, and dependent on local design requirements,
probabilistic in nature and require sound Engineering the design professional may then undertake either a strength
assessment of both load case information and component limit state or working load design assessment of the
capacity data to ensure safety as well as economy. application at hand, confident that they are working with
state of the art capacity information.
Published capacity data for Ramset™ Fasteners anchoring
products are derived from Characteristic Ultimate
Capacities.

From a series of controlled performance tests, under


test conditions Ultimate Failure Loads are established
Quantity of test results

for a product.

Obviously, the value obtained in each test will vary


slightly, and after obtaining a sufficient quantity of test
samples, the Ultimate Failure Loads are able to be plotted
on a chart.

Test values will typically centre about a mean value.

Once the mean Failure Load is established, a statistically


sound derivation is carried out to establish the
Xuc x
Characteristic Ultimate Capacity which allows for the
variance in results as well as mean values. Tested ultimate load

The Characteristic Value chosen is that which ensures x = Mean Ultimate Capacity
that a 90% confidence is obtained that 95% of all test Xuc = Characteristic Ultimate Capacity
results will fall above this value.

24
Anchoring Technology 6

6.2 ANCHORING PRINCIPLES


6.2.1 GENERAL 6.2.2 TORQUE SETTING ANCHORS
Ramset™ anchors are high quality, precision made fastenings SpaTec™, TruBolt™, and DynaBolt™ anchors are inserted
secured with either a torque induced setting action, a through the hole in the fixture, into a hole drilled into the
displacement induced setting action, a chemical bonding action, concrete, and are set by the application of assembly torque to
or are cast into the plastic concrete. the nut or bolt head.

Resistance to tensile loads is provided by mechanisms which The diameter of the drilled hole is slightly larger than the outer
depend upon the type of anchor, and its method of setting. diameter of the anchor. When torque is applied to the bolt head
Information on the elements that comprise the resistance or nut of the anchor, the cone is drawn up into the sleeve to
mechanisms is given separately for each type of anchor. expand its effective diameter. The wedge action of the cone nut
in the sleeve increases with increasing torque. The reaction of
Generally, shear load resistance mechanisms are more uniform the concrete against the expanded sleeve of the anchor creates
amongst anchors, and comprise these elements: a high friction force between the anchor and the wall of the
drilled hole. The body of the concrete contains and restricts the
~ the bolt or stud, and in some cases, the steel spacer expansion forces. The application of assembly torque produces
of the anchor. a preload between the fixture and the concrete.
~ the ability of the anchor to resist the bending moment
induced by the shear force.
~ the compressive strength of the concrete.
~ the shear and tensile strength of the concrete at the surface
of the potential concrete failure wedge.

When loaded to failure in concrete shear, an anchor


located near an edge breaks a triangular wedge away from
the concrete.

Anchor
e
Drilled hole
Load
TORQUE SETTING ACTION
Concrete Wedge
SpaTec™, TruBolt™ & DynaBolt™ Anchors

If increasing load were to be applied to the fixture, preload


would reduce and finally be removed. At this point, the steel
cone would begin to be drawn further into the expansion
sleeve. When loaded to failure in concrete tension, the failure
mode of a correctly installed anchor is characterised by the
CONCRETE WEDGE FAILURE MODE
formation of a concrete cone, the apex of which is located at
the effective depth of the anchor.

Alternatively, if the tensile capacity of the steel is exceeded,


the anchor will break.

continued over

25
6 Anchoring Technology
6.2.2 TORQUE SETTING ANCHORS cont. 6.2.3 ROTATION SETTING ANCHORS
Effective depth is the effective length, Le of the anchor less the The Boa™ Coil anchor is set by driving the anchor into the hole
fixture thickness, t. with a hammer up to the “depth set” mark and then, using a
spanner or wrench, rotating the bolt through the coil, thereby
h = Le - t setting the anchor.

Note that for the purpose of calculating “h”, the fixture The diameter of the drilled hole is a similar size to that of
thickness “t” should include the thickness of non structural the anchor.
grout, packing, etc.
Resistance to tensile load is provided by the two (2)
components which make up the Boa™ Coil anchor, the “bolt”
and the “coil”.

t The reaction of the concrete against the expanded anchor


creates a high friction force and an undercut forms between
the anchor and the hole wall. The body of the concrete
contains and restricts the expansion forces. The action of
tightening the anchor bolt against the fixture produces a
h preload between the fixture and the concrete.
Le
As the applied tensile load increases, a commensurate
decrease in preload occurs, until at some point after all preload
has been removed, first slip occurs.

Concrete is locally crushed around the coil as it beds in further,


accompanied by an increase in load capacity.

When failure occurs in the concrete the mode of failure is a


Applied tensile loads are resisted by these elements: broaching effect whereby load is still being held until the
applied load is equivalent to the shear and tensile capacity of
the concrete, at this point a cone of failure occurs. There is
~ the anchor bolt or stud. little or no damage done to the anchor bolt, but the Boa™ Coil
~ the wedge action of the steel cone in the sleeve. is destroyed, and must be replaced if the anchor bolt is to be
~ friction between the expanded sleeve and the re-used.
drilled hole.
~ shear and tension at the surface of the potential
concrete cone.

Applied tensile load


Anchor

CONCRETE CONE FAILURE MODE

26
Anchoring Technology 6
6.2.4 DISPLACEMENT SETTING ANCHORS 6.2.5 CHEMICAL ANCHORS
DynaSet™ anchors are inserted into a drilled hole, and set ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsules, ChemSet™ Hammer
by the displacement of the expander plug. Capsules, ChemSet™ Injection Systems anchors are set in a
drilled hole by the hardening of the chemical mortar.

Setting tool

CHEMICAL ANCHORING

The mortar penetrates the pores and irregularities of the base


material and forms a key around the threads of the stud. The
cured mortar becomes a hard, strong material that transfers
DISPLACEMENT SETTING DYNASET™ ANCHORS load to the base material via mechanical and adhesive bonds
with the surface of the drilled hole.
The diameter of the drilled hole is slightly larger than the outer
diameter of the anchor. When the expander plug is fully driven When tested to failure, a shallow concrete cone may form at
home (displaced), it expands the lower portion of the anchor the top of the anchor. This cone does not necessarily contribute
body, to increase its effective diameter. Because the anchor is to the tensile strength of the anchor, but simply registers the
expanded by a series of blows to a setting punch, a certain depth at which the concrete cone strength happens to equate
amount of shock loading is imparted to the concrete to the cumulative bond strength of the adhesive to the sides of
immediately adjacent. The reaction of the concrete against the hole. For a given concrete strength, the stronger the
the expanded body of the anchor creates a high friction force adhesive bond, the deeper the cone.
between the anchor and the wall of the drilled hole. The body
of the concrete contains and restricts the expansion forces. Applied tensile loads are resisted by:
A bolt is subsequently screwed into the anchor.
~ the stud.
The mode of failure in concrete tension is characterised by the ~ bond between the stud and the mortar shear in the mortar
formation of a shear cone, the apex of which is located at the bond between the mortar and the concrete.
effective depth of the anchor. ~ shear and tension in the concrete.

Applied tensile loads are resisted by the following elements:

~ the bolt. Anchor


Applied tensile load
~ the steel annulus of the anchor.
~ friction between the expanded anchor and the Concrete cone
drilled hole.
~ shear and tension at the surface of the potential
concrete cone.

Adhesive
covered stud

CONCRETE BOND FAILURE MODE

27
6 Anchoring Technology
6.2.6 CAST-IN ANCHORS
Prior to pouring the concrete, Ramset™ Ferrules are placed in the
form and typically fixed to it or to the reinforcement mesh. They
are retained in the hardened concrete by either the enlargement
on the base of the anchor, or by a bar located in the cross-hole.

The mode of failure in concrete tension, is characterised by the


formation of a concrete cone, the apex of which is located at the
effective depth of the anchor.

Applied tensile loads are resisted by:


ELEPHANTS' FEET, ROUND & TCM FERRULES

~ the bolt screwed into the insert.


~ the steel annulus of the insert.
~ steel capacity at the reduced section (cross-hole).
~ shear strength in the base enlargement, or the cross-bar.
~ shear and tension at the surface of the potential
concrete cone.

6.3 BASE MATERIALS


6.3.1 SUITABILITY
Ramset™ anchors can be used in plain or in reinforced concrete. Where structural base materials are covered with a
It is recommended that the cutting of reinforcement be avoided. non-structural material such as plaster or render, anchors
The specified characteristic compressive strength "f’c" will not should be embedded to the design depth in the structural base
automatically be appropriate at the particular location of the material. Allowance must be made for the thickness of the
anchor. The designer should assess the strength of the concrete non-structural material when considering the application of
at the location of the anchor making due allowance for degree of shear loads, and in determining the moment arm of applied
compaction, age of the concrete, and curing conditions. bending moments.
Particular care should be taken in assessing strength near edges
and corners, because of the increased risk of poor compaction In hollow block masonry, where the cores are filled with
and curing. Where the anchor is to be placed effectively in the concrete grout, Ramset™ anchors may be designed and specified
cover zone of closely spaced reinforcement, the designer should similarly as in concrete, provided the designer assesses the
take account of the risk of separation under load of the cover effective strength of the masonry including the joints.
concrete from the reinforcement.
However, it is not advisable to use certain heavy duty anchors
Concrete strength "f’c" determined by standard cylinders, is in unfilled hollow masonry units (either bricks or blocks).
used directly in the equations. Where strength is expressed in These heavy duty anchors include all SpaTec™, TruBolt™ and
concrete cubes, a conversion is given in the following table: ChemSet™ capsule anchors, and DynaBolt™, Boa™ Coil anchor,
DynaSet™, and Chemical Injection anchors greater than M12 in
diameter. In any case the designer should assess the effective
Cube Strength β (N/mm2) 20 30 40 50 60
strength of the masonry including the joints, and determine
Cylinder Strength f’c (MPa) 15 24 33 42 51
how the loading is to be transferred to the masonry structure.
Load tests should be conducted on site to assist in assessing
masonry strength.
The design engineer is responsible for the
overall design and dimensioning of the Ramset™ heavy and medium duty anchors are not
structural element to resist the service loads recommended for low strength base materials such as
applied to it by the anchor. autoclaved aerated concrete, except for ChemSet™ Injection
System studs up to M12.

28
Anchoring Technology 6
6.3.2 ABSOLUTE MINIMUM DIMENSIONS
Spacings, edge distances, and concrete thicknesses are limited The concrete thickness minima given below, does not include
to absolute minima, in order to avoid risks of splitting or concrete cover requirements, and are not a guide to the
spalling of the concrete during the setting of Ramset™ torque structural dimensions of the element. It is the responsibility
and displacement setting expansion anchors. Absolute minima of the design engineer to proportion and reinforce the
for stress-free anchorages such as chemical and cast-in anchors structural element to carry the loads and moments applied to
are defined on the basis of notional limits, which take account it by the anchorage, and to ensure that the appropriate cover
of the practicalities of anchor placement. is obtained.

Absolute minimum spacing "am" and absolute minimum edge In order to avoid ‘breakthrough’ during drilling of the hole into
distance "em", define prohibited zones where no anchor should which anchors will be installed, maintain a cover value to the
be placed. The prohibited spacing zone around an anchor has a base of the hole equal to 2x the drilled hole diameter, dh. ie. for
radius equal to the absolute minimum spacing. The prohibited a hole of 20 mm diameter allow 40 mm cover to the rear face
zone at an edge has a width equal to the absolute minimum of the substrate component.
edge distance.
In certain circumstances, it may be possible to install anchors
in thinner concrete elements. If cover to the anchor is not
required, and a degree of spalling can be tolerated between
Free zone
am the end of the expansion sleeve and the far surface of the
concrete, embedment close to the far surface may be feasible.
More information on the conditions for reduced concrete
Prohibited thickness may be obtained from Ramset™ Engineers.
zone

Where an anchor is installed at the absolute minimum edge


distance "em", concrete thickness is at a maximum of 2 * h.
(Effective depth "h", is measured from the concrete surface to
the end of the anchor expansion sleeve unless otherwise
em Prohibited zone stated.)

Edge distance "e"


Concrete Edge
Minimum
PROHIBITED ZONES FOR SPACINGS AND EDGES concrete 1.5h
thickness 2.0h
'bm'
Where an expansion anchor is placed at a corner, there is em
less resistance to splitting, because of the smaller bulk of
concrete around the anchor. In order to protect the concrete, 2em
the minimum distance from one of the edges is increased to
twice the absolute minimum. CONCRETE THICKNESS

2*em

Free zone
Prohibited zone

Prohibited e
zone m

Concrete Edge

PROHIBITED ZONES AT CORNER FOR


EXPANSION ANCHORS

29
6 Anchoring Technology

6.4 DESIGN
6.4.1 WORKING LOAD DESIGN 6.4.2 STRENGTH LIMIT STATE DESIGN
Using the permissible stress method which is still valid in Designers are advised to adopt the limit state design approach
many design situations: which takes account of stability, strength, serviceability,
durability, fire resistance, and any other requirements, in
L (applied load) ≤ Ra (working load limit capacity) determining the suitability of the fixing. Explanations of this
approach are found in the design standards for structural steel
Working load limits are derived from characteristic ultimate and concrete. When designing for strength the anchor is to
capacities and factor of safety: comply with the following:

Ra = Ru / Fs ØRu ≥ S*

Factors of safety are related to the mode of failure, and where:


material type, and the following are considered appropriate
for structural anchoring designs: Ø = capacity reduction factor

fss = factor of safety for steel in tension and bending Ru = characteristic ultimate load carrying capacity
= 2.2
S* = design action effect
fsv = factor of safety for steel in shear
= 2.5 ØRu = design strength

fsc = factor of safety for concrete Design action effects are the forces, moments, and other
= 3.0 effects, produced by agents such as loads, which act on a
structure. They include axial forces (N*), shear forces (V*),
and moments (M*), which are established from the
appropriate combinations of factored loads as detailed in the
AS1170 “Minimum Design Load on Structures” series of
Australian Standards.

Capacity reduction factors are given below, these typically


comply with those detailed in AS4100 - “Steel Structures” and
AS3600 - “Concrete Structures”. The following capacity
reduction factors are considered typical:

Øc = capacity reduction factor, concrete tension


= 0.6

Øq = capacity reduction factor, concrete shear


= 0.6

Øn = capacity reduction factor, steel tension


= 0.8

Øv = capacity reduction factor, steel shear


= 0.8

Øm = capacity reduction factor, steel bending


= 0.8

Whilst these values are used throughout this document,


other values may be used by making the adjustment for
Ø as required.

30
Anchoring Technology 6

6.5 TENSION
6.5.1 STEEL TENSION 6.5.2 CONCRETE CONE
The characteristic ultimate tensile capacity for the steel of an Characteristic ultimate tensile capacities for mechanical
anchor is obtained from: anchors vary in a predictable manner with the relationship
between: - hole diameter (dh)
Nus = As fu - effective depth (h), and
- concrete compressive strength (f’c)
where:
within a limited range of effective depths, h.
Nus = characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity (N)
This is typically expressed by a formula such as:
As = tensile area (mm2)
= stress area for threaded sections (mm2) Nuc = factor * dbfactor * h1.5 * √f’c

fu = characteristic ultimate tensile strength (MPa) Anchors may have constraints that apply to the effective
depth of the anchor or the maximum or minimum concrete
fy = characteristic yield strength (MPa) strength applicable.

The tensile working load limit (permissible stress method) for Effective anchor depth is taken from the surface of the
the steel of a Ramset™ anchor is obtained from: structural concrete to the point where the concrete cone is
generated. In establishing the effective depth for anchors, the
Nas = Nus / 2.2 designer should allow for any gap expected to exist between
the fixture and the concrete prior to clamping down.

air gap

h h
h

EFFECTIVE DEPTH FOR ANCHORS

The appropriate concrete compressive strength "f’c" is the actual


strength at the location of the anchor, making due allowance for
site conditions, such as degree of compaction, age of concrete,
and curing method.

Concrete tensile working load limits (permissible stress


method) for anchors are obtained from:

Nac = Nuc / 3.0

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6 Anchoring Technology
6.5.3 PULL-THROUGH 6.5.4 CONCRETE BOND
This mode of failure occurs in expansion anchors under tensile Chemical Anchors
loading, where the applied load exceeds the frictional
resistance between either the cone and the expansion sleeve, Characteristic ultimate tensile load carrying capacities for
or the sleeve and the sides of the drilled hole in the concrete. concrete bond failure in the compression zone varies with hole
Failures of this type are often associated with anchors that are depth, effective depth and concrete strength in a similar
improperly set, or used in larger diameter holes drilled into the manner to concrete cone failure in mechanical anchors.
concrete with over-sized drill bits.
Effective anchor depth "h" is taken from the start of the
The load carrying capacities of anchors with thick-walled adhesive, (usually the surface of the concrete) to the bottom
expansion sleeves such as SpaTec™ and properly-set DynaSet™ of the stud. For chemical capsule anchors, it is not usual to
anchors, are not sensitive to this mode of failure. deviate from the depths given in the Section Properties and
The recommended limits on concrete strength "f’c" in the Data. Whilst it is essential to provide sufficient resin to fill the
determination of concrete cone strength for DynaBolt™ and space between the stud and the concrete, the installer must
TruBolt™ anchors, act as a precaution against this mode avoid excessive overspill. Hole depths for capsule anchors may
of failure. be increased in increments related to the volume of capsules
available. It is recommended to seek advice from Ramset™
Technical Staff before deviating from the recommended hole
depths or hole diameters.

EFFECTIVE DEPTH FOR CHEMICAL ANCHORS

The appropriate concrete strength "f’c" to be used in these


equations, is the actual strength at the location of the anchor,
making due allowance for site conditions, such as degree of
compaction, age of concrete, and curing method.

Concrete tensile working load limits (permissible stress


method) for Ramset™ chemical anchors are obtained from:

Nac = Nuc / 3.0

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Anchoring Technology 6
6.5.5 CRITICAL SPACING
In a group of mechanical anchors loaded in tension, the spacing For anchors influenced by the cones of two other anchors, as a
at which the cone shaped zones of concrete failure just begin result for example, of location internal to a row:
to overlap at the surface of the concrete, is termed the critical
spacing, ac. Xna = a / ac ≤ 1

ac a Unequal distances ("a1" and "a2", both < ac) from two
adjacent anchors, are averaged for an anchor internal to a row:

Xna = 0.5 (a1 + a2) / ac


Anchors
Cone of Failure
If the anchors are at the ends of a row, each influenced by
the cone of only one other anchor:
For chemical anchors the critical spacing is determined by
Xna = 0.5 (1 + a/ac) ≤ 1
interference between the cylindrically shaped zones of stress
surrounding the anchors.
The cone of anchor A is influenced by the cones of anchors
B and C, but not additionally by the cone of anchor D. "Xna" is
ac a the appropriate reduction factor as a conservative solution.
Bond cylinders
Anchors
Critical spacing defines a critical zone around a given anchor,
for the placement of further anchors. The critical spacing zone
has a radius equal to the critical spacing. The concrete tensile
strengths of anchors falling within the critical zone are
reduced. For clarity, the figure includes the prohibited zone
as well as the critical zone.

At the critical spacing, the capacity of one anchor is on the


point of being reduced by the zone of influence of the other
anchor. Ramset™ anchors placed at or greater than critical A B
spacings are able to develop their full tensile loads, as limited
by concrete cone or concrete bond capacity. Anchors at
spacings less than critical are subject to reduction in allowable
concrete tensile loads.
C D
Both ultimate and working loads on anchors spaced between
the critical and the absolute minimum, are subject to a
reduction factor "Xna", the value of which depends upon the ANCHOR GROUP INTERACTION
position of the anchor within the row:

Nucr = Xna * Nuc CRITICAL REDUCTION PROHIBITED

for strength limit state design.

And, for permissible stress method analysis:


a ≥ ac ac > a > am a < am
Nar = Xna * Nac No influence. Interaction Risk of cracking.
occurs between
failure cones.
Cone of Failure a a a Capacity reduction
Anchors necessary.

ANCHORS IN A ROW

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6 Anchoring Technology
6.5.6 CRITICAL EDGE DISTANCE
At the critical edge distance for anchors loaded in tension, Chemical Anchors
reduction in tensile loads just commences, due to interference
of the edge with the zone of influence of the anchor. For chemical anchors the critical edge distance is determined
by interference between the edge and the cylindrically shaped
Cast-In and Expansion Anchors zones of stress surrounding the anchors.

The critical edge distance (ec) for expansion and cast-in ec = 4 * db


anchors is taken as one and a half times effective depth:

ec = 1.5 * h ec Anchor

ec Bond cylinder
Anchor

Cone of Failure e

INTERFERENCE OF EDGE WITH BOND CYLINDER

If the edge lies between the critical and the absolute minimum
INTERFERENCE OF EDGE WITH CONCRETE CONES distance from the anchor, the concrete tensile load reduction
co-efficient "Xe", is obtained from the following formula:

Rotation Set Anchors Xe = 0.3 + 0.7 * e / ec ≤ 1

The critical edge distance for Boa™ Coil anchor is taken as: where:

ec = 6 * db Xe = edge reduction factor tension

Critical edge distances define critical zones for the placement


of anchors with respect to an edge. The critical edge zone has
a width equal to the critical edge distance. The concrete
tensile strengths of anchors falling within the critical zone are
reduced. For clarity, the figure includes the prohibited zone as
well as the critical zone.

em Concrete Edge
ec
Free zone Critical zone

Prohibited zone

CRITICAL EDGE ZONE

34
Anchoring Technology 6

6.6 SHEAR
5.6.1 ANCHOR STEEL SHEAR
The designer should also take into account any conditions that
For an anchor not located close to another anchor nor to a free may cause bending moments and unbalanced forces to be
concrete edge, the ultimate shear load will be determined by applied simultaneously. Any tendency of the fixture to lift away
the steel shear strength of the anchor, provided the effective from the surface under load will generate moments and tension
depth of the anchor is compliant with the following: forces.

SpaTec™ The characteristic ultimate shear capacity (Vus) for the steel of
an anchor is obtained from:
h ≥ 4 * dh
Vus = 0.62 * As * fu (N)
4 * dh
Minimum for bolt shear

6.6.2 CONCRETE EDGE SHEAR


dh

Where load is directed either towards or parallel to an edge,


and the anchor is located in the proximity of the edge, failure
1.25 * db
Minimum for bolt may occur in the concrete.
and spacer shear

MINIMUM INSERTION FOR BOLT SHEAR Anchor


e

For SpaTec it is required that the bottom end of the spacer Drilled hole
is inserted at least one and a quarter times hole diameter Load
(1.25 * dh) in order for the shear strength of the spacer to be
Concrete Wedge
allowed as contributing to the shear strength of the anchor.

Boa™ Coil

For full bolt shear,

h ≥ 6 * db CONCRETE WEDGE FAILURE MODE

A reduced shear capacity is applicable down to a minimum


value of 3 * db.

3 * db
Minimum for bolt shear
dh

MINIMUM INSERTION FOR BOLT SHEAR

TruBolt™

h ≥ 4 * dh

DynaBolt™

h ≥ 3.5 * dh

DynaSet™ anchors are not normally embedded to four times the


diameter of the drilled hole, and their characteristic shear
capacities relate to the bending strength of the anchor or shear
of the inserted bolt.

35
6 Anchoring Technology
6.6.3 SPACING UNDER CONCRETE SHEAR
At a spacing of at least 2.5 times edge distance, there is no Two anchors installed on a line normal to the edge, and loaded
interference between adjacent failure wedges. Where anchor in shear towards the edge, are treated as a special case.
spacing is less than 2.5 times edge distance, the shear load Where the anchors are loaded simultaneously by the same
capacities in the concrete are subject to a reduction factor "Xva". fixture, the ultimate or the concrete edge shear capacity for
each anchor will be influenced by the other anchor. Where the
Failure wedge spacing "a" between anchors A and B is less than or equal to
a a "eB" the edge distance of anchor B, the ultimate edge shear for
anchor A is equal to anchor B, despite the longer edge distance
of anchor A:
Concrete edge e
Shear force

INTERFERENCE BETWEEN SHEAR WEDGES A


a Failure wedge
B
Xva = 0.5 ( 1 + a / (2.5 * e)) ≤ 1 Concrete edge
eB
The direction of the shear load towards an edge will influence
the concrete edge shear capacity. This is accounted for with
the factor Xvd. ANCHORS IN LINE TOWARDS AN EDGE

For an anchor located at a corner and where the second edge


is parallel to the applied shear, interference by the second edge
α upon the shear wedge is taken into account by the following
V* reduction factor:

Xvs = 0.30 + 0.56 * e1 / e2 ≤ 1

When a row of anchors is subject to a shear load acting Shear Force


e1
towards an edge, the distribution of each anchors capacity
in the anchor group is derived by using the factor Xvn.

e2
Failure wedge
V*A V*B V*C
Concrete edges

ANCHOR AT A CORNER
n=3
V*TOTAL

V*A = V*B = V*C

ØVur ≥ V*A, V*B, V*C

36
Anchoring Technology 6

6.7 BENDING
The designer's calculation of the design bending moment (M*) In the case of working load limit design, applied moments (M)
should include an allowance in the moment arm of one hole are calculated as follows:
diameter inwards from the face of the concrete:
M = V * ( dh + g + t / 2)
M* = V* * ( dh + g + t / 2)
V = applied shear force (N)
where:
Characteristic ultimate bending capacities (Mu), are obtained
V* = shear design action effect (N) from the following formula:

g = gap between fixture and concrete surface (mm) M u = fy * Z

t = fixture thickness (mm) where:

fy = characteristic yield strength (MPa)


Non-structural
One hole diameter material or gap Z = section modulus of the anchor (mm3)
Fixture
and for working load limit bending moment (Ma):

Ma = Mu / fss
= Mu / 2.2

Applied load

Moment arm

DESIGN BENDING MOMENT

Anchor moments need only be considered if there is a


non structural material or gap between the fixture and
substrate that results in application of a moment to the
anchor itself.

37
6 Anchoring Technology

6.8 COMBINED LOADING


6.8.1 TENSION AND BENDING 6.8.3 TENSION AND SHEAR
Where an anchor is subjected to combined tension and Design for combined tension and shear, requires firstly the
bending, ultimate tensile capacity for the steel is determined determination of anchor capacities. Strength limit state design
as follows: capacities are taken as:

ØNur = ØcNurc ≤ ØnNus


Nusr = Nus * (1 - (M* / ØmMu))
ØVur = ØqVur ≤ ØvVus
where:
where:
Øm = capacity reduction factor, steel bending,
recommended as 0.8 Ø = capacity reduction factor

ØNur = design reduced ultimate tensile capacity


Applied
tension ØVur = design reduced ultimate shear capacity

Øc = capacity reduction factor concrete tension


Applied moment
Øq = edge capacity reduction factor concrete shear,
recommended as 0.6
Moment arm
Øn = capacity reduction factor, steel tension,
COMBINED TENSION, SHEAR AND BENDING recommended as 0.8

Factored working load limit steel tensile capacities, to allow Øv = capacity reduction factor, steel shear,
for the effects of bending moments are given by: recommended as 0.8

Nasr = Nas * (1 - M / Ma) Working load capacities are determined as follows:

Na = Nar ≤ Nsr
where:
Va = Var ≤ Vas
Nasr = factored working load limit steel tensile capacity (N)
where:

6.8.2 SHEAR AND BENDING Na = working load limit tensile capacity

Va = working load limit shear capacity


There is no reduction in shear capacity in the case of combined
bending and shear. Shear capacity and bending capacity are Strength limit state combination of tension and shear complies
checked independently. with the following:

N* / ØNur ≤ 1

V* / ØVur ≤ 1

N* / ØNur + V* / ØVur ≤ 1.2

Applied shear The following formulae are used for working load combination:
Moment arm N / Na ≤ 1
COMBINED TENSION AND SHEAR
V / Va ≤ 1

N / Na + V / Va ≤ 1.2

where:

N = applied tensile load

V = applied shear load

38
Anchoring Technology 6

6.9 ANCHOR GROUPS


This information deals specifically with the design of individual For a row of anchors subject to a shear force component
anchors, loaded either as a single anchor or as a member of towards an edge, the design tables assume that the design
a group. Under the relevant loading condition, as a general load case is evenly distributed to all anchors in the group and
principle, all load reduction factors applicable to an individual calculates the averaged shear capacity for each anchor.
anchor in the group should be multiplied together to account
for the combined effects on the anchor of multiple loads, group
V*A = V*B = V*C
layout, and base material geometry. In the application of loads,
due allowance should be made for eccentricities in the lines of
V*A V*B V*C n=3
action of loads relative to the centroid of the group, and for
any other conditions likely to cause a magnification of load
to an anchor, i.e. prying forces. ØVur = per anchor
V*TOTAL capacity
In a group loaded in shear there is a risk of uneven loading,
particularly where more than two anchors are arranged one
behind the other in the direction of the load. The designer
should assess and make appropriate allowance for the ability It is unable to verify capacity for anchors in the following
of the fixture to distribute the load to anchors in the group. configurations:
The simplified strength limit state design process detailed in
• Location at a corner with shear load component towards
this document is intended to cover a wide range of applications.
the edge(s).
It is suitable for verifying capacity of single anchors or groups of
anchors, however it must be remembered that the capacity data An anchor is considered to be at a corner if the ratio of the
given is PER ANCHOR and load cases must be distributed to all edge distance parallel to the direction of shear to the edge
anchors in a group and each anchor verified as being suitable. distance in the direction of shear is less than 1.25.

The simplified design process allows verification of:

Single anchors subject


to shear and/or tension. e1
N* e1
e2 > 1.25 acceptable
V* e2
V*

Groups of anchors (row, rectangular array etc.) subject to • Anchors subject to a moment.
tensile loading and/or shear loading not towards an edge.
• Anchors in a line towards an edge with a shear load
component acting towards that edge, unless it is assumed
V*TOTAL that the anchor closest to the edge takes all of the shear
load, V*TOTAL.

N*TOTAL

Groups of anchors subject to tensile and/or shear loading


where the line of anchors parallel to (and closest to) the
edge are considered to take the total shear load.
V*TOTAL
These anchors assumed
to be in slotted holes
For these cases, please refer to the Ramset™ Anchor Design
A B C N*TOTAL software or contact your local Ramset™ Technical Sales
Engineer for advice.
V*A + V*B + V*C = V*TOTAL
V*TOTAL

39
6 Anchoring Technology

6.10 ASSEMBLY TORQUE AND PRELOAD


The application of assembly torque to a well designed anchor, Boa™ Coil anchors and stud anchors such as TruBolt™ anchors
results in the generation of a preload or clamping force and chemical anchors also have the capability to clamp the
between the fixture and the concrete. Because the fixture fixture to the concrete.
supports the concrete and suppresses cone failure, preload may
exceed concrete cone failure load. The concrete experiences an Torque controlled expansion anchors without an adequate pull-
elastic compression beneath the fixture. Under external loading down capability, suffer from loss of preload to the spacer or
of the fixture, the surfaces of the joint will not separate until sleeve, whenever there is a gap between the mating surfaces.
the applied load exceeds the preload. Although the magnitude This results in a reduction in the preload available for
of the preload influences the deformation of the fixing under compression of the concrete. Such anchors may perform under
load, it does not in general, affect the ultimate static load cyclic loads as if there were an inadequate preload, even
capacity of the fixing. though the specified assembly torque may have been carefully
applied. In some instances it is possible for the fixture to be
Clamped material loose against the concrete surface from the time of initial
Preload or clamping load Applied load assembly of the fixing.

Initial preload (PLi) which is developed immediately after


the application of assembly torque, is calculated for Ramset™
anchors as:

PLi = α * Pr
PRELOADING OF FIXTURE TO CONCRETE
where:
Heavy and medium duty sleeve anchors with a fully
α = proportion of proof load as initial preload
functioning pull-down mechanism such as Ramset™ SpaTec™
65% for mechanical anchors
and DynaBolt™ anchors, ensure that loss of preload to the
25% for chemical anchors
spacer or sleeve is negligible, even where a substantial gap
may have existed between the concrete and the fixture, due
Pr = bolt or anchor proof load (kN)
to unevennesses in the mating surfaces. After the expansion
= A s * fy
sleeve has enlarged to grip the sides of the hole, the pull-down
mechanism allows the gap to be closed and the fixture to be
Assembly torques required (Tr) to develop initial preloads are
clamped against the concrete.
given by the following formula:

Tr = µT * db * PLi

where:

µT = torque co-efficient of sliding friction


0.14 for SpaTec™ anchors
0.32 for cold-formed anchors and
stainless steel anchors
0.37 for machined anchors

SpaTec™ and DynaBolt™ Anchors


PULL DOWN MECHANISMS

40
Anchoring Technology 6

6.11 LONG TERM PRELOAD DEGRADATION


In considering the long term performance in concrete of
expansion and cast-in anchors under cyclic loading, account 1.0
must be taken of concrete creep which causes a degradation of
PL/PLi λ
preload over time. Immediately after the application of assembly
torque and the establishment of initial preload, there is a rapid
initial reduction in preload, followed by a continued gradual
reduction over time, towards a long term limiting value of "PL",
0 3 6 9 12
at "λ" % of initial preload. As a guide, "λ" may be taken as
Time (Months)
typically 70% for SpaTec™ anchors, and as 40% for DynaBolt™
and TruBolt™ anchors. PRELOAD DEGRADATION

In a particular application, the proportion of preload


permanently retained will depend upon concrete strength,
concrete quality including curing, level and direction of
concrete stress, applied load level, timing of applied loads, and
the value of the total spring rate for the anchor/fixture/base
material system.

41
6 Anchoring Technology

6.12 SLIP LOAD AND CYCLIC LOADING


Provided the applied load is less than the remaining preload, The Boa™ Coil anchor performs more like a slight undercut
slip virtually does not occur, and the fixing experiences the anchor where the first slip measured at 0.1mm is close to the
applied load as a reduction in elastic compression of the ultimate load of the anchor in concrete. The Boa™ Coil anchors
concrete. When the applied load exceeds the preload, the ability to sustain cyclic loads depends primarily upon the
clamped material can separate from the concrete and slippage interaction of the Boa™ Coil and the concrete sides of the hole.
of the joint can commence. If the design requirement is for It is this unique interaction that enables the Boa™ Coil anchor
negligible slip (say 0.1mm), the assembly torque should be both to achieve high first slip loads. To ensure long life of the
carefully specified and applied. It is recommended that anchor fastener under cyclic loading the designer should ensure (as for
capacity be limited to a percentage of the expected preload slip loads), that the applied load does not exceed 65% of the
after allowing for long term degradation. first slip load, called the reduced characteristic ultimate slip
load. When the applied load is less than the reduced
Ultimate load characteristic ultimate slip load the Boa™ Coil anchor has the
ability to withstand an infinite number of repetitions of the
applied load.
Long term preload
= slip load Ultimate load
Applied
load Long term preload
65% of slip load = slip load

Applied 65% of slip load


load

Displacement
SLIP LOAD AND PRELOAD

The ability of an anchor to sustain cyclic loads depends Displacement


(as for slip loads) primarily upon the relationship between SLIP LOAD
the applied load and the effective preload in the anchor.
Where the applied load is less than both the preload and the
static working load, the fastening has the ability to withstand
an infinite number of repetitions of the applied load. The cyclic
loading is experienced as changes in pressure at the interface
of the fixture and the concrete, and the stress range in the
anchor should never approach the endurance limit. To ensure
long life of the fastening under cyclic loading, the designer
should ensure (as for slip loads), that the applied load is less
than "h" % of the expected long term preload after allowing
for degradation.

42
Anchoring Technology 6

6.13 CORROSION
During their service life, fasteners may be subjected to a The term “galvanised” in this document refers to hot dip
range of corrosive agents and environments. Atmospheric galvanising according to the Australian Standards listed in the
environments may include the benign, such as indoors in dry table below.
conditions. The less benign outdoor areas are exposed to rain
and/or humidity. The chloride bearing atmospheres under the Note that other publications may use the term “galvanised”
influence of sea winds are more corrosive. The polluted when referring to zinc electroplated anchors, which provides
atmosphere in some industrial areas, and the marine inferior corrosion protection. To ensure adequate corrosion
environment over the sea, at the shore, or within the splash protection, verify that the plating thickness complies with the
zone, may be highly aggressive. Fastenings may be required to thickness value required by the relevant Australian Standard.
be placed under fresh water, salt water, or in contact with a AS1214 - 1983 requires a minimum of 42 micron thickness for
whole range of potentially corrosive liquids. Ramset™ anchors “hot dip galvanised” threaded items.
are supplied with a range of corrosion resistances suitable for
various applications.
ENVIRONMENT CORROSION SPECIFICATION
PROTECTION
There is a large number of specialist texts on the subject of
Indoors, Zinc plated to
corrosion, to which the reader is referred. under cover AS1791-1986
Low humidity Plating Minimum thickness
The stainless steel specification for Ramset™ anchors has a 6 micron
high molybdenum content, which gives superior resistance Exposure to Passivated,
against chlorides and common industrial pollutants. moisture likely Designation C
Hot dipped to
Stainless steel anchors should be insulated from the zinc Exposed to weather AS1650-1989
coating, when securing galvanised steelwork, because of the AS1214-1983
possibility of galvanic corrosion. Industrial pollution Galvanising Minimum thickness
42 micron
Marine
Care must be taken to ensure selected fasteners meet the environments
appropriate standards and are also correctly described. For
example, “mechanically galvanised” is a misnomer for Chemical plants ISO3506-1979
“mechanically plated”, which may not provide the same Aggressive Grade A4,
corrosion protection as “hot dip galvanising”. Stainless steel
environments Prop Class 70
At the sea (AISI 316)

6.14 FIRE
When exposed to heat so that it reaches a temperature of Fire induced deformations of wall panels, and the behaviour of
about 550°C, steel retains about half of its original strength. the structural frame under fire, should be carefully considered
Designers have traditionally adopted this limiting temperature in the design. Spread of the fire to adjoining properties will be
for the retention of structural integrity. Expansion and cast-in prevented, as long as the panels remain fixed to the structural
anchors manufactured in steel, are subject to the same limit, frame. The connection between a heavy structural steel frame
except that conditions are generally more favourable to the and the wall panels should be via deformable ties.
retention of structural strength for these anchors, than other
components of an unprotected structure. For example, in The limiting operational temperature for chemical anchors is
circumstances where heat can be expected to vent through the 80°C. When used for anchoring reinforcing steel, chemical
roof sheeting, there is little risk of the fixings at the supports of systems are provided with concrete cover, and may be
steel beams, reaching the same temperature as the most designed to provide the desired fire rating, by limiting the
critical part of the main steel structural elements. Generally, temperature rise at the anchor points. Where protection is
fixings reach significantly lower temperatures than the main required for the steel structure, special fireproofing material is
structural elements. specified. The same protection should be extended to any
exposed fixings to the concrete structure.
Part of an anchor is always embedded in and insulated by the
concrete, which increases the time for the heat to flow to the
anchoring element of the anchor, and because of the heat sink
of the concrete mass which takes heat from the anchor, there
is an increase in the time for its temperature to rise.

43
MECHANICAL
ANCHORING
OVERVIEW
Ramset™ have been offering mechanical anchors in the It is performance that defines an anchor’s capabilities. An
Australian market place for over 40 years. During this time anchor’s performance cannot be deduced from its description.
Ramset™ brand names have entered into common language on For example not all sleeve anchors perform like DynaBolt™ sleeve
building sites all over Australia. Names like DynaBolt™ and anchors and not all stud anchors perform like TruBolt™ stud
TruBolt™ have become recognised as the best sleeve anchors and anchors. Product design, manufacturing tolerances and
stud anchors alike. But only Ramset™ supplies the original, manufacturing quality control have a major affect on anchor
proven products like DynaBolt™ sleeve anchors, TruBolt™ stud performance. The only way to determine an anchor’s actual
anchors, SpaTec™ heavy duty anchors and DynaSet™ female performance is to measure it at all of its design and tolerance
anchors. These tried and tested Ramset™ brand names represent limits. The performance of Ramset™ Anchors are determined by
Quality, Reliability and Performance. The Ramset™ ISO9001 extensive and rigorous testing to enable us to provide
accreditation assures it. information on how our products will perform over a wide range
of conditions and advise as to their limitations.
Not only does Ramset™ offer reliable, quality product. Ramset™
understands masonry anchoring technology and offers published The correct anchor for a particular load case can only be selected
information, such as this book, to guide correct product selection by referring to reliable design information issued by the supplier
and safe installation. Extensive research, development and for their anchors. Performance and design information from one
testing are invested in Ramset™ products so that designers can supplier does not apply to anchors from other suppliers, even if
be secure in the knowledge that they have access to the real they appear to be the same or have the same generic description.
performance and capabilities of the anchors.
The following section introduces the designer and/or engineer
to the Ramset™ mechanical anchoring range and provides
performance information to allow selection of the right anchor for
the job.

44
Mechanical Anchoring 7
SpaTec™

7.1 SpaTec™ Safety Anchors


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The SpaTec™ Anchor is a heavy duty, torque setting
expansion anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Suitable for structural loads:
~ High tensile capacity of Grade 8.8 Steel Bolt.
~ Twin high tensile washers that resist dishing. Principal Applications
~ Heavy duty, thick expansion sleeve that provides secure grip to concrete.
Improved security: ~ Structural beams and columns.
~ Large expansion reserve that ensures retention in concrete if overloaded. ~ Anchoring braces for precast panels.
~ Compressible collar allows pull down to close gaps and induce preload. ~ Safety barriers.
Resistant to cyclic loading: ~ Machinery and heavy plant hold down.
~ Compressible collar and heavy duty sleeve work together to retain 65% of ~ Lift guide rails.
initial preload. ~ Commercial building facades.
Fast installation:
~ Through fixing eliminates marking out and repositioning of fixtures.
Neat finish:
~ Low profile hex head.

Installation

1. Drill recommended sized holes as per technical specifications. Clean hole


thoroughly with brush. Remove debris by way of a vacuum or hand pump,
compressed air, etc.
2. After ensuring anchor is assembled correctly, insert anchor through fixture
and drive in until washer contacts fixture.
3. Tighten bolt with torque wrench to specified assembly torque.

45
7 Mechanical Anchoring
SpaTec™
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
60 90 180 120 11.5 8.6 10.8 12.1
M10 15 17 70 35 105 210 140 19.3 10.8 13.7 15.3
80 120 240 160 19.3 13.2 16.7 18.7
70 105 210 140 16.7 11.3 14.3 16.0
M12 18 21 95 60 143 285 190 27.6 17.9 22.6 24.5
120 180 360 240 27.6 24.5 24.5 24.5
95 143 285 190 31.1 19.2 24.3 27.2
M16 24 27 115 145 173 345 230 52.3 25.6 32.4 36.2
135 203 405 270 52.3 32.5 41.2 45.7
110 165 330 220 50.4 25.3 32.0 35.8
M20 28 32 140 305 210 420 280 75.8 36.3 46.0 51.4
170 255 510 340 75.8 48.6 61.5 68.8
130 195 390 260 72.7 34.0 43.1 48.1
M24 32 36 160 525 240 480 320 101.9 46.5 58.8 65.7
190 285 570 380 101.9 60.1 76.1 85.1
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

7.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Drilled hole Effective Effective depth, h (mm)
Anchor diameter, dh length, Le Part No.
size, db (mm) (mm) Zn
M10 15 94 SA10108 h = Le - t
83 SA12098
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed
M12 18 111 SA12124
136 SA12153
M16 24 131 SA16149
M20 28 165 SA20189
M24 32 172 SA24197

7.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES - Carbon Steel


Shank Bolt stress Bolt yield Spacer Spacer yield Section
Anchor diameter, ds area, As strength, fy Bolt UTS, area, As strength, fy Spacer UTS, modulus
size, db (mm) (mm2) (MPa) fu (MPa) (mm2) (MPa) fu (MPa) Z (mm3)
M10 9.8 58.0 640 800 65.2 350 480 62.3
M12 11.7 84.3 640 800 101.6 330 430 109.2
M16 15.7 157.0 640 800 198.0 330 430 277.5
M20 19.7 245.0 680 830 238.3 330 430 540.9
M24 23.7 353.0 680 830 274.6 330 430 935.5

46
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 7
SpaTec™
7.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated


Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram
140 Notes:
~ Shear limited by bolt and spacer steel capacity.
120 ~ Tension limited by concrete cone capacity.
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

~ No edge or spacing effects.


~ f'c = 32 MPa
100

80
M24

60 M20

40 M16

M12
20
M10

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, em 100 130 170 210 250
Anchor spacing, am 75 100 120 150 180

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Refer to “Description and Part Numbers” table on page 46.

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = Le - t
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

47
7 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
SpaTec™

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Drilled hole dia., dh (mm) 15 18 24 28 32
Effective depth, h (mm)
60 19.6
70 24.6 25.8
80 30.1 31.5
90 35.9 37.6
100 42.1 44.0 47.3
110 50.8 54.6 57.7
120 57.9 62.2 65.8
130 65.3 70.1 74.2 77.6
140 78.4 82.9 86.7
150 86.9 91.9 96.2
175 115.8 121.2
200 141.5 148.1
220 170.9
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 4 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50 60
Xnc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25 1.37

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Edge distance, e (mm) 100 125 150 175 200 250 300
Effective depth, h (mm)
60 1
70 0.97
80 0.88 1
90 0.82 0.95
100 0.77 0.88 1
110 0.72 0.83 0.94 1
120 0.69 0.79 0.88 0.98
130 0.66 0.75 0.84 0.93 1
140 0.63 0.72 0.80 0.88 0.97
150 0.61 0.69 0.77 0.84 0.92 1
175 0.57 0.63 0.70 0.77 0.83 0.97
200 0.53 0.59 0.65 0.71 0.77 0.88 1
220 0.51 0.57 0.62 0.67 0.72 0.83 0.94

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Note: For single anchor designs, Xnae = 1.0
Anchor spacing, a (mm) 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 400 500
Effective depth, h (mm)
60 0.71 0.78 0.85 0.92 0.99 1
70 0.68 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.92 0.98
80 0.66 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.92 1
90 0.64 0.69 0.73 0.78 0.82 0.87 0.96
100 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.79 0.83 0.92 1
110 0.61 0.65 0.69 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.88 0.95
120 0.60 0.64 0.67 0.71 0.74 0.78 0.85 0.92
130 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.69 0.72 0.76 0.82 0.88 1
140 0.59 0.62 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.98
150 0.58 0.61 0.64 0.67 0.69 0.72 0.78 0.83 0.94 1
175 0.57 0.60 0.62 0.64 0.67 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.88 0.98
200 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.63 0.65 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.83 0.92
220 0.56 0.58 0.59 0.61 0.63 0.65 0.69 0.73 0.80 0.88

48
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 7
SpaTec™
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Note: For single anchor designs, Xnai = 1.0
Anchor spacing, a (mm) 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 400 500
Effective depth, h (mm)
60 0.42 0.56 0.69 0.83 0.97 1
70 0.36 0.48 0.60 0.71 0.83 0.95
80 0.31 0.42 0.52 0.63 0.73 0.83 1
90 0.28 0.37 0.46 0.56 0.65 0.74 0.93
100 0.25 0.33 0.42 0.50 0.58 0.67 0.83 1
110 0.23 0.30 0.38 0.45 0.53 0.61 0.76 0.91
120 0.21 0.28 0.35 0.42 0.49 0.56 0.69 0.83
130 0.19 0.26 0.32 0.38 0.45 0.51 0.64 0.77 1
140 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.36 0.42 0.48 0.60 0.71 0.95
150 0.17 0.22 0.28 0.33 0.39 0.44 0.56 0.67 0.89 1
175 0.14 0.19 0.24 0.29 0.33 0.38 0.48 0.57 0.76 0.95
200 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.33 0.42 0.50 0.67 0.83
220 0.11 0.15 0.19 0.23 0.27 0.30 0.38 0.45 0.61 0.76

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Carbon steel 37.1 54.0 100.5 162.7 234.4

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

49
7 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
SpaTec™

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
100 16.0
125 22.4 24.6
150 29.5 32.3
175 37.1 40.7 47.0
200 45.4 49.7 57.4 62.0
250 63.4 69.4 80.2 86.6 92.6
300 83.3 91.3 105.4 113.9 121.7
400 128.3 140.5 162.3 175.3 187.4
600 258.2 298.1 322.0 344.3
800 459.0 495.8 530.0
1000 692.9 740.7
1250 1035.2
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 4 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50 60
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25 1.37

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 400 600 800 1000 1250
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
75 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54
85 0.67 0.64 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54
100 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.55 0.53
120 0.74 0.69 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.53
150 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.53
175 0.85 0.78 0.73 0.70 0.68 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.54 0.53
200 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53
300 1.00 0.98 0.90 0.84 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55
400 1.00 1.00 0.96 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.56
600 1.00 1.00 0.98 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60
800 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63
1000 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.66
1200 0.90 0.80 0.74 0.69
1500 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.74
1800 0.95 0.86 0.79
2100 1.00 0.92 0.84
2500 1.00 0.90

50
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 7
SpaTec™
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24

Bolt and spacer shear (kN) 38.5 55.1 104.5 151.7 203.9
h minimum (mm) 75 85 105 130 140

Bolt shear only (kN) 23.0 33.5 62.3 100.9 145.3


h minimum (mm) 60 72 96 112 128

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

51
7 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
SpaTec™

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset SpaTec™ Anchor,

(Anchor Size) ((Part Number)).


Maximum fixed thickness to be (t) mm.

Example
Ramset™ SpaTec™ Anchor,
M12 (SA12153).
Maximum fixed thickness to be 8 mm.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

52
Mechanical Anchoring 8
8.1 Structural Anchor
GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The HiShear™ 8.8 Anchor is a heavy duty, torque setting
expansion anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Provides same shear performance as larger diameter anchors:
~ Grade 8.8 Steel Bolt and thin spacer.
Faster installation:
~ Smaller holes are easier to drill. Principal Applications
Same tensile capacity as larger diameter anchors at same depth:
~ Patented sleeve design. ~ Raker angles to concrete panels.
Improved security: ~ Rafters to concrete panels.
~ Patented sleeve pulls down to close gaps up to 5 mm and induce preload. ~ Heavy structural steel to concrete.
Suitable for structural shear loads: ~ Corner guards.
~ High tensile capacity Grade 8.8 Steel Bolt.
~ High tensile washer to resist dishing.
“Safety Yellow” coloured head:
~ Easy identification during inspection.
Faster installation:
~ Through fixing eliminates marking out and repositioning of fixtures.

Installation
1. Use the fixture as a template and drill the hole
to the correct diameter and depth as per the
installation specifications.

2. Clean hole thoroughly with brush. Remove


debris by way of a vacuum or hand pump,
compressed air etc.

3. Insert HiShear™ 8.8 through fixture, tap lightly


with hammer until washer contacts fixture.

4. Tighten HiShear™ 8.8 anchor to specified


assembly torque using torque wrench or
impact wrench (rattle gun).

53
8 Mechanical Anchoring

Installation and Working Load Limit performance details


Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Shear, Va Tension, Na
size, dh diameter, dh diameter, df effective torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) f’c>20 MPa 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
55 85 165 85 7.5 9.5 10.6
16 16 19 65 115 100 195 100 16.7 9.6 12.2 13.6
80 120 240 120 13.1 16.6 18.6
70 105 210 105 10.7 13.6 15.2
20 20 24 210 31.1
80 120 240 120 13.1 16.6 18.6
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

8.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Effective Part No.
size, dh (mm) length, Le (mm) Zn
73 HS16090H
16
83 HS16100H
20 85 HS20100H

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = lesser of Le - t,
5 * dh
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

8.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Anchor Stress Grade 8.8 Carbon Steel Section
size, dh Thread area, As Yield strength, fy UTS, fu modulus
(mm) size, db (mm2) (MPa) (MPa) Z (mm3)
16 M12 84.3 640 800 109.2
20 M16 157.0 640 800 277.5

Permissible cyclic/slip load, (based on 65% of the long term retained preload).
Anchor size, dh (mm) 16 20
Permissible load, (kN) 7.8 10.7
Refer to section 6.12 on page 42, for design methodology.

54
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 8
8.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated


Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram
30 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity.
~ Tension limited by concrete cone capacity.
~ No edge or spacing effects.
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

~ f'c = 32 MPa

20

20

16
10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, dh (mm) 16 20
Edge distance, em 120 160
Anchor spacing, am 80 105

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Refer to “Description and Part Numbers” table on page 54.

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = lesser of Le - t,
5 * dh
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

55
8 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, dh (mm) 16 20
Effective depth, h (mm)
40 10.6
45 12.6
50 14.8 14.8
55 17.0 17.0
60 19.4 19.4
65 21.9 21.9
70 24.4 24.4
75 27.1 27.1
80 29.9 29.9
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 3.5 x Anchor size, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xnc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Xne = 1.0 for all valid edge distances

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Note: For single anchor designs, Xnae = 1.0
Anchor spacing, a (mm) 80 90 100 110 120 140 160 180 200 220
Effective depth, h (mm)
40 0.83 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
45 0.80 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.94 1.00
50 0.77 0.80 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.97
55 0.74 0.77 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.92 1.00
60 0.72 0.75 0.78 0.81 0.83 0.89 0.94 1.00
65 0.71 0.73 0.76 0.78 0.81 0.86 0.91 0.96
70 0.69 0.71 0.74 0.76 0.79 0.83 0.88 0.93 1.00
75 0.68 0.70 0.72 0.74 0.77 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.94 1.00
80 0.67 0.69 0.71 0.73 0.75 0.79 0.83 0.88 0.92 0.96

56
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 8
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Note: For single anchor designs, Xnai = 1.0
Anchor spacing, a (mm) 80 85 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Effective depth, h (mm)
40 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.83 1.00
45 0.59 0.63 0.67 0.74 0.89 1.00
50 0.53 0.57 0.60 0.67 0.80 0.93
55 0.48 0.52 0.55 0.61 0.73 0.85 1.00
60 0.44 0.47 0.50 0.56 0.67 0.78 0.89 1.00
65 0.41 0.44 0.46 0.51 0.62 0.72 0.82 0.92 1.00
70 0.38 0.40 0.43 0.48 0.57 0.67 0.76 0.86 0.95 1.00
75 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.44 0.53 0.62 0.71 0.80 0.89 0.98
80 0.33 0.35 0.38 0.42 0.50 0.58 0.67 0.75 0.83 0.92

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, dh (mm) 16 20
Grade 8.8 Carbon Steel 54.0 100.5

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

57
8 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, dh (mm) 16 20
Edge distance, e (mm)
120 21.8
140 27.4
160 33.5 37.5
180 40.0 44.7
200 46.8 52.4
250 65.5 73.2
300 86.1 96.2
350 108.5 121.3
400 132.5 148.1
450 158.1 176.8
500 207.0
600 272.2
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 3.5 x Anchor size, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
80 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54
85 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.54
90 0.65 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54
95 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54
100 0.67 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.54
125 0.71 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.55 0.54
150 0.75 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55
200 0.83 0.79 0.75 0.72 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.58 0.57
250 0.92 0.86 0.81 0.78 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.58
300 1.00 0.93 0.88 0.83 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.62 0.60
350 1.00 0.94 0.89 0.85 0.78 0.73 0.70 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.62
400 1.00 0.94 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.73 0.70 0.68 0.66 0.63
500 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.75 0.72 0.70 0.67
750 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.88 0.83 0.80 0.75
1000 1.00 1.00 0.94 0.90 0.83
1250 1.00 1.00 0.92
1500 1.00

58
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 8
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor


Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, dh (mm) 16 20
Grade 8.8 Carbon Steel 33.5 62.3

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

59
8 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset HiShear™ 8.8 Anchor,

(Anchor Size) ((Part Number)).


Maximum fixed thickness to be (t) mm.

Example
Ramset HiShear™ 8.8 Anchor,

16 mm (HS16100H).
Maximum fixed thickness to be 19 mm.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

60
Mechanical Anchoring 9
Boa™ Coil

9.1 Boa™ Coil Expansion Anchors


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The Boa™ Coil Anchor is a heavy duty, rotation setting
expansion anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


High load capacity:
~ Expansion coil locks into concrete to give cast-in type performance.
High clamping load:
~ Rotation setting action pulls down. Principal Applications
Resistant to cyclic loading:
~ Pull-down action. ~ Installing handrails and balustrades.
Fast installation: ~ Anchoring braces and precast panels.
~ Through fixing eliminates marking out and repositioning of fixtures. ~ Machinery hold down.
Easy and fast to remove: ~ Formwork support.
~ Expansion coil stays in hole leaving no protruding metal parts to grind off. ~ Safety barriers.

Installation

1. Using the fixture as a template, drill the correct diameter and depth hole.
Clean hole with a brush and remove debris with vacuum or hand pump.
2. Insert the assembled Boa™ Coil anchor. (The coil tab points up the anchor.)
Tap anchor down to depth set mark and stop.
3. Wind the anchor down until the washer is firmly held to the fixture and
stop. (For the number of turns required to set anchor refer to details on
installation and performance.)
4. Ensure washer is tight and snug fit.
5. The Boa™ Coil anchor is ready to take load. (The bolt can be removed
leaving the coil in the hole. To re-insert, follow steps 3 and 4.)

61
9 Mechanical Anchoring
Boa™ Coil
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective Turns to distance, e spacing, a thickness, b Shear, V Concrete compressive strength, f’c
c c m a
(mm) (mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) set anchor (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
30 45 4.5 3.1 3.9 4.3
10 10 12 50 5 60 120 75 7.4 5.1 6.4 7.2
75 113 8.9 7.6 9.7 10.8
40 60 8.2 5.3 6.7 7.5
13 13 14 75 5 80 160 113 15.4 9.9 12.6 14.1
110 165 16.0 14.6 18.4 20.6
50 75 14.4 8.2 10.3 11.5
16 16 19 70 5 100 200 105 20.2 11.4 14.4 16.2
90 135 26.0 14.7 18.6 20.8
57 86 20.2 11.0 14.0 15.6
19 19 21 80 5 120 230 120 28.4 15.5 19.6 21.9
105 158 37.2 20.3 25.7 28.8
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

9.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Effective Effective depth, h (mm)
size, db length, Le Part No.
(mm) (mm) Zn
47 BAC06060 h = Le - t
10 62 BAC06075
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed
87 BAC06100
59 BAC08075
13 84 BAC08100
124 BAC08140
71 BAC10090
16
106 BAC10125
63 BAC12085
19 93 BAC12115
128 BAC12150

9.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES - Carbon Steel


Bolt stress area, As Bolt yield strength, fy Bolt UTS, fu Section modulus, Z
Anchor size, db (mm) (mm2) (MPa) (MPa) (mm3)
6.5 20.2 640 800 12.9
10 43.2 680 830 40.0
13 77.8 680 830 97.0
16 134.4 680 830 219.8
19 196.0 680 830 387.2

62
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 9
Boa™ Coil
9.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


60 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity.
~ Tension limited by concrete cone capacity.
50
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

~ No edge or spacing effects.


~ f'c = 32 MPa

40

30

19

20
16

13
10
10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db (mm) 10 13 16 19
Edge distance, em 50 65 80 95
e ≥ 6 db 80 105 130 150
Anchor spacing, am
e < 6 db 100 130 160 190

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Refer to “Description and Part Numbers” table on page 62.

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = Le - t
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

63
9 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Boa™ Coil

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db (mm) 10 13 16 19
Effective depth, h (mm)
30 7.0
35 8.1
40 9.3 12.1
45 10.5 13.6
50 11.6 15.1 18.6
55 12.8 16.6 20.5
60 13.9 18.1 22.3 26.5
70 16.3 21.2 26.0 30.9
80 18.6 24.2 29.8 35.3
90 27.2 33.5 39.8
100 30.2 37.2 44.2
110 33.2 48.6
120 53.0
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 3 x anchor size, db in order to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xnc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Anchor size, db (mm) 10 13 16 19
Edge distance, e (mm)
50 0.88
60 1
70 0.93
80 1 0.88
90 0.96
100 1 0.91
120 1

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Note: For single anchor designs, Xnae = 1.0
Anchor size, db (mm) 10 13 16 19
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
80 0.83
90 0.88
100 0.92 0.82
120 1 0.88
140 0.95 0.86
160 1 0.92 0.85
180 0.97 0.89
200 1 0.94
220 0.98
230 1

64
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 9
Boa™ Coil
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Note: For single anchor designs, Xnai = 1.0
Anchor size, db (mm) 10 13 16 19
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
80 0.67
90 0.75
100 0.83 0.64
120 1 0.77
140 0.90 0.73
160 1 0.83 0.70
180 0.94 0.79
200 1 0.88
220 0.96
230 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, db (mm) 10 13 16 19
Carbon steel 28.7 51.7 89.2 130.1

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

65
9 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Boa™ Coil

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db (mm) 10 13 16 19
Edge distance, e (mm)
50 4.6
70 7.7 8.7
80 9.4 10.7 11.9
100 13.1 14.9 16.6 18.0
150 24.1 27.4 30.4 33.2
200 37.0 42.2 46.8 51.1
250 51.8 59.0 65.5 71.3
300 68.0 77.6 86.1 93.8
400 119.4 132.5 144.4
500 185.2 201.8
600 265.3
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 3 x anchor size, db in order to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 35 50 70 80 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
50 0.79 0.70 0.64 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53
75 0.93 0.80 0.71 0.69 0.65 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54
100 1.00 0.90 0.79 0.75 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.55 0.54
125 1.00 1.00 0.86 0.81 0.75 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54
150 1.00 0.93 0.88 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55
175 1.00 0.94 0.85 0.73 0.68 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.57 0.56
200 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57
225 1.00 0.95 0.80 0.73 0.68 0.65 0.61 0.59 0.58
250 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.58
275 1.00 0.87 0.78 0.72 0.68 0.64 0.61 0.59
300 0.90 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60
400 1.00 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63
500 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67
750 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.75
1000 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83
1250 1.00 1.00 0.92
1500 1.00 1.00

66
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 9
Boa™ Coil
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor


Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, db (mm) 10 13 16 19
h ≥ 6 x db 17.8 32.0 55.3 80.7
h ≥ 5 x db 14.9 26.7 46.1 67.2
h ≥ 4 x db 11.9 21.3 36.9 53.8
h ≥ 3 x db 8.9 16.0 27.7 40.3

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

67
9 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Boa™ Coil

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset Boa™ Coil Anchor,

(Anchor Size) ((Part Number)).


Maximum fixed thickness to be (t) mm.

Example
Ramset Boa™ Coil Anchor,

16 mm (BAC10125).
Maximum fixed thickness to be 14 mm.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

68
Mechanical Anchoring 10
TruBolt™

10.1 TruBolt™ Stud Anchors


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The TruBolt™ Anchor is a heavy duty, torque setting
expansion anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Maximum shear capacity for hole size:
~ Stud diameter equals hole diameter.
Faster installation: Principal Applications
~ Through fixing eliminates marking out and repositioning of fixtures.
High clamp load: ~ Structural beams and columns.
~ Stud design ensures pull-down on fixture. ~ Anchoring braces for precast panels.
Superior corrosion resistance: ~ Bottom plate and batten fixing.
~ AISI 316(A4) Stainless Steel. ~ Formwork support.
Outstanding exterior durability: ~ Installing signs, handrails,
balustrades and gates.
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.
Superior strength: ~ Safety barriers.
~ Cold forged steel construction.

Installation

1. Use fixture as a template, drill a hole the same diameter as the TruBolt™.
2. Remove debris by way of a vacuum or hand pump, compressed air, etc.
Drive anchor into hole until washer is flush with the fixture.
3. Tighten with a spanner. For optimum anchor performance a torque
wrench should be utilised.

69
10 Mechanical Anchoring
TruBolt™
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 25 MPa 32 MPa
24 35 70 70 2.8 1.8 2.0 2.2
M6 6 8 10
32 50 100 100 2.8 2.8 3.1 3.4
32 50 100 70 4.9 2.8 3.1 3.4
M8 8 10 20
54 80 160 110 4.9 6.0 6.7 7.2
40 60 120 90 6.8 3.8 4.3 4.7
M10 10 12 35
72 110 220 130 6.8 9.3 10.4 9.9
48 75 150 120 8.6 5.1 5.7 6.2
M12 12 15 50
86 130 260 160 8.6 12.1 13.6 12.7
64 100 200 150 14.4 7.8 8.7 9.5
M16 16 19 155
115 170 340 220 14.4 18.8 21.0 20.9
80 120 240 170 27.3 10.9 12.2 13.3
M20 20 24 355
145 220 440 270 27.3 26.5 29.7 32.5
96 120 240 210 39.4 10.9 12.2 10.9
M24 24 28 130 595 195 390 310 39.4 22.5 25.2 22.5
155 235 470 360 39.4 29.3 32.8 29.3
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

10.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Hole Effective Part No. Effective depth, h (mm)
Anchor diameter, dh length, Le
size, db (mm) (mm) Zn Gal S/S
28 – – T06045SS h = Le - t
38 T06055 – T06055SS
M6 6 t = total thickness of material(s)
68 T06085 – T06085SS
being fixed
103 T060120 – –
30 T08050 – T08050SS
45 T08065 – T08065SS
M8 8
70 T08090 – T08090SS
110 – – T08130SS
42 T10065 – T10065SS
52 T10075 – T10075SS
M10 10
67 T10090 T10090GH T10090SS
97 T10120 – T10120SS
58 T12080 T12080GH T12080SS
71 T12100 T12100GH T12100SS
M12 12 93 T12120 – –
111 T12140 T12140GH T12140SS
151 T12180 T12180GH T12180SS
67 T16100 T16100GH T16100SS
85 T16125 T16125GH T16125SS
M16 16 110 T16150 T16150GH T16150SS
135 T16175 T16175GH T16175SS
180 T16220 – –
85 T20120 T20120GH T20120SS
M20 20 115 T20160 T20160GH T20160SS
170 T20215 T20215GH –
M24 24 119 T24175 – –

70
Mechanical Anchoring 10
TruBolt™
10.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES - Carbon Steel
Anchors with strengths higher in the reduced section than
in the threaded section, are formed by cold working. The
reduced section is located under the expansion sleeve.
For shear loads, the critical plane is located in the threaded
section, and for tensile loads, the critical plane is located at
the reduced section.

Stress area Minimum Threaded section Reduced section Section


Anchor thread section, As diameter reduced Yield strength, fy UTS, fu Yield strength, fy UTS, fu modulus, Z
size, db (mm2) section, dm (mm) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (mm3)
M6 20.1 4.2 460 570 660 830 12.7
M8 36.6 5.8 430 540 600 750 31.2
M10 58 7.6 380 470 480 600 62.3
M12 84.3 8.9 330 410 450 560 109.2
M16 157 12.1 290 370 400 500 277.5
M20 245 16.1 360 450 360 450 540.9
M24 353 19.1 360 450 360 450 935.5

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES - Stainless Steel


Stress area Minimum Threaded section Reduced section Section
Anchor thread section, As diameter reduced Yield strength, fy UTS, fu Yield strength, fy UTS, fu modulus, Z
size, db (mm2) section, dm (mm) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (mm3)
M6 20.1 4.2 320 400 470 590 12.7
M8 36.6 5.8 350 430 480 600 31.2
M10 58 7.6 380 470 480 600 62.3
M12 84.3 8.9 360 450 480 600 109.2
M16 157 12.1 480 600 480 600 277.5
M20 245 16.1 480 600 480 600 540.9
M24 353 19.1 480 600 480 600 935.5

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10.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated


Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram
90 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity.
80
~ Tension limited by carbon steel capacity.
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

~ No edge or spacing effects.


70 ~ f'c = 32 MPa

60

50
M24
40

30
M20

20
M16

10 M12
M10
M8
M6
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, em 45 55 60 65 75 95 140
Anchor spacing, am 30 35 40 45 50 60 95

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Refer to “Description and Part Numbers” table on page 70.

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = Le - t
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

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STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Hole diameter, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12 16 20 24
Effective Depth, h (mm)
25 4.2
30 5.5
35 6.9 6.9
40 8.5 8.5 8.5
50 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9
65 17.6 17.6 17.6 17.6 17.6
80 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0
95 31.0 31.0 31.0 31.0 31.0 31.0
110 38.7 38.7 38.7 38.7 38.7
125 46.8 46.8 46.8 46.8
145 58.5 58.5 58.5 58.5
160 67.8 67.8 67.8
180 81.0 81.0
200 94.8
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 4 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xnc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.00

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Edge distance, e (mm) 50 60 70 80 100 125 150 175 200 230
Effective depth, h (mm)
25
30 1
35 0.97
40 0.88 1 1
50 0.77 0.86 0.95 1
65 0.66 0.73 0.80 0.87 1
80 0.59 0.65 0.71 0.77 0.88 1
95 0.55 0.59 0.64 0.69 0.79 0.91 1
110 0.51 0.55 0.60 0.64 0.72 0.83 0.94 1
125 0.49 0.52 0.56 0.60 0.67 0.77 0.86 0.95 1
145 0.46 0.49 0.53 0.56 0.62 0.70 0.78 0.86 0.94 1
160 0.45 0.48 0.50 0.53 0.59 0.66 0.74 0.81 0.88 0.97
180 0.43 0.46 0.48 0.51 0.56 0.62 0.69 0.75 0.82 0.90
200 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.49 0.53 0.59 0.65 0.71 0.77 0.84

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Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae
Note: For single anchor designs, Xnae = 1.0
Anchor spacing, a (mm) 30 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400
Effective depth, h (mm)
25 0.70 0.77 0.83 0.90 1
30 0.67 0.72 0.78 0.83 0.94 1
35 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.88 0.98
40 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.83 0.92 1
50 0.60 0.63 0.67 0.70 0.77 0.83 0.92 1 1
65 0.58 0.60 0.63 0.65 0.71 0.76 0.82 0.88 0.95 1
80 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.92 1
95 0.55 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.64 0.68 0.72 0.76 0.81 0.85 0.94 1
110 0.55 0.56 0.58 0.59 0.62 0.65 0.69 0.73 0.77 0.80 0.88 0.95 1
125 0.54 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.61 0.63 0.67 0.70 0.73 0.77 0.83 0.90 0.97 1
145 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.64 0.67 0.70 0.73 0.79 0.84 0.90 0.96
160 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.68 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.92
180 0.54 0.55 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.69 0.73 0.78 0.82 0.87
200 0.53 0.54 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60 0.63 0.65 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.79 0.83

Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai


Note: For single anchor designs, Xnai = 1.0
Anchor spacing, a (mm) 30 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400
Effective depth, h (mm)
25 0.40 0.53 0.67 0.80 1
30 0.33 0.44 0.56 0.67 0.89 1
35 0.29 0.38 0.48 0.57 0.76 0.95
40 0.25 0.33 0.42 0.50 0.67 0.83 1
50 0.20 0.27 0.33 0.40 0.53 0.67 0.83 1 1
65 0.15 0.21 0.26 0.31 0.41 0.51 0.64 0.77 0.90 1
80 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.25 0.33 0.42 0.52 0.63 0.73 0.83 1
95 0.11 0.14 0.18 0.21 0.28 0.35 0.44 0.53 0.61 0.70 0.88 1
110 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.24 0.30 0.38 0.45 0.53 0.61 0.76 0.91 1
125 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.21 0.27 0.33 0.40 0.47 0.53 0.67 0.80 0.93 1
145 0.09 0.11 0.14 0.18 0.23 0.29 0.34 0.40 0.46 0.57 0.69 0.80 0.92
160 0.10 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.26 0.31 0.36 0.42 0.52 0.63 0.73 0.83
180 0.09 0.11 0.15 0.19 0.23 0.28 0.32 0.37 0.46 0.56 0.65 0.74
200 0.10 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.33 0.42 0.50 0.58 0.67

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

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TruBolt™

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Carbon steel 9.1 15.7 21.8 27.8 45.5 72.5 103.1
316 Stainless steel 6.4 12.6 21.8 29.9 55.2 97.7 –

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

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TruBolt™

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
45 3.1
60 4.7 5.4 6.1
75 6.6 7.6 8.5 9.3
100 10.1 11.7 13.1 14.3
150 18.6 21.5 24.1 26.4 30.4
200 28.7 33.1 37.0 40.6 46.9 52.4
250 40.1 46.3 51.8 56.7 65.5 73.2 80.2
300 52.7 60.9 68.0 74.5 86.1 96.2 105.4
350 76.7 85.7 93.9 108.5 121.3 132.8
450 136.9 158.1 176.8 193.7
600 272.2 298.1
850 502.7
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 4 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 45 60 75 100 150 200 250 300 350 450 600 850
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
30 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.51 0.51
50 0.72 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.51
60 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.62 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51
80 0.86 0.77 0.71 0.66 0.61 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52
100 0.94 0.83 0.77 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52
125 1.00 0.92 0.83 0.75 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.53
150 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.54
200 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.55
250 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.61 0.58 0.56
300 0.90 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.57
400 1.00 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.73 0.68 0.63 0.59
500 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.72 0.67 0.62
600 0.98 0.90 0.84 0.77 0.70 0.64
800 1.00 1.00 0.96 0.86 0.77 0.69
1000 1.00 0.94 0.83 0.74
1500 1.00 1.00 0.85
2000 0.97

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Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor


Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Carbon steel 5.7 9.8 13.5 17.1 28.8 44.9 78.7
316 Stainless steel 4.0 7.8 13.5 18.9 46.7 72.9 –

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

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STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset TruBolt™ Anchor,

(Anchor Size) ((Part Number)).


Maximum fixed thickness to be (t) mm.

Example
Ramset™ TruBolt™ Anchor,
M20 (T20160).
Maximum fixed thickness to be 20 mm.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

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Mechanical Anchoring 11
AnkaScrew™

11.1 AnkaScrew™ Screw In Anchor


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The AnkaScrew™ Anchor is a medium duty, rotation setting
thread forming anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Fast and easy to install: Principal Applications
~ Simply screws into hole.
Fast and easy to remove: ~ Pallet racking.
~ Screws out leaving an empty hole with no protruding metal parts to grind off. ~ Temporary safety barriers.
Close to edge and for close anchor spacing: ~ Conveyors.
~ Does not expand and burst concrete. ~ Pipe brackets.
~ Gate hinges into brickwork.
~ Temporary hand rails.
~ Bottom plates.
Installation

1. Drill hole to correct diameter and depth. Clean thoroughly with brush.
Remove debris by way of vacuum or hand pump, compressed air etc.
2. Using a socket wrench, screw the AnkaScrew™ into the hole using slight
pressure until the self tapping action starts.
3. Tighten the AnkaScrew™. If resistance is experienced when tightening,
unscrew anchor one turn and re-tighten. Ensure not to over tighten.
4. For optimum performance, a torque wrench should be used.

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Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, dh Shear, Va
diameter, dh diameter, df effective torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) f’c > 20 MPa 20 MPa 25 MPa 32 MPa
30 55 3.7 2.0 2.4 2.6
6 6 8 37 25 25 50 62 4.1 2.6 3.0 3.3
45 70 4.5 3.2 3.8 4.1
40 65 5.6 3.0 3.6 3.9
8 8 10 50 40 35 70 75 7.0 4.1 4.8 5.2
60 85 8.4 5.2 6.1 6.6
50 75 9.5 4.4 5.1 5.6
10 10 12 62 60 40 80 87 11.6 5.9 7.0 7.5
75 100 13.8 7.7 9.1 9.8
60 85 12.9 6.2 7.3 7.9
12 12 15 75 80 50 100 100 14.8 8.6 10.2 11.0
90 115 16.7 11.3 13.3 14.4
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

11.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Effective length, Le Part No.
size, db (mm) Hex Head Hex Flange Csk Pozi Csk Internal Hex
50 – AS06050H AS06050F –
6 75 – AS06075H – –
100 – AS06100H – –
60 AS08060H – – –
8 75 AS08075H – – AS08075F
100 AS08100H – – –
60 AS10060H – – –
75 AS10075H – – –
10
100 AS10100H – – –
150 AS10150H – – –
75 AS12075H – – –
12 100 AS12100H – – –
150 AS12150H – – –

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = lesser of Le - t,
5 * dh
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

11.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Anchor Stress Yield
size, dh area, As strength, fy UTS, fu
(mm) (mm2) (MPa) (MPa)
6 22.9 640 800
8 42.4 640 800
10 69.4 640 800
12 84.1 640 800

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Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 11
AnkaScrew™
11.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated


Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram
25 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity at h = 7.5 dh
~ Tension limited by the lesser of carbon steel
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

capacity and concrete capacity at h = 7.5 dh


20
~ edge or spacing effects.
No
~ f'c = 32 MPa

15
12

10
10

8
5

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db 6 8 10 12
e m, a m 20 25 30 35

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Refer to “Description and Part Numbers” table on page 80.

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = lesser of Le - t,
5 * dh
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

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AnkaScrew™

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db 6 8 10 12
Effective depth, h (mm)
30 4.3
35 5.1
40 6.0 6.4
45 6.9 7.5
50 8.6 9.3
55 9.8 10.6
60 10.9 12.0 13.2
75 16.3 18.3
90 23.9
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 3.5 x Anchor size, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xnc 0.85 0.92 1.00 1.08

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12
Edge distance, e (mm)
20 0.88
25 1 0.85
30 0.96 0.83
35 1 0.91 0.81
40 1 0.88
45 0.96
50 1

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Note: For single anchor designs, Xnae = 1.0
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
20 0.78
25 0.85 0.76
30 0.92 0.81 0.75
35 1 0.86 0.79
40 0.92 0.83
45 1 0.88 0.81
50 0.92 0.85
55 0.96 0.88
60 1 0.92
70 1

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Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Note: For single anchor designs, Xnai = 1.0
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
20 0.56
25 0.69 0.52
30 0.83 0.63 0.50
35 1 0.73 0.58 0.49
40 0.83 0.67 0.56
45 0.94 0.75 0.63
50 1 0.83 0.69
55 0.92 0.76
60 1 0.83
70 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12
Heat Treated Carbon Steel 14.6 27.1 44.4 53.8

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

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AnkaScrew™

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12
Edge distance, e (mm)
20 0.9
25 1.3 1.5
30 1.7 1.9 2.2
35 2.1 2.4 2.7 3.0
50 3.6 4.1 4.6 5.1
75 6.6 7.6 8.5 9.3
100 10.1 11.7 13.1 14.3
150 18.6 21.5 24.1 26.4
200 28.7 33.1 37.0 40.6
250 46.3 51.8 56.7
300 68.0 74.5
400 114.8
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 3.5 x Anchor size, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 20 25 30 35 50 75 100 150 200 250 300 400
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
20 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52
25 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.53 0.52
30 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.62 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.52
35 0.85 0.78 0.73 0.70 0.64 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.52
40 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.73 0.66 0.61 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.52
50 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53
65 1.00 0.93 0.87 0.76 0.67 0.63 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53
80 1.00 0.96 0.82 0.71 0.66 0.61 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54
100 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.55
125 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.56
150 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.58
200 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.60
250 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.63
300 0.90 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.65
450 1.00 0.95 0.86 0.80 0.73
600 1.00 0.98 0.90 0.80
1000 1.00 1.00 1.00

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Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12
h ≥ 5 x dh 6.8 12.6 20.7 25.0
h ≥ 6 x dh 7.7 14.3 23.4 28.4
h ≥ 7 x dh 8.6 16.0 26.2 31.7
h ≥ 7.5 x dh 9.1 16.8 27.5 33.4

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

85
11 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
AnkaScrew™

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset AnkaScrew™ Anchor,

(Anchor Size) ((Part Number)).


Maximum fixed thickness to be (t) mm.

Example
Ramset AnkaScrew™ Anchor,

12 mm (AS12100H).
Maximum fixed thickness to be 40 mm.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

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Mechanical Anchoring 12
DynaBolt™

12.1 DynaBolt™ Sleeve Anchors


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The DynaBolt™ Anchor is a medium duty, torque setting
expansion anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Improved security:
~ Patented sleeve crushes to close gaps up to 5 mm and pulls down
to induce clamp load. Principal Applications
Fast installation:
~ Through fixing eliminates marking out and repositioning of fixtures. ~ Bottom plate and batten fixing.
Versatile: ~ Installing signs, handrails and gates.
~ Choice of head styles. ~ Installing duct work, pipe brackets
Superior corrosion resistance: and suspended ceilings.
~ From AISI 316(A4) Stainless Steel. ~ Corner guards.
Outstanding exterior durability:
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.

Installation

1. Use fixture as a template, drill a hole to the correct diameter and depth.
Clean hole thoroughly with brush.
2. Remove debris by way of a vacuum or hand pump, compressed air, etc.
Insert anchor tightly against fixture and tighten with spanner.
3. Continue tightening, allowing the sleeve to twist and
pull down the fixture firmly onto the base material.

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Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, dh diameter, dh diameter, df effective torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 25 MPa 32 MPa
20 30 60 40 2.5 1.6 2.1 2.3
6 6 8 10
30 55 105 70 2.5 3.0 3.7 3.7
30 50 95 65 4.0 3.0 3.8 4.3
8 8 10 15
40 75 150 100 4.0 4.6 5.8 5.8
35 50 100 70 6.4 3.8 4.8 5.4
10 10 12 35
50 85 165 110 6.4 6.5 8.2 9.2
40 65 125 85 7.9 4.6 5.9 6.6
12 12 15 50 55 90 180 120 7.9 6.5 8.2 9.2
60 105 210 140 7.9 8.5 10.8 11.6
55 75 145 95 10.5 7.5 9.5 10.6
16 16 19 70 85 105 210 140 10.5 10.7 13.6 15.2
80 135 270 180 10.5 13.1 15.3 15.3
70 90 180 120 15.6 10.7 13.6 15.2
20 20 24 85 165 130 255 170 15.6 14.4 18.2 20.3
100 195 390 260 15.6 18.3 22.8 22.8
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

12.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Effective Part No. Anchor Effective Part No.
size, dh (mm) length, Le (mm) Zn Gal S/S size, dh (mm) length, Le (mm) Zn Gal S/S
34 DP06040 – DP06040SS 47 DP12060 DP12060GH DP12060SS
6
53 DP06060 – DP06060SS 62 DP12070 DP12070GH DP12070SS
12
34 DP08040 – DP08040SS 90 DP12100 DP12100GH DP12100SS
8 60 DP08065 – DP08065SS 118 DP12125 DP12125GH DP12125SS
86 DP08090 – DP08090SS 51 DP16065 DP16065GH –
34 DP10040 DP10040GH – 16 95 DP16110 DP16110GH –
42 DP10050 DP10050GH DP10050SS 129 DP16140 DP16140GH –
10 69 DP10075 DP10075GH DP10075SS 70 DP20080 DP20080GH –
96 DP10100 DP10100GH DP10100SS 20 102 DP20115 DP20115GH –
117 DP10125 – – 146 DP20160 – –

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = lesser of Le - t,
5 * dh
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

12.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Anchor Stress Carbon steel Stainless steel Section
Thread
size, dh area, As Yield strength, fy UTS, fu Yield strength, fy UTS, fu modulus
size, db
(mm) (mm2) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) Z (mm3)
6 M4.5 11.3 720 900 480 600 5.4
8 M6 20.1 640 800 480 600 12.7
10 M8 36.6 560 700 480 600 31.2
12 M10 58.0 440 550 480 600 62.3
16 M12 84.3 400 500 – – 109.2
20 M16 157.0 320 400 – – 277.5

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Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 12
DynaBolt™
12.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated


Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram
50 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity.
~ Tension limited by the lesser of carbon steel capacity
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

and concrete cone capacity at h = 5 dh.


40
~ No edge or spacing effects.
~ f'c = 32 MPa

30

20
20

16

12
10
10
8
6
0
0 10 20 30 40
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12 16 20
Edge distance, em 55 60 70 70 75 85
Anchor spacing, am 35 40 45 45 50 55

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Refer to “Description and Part Numbers” table on page 88.

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = lesser of Le - t,
5 * dh
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

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DynaBolt™

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12 16 20
Effective depth, h (mm)
20 3.7 3.7
25 5.2 5.2 5.2
30 6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9
40 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.6
50 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.8
60 19.4 19.4 19.4
70 24.4 24.4
80 29.9 29.9
90 35.6
100 41.7
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 3.5 x Anchor size, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xnc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Edge distance, e (mm) 50 60 70 80 90 100 125 150
Effective depth, h (mm)
25
30 1
35 0.97
40 0.88 1 1
50 0.77 0.86 0.95 1
60 0.69 0.77 0.84 0.92 1
70 0.63 0.70 0.77 0.83 0.97
75 0.61 0.67 0.74 0.80 0.92
80 0.59 0.65 0.71 0.77 0.88 1
85 0.57 0.63 0.68 0.74 0.85 0.96
90 0.56 0.61 0.66 0.71 0.82 0.92 1
95 0.55 0.59 0.64 0.69 0.79 0.89 0.94 1
100 0.53 0.58 0.63 0.67 0.77 0.86 0.91 0.95

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Note: For single anchor designs, Xnae = 1.0
Anchor spacing, a (mm) 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300
Effective depth, h (mm)
25 0.83 0.90 1
30 0.78 0.83 0.94 1
35 0.74 0.79 0.88 0.98
40 0.71 0.75 0.83 0.92 1
50 0.67 0.70 0.77 0.83 0.92 1 1
60 0.64 0.67 0.72 0.78 0.85 0.92 0.99 1
70 0.62 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.80 0.86 0.92 0.98
75 0.61 0.63 0.68 0.72 0.78 0.83 0.89 0.94 1
80 0.60 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.92 0.97 1
85 0.60 0.62 0.66 0.70 0.75 0.79 0.84 0.89 0.94 0.99
90 0.59 0.61 0.65 0.69 0.73 0.78 0.82 0.87 0.92 0.96
95 0.58 0.60 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.79 0.83 0.88 0.92
100 0.58 0.60 0.63 0.67 0.71 0.75 0.79 0.83 0.88 0.92

90
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 12
DynaBolt™
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Note: For single anchor designs, Xnai = 1.0
Anchor spacing, a (mm) 50 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300
Effective depth, h (mm)
25 0.67 0.80 1
30 0.56 0.67 0.89 1
35 0.48 0.57 0.76 0.95
40 0.42 0.50 0.67 0.83 1
50 0.33 0.40 0.53 0.67 0.83 1 1
60 0.28 0.33 0.44 0.56 0.69 0.83 0.97 1
70 0.24 0.29 0.38 0.48 0.60 0.71 0.83 0.95 1
75 0.22 0.27 0.36 0.44 0.56 0.67 0.78 0.89 1
80 0.21 0.25 0.33 0.42 0.52 0.63 0.73 0.83 0.94 1
85 0.20 0.24 0.31 039 0.49 0.59 0.69 0.78 0.88 0.98
90 0.19 0.22 0.30 0.37 0.46 0.56 0.65 0.74 0.83 0.93
95 0.18 0.21 0.28 0.35 0.44 0.53 0.61 0.70 0.79 0.88
100 0.17 0.20 0.27 0.33 0.42 0.50 0.58 0.67 0.75 0.83

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12 16 20
Carbon steel 8.1 12.9 20.5 25.5 33.7 50.2
316 Stainless steel 5.4 9.6 17.6 27.8 – –

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

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DynaBolt™

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12 16 20
Edge distance, e (mm)
35 2.1
40 2.6 3.0
50 3.6 4.1 4.6 5.1 5.9
60 4.7 5.4 6.1 6.7 7.7 8.6
100 10.1 11.7 13.1 14.3 16.6 18.5
150 18.6 21.5 24.1 26.4 30.4 34.0
200 28.7 33.1 37.0 40.6 46.9 52.4
250 40.1 46.3 51.8 56.7 65.5 73.2
300 52.7 60.9 68.0 74.5 86.1 96.2
400 93.7 104.8 114.8 132.5 148.2
500 185.2 207.0
600 272.2
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 3.5 x Anchor size, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 35 40 50 60 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
55 0.81 0.78 0.72 0.68 0.61 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.54
60 0.84 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.62 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53
70 0.90 0.85 0.78 0.73 0.64 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54
75 0.93 0.88 0.80 0.75 0.65 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54
85 0.99 0.93 0.84 0.78 0.67 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.53
100 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53
125 1.00 0.92 0.75 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54
150 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55
200 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57
225 0.95 0.80 0.73 0.68 0.65 0.61 0.59 0.58
250 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.58
500 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67
625 1.00 0.92 0.81 0.75 0.71
750 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.75
1000 1.00 0.90 0.83
1250 1.00 0.92
1500 1.00

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DynaBolt™
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor


Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, dh (mm) 6 8 10 12 16 20
Carbon steel 5.0 8.0 12.7 15.8 20.9 31.1
316 Stainless steel 3.4 6.0 10.9 17.3 – –

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

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DynaBolt™

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset DynaBolt™ Anchor,

(Anchor Size) ((Part Number)).


Maximum fixed thickness to be (t) mm.

Example
Ramset DynaBolt™ Anchor,

16 mm (DP16110GH).
Maximum fixed thickness to be 12 mm.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

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Mechanical Anchoring 13
DynaSet™

13.1 DynaSet™ Drop In Anchors


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The DynaSet™ Anchor is a medium duty, displacement
setting expansion anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Fast installation:
~ Shallow embedment and simple setting action. Principal Applications
Convenient:
~ Threaded rod can be cut to equal lengths. ~ Suspended services, such as cable
~ Flanged version sits flush with surface in overdrilled holes. tray, ventilation ducts or plumbing
Ideal as reusable anchorage point: fixtures.
~ Internal threaded design. ~ Stadium seating.
~ No protruding metal parts when bolt or rod is removed. ~ Holding down machinery.
Superior corrosion resistance: ~ Installing racking.
~ AISI 316(A4) Stainless Steel. ~ Suspended ceilings.

Installation

1. Drill hole at recommended diameter, to at least the anchor length in


depth. Clean hole thoroughly with a brush. Remove debris by way of a
vacuum pump, compressed air, hand pump etc.
2. Insert anchor and push to required depth. Using the special setting tool,
drive the expander plug down until shoulder of the setting punch meets
top of the anchor.
3. Position fixture then insert the bolt and tighten with spanner.
The DynaSet™ anchor remains set in position if the bolt is removed.

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13 Mechanical Anchoring
DynaSet™
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, db diameter, dh effective torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) depth, h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M6 8 23 6 80 60 50 2.2 2.2 2.8 3.1
M8 10 28 10 100 70 60 2.9 3.0 3.8 4.2
M10 12 38 20 135 95 80 3.5 4.7 6.0 6.7
M10 Flanged 12 28 12 100 70 60 2.9 3.1 3.8 4.2
M12 16** 48 40 170 120 100 6.6 6.7 8.5 9.5
M16 20 63 95 220 160 130 10.4 8.9 11.2 12.6
M20 24 78 180 275 195 160 13.1 13.9 17.5 19.6
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.
** Hole diameter = 15 mm for M12SS

13.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Effective Part No. Effective depth, h (mm)
Anchor length, L depth, h
size, db (mm) (mm) Zn S/S
Read value from “Description and Part
M6 25 23 DSM06 DSM06SS Numbers” table, page 96.
M8 30 28 DSM08 DSM08SS
M10 40 38 DSM10 DSM10SS
M10 Flanged 30 28 DSF10 –
M12 50 48 DSM12 DSM12SS
M16 65 63 DSM16 –
60 58 – DSM16SS
M20 80 78 DSM20 –

13.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Anchor Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Section
Anchor stress area, As Yield strength, fy UTS, fu Yield strength, fy UTS, fu modulus, Z
size, db (mm2) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (mm3)
M6 24.3 350 440 480 600 36.9
M8 32.0 350 440 480 600 63.7
M10 40.7 340 430 480 600 100.2
M12 96.3 260 320 – – 292.9
M12 S/S 72.0 – – 480 600 214.9
M16 125.5 320 450 480 600 502.1
M20 159.8 320 450 480 600 789.6

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Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 13
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13.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


40 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity.
~ Tension limited by carbon steel capacity.
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

~ No edge or spacing effects.


30 ~ f'c = 32 MPa
~ Bolt capacity to be confirmed separately.

20
M20

M16
10
M12

M10
M8
M6
0
0 10 20 30
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M10 F M12 M16 M20
Edge distance, em 80 100 135 100 170 220 275
Anchor spacing, am 60 70 95 70 120 160 195

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Effective depth, h (mm)

Read value from “Description and Part


Numbers” table on page 96.

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

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DynaSet™

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M10 F M12 M16 M20
Effective depth, h (mm) 23 28 38 28 48 63 78
Concrete compressive
strength, f’c (MPa)
20 4.0 5.4 8.5 5.4 12.0 18.1 25.0
25 4.5 6.0 9.5 6.0 13.5 20.3 27.9
32 5.1 6.8 10.7 6.8 15.2 22.9 31.6
40 5.7 7.6 12.0 7.6 17.0 25.6 35.3

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


Xnc = 1.0 as concrete compressive strength effect included in table 2a.

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Xne = 1.0 for all valid edge distance values.

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Note: For single anchor designs, Xnae = 1.0
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M10 F M12 M16 M20
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
60 0.93
65 0.97
70 1 0.92 0.92
80 0.98 0.98
90 1 1
100 0.94
110 0.98
120 1 0.92
130 0.95
150 1 0.90
170 0.95
180 0.98
190 1
200 0.93
220 0.97
230 0.99
235 1

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Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 13
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Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Note: For single anchor designs, Xnai = 1.0
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M10 F M12 M16 M20
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
60 0.87
65 0.94
70 1 0.83 0.83
80 0.95 0.95
90 1 1
100 0.88
110 0.96
120 1 0.83
130 0.90
150 1 0.79
170 0.90
180 0.95
190 1 0.81
200 0.85
220 0.94
230 0.98
235 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20
Carbon steel 8.5 11.2 13.8 24.7 40.2 51.1
316 Stainless steel 11.7 15.4 19.5 34.6 60.2 –

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Establish the reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel
tensile capacity, ØNtf from literature supplied by the
specified bolt manufacturer. For nominal expected
capacities of bolts manufactured to ISO standards,
refer to section 28, page 161.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus, ØNtf


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

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STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M12 M12 S/S M16 M20
Edge distance, e (mm)
80 8.4
100 11.7 13.1
125 16.4 18.3
150 21.5 24.1 26.4
175 27.1 30.3 33.2 38.3 37.1
200 33.1 37.0 40.6 46.9 45.4
250 46.3 51.8 56.7 65.5 63.4 73.2
300 68.0 74.5 86.1 83.3 96.2 105.4
350 93.9 108.5 105.0 121.3 132.8
400 114.8 132.5 128.3 148.2 162.3
500 207.0 226.8
650 336.2

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 80 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 500 650
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
60 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55
70 0.68 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55
80 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.55
100 0.75 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.55
120 0.80 0.74 0.69 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.56
160 0.90 0.82 0.76 0.71 0.68 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.56
200 1.00 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.60 0.58 0.56
250 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.63 0.60 0.58
300 0.98 0.90 0.84 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.62 0.59
400 1.00 1.00 0.96 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.62
500 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.75 0.70 0.65
625 1.00 0.92 0.86 0.81 0.75 0.69
750 1.00 0.93 0.88 0.80 0.73
875 1.00 0.94 0.85 0.77
1000 1.00 0.90 0.81
1250 1.00 0.88
1625 1.00

100
Strength Limit State Design Mechanical Anchoring 13
DynaSet™
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, db M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20
Carbon steel 4.5 5.8 7.1 13.2 20.9 26.3
316 Stainless steel 6.1 7.9 10.0 17.8 31.3 39.4

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Establish the reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel
shear capacity, ØVsf from literature supplied by the
specified bolt manufacturer. For nominal expected
capacities of bolts manufactured to ISO standards,
refer to section 28, page 161.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus, ØVsf


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

101
13 Mechanical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
DynaSet™

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset™ DynaSet™ Anchor,
(Anchor Size) ((Part Number)) with a
(Bolt Grade) bolt.

Example
Ramset™ DynaSet™ Anchor, M16 (DSM16)
with a Gr. 4.6 bolt.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

102
Mechanical Anchoring 14
RediDrive™

14.1 RediDrive™ Hammer In Anchors


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The RediDrive™ Anchor is a light duty, impact setting
interference fit anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Fast installation:
~ Anchor is simply hammered in.
Secure: Principal Applications
~ Mushroom head is tamper resistant and interference fit is permanent.
Suitable for non-coastal exterior use: ~ Conduit and pipework.
~ Mechanical Zinc Plating. ~ Window frames.
~ Battens.
~ Fire collars.
Installation
1. Drill 5 mm diameter hole to correct depth
using fixture as template.
Clean thoroughly with brush.

2. Remove debris by way of vacuum or hand


pump, compressed air etc.

3. Insert dog point into hole through fixture and


strike head of anchor using mash hammer
until head is flush with surface.

103
14 Mechanical Anchoring
RediDrive™
These anchors are not recommended for structure critical
applications and are typically used for simple fixing and finishing
applications. Their capacity information is therefore presented in
simple Working Load Limit format.

Installation and Working Load Limit performance details


Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor
Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, db
diameter, dh diameter, df effective distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm)
(mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 30 MPa
18 48 2.1 1.3 1.8
5 5 6.5 25 63 75 60 4.6 1.7 2.5
30 70 4.9 2.6 3.6

14.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor size, db Effective length, Le Part No. Effective depth, h (mm)
(mm) (mm) Zn
20 RD05020
h = Le - t
30 RD05030
40 RD05040 t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed
5
50 RD05050
65 RD05065
75 RD05075

14.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Anchor Stress Carbon steel Section
size, dh area, As Yield strength, fy UTS, fu modulus
(mm) (mm2) (MPa) (MPa) Z (mm3)
5 20 800 1000 12.3

104
Mechanical Anchoring 15
ShureDrive™

15.1 ShureDrive™ Anchors


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The ShureDrive™ Anchor is a light duty, impact setting
interference fit anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Convenient:
~ Simply insert through fixture and hammer in. Principal Applications
Economical:
~ Zinc body and Zinc Plated nail. ~ Galvanised brick ties.
Secure: ~ Signs.
~ Tamper resistant head style. ~ Switch boxes.
~ Shelf brackets.

Installation
1. Drill hole to correct diameter and depth. Clean
thoroughly with brush. Remove debris by way
of vacuum or hand pump, compressed air etc.

2. Insert ShureDrive™ into hole through fixture


until head is tight against fixture.

3. Drive home expansion nail with hammer.

105
15 Mechanical Anchoring
ShureDrive™
These anchors are not recommended for structure critical
applications and are typically used for simple fixing and finishing
applications. Their capacity information is therefore presented in
simple Working Load Limit format.

Installation and Working Load Limit performance details


Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Edge Anchor Tension, Na
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective distance, ec spacing, ac Shear, Va Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 40 MPa
5 5 6 19 20 30 1.0 0.8 0.80
6 6 7 25 24 36 1.4 1.0 1.0

15.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor size, Effective length, Part No. Effective depth, h (mm)
db (mm) Le (mm) Zn S/S
5 22 SDM05022 – h = Le - t
30 SDM06030 SDM06030SS
6
50 SDM06050 – t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

106
Mechanical Anchoring 16
RamPlug™

16.1 RamPlug™
GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The RamPlug™ Anchor is a light duty, rotation setting
interference fit anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Fast and easy to install:
~ Anchor simply hammered in.
Convenient:
~ Tangs ensure anchor sits flush with substrate surface in over drilled holes. Principal Applications
Versatile:
~ Anchor accepts many types of screw. ~ Electrical fittings.
~ Lightweight steel.
~ Timber.

Installation
1. Drill hole to correct diameter and depth. Clean
thoroughly with brush. Remove debris by way
of vacuum or hand pump, compressed air etc.

2. Insert the RamPlug™ into hole until flush with


the surface.

3. Pass wood screw through fixture and into the


RamPlug™. Tighten with screwdriver.

Note: (1) Screw length = length of Ramplug™ + thickness of fixture


(2) Ultra long plugs supplied with screw.

107
16 Mechanical Anchoring
RamPlug™
These anchors are not recommended for structure critical
applications and are typically used for simple fixing and finishing
applications. Their capacity information is therefore presented in
simple Working Load Limit format.

Installation and Working Load Limit performance details


Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, db
diameter, dh diameter, df effective distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Conc. compressive strength, f’c
(mm)
(mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 40 MPa
DNP05 5 5 6 25 20 30 50 0.4 0.30 0.30
DNP06 6 6 7 30 24 36 55 0.8 0.50 0.50
DNP07 7 7 7 30 28 42 55 1.1 0.65 0.65
DNP08 8 8 8 40 32 48 65 1.3 0.80 0.80
DNP10 10 10 9 50 40 60 75 2.4 1.20 1.20
DNP12 12 12 12 60 48 72 85 3.0 1.80 1.80
DLP06 6 6 7 60 24 36 85 0.4 0.35 0.35
DLP08 8 8 8 80 32 48 105 0.8 0.45 0.45
DLP10 10 10 9 80 40 60 105 1.1 0.55 0.55
DUP10080 10 10 9 80 40 60 105 2.4 0.80 0.80
DUP10100 10 10 9 100 40 60 125 2.4 0.80 0.80
DUP10135 10 10 9 135 40 60 160 2.4 0.80 0.80
DUP10160 10 10 9 160 40 60 185 2.4 0.80 0.80

16.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor size, db Effective length, Le Part No.
(mm) (mm) Standard Long Ultra Long - C/S Pozi* Ultra Long - Hex Head
5 25 DNP05 – – –
30 DNP06 – – –
6
60 – DLP06 – –
7 35 DNP07 – – –
40 DNP08 – – –
8
80 – DLP08 – –
50 DNP10 – – –
80 – – DUP10080F DUP10080H
90 – DLP10 – –
10
100 – – DUP10100F DUP10100H
140 – – DUP10135F DUP10135H
160 – – DUP10160F DUP10160H
12 60 DNP12 – – –
* No. 3 Pozi Bit.

108
Mechanical Anchoring 17
EasyDrive Nylon Anchor

17.1 EasyDrive Nylon Anchor


GENERAL INFORMATION
*
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The EasyDrive Nylon Anchor is a light duty, impact setting
interference fit anchor.
(ED)
Benefits, Advantages and Features
Fast installation:
~ Anchor simply hammered or screwed in.
Versatile:
~ Choice of head styles.
Corrosion resistant:
~ Stainless steel nail. Principal Applications
Economical:
~ Zinc Plated nail. ~ Timber battens.
~ Skirting boards.
~ Electrical fittings.
~ External flashing.
~ Conduit brackets.
~ Down pipes.
Installation
1. Drill hole to correct diameter and depth using
fixture as template. Clean thoroughly with
brush. Remove debris by way of vacuum or
hand pump, compressed air etc.

2. Insert the EasyDrive nylon anchor into hole


through fixture until head is tight against
fixture.

3. Screw or tap home expansion nail with


hammer. Expansion nail is easily removed
with screwdriver.

109
17 Mechanical Anchoring
EasyDrive Nylon Anchor
These anchors are not recommended for structure critical
applications and are typically used for simple fixing and finishing
applications. Their capacity information is therefore presented in
simple Working Load Limit format.

Installation and Working Load Limit performance details


Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Conc. compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) depth, h (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 40 MPa
5 5 5 20 20 30 45 0.50 0.20 0.20
6 6 6 30 24 36 55 0.75 0.30 0.30
6.5 6.5 6.5 25 26 39 50 0.80 0.30 0.30
8 8 8 40 32 48 65 1.00 0.40 0.40

17.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Effective Part No.
size, db length, Le Mushroom Head Round Head Flat Head Csk Head
(mm) (mm) Zn* S/S* Zn* S/S* Zn* S/S* Zn*
20 TNM320 – – – – – –
25 TNM325 TNM325SS TNR325 TNR325SS TNL325 – –
5 33 – – – – ED05033 ED05033SS –
38 – – TNR338 – – – –
50 – – – – ED05050 – –
42 – – – – ED06042 – –
6 55 – – – – ED06055 ED06055SS –
70 – – – – ED06075 ED06075SS –
25 TNM425 TNM425SS TNR425 – – – TNF425
38 TNM438 – TNR438 – – – TNF438
6.5
50 TNM450 – TNR450 – – – TNF450
75 TNM475 – – – – – TNF475
75 – – – – ED08080 – –
8
120 – – – – ED08120 – –
* Expansion nail.

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = Le - t
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

110
Mechanical Anchoring Notes

111
CHEMICAL
ANCHORING
OVERVIEW
The key feature of ChemSet™ chemical anchors is that they do The Ramset™ ChemSet™ range of chemical anchoring systems
not impart an expansion stress on the surrounding substrate. provide different options of cost and performance for the
This makes chemical anchoring ideal for close to edge fixings designer and for the applicator.
or for close anchor spacings.
For the designer, selection of the correct chemical anchoring
The superior bond of ChemSet™ chemical anchors makes them solution to his or her design problem will often be based upon
ideal for installing starter bars, because the required pull out the strength capacity of the system, but may also involve
strength is achieved in shallower holes than is possible with issues such as chemical resistance.
cementitious mortars.
The following section introduces the designer and/or engineer
The polymer matrix of ChemSet™ chemical anchors makes to the components of the ChemSet™ chemical anchoring range
them ideal for cyclic load cases and vibrating loads, such as and provides information to allow selection of the anchor with
those encountered in machinery and heavy plant hold down. the right capacity for various environmental conditions.

The superior strength of grade 5.8 carbon steel threaded stud


anchors gives the ChemSet™ chemical anchor systems greater
steel capacity than regular grade 4.6 threaded rod.

Estimating Chart
Fixings per cartridge for ChemSet™ Injection:

Nominal Nominal Number of fixings


Anchor hole diameter hole depth 101 800 Series
size (mm) (mm) Mini Cartridge Jumbo Cartridge Jumbo
M8 10 80 35 96 195 91 193
M10 12 90 24 66 133 62 132
M12 14 110 15 43 87 41 86
M16 18 125 10 27 55 26 54
M20 24 150 4 11 22 10 22
M24 26 160 4 12 24 11 24

112
Chemical Anchoring 18
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud

18.1 ChemSet™ Anchor Studs


GENERAL INFORMATION
Product MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

Steel threaded studs for use with all ChemSet
anchoring products, capsules and injection mortars.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Ensures maximum performance from ChemSet™
chemical anchors:
~ Made from high performance Grade 5.8 Steel.
Superior corrosion resistance:
~ AISI 316(A4) Stainless Steel.
Outstanding exterior resistance:
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.
Convenient:
~ Supplied with nuts and washers and setting tool for
spin capsules.
~ Depth setting mark to ensure correct embedment.

18.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS

Anchor Anchor Nominal effective Nominal fixture Effective Part No.


size, db length, L depth, hn thickness, t length, Le
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) Zn Gal S/S
M8 110 80 15 95 CS08110 CS08110GH CS08110SS
M10 130 90 25 115 CS10130 CS10130GH CS10130SS
160 110 30 140 CS12160 CS12160GH CS12160SS
M12
180 110 50 160 CS12180 – –
M16 190 125 40 165 CS16190 CS16190GH CS16190SS
M20 260 150 75 225 CS20260 CS20260GH CS20260SS
M24 300 160 105 265 CS24300 CS24300GH CS24300SS

18.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Section
Anchor Min. diameter, dm Yield strength, fy UTS, fu Stress Area, As Yield Strength, fy UTS, fu modulus, Z
size, db (mm) (MPa) (MPa) (mm2) (MPa) (MPa) (mm3)
M8 6.5 430 540 36.6 450 650 31.2
M10 8.2 430 540 58.0 450 650 62.3
M12 10.0 430 540 84.3 450 650 109.2
M16 14.0 420 520 157.0 450 650 277.5
M20 17.2 420 520 245.0 450 650 540.9
M24 20.7 420 520 353.0 450 650 935.5

113
18 Chemical Anchoring
ChemSet™ Injection Rod

18.4 ChemSet™ Injection Rod


GENERAL INFORMATION
Product MATERIAL SPECIFICATION

Steel threaded studs for use with ChemSet 101
injection mortar.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Economical:
~ Grade 4.6 Steel.
~ Zinc Plated.
Convenient:
~ Supplied with nuts and washers.
~ Depth setting mark for correct embedment.
Outstanding exterior resistance:
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.

18.5 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Anchor Nominal effective Nominal fixture Effective Part No.
size, db length, L depth, hn thickness, t length, Le
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) Zn Gal
M12 160 110 30 140 CR12160 CR12160GH
M16 190 125 40 165 CR16190 CR16190GH

18.6 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Anchor size, db Stress area, As Yield strength, fy UTS, fu Section modulus, Z
(mm) (mm2) (MPa) (MPa) (mm3)
M12 84.3 240 400 109.2
M16 157.0 240 400 277.5

114
Chemical Anchoring 19
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule

19.1 ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsules


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule is a heavy
duty, peroxide initiated capsule anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


No measuring, no mess, no waste:
~ Adhesive is contained in pre-measured capsules. Principal Applications
Versatile:
~ Use in damp or flooded holes or even underwater. ~ Structural steel.
Fast installation: ~ Machine hold down.
~ Cures in minutes and can be loaded in 20 min (at 20°C). ~ Factory fit out.
High bond strength: ~ Fencing.
~ Acrylic adhesive. ~ Stadium seating.
High corrosion resistance: ~ Balustrades.
(See table 5.3 pages 22 and 23.) ~ Signs.
~ Applications requiring a set number
of fixings.

Installation
Installation temperature limits:
~ Substrate: -5°C to 35°C.
Load should not be applied to anchor until the
chemical has sufficiently cured as specified.

Service temperature limits:


-23°C to 60°C.

Setting Times
1. Drill recommended diameter and depth hole.
2. Clean hole with hole cleaning brush. Gel Time Loading Time
(mins) (hrs)
Remove all debris using hole blower.
3. Insert correct size Spin capsule into the hole. 15 20 mins
Substrate Temperature

4. Using appropriate driver accessories, drive 20°C


the ChemSet™ Anchor Stud into the hole 15°C 25 30 mins
using a hammer drill (on rotation). 10°C
5. Cure as per setting times.
5°C 45 1
6. Attach fixture and tighten nut in accordance
with recommended tightening torque. 0°C
60 5
-5°C

115
19 Chemical Anchoring
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details:
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsules and ChemSet™ Anchor Stud
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na (kN)
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective depth, torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va (kN) Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M8 10 10 80 10 30 50 100 4.5 6.5 6.5 6.5
M10 12 12 90 20 40 60 120 7.1 9.3 10.3 10.3
M12 14 15 110 40 50 70 140 10.5 13.3 15.3 15.4
M16 18 19 125 95 65 100 160 19.9 19.4 22.3 23.9
150 190 30.0 31.0 35.7 38.2
M20 24 24 180 80 120
170** 220 30.0 35.2 40.5 43.3
160 200 42.2 35.9 41.3 44.1
M24 26 28 315 95 145
210** 270 42.2 47.1 54.2 57.9

* Note: For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.
** Note: To achieve these non standard effective depths, use an additional CHEM08 Maxima™ spin capsule per hole.

19.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS - ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsules

Capsule dimensions To suit ChemSet™ Anchor Stud Capsule


Nominal diameter, d (mm) Capsule length, L (mm) Anchor size, db Effective depth, h (mm) Part No.
9.5 80 M8 80 CHEM08
11 80 M10 90 CHEM10
13 95 M12 110 CHEM12
17 95 M16 125 CHEM16
21.5 115 M20 150 CHEM2024
21.5 115 M24 160 CHEM2024

19.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Refer to “Engineering Properties” for ChemSet™ Anchor Studs
on page 113.

116
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 19
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule
19.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


80 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity.
70 ~ Tension limited by concrete capacity.
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

~ No edge or spacing effects.


60 ~ f'c = 32 MPa

50

40 M24

30 M20

20
M16

10 M12
M10
M8
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
e m , am 25 30 35 50 60 75

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Anchor effective depth, h (mm) is read from the
“Description and Part Numbers” table for ChemSet™ Maxima™
Spin Capsules (page 116).

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

117
19 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Drilled hole dia., dh (mm) 10 12 14 18 24 26
Effective depth, h (mm)
80 14.3
90 19.2
110 27.5
125 40.2
150 64.4
160 74.3
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 6 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xnc 0.87 0.93 1.00 1.07 1.14

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
25 0.85
30 0.96 0.83
35 1 0.91 0.81
40 1 0.88
50 1 0.85
60 0.96 0.83
65 1 0.87
75 0.96 0.85
80 1 0.88
100 1

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.76
30 0.81 0.75
35 0.86 0.79 0.74
40 0.92 0.83 0.78
50 1 0.92 0.85 0.76
60 1 0.92 0.81 0.75
75 1 0.89 0.81 0.76
100 1 0.92 0.85
120 1 0.92
150 1

118
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 19
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.52
30 0.63 0.50
35 0.73 0.58 0.49
40 0.83 0.67 0.56
50 1 0.83 0.69 0.52
60 1 0.83 0.63 0.50
75 1 0.78 0.63 0.52
100 1 0.83 0.69
120 1 0.83
150 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud
Grade 5.8 Carbon Steel 14.2 22.7 33.8 64.1 96.5 139.8

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


A4/316 Stainless Steel 16.5 26.1 37.9 70.7 110.3 158.9

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

119
19 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
25 1.6
30 2.2 2.4 2.6
35 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.6
50 4.6 5.1 5.5 6.2 7.2
60 6.1 6.7 7.2 8.2 9.4 9.8
75 8.5 9.3 10.1 11.4 13.2 13.7
125 18.3 20.1 21.7 24.6 28.4 29.5
200 40.6 43.8 49.7 57.4 59.7
300 80.5 91.3 105.4 109.7
400 140.5 162.3 168.9
500 226.8 236.1
600 310.3
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 6 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 25 30 35 50 60 75 125 200 300 400 500 600
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.54
30 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.55 0.53
35 0.78 0.73 0.70 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.52
50 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.53
60 0.98 0.90 0.84 0.74 0.70 0.66 0.60 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52
75 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.62 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53
150 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.74 0.65 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55
200 1.00 0.82 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57
300 0.98 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60
400 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63
500 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67
625 0.92 0.81 0.75 0.71
750 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.75
875 0.94 0.85 0.79
1000 1.00 0.90 0.83
1250 1.00 0.92
1500 1.00

120
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 19
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24

ChemSet Anchor Stud
Grade 5.8 Carbon Steel 8.9 14.1 21.0 39.7 59.9 86.8

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


A4/316 Stainless Steel 12.7 23.9 34.7 64.6 100.8 145.2

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

121
19 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify – Spin Capsules


Ramset™ ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule,
((Capsule Part Number)) with
(Anchor Size) grade 5.8
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud
((Anchor Stud Part Number)).

Example
Ramset™ ChemSet™ Maxima™ Spin Capsule,
(CHEM16) with M16 grade 5.8
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud (CS16190).
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

122
Chemical Anchoring 20
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series

20.1 ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
ChemSet™ Injection 801 is a heavy duty, true epoxy
injection anchor.
ChemSet™ Injection 802 is a heavy duty, true epoxy
injection anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Suitable for structural applications:
~ High bond strength. Principal Applications
Suitable for use in contact with drinking water:
~ Meets AS/NZ4020 - 1999. ~ Structural steel.
Suitable for fire rated dowel bars: ~ Starter bars.
~ Meets AS1530.4. ~ Structural applications requiring high
Suitable for diamond cored holes: strength and corrosion resistance in
dry holes.
~ High bond strength.
Suitable for use in industrial environments where corrosion
and alkali resistance are required:
(See table 5.3 pages 22 and 23.)
Versatile:
~ Rapid cure for temperate climates and longer working time for deep holes
or hot climates.

Installation
Installation temperature limits:
~ Substrate: 5°C to 40°C.
~ Mortar: 18°C to 35°C.
Load should not be applied to anchor until the
chemical has sufficiently cured as specified.

Service temperature limits:


-10°C to 80°C.

Setting Times
1. Drill recommended diameter and depth hole.
2. Clean hole with hole cleaning brush. 801 802
Gel Time Loading Time Gel Time Loading Time
Remove all debris using hole blower. (mins) (hrs) (mins) (hrs)
Hole must be dry.
3. Insert mixing nozzle to bottom of hole. 40°C – – 7 10
Substrate Temperature

Fill hole to 3/4 the hole depth slowly,


ensuring no air pockets form. 30°C 3 10 12 17
4. Insert Ramset™ ChemSet™ Anchor 25°C 4 12 20 20
Stud/rebar to bottom of hole while turning. 20°C 6 14 25 23
5. ChemSet™ Injection to cure as per setting times.
10°C 40 24 90 33
6. Attach fixture. 5°C 75 36 120 66
Note: Cartridge temperature minimum 15°C.

123
20 Chemical Anchoring
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details:
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series and ChemSet™ Anchor Studs
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na (kN)
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective depth, torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va (kN) Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M8 10 10 80 10 30 50 100 5.3 6.5 6.5 6.5
M10 12 12 90 20 40 60 120 7.1 8.6 9.9 10.3
M12 14 15 110 40 50 70 140 10.5 12.5 14.4 15.3
M16 18 19 125 95 65 100 160 19.9 16.9 19.6 20.8
150 190 30.0 24.3 28.1 29.9
M20 24 24 180 80 120
170 220 30.0 29.3 33.9 36.1
160 200 43.4 28.8 33.3 35.5
M24 26 28 315 95 145
210 270 43.4 43.3 50.1 53.4

* Note: For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

20.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Description Cartridge Size Climate Part No.
ChemSet™ 801 Cartridge 400 ml Temperate C801C
ChemSet™ 801 Jumbo Cartridge 750 ml Temperate C801J

ChemSet 802 Cartridge 400 ml Tropical C802C
Mixer Nozzle for 800 Series – – ISNE

Effective depth, h (mm)

Preferred h = hn otherwise,

h = Le - t
h ≥ 6 * dh

t = total thickness of material(s) being fastened.

20.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Refer to “Engineering Properties” for ChemSet™ Anchor Studs
on page 113.

124
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 20
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series
20.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


70 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity.
60 ~ Tension limited by concrete capacity
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

using nominal depths.


~ No edge or spacing effects.
50 ~ f'c = 32 MPa

40

M24
30
M20
20
M16

10 M12
M10
M8
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
e m, a m 25 30 35 50 60 75

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Refer to “Description and Part Numbers” table for
ChemSet™ Anchor Studs (page 113).

Effective depth, h (mm)

Preferred h = hn otherwise,

h = Le - t
h ≥ 6 * dh

t = total thickness of material(s) being fastened.

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

125
20 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Drilled hole dia., dh (mm) 10 12 14 18 24 26
Effective depth, h (mm)
50
60 8.9
70 11.2 12.2
80 13.7 15.0
90 17.8 19.2
100 20.9 22.5
110 25.9 29.1
120 29.5 33.1
125 31.4 35.2 38.5
140 37.2 41.8 45.7
150 50.6 54.5
160 55.8 60.0
170 61.1 65.7
180 66.6 71.6
190 72.2 77.7
200 78.0 83.9
210 90.2
220 96.8
230 103.4
240 110.3
Bold values are at ChemSet™ Anchor Stud nominal depths.
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 6 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xnc 0.87 0.93 1.00 1.07 1.14

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
25 0.85
30 0.96 0.83
35 1 0.91 0.81
40 1 0.88
50 1 0.85
60 0.96 0.83
65 1 0.87
75 0.96 0.85
80 1 0.88
100 1

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.76
30 0.81 0.75
35 0.86 0.79 0.74
40 0.92 0.83 0.78
50 1 0.92 0.85 0.76
60 1 0.92 0.81 0.75
75 1 0.89 0.81 0.76
100 1 0.92 0.85
120 1 0.92
150 1

126
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 20
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.52
30 0.63 0.50
35 0.73 0.58 0.49
40 0.83 0.67 0.56
50 1 0.83 0.69 0.52
60 1 0.83 0.63 0.50
75 1 0.78 0.63 0.52
100 1 0.83 0.69
120 1 0.83
150 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24

ChemSet Anchor Stud
Grade 5.8 Carbon Steel 14.2 22.7 33.8 64.1 96.5 139.8

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


A4/316 Stainless Steel 16.5 26.1 37.9 70.7 110.3 158.9

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

127
20 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
25 1.6
30 2.2 2.4
35 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.6
50 4.6 5.1 5.5 6.2 6.9
60 6.1 6.7 7.2 8.2 9.0 9.8
75 8.5 9.3 10.1 11.4 12.6 13.7
125 18.3 20.1 21.7 24.6 27.1 29.5
200 40.6 43.8 49.7 54.9 59.7
300 80.5 91.3 100.9 109.7
400 140.5 155.4 168.9
500 217.2 236.1
600 310.3
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 6 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 25 30 35 50 60 75 125 200 300 400 500 600
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.54
30 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.55 0.53
35 0.78 0.73 0.70 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.52
50 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.53
60 0.98 0.90 0.84 0.74 0.70 0.66 0.60 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52
75 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.62 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53
150 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.74 0.65 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55
200 1.00 0.82 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57
300 0.98 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60
400 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63
500 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67
625 0.92 0.81 0.75 0.71
750 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.75
875 0.94 0.85 0.79
1000 1.00 0.90 0.83
1250 1.00 0.92
1500 1.00

128
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 20
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24

ChemSet Threaded Stud
Grade 5.8 Carbon Steel 8.9 14.1 21.0 39.7 59.9 86.8

ChemSet™ Threaded Stud


A4/316 Stainless Steel 12.7 23.9 34.7 64.6 100.8 145.2

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

129
20 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify – Threaded Stud


Anchors
Ramset™ ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series
with (Anchor Size) grade 5.8
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud
((Anchor Stud Part Number)).
Drilled hole depth to be (h) mm.

Example
Ramset ChemSet™ Injection 800 Series

with M16 grade 5.8


ChemSet™ Anchor Stud (CS16190).
Drilled hole depth to be 125 mm.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

130
Chemical Anchoring 21
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule

21.1 ChemSet™ Hammer Capsules


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule is a medium duty,
peroxide initiated capsule anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


High bond strength:
~ Low viscosity, epoxy acrylate adhesive.
Fast installation: Principal Applications
~ Just hammer in stud to set. Load in 1 hour (at 20°C).
No measuring, no mess, no waste: ~ Starter bars.
~ Adhesive is contained in pre-measured capsule. ~ Shed kits.
~ Shop fitting.
~ Machinery.
~ Applications requiring a set number
of anchorings.
Installation
Installation temperature limits:
~ Substrate: -5°C to 35°C.
Load should not be applied to anchor until the
chemical has sufficiently cured as specified.

Service temperature limits:


-25°C to 100°C.

Setting Times
1. Drill recommended diameter and depth hole.
2. Clean hole with hole cleaning brush. Gel Time Loading Time
(mins) (hrs)
Remove all debris using hole blower.
Hole may be damp but no water present. 30 1
Substrate Temperature

3. Insert capsule with arrow pointing into the 20°C


hole. For a deeper hole use two capsules 15°C 50 2
end to end. 10°C
4. Cover hole with splash guard. Hammer clean
5°C 90 5
rebar or ChemSet™ Anchor Stud with setting
tool to the bottom of hole. 0°C
120 10
5. Cure as per setting times. -5°C

131
21 Chemical Anchoring
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details:
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsules and ChemSet™ Anchor Studs
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na (kN)
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective depth, torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va (kN) Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M10 12 12 90 20 40 60 120 7.1 7.7 8.9 9.5
M12 14 15 110 40 50 70 140 10.5 11.0 12.6 13.5
M16 18 19 125 95 65 100 160 19.9 16.0 18.5 19.7
* Note: For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

Installation and Working Load Limit performance details:


ChemSet™ Hammer Capsules and reinforcement bar
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit
Anchor Drilled hole Anchor Capsules Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na (kN)
size, db diameter, dh effective depth, per hole distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va (kN) Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) h (mm) (Qty) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
120 1 50 75 150 14.7 12.8 14.8 15.8
N12 15
240 2 50 75 300 14.7 21.2 21.2 21.1
150 1 65 100 190 26.8 21.4 24.6 26.3
N16 20
300 2 65 100 380 26.8 38.6 38.6 38.6

* Note: For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please contact Ramset Technical Sales Engineers for assistance.

21.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS - ChemSet™ Hammer Capsules


Capsule dimensions To suit
Nominal Capsule ChemSet™ Anchor Stud Reinforcement bar Capsule
diameter, d length, L Effective depth, h Effective depth per Part No.
(mm) (mm) Anchor size, db (mm) Size capsule, h (mm)
11 90 M10 90 – HAC10
13 110 M12 110 Y12 125 HAC12
17 125 M16 125 Y16 150 HAC16

21.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Refer to “Engineering Properties” for ChemSet™ Anchor Studs
on page 113.

132
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 21
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule
21.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


40 Notes:
~ Shear limited by steel capacity.
~ Tension limited by concrete capacity.
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

~ No edge or spacing effects.


30 ~ f'c = 32 MPa

20

M16

10 M12

M10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16
e m , am 30 35 50

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Anchor effective depth, h (mm) is read from the
“Description and Part Numbers” table for ChemSet™
Hammer Capsules (page 132).

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

133
21 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16
Drilled hole dia., dh (mm) 12 14 18
Effective depth, h (mm)
90 15.9
110 22.7
125 33.2
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 6 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xnc 0.87 0.93 1.00 1.07 1.14

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16
Edge distance, e (mm)
30 0.83
35 0.91 0.81
40 1 0.88
50 1 0.85
60 0.96
65 1

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
30 0.75
35 0.79 0.74
40 0.83 0.78
50 0.92 0.85 0.76
60 1 0.92 0.81
75 1 0.89
100 1

134
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 21
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
30 0.50
35 0.58 0.49
40 0.67 0.56
50 0.83 0.69 0.52
60 1 0.83 0.63
75 1 0.78
100 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud
Grade 5.8 Carbon Steel 22.7 33.8 64.1

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


A4/316 Stainless Steel 26.1 37.9 70.7

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

135
21 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16
Edge distance, e (mm)
30 2.4
35 3.0 3.2 3.6
50 5.1 5.5 6.2
60 6.7 7.2 8.2
75 9.3 10.1 11.4
125 20.1 21.7 24.6
200 40.6 43.8 49.7
300 80.5 91.3
400 140.5
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 6 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 25 30 35 50 60 75 125 200 300 400
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.54
30 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.55 0.53
35 0.78 0.73 0.70 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.52
50 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.53
60 0.98 0.90 0.84 0.74 0.70 0.66 0.60 0.56 0.54 0.53
75 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.62 0.58 0.55 0.54
150 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.74 0.65 0.60 0.58
200 1.00 0.82 0.70 0.63 0.60
300 0.98 0.80 0.70 0.65
400 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70
500 1.00 0.83 0.75
625 0.92 0.81
750 1.00 0.88
875 0.94
1000 1.00

136
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 21
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16

ChemSet Anchor Stud
Grade 5.8 Carbon Steel 14.1 21.0 39.7

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


A4/316 Stainless Steel 23.9 34.7 64.6

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

137
21 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify – Hammer Capsules


Ramset™ ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule,
((Capsule Part Number)) with
(Anchor Size) grade 5.8
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud
((Anchor Stud Part Number)).

Example
Ramset™ ChemSet™ Hammer Capsule,
(HAC16) with M16 grade 5.8
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud (CS16190).
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

138
Chemical Anchoring 22
ChemSet™ Injection 101

22.1 ChemSet™ Injection 101


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
ChemSet™ Injection 101 is a medium duty,
peroxide initiated injection anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Fast installation:
~ Load in 1 hour (at 20°C).
Suitable for fire rated dowel bar installations:
~ Meets AS1530.4. Principal Applications
Versatile:
~ Suitable for anchoring into a wide variety of substrates. ~ Hollow brick and block.
~ Stadium seating.
~ Starter bars.
~ Balustrades.
Installation
Installation temperature limits:
~ Substrate: 0°C to 43°C.
~ Mortar: 15°C to 30°C.
Load should not be applied to anchor until the
chemical has sufficiently cured as specified in
the following diagrams.

Service temperature limits:


-10°C to 80°C.

1. Drill recommended diameter and depth hole.


2. Clean hole with hole cleaning brush.
Setting Times
Remove all debris using hole blower. 101
Hole may be damp but no water present. Gel Time Loading Time
3. Insert mixing nozzle to bottom of hole. (mins) (hrs)
Fill hole to 3/4 the hole depth slowly,
ensuring no air pockets form. 40°C 4 0.75
Substrate Temperature

4. Insert Ramset™ ChemSet™ Anchor


30°C 7 1
Stud/rebar to bottom of hole while turning.
5. ChemSet™ Injection to cure as per setting times. 20°C 10 1.5
6. Attach fixture.

5°C 30 5
0°C 40 7
Note: Cartridge temperature
minimum 15°C.

139
22 Chemical Anchoring
ChemSet™ Injection 101
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details:
ChemSet™ Injection 101 and ChemSet™ Anchor Studs
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na (kN)
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective depth, torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va (kN) Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M8 10 10 80 10 35 50 100 4.4 3.4 4.5 5.1
M10 12 12 90 20 40 60 115 7.1 4.5 6.0 6.8
M12 14 15 110 40 50 75 140 10.5 6.4 8.6 9.7
M16 18 19 125 95 65 95 160 19.9 10.1 13.5 15.3
150 190 30.0 16.6 22.3 25.2
M20 24 24 180 80 120
170 215 30.0 18.8 25.2 28.6
160 200 43.4 24.4 32.7 37.0
M24 26 28 315 95 145
210 265 43.4 32.1 42.9 48.6

* Note: For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

Installation and Working Load Limit performance details:


ChemSet™ Injection 101 and ChemSet™ Injection Rod Anchors
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na (kN)
size, db diameter, dh diameter, df effective depth, torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va (kN) Concrete compressive strength, f’c
(mm) (mm) (mm) h (mm) (Nm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M12 14 15 110 40 50 75 140 8.4 6.4 8.6 9.7
M16 18 19 125 95 65 95 160 15.6 10.1 13.5 15.3

* Note: For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.

22.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Description Cartridge Size Climate Part No.
ChemSet™ 101 Mini Cartridge 150 ml Temperate C101M
ChemSet™ 101 Cartridge 400 ml Temperate C101C
ChemSet™ 101 Jumbo Cartridge 750 ml Temperate C101J
Mixer Nozzle for 101 – – ISNP

Effective depth, h (mm)

Preferred h = hn otherwise,

h = Le - t
h ≥ 6 * dh

t = total thickness of material(s) being fastened.

22.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Refer to “Engineering Properties” for ChemSet™ Anchor Studs on
page 113 and ChemSet™ Injection Rod on page 114.

140
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 22
ChemSet™ Injection 101
22.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


60 Notes:
~ Shear limited by grade 5.8 steel capacity.
~ Tension limited by concrete capacity
50
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

using nominal depths.


~ No edge or spacing effects.
~ f'c = 32 MPa
40

30 M24

20 M20

M16
10
M12
M10
M8
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
e m, a m 25 30 35 50 60 75

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Refer to “Description and Part Numbers” table for either
ChemSet™ Anchor Studs (page 113) or ChemSet™ Injection
Rod (page 114).

Effective depth, h (mm)

Preferred h = hn otherwise,

h = Le - t
h ≥ 6 * dh

t = total thickness of material(s) being fastened.

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

141
22 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Injection 101

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Drilled hole dia., dh (mm) 10 12 14 18 24 26
Effective depth, h (mm)
50
60 6.1
70 7.2 8.4
80 8.2 9.6
90 10.8 12.7
100 12.0 14.1
110 15.5 21.3
120 16.9 23.3
125 17.6 24.2
140 19.7 27.1 37.4
150 40.1 55.2
160 42.7 58.8
170 45.4 62.5
180 48.1 66.2
190 50.7 69.9
200 53.4 73.5
210 77.2
220 80.9
230 84.6
240 88.2
Bold values are at ChemSet™ Anchor Stud and Injection Rod nominal depths.
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 6 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xnc 0.87 0.93 1.00 1.07 1.14

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
25 0.85
30 0.96 0.83
35 1 0.91 0.81
40 1 0.88
50 1 0.85
60 0.96 0.83
65 1 0.87
75 0.96 0.85
80 1 0.88
100 1

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.76
30 0.81 0.75
35 0.86 0.79 0.74
40 0.92 0.83 0.78
50 1 0.92 0.85 0.76
60 1 0.92 0.81 0.75
75 1 0.89 0.81 0.76
100 1 0.92 0.85
120 1 0.92
150 1

142
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 22
ChemSet™ Injection 101
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.52
30 0.63 0.50
35 0.73 0.58 0.49
40 0.83 0.67 0.56
50 1 0.83 0.69 0.52
60 1 0.83 0.63 0.50
75 1 0.78 0.63 0.52
100 1 0.83 0.69
120 1 0.83
150 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24

ChemSet Injection Rod
Grade 4.6 Carbon Steel – – 27.0 50.2 – –

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


Grade 5.8 Carbon Steel 14.2 22.7 33.8 64.1 96.5 139.8

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


A4/316 Stainless Steel 16.5 26.1 37.9 70.7 110.3 158.9

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

143
22 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Injection 101

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 32 MPa
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
25 1.6
30 2.2 2.4
35 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.6
50 4.6 5.1 5.5 6.2 7.2
60 6.1 6.7 7.2 8.2 9.4 9.8
75 8.5 9.3 10.1 11.4 13.2 13.7
125 18.3 20.1 21.7 24.6 28.4 29.5
200 40.6 43.8 49.7 57.4 59.7
300 80.5 91.3 105.4 109.7
400 140.5 162.3 168.9
500 226.8 236.1
600 310.3
Note: Effective depth, h must be ≥ 6 x drilled hole diameter, dh for anchor to achieve tabled shear capacities.

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 20 25 32 40 50
Xvc 0.79 0.88 1.00 1.12 1.25

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 25 30 35 50 60 75 125 200 300 400 500 600
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
25 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.54
30 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.55 0.53
35 0.78 0.73 0.70 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.54 0.52
50 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.53
60 0.98 0.90 0.84 0.74 0.70 0.66 0.60 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52
75 1.00 1.00 0.93 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.62 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53
150 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.74 0.65 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55
200 1.00 0.82 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57
300 0.98 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60
400 1.00 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63
500 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67
625 0.92 0.81 0.75 0.71
750 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.75
875 0.94 0.85 0.79
1000 1.00 0.90 0.83
1250 1.00 0.92
1500 1.00

144
Strength Limit State Design Chemical Anchoring 22
ChemSet™ Injection 101
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Anchor size, db M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24

ChemSet Injection Rod
Grade 4.6 Carbon Steel – – 16.7 31.1 – –

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


Grade 5.8 Carbon Steel 8.9 14.1 21.0 39.7 59.9 86.8

ChemSet™ Anchor Stud


A4/316 Stainless Steel 12.7 23.9 34.7 64.6 100.8 145.2

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Not appropriate for this product.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

145
22 Chemical Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
ChemSet™ Injection 101

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify – Threaded Stud


Anchors Specify – Injection Rod
Ramset™ ChemSet™ Injection 101
Ramset™ ChemSet™ Injection 101 with (Anchor Size) grade 4.6
with (Anchor Size) grade 5.8 ChemSet™ Injection Rod
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud ((Injection Rod Part Number)).
((Anchor Stud Part Number)). Drilled hole depth to be (h) mm.
Drilled hole depth to be (h) mm.

Example Example
™ ™
Ramset ChemSet Injection 101 Ramset ChemSet™ Injection 101

with M16 grade 5.8 with M16 grade 4.6


ChemSet™ Anchor Stud (CS16190). ChemSet™ Injection Rod (CR16190).
Drilled hole depth to be 125 mm. Drilled hole depth to be 125 mm.
To be installed in accordance with To be installed in accordance with
™ ™
Ramset Technical Data Sheet. Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

146
Chemical Anchoring Notes

147
BRICK BLOCK AND

ANCHORING
OVERVIEW
Ramset™ provides a range of concrete anchors for anchoring Please note that as the performance information on
into pre-manufactured masonry units from lightweight fixtures pre-manufactured masonry substrates is provided by the
to heavy structural connections including stud types and hex various manufacturers in Working Load Limit format our
bolt finishes. anchor performance data in this section is also provided in
Working Load Limit format.
Anchoring into pre-manufactured masonry units such as
concrete blocks, wire cut extruded clay brick and pressed solid For lightweight applications into Brick and Block a number of
bricks requires a different approach to anchoring into solid alternate Ramset™ Concrete Anchors may be considered.
in-situ concrete or precast concrete units. The anchor must
firmly clamp a fixture to the face of the substrate without 1. ShureDrive™ (see page 105 – Mechanical Anchoring section).
splitting it or causing other damage. The capacity of the 2. EasyDrive Nylon Anchors (see page 109 – Mechanical
anchors is frequently limited by the strength of the substrate, Anchoring section).
and the strength of the various units available on the market
varies from manufacturer to manufacturer and from region to The performance of the above anchors is not dependent on the
region within any one manufacturer. Also being discrete units substrate and therefore you may refer to the performance
rather than a continuous slab means the anchor will always be figures detailed in the Mechanical Anchoring section.
in close proximity to an edge of that individual unit whilst also
possibly being centrally placed within the overall structure.
Ideally all anchors into these pre-manufactured masonry units
should be in the centre of the block or brick and in the case of
hollow units such as wire cut bricks and concrete blocks the
anchors should be placed in the solid section of the unit, but it
is not always practical to position fixtures to ensure this.

This section provides performance information to aid design of


connections to pre-manufactured masonry units. It assists
design by recognising that positioning anchorage points in the
centre of a masonry unit is not always possible by providing
capacities for zones rather than specific points and we have
also endeavoured to provide a realistic evaluation of the
anchor’s performance in the poorest performing section within
these zones.

148
Brick and Block Anchoring 23
23.1 TYPICAL PRE-MANUFACTURED MASONRY UNITS
23.1.1 TYPICAL DIMENSIONS

CLAY BRICK – Overall CONCRETE BLOCK – Overall

76 mm

110 mm 190 mm
230 mm

SOLID BRICK 190 mm


390 mm

CONCRETE BLOCK

THREE HOLE BRICK


Nominal
115 mm
Nominal
138 mm
Nominal
Wall Thickness
32 mm

Nominal Nominal
Hole Dia. Wall Thickness 37.5 mm
46 mm
Note: Due to the manufacturing process, the internal cavities have
tapered walls. Wall thickness indicated is a nominal dimension only,
Nominal Nominal taken from the centre of the block.
Wall Thickness 25 mm Web Thickness 21 mm

TEN HOLE BRICK 23.1.2 CHARACTERISTIC UNCONFINED


COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
Solid Three Hole Ten Hole Concrete
Clay Brick Clay Brick Clay Brick Block
> 10 MPa > 30 MPa > 15 MPa > 8 MPa
Nominal
Wall Thickness
21 mm

Nominal
Hole Dia.
28 mm

Nominal Nominal
Wall Thickness 21 mm Web Thickness
Typically 12 mm

149
23 Brick and Block Anchoring
23.1.3 INSTALLATION RECOMMENDATIONS
Corner – Brick Corner – Block

~ One anchor per brick. ~ One anchor per cavity.


~ Minimum edge distance = one brick. ~ Minimum edge distance = 1/2 block.

Top of Wall – Brick Top of Wall – Block

~ One anchor per brick. ~ One anchor per cavity.


~ Three clear courses down from top of wall. ~ Two clear courses down from top of wall.

23.1.4 MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCES

CLAY BRICK CONCRETE BLOCK


See page 149 ≥ 20 mm

≥ 60 mm

≥ 20 mm to
centre of hole.
Typical for all clay bricks. ≥ 60 mm

150
Brick and Block Anchoring 23
23.1.5 FIXINGS PER BRICK/BLOCK
SOLID BRICK CONCRETE BLOCK

70 mm
minimum

THREE HOLE BRICK

TEN HOLE BRICK

151
24 Brick and Block Anchoring
ChemSet™ Injection 101

24.1 ChemSet™ Injection 101


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL SPECIFICATION INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
ChemSet™ Injection 101 is a medium duty,
peroxide initiated injection anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Fast installation:
~ Load in 1 hour (at 20°C).
Versatile:
~ Suitable for anchoring into pre-manufactured masonry units. Principal Applications
into Brick and Block
~ Installing wall mounted signs,
handrails, and gates.

Installation
1. Drill recommended diameter and Installation temperature limits:
depth hole.
~ Substrate: 0°C to 43°C.
~ Mortar: 15°C to 30°C.

Load should not be applied to anchor until the


chemical has sufficiently cured as specified in
2. Clean hole with hole cleaning brush. the following diagrams.
Remove all debris using hole blower.
Hole may be damp but no water Service temperature limits:
present.
-10°C to 80°C.

Setting Times
3. Insert mixing nozzle into sleeve or
sieve. Fill to 3/4 the sleeve/sieve 101
Gel Time Loading Time
depth slowly, ensuring no air (mins) (hrs)
pockets form. Insert Ramset™
ChemSet™ Anchor Stud to bottom 40°C 4 0.75
Substrate Temperature

of hole while turning.


30°C 7 1

4. ChemSet Injection to cure
20°C 10 1.5
as per setting times.
Attach fixture.
5°C 30 5
0°C 40 7
Note: Cartridge temperature
minimum 15°C.

152
Brick and Block Anchoring 24
ChemSet™ Injection 101
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details:
ChemSet™ Injection 101 and ChemSet™ Anchor Studs
Installation details Working Load Limit (kN)
Anchor size, db Substrate Sleeve/Sieve Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening Solid Brick
(mm) Type diameter, diameter, effective depth, torque, Tr
dh (mm) df (mm) h (mm) (Nm) Shear, Va Tension, Na
M8 10 10 80 10 4.4 1.4
M10 12 12 85 20 4.8 1.5
Solid Clay Brick –
M12 14 15 85 40 5.2 1.6
M16 18 19 85 95 5.2 1.7
Note: Use specified hole size for solid brick. Use of larger hole and/or sleeve/sieve will result in lower capacities.

Installation details Working Load Limit (kN)


Anchor Drilled hole diameter, dh Fixture hole Anchor Tightening
size, db Substrate 3 Hole Brick 10 Hole Brick Concrete Block
(mm) diameter, effective depth, torque, Tr
(mm) Nylon Sleeve S/S Sieve df (mm) h (mm) (Nm) Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na
M8 12 12 10 10 3.8 2.5 3.0 1.0 1.8 1.8
3 Hole Brick,
M10 10 Hole Brick 14 16 12 20 4.6 2.5 4.6 1.0 2.0 1.8
64
M12 or Concrete 16 16 15 40 5.0 2.5 5.0 1.0 2.0 1.8
Block
M16 – 22 19 95 5.0 2.5 5.0 1.0 2.0 1.8

For lower strength studs, refer to table for reduced steel capacity on page 161.

24.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Description Cartridge Size Climate Part No.
ChemSet 101 Mini Cartridge 150 ml Temperate C101M
ChemSet 101 Cartridge 400 ml Temperate C101C
ChemSet 101 Jumbo Cartridge 750 ml Temperate C101J
Mixer Nozzle for 100 Series – – ISNP

Effective depth, h (mm)

Preferred h = hn otherwise,

h = Le - t

t = total thickness of material(s) being fastened.

To suit ChemSet™ Nylon Stainless Steel


Anchor Stud Sleeve Sieve
M8 ISS08 ISM10
M10 ISS10 ISM12
M12 ISS12 ISM12
M16 – ISM16

24.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Refer to “Engineering Properties” for ChemSet™ Anchor Studs on
page 113 and ChemSet™ Injection Rod on page 114.

153
25 Brick and Block Anchoring
AnkaScrew™

25.1 AnkaScrew™ Screw In Anchor


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The AnkaScrew™ Anchor is a medium duty, rotation setting
thread forming anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Fast and easy to install:
~ Simply screws into hole. Principal Applications
Fast and easy to remove:
~ Screws out leaving an empty hole with no protruding metal parts to grind off. into Brick and Block
Close to edge and for close anchor spacing:
~ Does not expand and burst brick and block. ~ Wall mounted pipe brackets.
~ Gate hinges.
Installation
1. Drill hole to correct diameter and depth.

2. Clean thoroughly with brush. Remove


debris by way of vacuum or hand pump,
compressed air etc.

3. Using a socket wrench, screw the


AnkaScrew™ into the hole using slight
pressure until the self tapping action
starts.

4. Tighten the AnkaScrew™. If resistance is


experienced when tightening, unscrew
anchor one turn and re-tighten. Ensure
not to over tighten.

5. For optimum performance, a torque


wrench should be used.

154
Brick and Block Anchoring 25
AnkaScrew™
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Working Load Limit
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening
size, db Solid Brick 3 Hole Brick 10 Hole Brick Concrete Block
diameter, diameter, effective depth, torque, Tr
(mm) dh (mm) df (mm) h (mm) (Nm) Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na
6 6 8 30 10 3.2 1.8 3.0 2.4 1.8 0.60 2.1 0.90
8 8 10 40 10 4.0 2.7 3.8 2.7 2.3 0.65 2.1 1.00
10 10 12 50 15 4.4 3.9 4.2 2.8 2.5 0.65 2.1 1.00
12 12 15 60 15 4.4 4.5 4.2 3.0 2.5 0.70 2.1 1.15

25.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Effective length, Le Part No.
size, db (mm) Hex Head Hex Flange Csk Pozi Csk Internal Hex
50 – AS06050H AS06050F –
6 75 – AS06075H – –
100 – AS06100H – –
60 AS08060H – – –
8 75 AS08075H – – AS08075F
100 AS08100H – – –
60 AS10060H – – –
75 AS10075H – – –
10
100 AS10100H – – –
150 AS10150H – – –
75 AS12075H – – –
12 100 AS12100H – – –
150 AS12150H – – –

Effective depth, h (mm)

h = Le - t
t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed

25.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Anchor Stress Yield
size, dh area, As strength, fy UTS, fu
(mm) (mm2) (MPa) (MPa)
6 22.9 640 800
8 42.4 640 800
10 69.4 640 800
12 84.1 640 800

155
26 Brick and Block Anchoring
DynaBolt™ Anchor Hex Bolt

26.1 DynaBolt™ Anchor Hex Bolt


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The DynaBolt™ Anchor Hex Bolt is a medium duty,
torque setting expansion anchor.

Features and Benefits


Ideal for hollow substrates:
~ Cone nut pulls up in cavity to clamp fixture to substrate.
Principal Applications
Neat finish: into Brick and Block
~ Low profile hex head.
High shear strength:
~ Electrical junction boxes.
~ High tensile Grade 8.8 Steel Bolt. ~ Wall mounted pipe brackets.
Fast installation: ~ Installing wall mounted signs,
~ Through fixing eliminates marking out and repositioning of fixture. handrails and gates.
Convenient to remove: ~ Roller door guide rails.
~ No metal parts protrude from hole eliminating grinding.
Economical Zinc Plated or superior corrosion resistant
AISI 316 Stainless Steel.

Installation
1. Drill hole to correct diameter and depth.

2. Clean thoroughly with brush. Remove


debris by way of vacuum or hand pump,
compressed air etc.

3. Insert DynaBolt™ Anchor Hex Bolt through


fixture, tap lightly with hammer until
washer contacts fixture.

4. Tighten DynaBolt™ Anchor Hex Bolt to


specified assembly torque using torque
wrench or impact wrench (rattle gun).

156
Brick and Block Anchoring 26
DynaBolt™ Anchor Hex Bolt
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Working Load Limit
Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor Tightening
size, db Solid Brick 3 Hole Brick 10 Hole Brick Concrete Block
diameter, diameter, effective depth, torque, Tr
(mm) dh (mm) df (mm) h (mm) (Nm) Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na
8 8 10 35 10 3.9 3.1 2.9 3.9 2.0 0.83 1.4 1.0
10 10 12 40 15 4.4 4.6 3.4 4.1 2.3 0.87 1.6 1.0
12 12 15 40 15 4.4 4.6 3.8 4.1 3.1 0.94 2.1 1.0

26.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor Effective Part No.
size, dh (mm) length, Le (mm) Effective depth, h (mm)
Zn S/S
34 DP08045H DP08045HSS
8 60 DP08070H DP08070HSS
h = Le - t
86 DP08095H – t = total thickness of material(s) being fixed
34 DP10045H DP10045HSS
42 DP10055H –
10 56 – DP10060HSS
69 DP10080H DP10080HSS
96 DP10105H DP10105HSS
47 DP12065H –
12 62 DP12075H DP12075HSS
90 DP12105H –

26.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Anchor Stress Carbon steel Stainless steel Section
Thread
size, dh area, As Yield strength, fy UTS, fu Yield strength, fy UTS, fu modulus
size, db
(mm) (mm2) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) Z (mm3)
8 M6 20.1 640 800 480 600 12.7
10 M8 36.6 640 800 480 600 31.2
12 M10 58.0 640 800 480 600 62.3

157
27 Brick and Block Anchoring
RamPlug™

27.1 RamPlug™
GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The RamPlug™ Anchor is a light duty, rotation setting
interference fit anchor.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Fast and easy to install:
~ Anchor simply hammered in. Principal Applications
Convenient:
~ Tangs ensure anchor sits flush with substrate surface in over drilled holes. into Brick and Block
Versatile:
~ Anchor accepts many types of screw. ~ Electrical fittings.

Installation
1. Drill hole to correct diameter and depth.

2. Clean thoroughly with brush. Remove debris


by way of vacuum or hand pump, compressed
air etc.

3. Insert the RamPlug™ into hole until flush with


the surface.

4. Pass wood screw through fixture and into the


RamPlug™. Tighten with screwdriver.

Note: (1) Screw length = length of Ramplug™ + thickness of fixture


(2) Ultra long plugs supplied with screw.

158
Brick and Block Anchoring 27
RamPlug™
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Working Load Limit
Anchor Anchor Drilled hole Fixture hole Anchor
size, db Solid Brick 3 Hole Brick 10 Hole Brick Concrete Block
diameter, diameter, effective depth,
(mm) dh (mm) df (mm) h (mm) Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na Shear, Va Tension, Na
DNP05 5 5 6 25 400 300 400 200 700 160 400 130
DNP06 6 6 7 30 800 500 800 250 800 200 800 170
DNP07 7 7 7 30 1100 650 1100 320 800 250 1100 180
DNP08 8 8 8 40 1300 800 1300 350 800 280 1300 180
DNP10 10 10 9 50 2400 1100 1900 450 800 360 1900 190
DNP12 12 12 12 60 3000 1500 2200 550 900 440 2200 220
DLP06 6 6 7 60 800 500 Not suitable for hollow substrate.
DLP08 8 8 8 80 1300 800
DLP10 10 10 9 80 2400 1100
DUP10080 10 10 9 80 2400 600 Performance to be determined.
DUP10100 10 10 9 100 2400 600
DUP10135 10 10 9 135 2400 600
DUP10160 10 10 9 160 2400 600

27.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor size, db Anchor length, L Part No.
(mm) (mm) Standard Long Ultra Long - C/S Pozi* Ultra Long - Hex Head
5 25 DNP05 – – –
30 DNP06 – – –
6
60 – DLP06 – –
7 35 DNP07 – – –
40 DNP08 – – –
8
80 – DLP08 – –
50 DNP10 – – –
80 – – DUP10080F DUP10080H
90 – DLP10 – –
10
100 – – DUP10100F DUP10100H
140 – – DUP10135F DUP10135H
160 – – DUP10160F DUP10160H
12 60 DNP12 – – –
* No. 3 Pozi Bit.

159
Brick and Block Anchoring Notes

160
28
28 TYPICAL BOLT PERFORMANCE INFORMATION
Tabulated below are nominal reduced ultimate It is recommended that Stainless Steel bolts be lubricated and
characteristic capacities for bolts manufactured in that tightening torque be applied in a smooth, continuous
accordance with ISO 898-1. manner. Impact wrenches (rattle guns) are not suitable for the
tightening of Stainless Steel fasteners.
The expected capacity of bolts should be independently
checked by the designer based on the bolt manufacturers
published performance information.

28.1 STRENGTH LIMIT STATE DESIGN INFORMATION


28.1.1 Tension

Reduced nominal bolt tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN), Øn = 0.8


Bolt type M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Grade 4.6
6.4 11.7 18.6 27.0 50.2 78.4 113.0
Carbon Steel
Grade 8.8
13.3 24.3 38.5 56.0 104.2 162.7 234.4
Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel
11.3 20.5 32.5 47.2 87.9 137.2 –
A4-70 (AISI 316)

28.1.2 Shear

Reduced nominal bolt shear capacity, ØVsf (kN), Øv = 0.8


Bolt type M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Grade 4.6
3.3 6.1 9.8 14.4 27.4 43.0 62.0
Carbon Steel
Grade 8.8
6.6 12.4 20.0 29.3 56.1 88.3 127.2
Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel
5.6 10.5 16.8 24.7 47.4 74.5 –
A4-70 (AISI 316)

28.2 WORKING LOAD LIMIT DESIGN INFORMATION


28.2.1 Tension

Allowable tensile load steel (kN), Fss = 2.2


Bolt type M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Grade 4.6
3.6 6.6 10.6 15.3 28.5 44.5 64.2
Carbon Steel
Grade 8.8
7.6 13.8 21.9 31.8 59.2 92.4 133.2
Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel
6.4 11.6 18.5 26.8 49.9 77.9 –
A4-70 (AISI 316)

28.2.2 Shear

Allowable shear load steel (kN), Fsv = 2.5


Bolt type M6 M8 M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Grade 4.6
1.7 3.1 4.9 7.2 13.7 21.5 31.0
Carbon Steel
Grade 8.8
3.3 6.2 10.0 14.7 28.1 44.2 63.6
Carbon Steel
Stainless Steel
2.8 5.3 8.4 12.4 23.7 37.3 –
A4-70 (AISI 316)

161
CAST-IN
ANCHORING
OVERVIEW
Whether an application calls for precast or cast in-situ The Ramset™ Cast-In Ferrule range is available in Zinc, Hot
components, there is a suitable Ramset™ Cast-In Ferrule for Dipped Galvanised and Stainless Steel finishes to cater for a
almost every design case. wide range of atmospheric conditions. Sizing from M10
through M24 allows for economical designs to be derived,
Not only does Ramset™ offer reliable, quality product, with appropriate accessories providing a high degree of
Ramset™ understands the importance of supporting the installation flexibility.
product with technically superior design information, such as
this resource book, to guide correct product selection and safe The following section introduces the designer and/or
installation. engineer to the Ramset™ Cast-In Ferrule range and provides
performance information to allow selection of the right Cast-In
Extensive research, development and testing are invested in Ferrule for the job.
Ramset™ products so that designers can be secure in the
knowledge that they have access to the real performance and
capabilities of the Cast--In Ferrules.

Care should be taken to remember that the performance data


contained herein relates to the Ramset™ range of Cast-In
Ferrules and hence should not be used to justify a generic
replacement that may appear physically similar, as the actual
performance will be heavily influenced by the steel grade and
manufacturing tolerences.

162
Cast-In Anchoring 29
Elephants’ Feet Ferrule

29.1 Elephants’ Feet Ferrules


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The Elephants’ Feet Ferrule is a medium duty, cast-in ferrule.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Improved security:
~ No cross bar required to develop rated capacity.
Outstanding exterior durability:
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.
Versatile:
~ Use in near or far face applications with our range of accessories. Principal Applications
~ May be used with small rebar for fixing to mesh.
~ Small and lightweight precast
fixing point.
~ Structural connections.
~ Curtain wall and panel facade fixings.
~ Temporary precast panel bracing
points.

Installation

1. Chair for tilt-cast.


2. Nailing plate, or bolted to formwork.
3. “Puddled” into wet concrete.
4. Templated onto face of panel.

163
29 Cast-In Anchoring
Elephants’ Feet Ferrule
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details*
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limits
Ferrule Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Shear, Va (kN) Tension, Na (kN)
size, db x L Cross hole Torque, T distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Concrete compressive strength f’c Concrete compressive strength f’c
(mm) to suit r
(Nm)** (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M10 x 45 R8 17 60 120 50 6.7 7.9 8.5 4.4 6.0 7.0
M12 x 55 75 150 65 8.9 10.4 11.2 6.7 9.2 9.6
M12 x 70 R8 30 100 200 85 11.5 13.5 14.5 9.6 9.6 9.6
M12 x 95 135 270 115 15.9 18.6 20.0 9.6 9.6 9.6
M16 x 70 100 200 85 14.9 17.4 18.8 11.4 15.6 17.2
R10 75
M16 x 95 135 270 115 20.5 24.0 25.9 17.2 17.2 17.2
M20 x 70 100 200 85 17.6 20.6 22.2 12.7 17.4 20.3
R10 144
M20 x 95 135 270 115 24.3 28.4 30.6 20.6 26.4 26.4
M24 x 70 100 270 85 21.7 25.3 27.3 13.9 19.1 22.2
M24 x 95 Y12 / N12 250 135 270 115 29.9 34.9 37.6 22.6 30.9 35.9
M24 x 115 165 330 140 36.4 42.6 45.9 30.4 39.8 39.8
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.
** Recommended tightening torques are based on the use of grade 4.6 bolts.
Note: Confirm bolt capacity independently of tabulated information.

29.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS

Ferrule Effective Thread Part No.


Ferrule length, L depth, h length, Lt Cross hole
size, db (mm) (mm) (mm) to suit Zn Gal
M10 45 41 20 R8 FE10045 FE10045GH
55 51 FE12055 FE12055GH
M12 70 66 25 R8 FE12070 FE12070GH
95 91 FE12095 FE12095GH
70 66 FE16070 FE16070GH
M16 32 R10
95 91 FE16095 FE16095GH
70 66 35 FE20070 FE20070GH
M20 R10
95 91 38 FE20095 FE20095GH
70 66 35 FE24070 FE24070GH
M24 95 91 Y12 / N12 FE24095 FE24095GH
50
115 111 FE24115 FE24115GH

Effective depth, h (mm)

Read value from “Description and Part


Numbers” table.

29.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Stress area Carbon Steel Section
Ferrule threaded section, As modulus, Z
size, db (mm2) Yield strength, fy (MPa) UTS, fu (MPa) (mm3)
M10 71.2 240 360 190.0
M12 88.3 240 360 334.5
M16 158.0 240 360 692.8
M20 242.0 240 360 1034.0
M24 365.0 240 360 2066.0

164
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 29
Elephants’ Feet Ferrule
29.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


50 Notes:
~ Shear limited by ferrule capacity.
~ Tension limited by the lesser of steel capacity
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

and concrete cone capacity.


40
~ No edge or spacing effects.
~ f'c = 20 MPa

30

FE24095
20 FE20095
FE16095

FE12095
10
FE12055
FE10045
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
e m, a m 30 36 48 60 72

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)

Effective depth, h (mm)

Read value from “Description and Part


Numbers” table on page 164.

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

165
29 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Elephants’ Feet Ferrule

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 20 MPa
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Ferrule length, L (mm) Effective depth, h (mm)
45 41 7.9
55 51 12.1
70 66 17.7 20.5 22.9 25.1
95 91 28.7 33.2 37.1 40.6
115 111 54.7

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 15 20 25 32
Xnc 0.87 1.00 1.12 1.26

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Edge distance, e (mm) 30 40 50 60 70 85 100 120 140 170
Ferrule length, L (mm) Effective depth, h (mm)
45 41 0.65 0.76 0.87 0.98 1
55 51 0.58 0.67 0.76 0.85 0.94 1
70 66 0.52 0.58 0.65 0.72 0.79 0.90 1 1
95 91 0 0.51 0.56 0.61 0.66 0.74 0.81 0.92 1
115 111 0 0 0 0 0.66 0.72 0.80 0.89 1

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Anchor spacing, a (mm) 30 40 50 60 70 85 100 125 150 200 250 300 350
Ferrule length, L (mm) Effective depth, h (mm)
45 41 0.63 0.66 0.70 0.74 0.78 0.85 0.91 1
55 51 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.70 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.91 0.99 1
70 66 0.58 0.60 0.63 0.65 0.68 0.71 0.75 0.82 0.88 1
95 91 0 0.57 0.59 0.61 0.63 0.66 0.68 0.73 0.77 0.87 0.96 1
115 111 0 0 0 0 0.63 0.65 0.69 0.73 0.80 0.88 0.95 1

Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai


Anchor spacing, a (mm) 30 40 50 60 70 85 100 125 150 200 250 300 350
Ferrule length, L (mm) Effective depth, h (mm)
45 41 0.25 0.33 0.41 0.49 0.57 0.69 0.81 1
55 51 0.20 0.26 0.33 0.39 0.46 0.56 0.65 0.82 0.98 1
70 66 0.16 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.43 0.51 0.63 0.76 1
95 91 0 0.15 0.18 0.22 0.26 0.31 0.37 0.46 0.55 0.73 0.92 1
115 111 0 0 0 0 0.26 0.30 0.38 0.45 0.60 0.75 0.90 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

166
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 29
Elephants’ Feet Ferrule

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
ØNus 17.1 21.2 37.9 58.1 87.6

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Establish the reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel
tensile capacity, ØNtf from literature supplied by the
specified bolt manufacturer. For nominal expected
capacities of bolts manufactured to ISO standards,
refer to section 28, page 161.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus, ØNtf


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

167
29 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Elephants’ Feet Ferrule

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor

Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 20 MPa
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Edge distance, e (mm)
30 2.7
35 3.4 3.5
40 4.2 4.3
50 5.9 6.0 6.9
60 7.7 7.9 9.03 9.8
70 9.7 10.0 11.4 12.4 13.7
100 16.6 17.1 19.4 21.1 23.4
200 46.9 48.3 54.9 59.7 66.3
300 88.7 100.9 109.7 121.7
400 155.4 168.9 187.4
500 236.1 261.9
600 344.3

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 15 20 25 32
Xvc 0.87 1.00 1.12 1.26

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 30 35 40 50 60 70 100 200 300 400 500 600
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
30 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.56 0.53
35 0.73 0.70 0.68 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.52
40 0.77 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.54 0.53
50 0.83 0.79 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.60 0.55 0.53 0.53
60 0.90 0.84 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.62 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52
75 1.00 0.93 0.88 0.80 0.75 0.71 0.65 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.53
100 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.70 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53
125 1.00 0.92 0.86 0.75 0.63 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54
150 1.00 0.93 0.80 0.65 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55
200 1.00 0.90 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57
300 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60
450 0.95 0.80 0.73 0.68 0.65
600 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.74 0.70
750 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.75
1000 1.00 0.90 0.83
1250 1.00 0.92
1500 1.00

168
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 29
Elephants’ Feet Ferrule
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor


Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.6
(i) ØVusc Reduced characteristic ultimate combined concrete/steel shear capacity
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20 M24
Ferrule length, L (mm) Effective depth, h (mm)
45 41 12.1
55 51 16.0
70 66 20.7 26.8 31.7 39.0
95 91 28.6 37.0 43.7 53.8
115 111 65.7

(ii) Xvsc Concrete compressive strength effect, combined concrete/steel shear


f’c (MPa) 15 20 25 32
Xvsc 0.91 1.00 1.08 1.17

ØVus = ØVusc * Xvsc

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Establish the reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel
shear capacity, ØVsf from literature supplied by the
specified bolt manufacturer. For nominal expected
capacities of bolts manufactured to ISO standards,
refer to section 28, page 161.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus, ØVsf


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

169
29 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Elephants’ Feet Ferrule

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset™ Elephants’ Feet Ferrule,
(Ferrule Size x Length) ((Part Number))
with a (Bolt Grade) bolt.

Example
Ramset™ Elephants’ Feet Ferrule,
M16 x 95 (FE16095GH) with a Gr. 4.6 bolt.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

170
Cast-In Anchoring 30
Round Ferrule

30.1 Round Ferrules


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The Round Ferrule is a heavy duty, cast-in ferrule.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Economical:
~ Simple cost effective design.
Outstanding exterior durability:
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.
Versatile:
~ Use in near face, far face or side face applications with our Principal Applications
range of accessories.
~ Structural connections.
~ Panel to panel connection.
~ High shear load applications.
~ Temporary precast panel bracing
points.

Installation

1. Fitted in a chair, to suit panel thickness.


2. Fixed to casting bed with a nailing plate.
3. Bolted through formwork.

171
30 Cast-In Anchoring
Round Ferrule
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation Details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Ferrule
Tightening Edge Anchor Structure Tension, Na
size, db x L Required Torque, Tr distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Concrete Strength, f’c
(mm) cross bar (Nm)** (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M12 x 65 Y12 / N12 30 80 150 100 8.2 11.0 12.3 13.4
M12 x 96 x 300 mm 30 130 250 130 8.2 22.6 25.3 27.7
M16 x 75 Y12 / N12 75 100 200 110 15.6 14.8 16.5 18.1
M16 x 96 x 300 mm 75 130 250 130 15.6 22.6 25.3 27.7
M20 x 75 Y12 / N12 144 100 200 110 24.5 14.8 16.5 18.1
M20 x 96 x 300 mm 144 130 250 130 24.5 22.6 25.3 27.7
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified strength limit state design process to verify capacity.
** Recommended tightening torques are based on the use of grade 4.6 bolts.
Note: Confirm bolt capacity independently of tabulated values.

30.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS

Ferrule Effective Thread Part No.


Ferrule length, L depth, h length, Lt Cross hole
size, db (mm) (mm) (mm) to suit Zn Gal
65 50 25 FH12065 –
M12 Y12 / N12
96 81 45 FH12096 FH12096GH
75 60 32 FH16075 FH16075GH
M16 Y12 / N12
96 81 39 FH16096 FH16096GH
75 60 32 FH20075 FH20075GH
M20 Y12 / N12
96 81 49 FH20096 FH20096GH

Effective depth, h (mm)

Read value from “Description and Part


Numbers” table.

30.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Stress area Carbon Steel Section
Ferrule at cross hole, As modulus, Z
size, db (mm2) Yield strength, fy (MPa) UTS, fu (MPa) (mm3)
M12 234 330 430 2224.0
M16 234 330 430 2071.0
M20 234 330 430 1747.0

172
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 30
Round Ferrule
30.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


50 Notes:
~ Shear limited by Gr. 4.6 bolt capacity.
~ Tension limited by the lesser of steel capacity
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

and concrete cone capacity.


40
~ No edge or spacing effects.
~ f'c = 20 MPa

30

M20 x 96
20

M16 x 75
10
M12 x 65

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Ferrule size, db M12 M16 M20
am, em 40 50 60

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Effective depth, h (mm)

Read value from “Description and Part


Numbers” table on page 172.

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

173
30 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Round Ferrule

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6, f’c = 20 MPa
Ferrule size, db
Ferrule length, L (mm) Effective depth, h (mm)
M12 M16 M20
65 50 19.7
75 60 26.6 26.6
96 81 40.7 40.7 40.7

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


f’c (MPa) 15 20 25 32
Xnc 0.87 1.00 1.12 1.26

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Ferrule size, db M12 M16 M20
Ferrule length, L (mm) 65 96 75 96 75 96
Effective depth, h (mm) 50 81 60 81 60 81
Edge distance, e (mm)
40 0.67 0.53
45 0.71 0.56 0.64 0.56
50 0.76 0.59 0.68 0.59 0.68 0.59
55 0.80 0.62 0.72 0.62 0.72 0.62
60 0.85 0.65 0.76 0.65 0.76 0.65
70 0.94 0.70 0.84 0.70 0.84 0.70
80 1 0.76 0.91 0.76 0.91 0.76
90 0.82 0.99 0.82 0.99 0.82
100 0.88 1 0.88 1 0.88
125 1 1 1

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Ferrule size, db M12 M16 M20
Ferrule length, L (mm) 65 96 75 96 75 96
Effective depth, h (mm) 50 81 60 81 60 81
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
40 0.63 0.58
50 0.66 0.60 0.64 0.60
60 0.70 0.62 0.66 0.62 0.66 0.62
70 0.73 0.64 0.69 0.64 0.69 0.64
80 0.76 0.66 0.72 0.66 0.72 0.66
90 0.79 0.69 0.75 0.69 0.75 0.69
100 0.83 0.71 0.77 0.71 0.77 0.71
125 0.91 0.76 0.84 0.76 0.84 0.76
150 0.99 0.81 0.91 0.81 0.91 0.81
175 1 0.86 0.98 0.86 0.98 0.86
200 0.91 1 0.91 1 0.91
225 0.96 0.96 0.96
250 1 1 1

174
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 30
Round Ferrule
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Ferrule size, db M12 M16 M20
Ferrule length, L (mm) 65 96 75 96 75 96
Effective depth, h (mm) 50 81 60 81 60 81
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
40 0.26 0.16
50 0.33 0.21 0.27 0.21
60 0.39 0.25 0.33 0.25 0.33 0.25
70 0.46 0.29 0.38 0.29 0.38 0.29
80 0.52 0.33 0.44 0.33 0.44 0.33
90 0.59 0.37 0.49 0.37 0.49 0.37
100 0.65 0.41 0.55 0.41 0.55 0.41
125 0.82 0.51 0.68 0.51 0.68 0.51
150 0.98 0.62 0.82 0.62 0.82 0.62
175 1 0.72 0.96 0.72 0.96 0.72
200 0.82 1 0.82 1 0.82
225 0.93 0.93 0.93
250 1 1 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Ferrule size, db M12 M16 M20
Round ferrule
73.6
tension capacity

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Establish the reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel
tensile capacity, ØNtf from literature supplied by the
specified bolt manufacturer. For nominal expected
capacities of bolts manufactured to ISO standards,
refer to section 28, page 161.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus, ØNtf


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

175
30 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Round Ferrule

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 20 MPa
Ferrule size, db M12 M16 M20
Edge distance, e (mm)
35 4.6
40 5.6 5.6
50 7.8 7.8
60 10.3 10.3 10.3
80 15.8 15.8 15.8
100 22.1 22.1 22.1
125 30.9 30.9 30.9
150 40.7 40.7 40.7
200 62.6 62.6 62.6
300 115.0 115.0
400 177.1 177.1
500 247.5

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 15 20 25 32
Xvc 0.87 1.00 1.12 1.26

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 35 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 300 400 500
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
35 0.70 0.68 0.64 0.62 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.55 0.54
40 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.53
50 0.79 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.55 0.53
60 0.84 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.53
80 0.96 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.55 0.54 0.53
100 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.54
150 1.00 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.58 0.56
200 1.00 0.90 0.82 0.77 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58
250 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.75 0.67 0.63 0.60
300 0.98 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62
450 1.00 1.00 0.95 0.80 0.73 0.68
600 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.74
750 1.00 0.88 0.80
900 0.95 0.86
1050 1.00 0.92
1250 1.00

176
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 30
Round Ferrule
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor

Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.8
Ferrule size, db M12 M16 M20
Round ferrule
83.0*
shear capacity
* This value requires minimum f’c = 32 MPa.

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Establish the reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel
shear capacity, ØVsf from literature supplied by the
specified bolt manufacturer. For nominal expected
capacities of bolts manufactured to ISO standards,
refer to section 28, page 161.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus, ØVsf


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

177
30 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
Round Ferrule

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset™ Round Ferrule,
(Ferrule Size x Length) ((Part Number))
with a (Bolt Grade) bolt.
Y12 / N12 x 300 mm cross bar required.

Example
Ramset™ Round Ferrule,
M16 x 75 (FH16075) with a Gr. 8.8 bolt.
Y12 / N12 x 300 mm cross bar required.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

178
Cast-In Anchoring 31
TCM Ferrule

31.1 TCM FERRULES


GENERAL INFORMATION
PERFORMANCE RELATED MATERIAL INSTALLATION RELATED

Product
The TCM Ferrule is a Stainless Steel medium duty,
cast-in ferrule.

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Superior corrosion resistance:
~ From AISI 316(A4) Stainless Steel to provide excellent
resistance in marine environments. Principal Applications
Improved security:
~ May be used without cross bar with reduced capacity. ~ Small and lightweight precast
Versatile: fixing point.
~ May be used with rebar for fixing to mesh. ~ Structural connections.
~ Curtain wall and panel facade fixings.
~ Exposure to industrial environments.
~ Marine applications.

Installation

1. Drill hole in formwork. Pass the bolt through the hole into
the concrete insert and tighten. Tie the insert to the
reinforcing system.
2. Pour the concrete. Remove the bolt and formwork leaving
the Concrete Insert firmly embedded.

179
31 Cast-In Anchoring
TCM Ferrule
Installation and Working Load Limit performance details
Installation details Minimum dimensions* Working Load Limit (kN)
Ferrule Effective Tightening Edge Anchor Substrate Tension, Na
size, db depth, h torque, Tr Cross hole distance, ec spacing, ac thickness, bm Shear, Va Unreinforced ferrule Reinforced ferrule
(mm) (Nm)** to suit (mm) (mm) (mm) 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa 20 MPa 32 MPa 40 MPa
M10 29 35 R8 120 60 50 12.4 4.0 5.0 5.6 5.0 6.3 7.0
M12 37 60 R8 150 80 65 20.9 5.7 7.3 8.1 7.2 9.1 10.2
M16 52 150 Y12 / N12 200 100 85 26.3 9.7 12.3 13.7 12.1 15.3 17.2
M20 57 295 Y12 / N12 240 120 100 28.8 11.0 13.9 15.5 13.7 17.4 19.4
* For shear loads acting towards an edge or where these minimum dimensions are not achievable, please use the simplified limit state design process to verify capacity.
** Recommended tightening torques are based on the use of A4 - 70 bolts compliant with IS0 3506.
Note: Confirm bolt capacity independently of tabulated values.

31.2 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Ferrule length, L Effective depth, h Thread length, Lt Cross hole Part No.
Ferrule size, db (mm) (mm) (mm) to suit S/S
M10 44 29 20 R8 TCM10RSS
M12 54 37 25 R8 TCM12RSS
M16 75 52 32 Y12 / N12 TCM16RSS
M20 80 57 38 Y12 / N12 TCM20RSS

Effective depth, h (mm)

Read value from “Description and Part


Numbers” table.

31.3 ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


Stress area Stainless Steel Section
Ferrule size, db threaded section, As modulus, Z
(mm2) Yield strength, fy (MPa) UTS, fu (MPa) (mm3)
M10 71.4 450 700 196.3
M12 120.4 450 700 391.1
M16 176.5 450 600 756.2
M20 193.8 450 600 995.3

180
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 31
TCM Ferrule
31.4

STEP 1 Select anchor to be evaluated

Table 1a Indicative combined loading – interaction diagram


25 Notes:
~ Shear limited by ferrule capacity.
~ Tension limited by the lesser of steel capacity
Design tensile action effect, N* (kN)

and concrete cone capacity.


20
~ No edge or spacing effects.
~ f'c = 20 MPa

15

M20
10
M16

5 M12

M10

0
0 10 20 30 40
Design shear action effect, V* (kN)

Table 1b Absolute minimum edge distance and anchor spacing values, em and am (mm)
Anchor size, db M10 M12 M16 M20
am, em 30 40 50 60

Step 1c Calculate anchor effective depth, h (mm)


Effective depth, h (mm)

Read value from “Description and Part


Numbers” table on page 180.

Checkpoint 1 Anchor size determined, absolute minima compliance achieved, effective depth (h) calculated.

181
31 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
TCM Ferrule

STEP 2 Verify concrete tensile capacity - per anchor


Table 2a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNuc (kN), Øc = 0.6
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20
Effective depth, h (mm) 29 37 52 57
Concrete 15 6.3 9.2 15.6 17.6
Unreinforced compressive 20 7.2 10.3 17.5 19.7
Ferrule strength 25 8.0 11.5 19.5 22.1
(MPa) 32 9.1 13.1 22.1 25.0
Concrete 15 8.0 11.5 19.5 22.0
Reinforced compressive 20 9.0 12.9 21.8 24.7
Ferrule strength 25 10.0 14.4 24.4 27.6
(MPa) 32 11.3 16.3 27.6 31.3

Table 2b Concrete compressive strength effect, tension, Xnc


Xnc = 1.0 as concrete compressive strength effect included in table 2a.

Table 2c Edge distance effect, tension, Xne


Ferrule size, db (mm) M10 M12 M16 M20
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
30 0.78 0.68 0.57 0.55
35 0.86 0.74 0.61 0.59
40 0.94 0.80 0.66 0.63
45 1.00 0.87 0.70 0.67
55 1.00 0.79 0.75
65 0.88 0.83
75 1.00 0.91
85 1.00

Table 2d Anchor spacing effect, end of a row, tension, Xnae


Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
30 0.67
40 0.73 0.68
50 0.79 0.73 0.66
60 0.84 0.77 0.69 0.68
80 0.96 0.86 0.75 0.73
100 1 0.95 0.82 0.79
120 1 0.88 0.85
140 0.94 0.91
160 1 0.97
180 1

182
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 31
TCM Ferrule
Table 2e Anchor spacing effect, internal to a row, tension, Xnai
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
30 0.34
40 0.46 0.36
50 0.57 0.45 0.32
60 0.69 0.54 0.38 0.35
80 0.92 0.72 0.51 0.47
100 1 0.90 0.63 0.58
120 1 0.76 0.70
140 0.89 0.82
160 1 0.94
180 1

Checkpoint 2 Design reduced ultimate concrete tensile capacity, ØNurc

ØNurc = ØNuc * Xnc * Xne * ( Xnae or Xnai )

STEP 3 Verify anchor tensile capacity - per anchor

Table 3a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel tensile capacity, ØNus (kN), Øn = 0.8
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20
316 Stainless Steel 32.1 54.2 79.4 87.2

Step 3b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel tensile capacity, ØNtf (kN)
Establish the reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel
tensile capacity, ØNtf from literature supplied by the
specified bolt manufacturer. For nominal expected
capacities of bolts manufactured to ISO standards,
refer to section 28, page 161.

Checkpoint 3 Design reduced ultimate tensile capacity, ØNur

ØNur = minimum of ØNurc, ØNus, ØNtf


Check N* / ØNur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

183
31 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
TCM Ferrule

STEP 4 Verify concrete shear capacity - per anchor


Table 4a Reduced characteristic ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVuc (kN), Øq = 0.6, f’c = 20 MPa
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20
Edge distance, e (mm)
30 2.6
35 3.2 3.6
40 4.0 4.3
50 5.5 6.1 6.9
60 7.3 8.0 9.1 9.7
70 9.1 10.1 11.4 12.2
100 15.6 17.2 19.5 20.9
200 44.1 48.6 55.2 59.0
300 81.1 89.2 101.4 108.4
400 137.4 156.1 167.0
500 218.1 233.3
600 306.7

Table 4b Concrete compressive strength effect, concrete edge shear, Xvc


f’c (MPa) 15 20 25 32
Xvc 0.87 1.00 1.12 1.26

Table 4c Load direction effect, concrete edge shear, Xvd


Angle, α° 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 - 180
Xvd 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.32 1.50 1.66 1.80 1.91 1.98 2.00
Load direction effect,
conc. edge shear, Xvd
Table 4d Anchor spacing effect, concrete edge shear, Xva
Note: For single anchor designs, Xva = 1.0
Edge distance, e (mm) 30 35 40 50 60 70 100 200 300 400 500 600
Anchor spacing, a (mm)
30 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.56 0.53
35 073 0.70 0.68 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.52
40 0.77 0.73 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.54 0.53
50 0.83 0.79 0.75 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.60 0.55 0.53 0.53
60 0.90 0.84 0.80 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.62 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52
70 0.97 0.90 0.85 0.78 0.73 0.70 0.64 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53 0.52
100 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.83 0.79 0.70 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.53
200 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.90 0.70 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.57
300 1.00 0.80 0.70 0.65 0.62 0.60
400 0.90 0.77 0.70 0.66 0.63
500 1.00 0.83 0.75 0.70 0.67
625 0.92 0.81 0.75 0.71
750 1.00 0.88 0.80 0.75
875 0.94 0.85 0.79
1000 1.00 0.90 0.83
1250 1.00 0.92
1500 1.00

184
Strength Limit State Design Cast-In Anchoring 31
TCM Ferrule
Table 4e Multiple anchors effect, concrete edge shear, Xvn
Note: For single anchor designs, Xvn = 1.0
Anchor spacing /
0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.25 2.50
Edge distance, a / e
Number of anchors, n
2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
3 0.72 0.76 0.80 0.83 0.86 0.88 0.91 0.93 0.95 0.96 0.98 1.00
4 0.57 0.64 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.82 0.86 0.89 0.92 0.94 0.97 1.00
5 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.69 0.74 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.90 0.93 0.97 1.00
6 0.43 0.52 0.59 0.66 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00
7 0.39 0.48 0.56 0.63 0.69 0.75 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
8 0.36 0.46 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.74 0.79 0.84 0.88 0.92 0.96 1.00
9 0.34 0.44 0.52 0.60 0.67 0.73 0.78 0.83 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
10 0.32 0.42 0.51 0.59 0.66 0.72 0.77 0.82 0.87 0.91 0.96 1.00
15 0.26 0.37 0.47 0.55 0.63 0.70 0.76 0.81 0.86 0.90 0.95 1.00
20 0.23 0.35 0.45 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Checkpoint 4 Design reduced ultimate concrete edge shear capacity, ØVurc

ØVurc = ØVuc * Xvc * Xvd * Xva * Xvn

STEP 5 Verify anchor shear capacity - per anchor


Table 5a Reduced characteristic ultimate steel shear capacity, ØVus (kN), Øv = 0.6
(i) ØVusc Reduced characteristic ultimate combined concrete/steel shear capacity
Ferrule size, db M10 M12 M16 M20
316 Stainless steel 10.3 16.5 29.3 36.9

(ii) Xvsc Concrete compressive strength effect, combined concrete/steel shear


f’c (MPa) 15 20 25 32
Xvsc 0.91 1.00 1.08 1.17

ØVus = ØVusc * Xvsc

Step 5b Reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel shear capacity, ØVsf (kN)
Establish the reduced characteristic ultimate bolt steel
shear capacity, ØVsf from literature supplied by the
specified bolt manufacturer. For nominal expected
capacities of bolts manufactured to ISO standards,
refer to section 28, page 161.

Checkpoint 5 Design reduced ultimate shear capacity, ØVur

ØVur = minimum of ØVurc, ØVus, ØVsf


Check V* / ØVur ≤ 1,
if not satisfied return to step 1

185
31 Cast-In Anchoring Strength Limit State Design
TCM Ferrule

STEP 6 Combined loading and specification

Checkpoint 6 Check

N*/ØNur + V*/ØVur ≤ 1.2,


if not satisfied return to step 1

Specify
Ramset™ TCM Ferrule, (Ferrule Size)
((Part Number)) with a (Bolt Grade) bolt.

Example

Ramset TCM Ferrule, M16 (TCM16RSS)
with a Gr. 4.6 bolt.
To be installed in accordance with

Ramset Technical Data Sheet.

186
Cast-In Anchoring Notes

187
CAST-IN
LIFTING
OVERVIEW
Since 1988, Ramset™ have been manufacturing and Quality
supplying solution driven systems for the purpose of safely Careful selection of product raw materials and tight
lifting precast concrete units. manufacturing tolerences ensures that reliable, consistent
performance is available from our load bearing components.
The Ramset™ Concrete Lifting System provides the same high
level of product quality, expertise and service to the tilt panel Product is manufactured in accordance with our accreditation
and precast concrete industry that other segments of the to and with the requirements of the AS/NZS ISO 9001:2000
construction industry have come to expect from Ramset™. Quality Management Systems standard.

Versatile Tested

Ramset Concrete Lifting Systems are optimised for use with Significant test programs are conducted to verify product
a wide range of standard precast sections, from wall panels to integrity under a wide range of conditions and rigorous
bridge beams, columns to culverts. statistical analysis ensuring that published capacity data is
representative of the true spread of results achieved in testing
Quick and the expected variability within the total product population.
The Ramset™ Concrete Lifting Systems are designed for
speedy coupling/uncoupling of the lifting clutches from the Expertise
lifting anchors, thus eliminating costly delays during the lifting With specialist Sales Engineers located in all the major capital
process. cities, Ramset™ have an unparalleled commitment to the
Concrete Lifting Industry, each Engineer having an intimate
Safe understanding of local requirements. Design assistance is
Safety is not a luxury with the Ramset™ Concrete Lifting available from our Engineers in order to help fully realise the
Systems. Each part of the system is intended to compliment benefits inherent in the Ramset™ Concrete Lifting Systems.
the other. Multiple levels of safety redundancy are available
when the system is used correctly.

188
32

LIFTING
TECHNOLOGY
32.1 IMPORTANT NOTICE
The information presented in this section will Given the number of variables that determine
prove a useful tool to all involved in the the validity of a particular systems suitability
production of precast concrete elements, for a given scenario, the information presented
however it must be recognised that the capacity will allow a design professional to fully
information is intended for use by suitably consider all aspects relevant to the derivation
experienced and/or qualified persons only. of both the load case(s) and the capacity and
hence recommend a system solution.
Load cases can involve complex calculations
and require a number of separate design The designer is encouraged to contact their
checks to be carried out to fully represent the local Ramset™ specialist Sales Engineer if
situation at hand. additional information or advice is required.

The capacity obtained from load bearing


components will be influenced by the
concrete’s (tensile) strength, element
geometry, load direction and component
orientation within the element.

189
32 Lifting Technology

32.2 LIFTING ANCHORS


All lifting anchors produced by Ramset™ comply with the Lifting anchor capacities detailed herein are based on test
requirements of AS3850 - 2003. results achieved in plain (unreinforced) or nominally reinforced
(light central mesh) concrete.
This standard requires that:
Testing has confirmed that whilst structural reinforcement is
~ components are produced from ductile materials. required to prevent substrate member or section failure, it will
~ a minimum Factor of Safety of 2.5 : 1 is achieved when the have negligible influence on lifting anchor capacity apart from
product is used as instructed. offering additional ductility during overload events.

When loaded to their full design working load capacity, lifting Component reinforcement as detailed herein must be
anchors may be used a maximum of 10 times. securely fixed to the lifting anchor to ensure intimate contact
between them.
If loaded to 60% of their design working load capacity, lifting
anchors are re-usable to the same extent as the lifting clutches.

Lifting anchors must not be re-worked in any way, i.e. welding,


cutting, bending etc., as this may seriously alter the anchors
structural integrity. If it is considered necessary to alter a
lifting anchor physically in any way, please contact your local
Ramset™ specialist Sales Engineer for appropriate advice.

32.3 LIFTING CLUTCHES


Ramset™ lifting clutches are a critical part of the load bearing Ramset™ lifting clutches are designed to be operated by hand,
equipment involved in the lifting of concrete elements and either directly or with the aid of a remote release line on
hence should be treated with appropriate care. appropriate models, hence if excessive force is required to
operate any Ramset™ lifting clutch a fault condition is
All Ramset™ lifting clutches are initially proof tested in indicated and the cause of the fault should be investigated.
accordance with the requirements of AS3850 - 2003 and
there after must be proof tested at twelve monthly intervals to Please contact your Ramset™ specialist Sales Engineer for
ensure compliance with this standard. advice regarding the servicing of your lifting clutches.

Please contact your local Ramset™ specialist Sales Engineer Under no circumstances shall any modification be performed on
for advice regarding the testing of your clutches. any lifting clutch unless written approval is obtained from
Ramset™.

190
Lifting Technology 32
32.4 SUBSTRATE SUITABILITY
It is recommended that a minimum concrete compressive Concrete compressive strength is referenced as it is the most
strength of 15 MPa is available at time of lift. widely available (and readily obtained) data for concrete mixes.

Curing rates are dependant on a number of factors, however it The lifting anchor capacity data therefore is valid for normal
should be recognised that mid winter curing will take longer weight concretes having a tensile strength/compressive
than during warmer months. In order to ensure adequate strength relationship consistent with that of traditional
concrete strength is available at time of lift, consider the use of sand/cement/aggregate mixes, i.e. f’cf = 0.6 * Lf’c.
higher strength concrete, a modified high early strength
concrete, steam cure, prolonged curing time or a combination If the concrete being utilised varies from this relationship (for
of these methods. example due to the addition of modifiers like fly ash), the
equivalent concrete compressive strength should be determined
Whilst the capacity data refers to concrete compressive after consultation with the concrete mix/admixture supplier.
strength, it should be recognised that lifting anchor capacity is
actually governed by the concrete’s tensile strength. This is especially important if it is believed that the modifiers
will delay or retard the generation of concrete tensile capacity.

32.5 REFERENCES
The following documents are referenced in this section and/or
represent valuable reading.

~ AS3850 - 2003 Australian Standard for Precast ~ Relevant Codes of Practice typically issued by state based
Concrete Structures Work Cover Authorities:

~ AS3600 - 2001 Australian Standard for Concrete Structures VIC – Victorian WorkCover Authority
www.workcover.vic.gov.au
~ AS4100 - 1998 Australian Standard for Steel Structures
TAS – Tasmanian Workplace Standards Authority
~ Precast Concrete Handbook published by the National www.workcover.tas.gov.au
Precast Concrete Association Australia (NPCAA),
www.npcaa.com.au SA – WorkCover Corporation of South Australia
www.workcover.sa.gov.au
~ Various publications by the Cement and Concrete Association
of Australia (C & CAA), www.concrete.net.au NT – NT WorkSafe
www.nt.gov.au/deet/worksafe/
~ Australian Building Codes Board (BCA)
www.abcb.gov.au WA – WorkCover Western Australia
www.workcover.wa.gov.au

NSW – WorkCover Authority of NSW


www.workcover.nsw.gov.au

ACT – ACT WorkCover


www.workcover.act.gov.au

191
32 Lifting Technology

32.6 LOAD CASE DETERMINATION


32.6.1 DETERMINATION OF ANCHOR FORCES
Top Lift Anchor Load Formulae Sling Angle

For determining the anchor loads applied at the lifting points


when top lifting, apply the formula below, in which:
α
Greater of: Angle
Li TOP = (W + H) * K Li TOP = W * D * K
or
Pn Pn

Li = Load applied at each lifting point (t)


K = 1
W = Self weight of the unit (t) COS α/2

H = Demoulding suction of the unit (t)


Multiplication factor K for the total load as a
D = Dynamic loads expected due to handling co-efficient function of the angle α
Angle, α° 0 30 60 90 120
K = Angle at the peak of the slings co-efficient
K 1.00 1.04 1.16 1.42 2.00
Pn = Number of lifting points accepting the load case
When working with a lifting rig of four slings, the angle to be
The formulae are only valid when the loads are uniformly considered is that formed by the slings on the diagonal.
distributed to all lifting points, Pn.
Example
Edge Lift Anchor Load Formulae

For determination of edge lift forces on anchors during lift from


horizontal: = 60° then K = 1.16

Greater of:

Li EDGE = (W + H) * K Li EDGE = W * D * K
or
2 * Pn 2 * Pn Example

The formulae are only valid when the anchors are located in
the edge of the panel and the panel is supported on the
opposite edge, about which rotation occurs.
= 0° then K = 1.00
Face Lift Anchor Load Design

Given the wide variations in lifting anchor configuration and


component geometry for face lifted panels, it is recommended
that design software or standard charts be utilised for
calculating lifting anchor forces.

192
Lifting Technology 32
32.6.2 DEMOULDING SUCTION FORCE 32.6.3 DYNAMIC LOADS DUE TO
HANDLING OF PRODUCT
Depends on two factors:
Dynamic load factors should be considered separately to
2
~ Surface area of the element in m contained within the suction forces, i.e. they are not additive.
mould at commencement of lift.
~ The state of the mould surface. Dynamic load factors
Handling Detail Factor ‘D’
Suction force to take into account
Overhead Gantry Crane 1.2
Multiplier, Tower Crane 1.2
Form Type
H Mobile Crawler Crane 1.7
Mobile Tyre Crane 2.0
1.2 For a smooth oiled steel surface Over very rough ground 2.5 to 3.0
For a timber surface varnished, oiled, Note: AS3850 - 2003 requires a minimum dynamic load factor
1.3
or rough steel of 1.2 to be considered, regardless of handling detail.
For a concrete to concrete separation
1.5
(bondbreaker)
Note: AS3850 - 2003 may impose additional requirements.

193
32 Lifting Technology

32.7 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


32.7.1 ABSOLUTE MINIMA 32.7.3 CRITICAL SPACING
Absolute minimum anchor spacings and edge distances, and In a group of cast-in anchors loaded in tension, the spacing
substrate minimum thickness for Ramset™ cast-in anchors are: at which the cone shaped zones of concrete failure just begin
to overlap at the surface of the concrete, is termed the
Absolute Absolute critical spacing.
Anchor Type minimum edge minimum
distance, em spacing, am Cone of Failure
a a a Anchors
Edge Lift Anchor 1.0 h 2.0 h
Two Hole Anchor Refer to capacity information
section for values.
Face Lift Anchor 300 mm 300 mm
Pinhead Foot Anchor 1.0 h 1.0 h
Pinhead Eye Anchor Refer to capacity information INTERFERENCE BETWEEN CONCRETE CONES
section for values.
Pinhead Combined Anchor Refer to capacity information
section for values. ac = Specified for each anchor, see anchor type

Spread Anchor Refer to capacity information


section for values. where:

ac = critical spacing
Anchors must not be installed where these minima
can not be achieved. At the critical spacing, the capacity of one anchor is on the
point of being reduced by the zone of influence of the other
anchor. Ramset™ anchors placed at or greater than critical
32.7.2 CRITICAL DIMENSIONS spacings are able to develop their full tensile loads, as limited
by concrete cone or concrete bond capacity. Anchors at
Critical anchor spacings and edge distances for Ramset™ spacings less than critical are subject to reduction in allowable
cast-in anchors are given for each anchor type and may be concrete tensile loads.
found in the capacity information sections for each anchor.
Working loads on anchors spaced between the critical and the
absolute minimum, are subject to a reduction factor "Xna", the
value of which depends upon the position of the anchor within
the row:

Nar = Xna * Na

where:

Nar = reduced ultimate tensile load concrete

ac a

Anchors
Cone of Failure
ANCHORS IN A ROW

194
Lifting Technology 32
For anchors influenced by the cones of two other anchors, as a 32.7.4 CRITICAL EDGE DISTANCE
result for example, of location internal to a row:
At the critical edge distance for anchors loaded in tension,
Xnai = a / ac ≤ 1 reduction in tensile loads just commences, due to interference
of the edge with the zone of influence of the anchor.
where:
The critical edge distance for cast-in anchor is taken as:
Xnai = spacing reduction factor for an anchor internal to row
ec = Specified for each anchor, see anchor type
a = actual spacing (mm)
where:
Unequal distances ("a1" and "a2", both < ac) from two
adjacent anchors, are averaged for an anchor internal to a row: ec = critical edge distance

Xnai = 0.5 (a1 + a2) / ac ec


Anchor
If the anchors are at the ends of a row, each influenced by the
cone of only one other anchor:
2*ec
Cone of Failure
Xnae = 0.5 (1 + a / ac) ≤ 1

where:

Xnae = spacing reduction factor for an anchor at end of row

INTERFERENCE OF EDGE WITH CONCRETE CONES

If the edge lies between the critical and the absolute minimum
distance from the anchor, the concrete tensile load reduction
coefficient "Xe", is obtained from the following formula:

Xe = 0.3 + 0.7 * e / ec ≤ 1

where:

Xe = edge reduction factor tension

Critical edge distances define critical zones for the placement of


anchors with respect to an edge. The critical edge zone has a
width equal to the critical edge distance. The concrete tensile
strengths of anchors falling within the critical zone are
reduced. For clarity, the figure includes the prohibited zone as
well as the critical zone.

em Concrete edge
ec
Free zone Critical zone

Prohibited zone

CRITICAL EDGE ZONE

195
33
SYSTEMS FOR

YARD CAST
WALL PANELS
OVERVIEW
The modern precast wall panel is produced in a controlled
environment, allowing for rapid production rates and hence
accelerated delivery. The lifting systems used in these panels
must not only work effectively at low concrete strengths but
be designed to allow for speedy installation.

The Ramset™ Systems For Yard Cast Wall Panels are optimally
designed for the lifting and handling requirements of this
industry with efficiency and safety being the primary focus for
product design.

The significant investment made by precasters in the


production of yard cast wall panels should be recognised
when systems are being selected.

The Ramset™ Systems For Yard Cast Wall Panels are a logical
partner in the production process and reflect our commitment
to your investment.

196
Cast-In Lifting 33
Yard Cast

33.1 APPLICATIONS
33.1.1 EDGE LIFT APPLICATIONS
Scenario:
Tilting panel from casting table to vertical.

Attributes:
~ Low concrete strength.
~ Suction.
~ Shear loaded lifting anchors.
~ Load towards edge of concrete.
~ Rotation of panel out of plane.

Solution:
Ramset™ Edge Lift System

Scenario:
Casting table to rack/rack to truck.

Attributes:
~ Braking forces of crane – dynamic loads.
~ Tensile loaded lifting anchors.
~ Translation of panel.

Solution:
Ramset™ Edge Lift System

Scenario:
Removal from truck/placement onto site.

Attributes:
~ Tensile loaded lifting anchors (in plane of panel).
~ In plane rotation of panel.
~ Load transfer between sets of lifting anchors.

Solution:
Ramset™ Edge Lift System

Shear bar reinforcement must be placed above the lifting anchor,


preventing pull out of the lifting anchor towards the free edge.

If there is a risk that the panel will be placed top side down at some
stage prior to its erection in the structure, an additional shear bar
should be placed on the other side of the lifting anchor.

197
33 Cast-In Lifting
Yard Cast

33.2 INSTALLATION

Lifting Clutch Support Plate Void Former Edge Lift Anchor


Shear Bar

Sideform

33.3 ANCHOR TYPES


33.3.1 EDGE LIFT ANCHORS 33.3.2 TWO HOLE ANCHORS
Complete unit which requires shear bar to be fitted. Compact alternative to Edge Lift anchors that require both
tensile and shear reinforcement bars to develop capacity.

Benefits, Advantages and Features Benefits, Advantages and Features


Convenient: Versatile:
~ Design allows panel central mesh to nest within anchor body. ~ Design allows use in narrow sections.
~ Anchor and clutch interaction prevents spalling of panel edge. ~ Tensile reinforcement can be ‘V’ or ‘U’ shaped to suit
Outstanding exterior durability: concrete element.
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating. ~ Central hole accepts perimeter bar.
Outstanding exterior durability:
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.

198
Cast-In Lifting 33
Yard Cast

33.4 LIFTING ANCHOR REINFORCEMENT DETAIL


33.4.1 SHEAR BAR REINFORCEMENT FOR 33.4.2 TENSILE REINFORCEMENT FOR
EDGE LIFT AND TWO HOLE ANCHORS TWO HOLE ANCHORS

Deformed Bar Deformed Bar

Two Hole Anchor tensile reinforcement


Anchor Tensile Total length of tensile reinforcing bar
load range reinforcing (m) at concrete compressive strength
(t) bar size 15 MPa 20 MPa 32 MPa
2.5 N12 1.1 0.7 0.6
5 N16 1.6 1.1 0.9
10 N20 2.0 1.4 1.1

When the anchor is located close to an edge to which it is


loaded, a shear bar must be fitted in order to resist tear out
of the anchor from the concrete.

Shear bars should be configured as per table below.

Anchor Shear
Minimum a Minimum b
load range reinforcement
(mm) (mm)
(t) bar size
2.5 N12 200 85
5 N16 250 115
10 N20 300 150

Note: Height of shear bar (b) is such that it covers the top of
the anchor and the rebar is developed below the
underside of the anchor. All bends must be to
reinforcement bar suppliers requirements, generally no
tighter than around a 4d pin.

199
33 Cast-In Lifting
Yard Cast

33.5 CAPACITY INFORMATION


33.5.1 EDGE LIFT ANCHOR CAPACITY
Anchor Anchor length, L / Anchor Minimum Shear reinforcing
load range Effective depth, h plate thickness panel thickness bar size
(t) (mm) (mm) (mm) (Refer table 33.4.1)
2.5 275 10 100 N12
5 370 16 150 N16
10 400 20 200* N20
* For use in 175 mm thick panel, additional tensile reinforcement is required as per table 33.4.2.

Anchor Critical Critical Working Load Limit (t),


load range edge distance, ec spacing, ac concrete compressive strength, f’c ≥ 15 MPa
(t) (mm) (mm) Shear Tension
2.5 400 800 1.25 2.5
5 500 1000 2.5 5.0
10 1000 2000 5.0 10.0

33.5.2 TWO HOLE ANCHOR CAPACITY


Anchor Anchor length, L Anchor plate Minimum Shear reinforcing Required
load range (mm) thickness panel thickness bar size tensile
(t) (mm) (mm) (Refer table 33.4.1) reinforcing bar
5 100 16 150 N16 as per 33.4.2
10 180 20 175 N20 as per 33.4.2

Anchor load range Working Load Limit (t), concrete compressive strength f’c ≥ 15 MPa
(t) Shear Tension
5 2.5 5.0
10 5.0 10.0

em, ec am, ac em, ec am, ac

Anchor Absolute minimum Anchor Absolute minimum


Critical dimensions Critical dimensions
load range dimensions load range dimensions
(t) am em ac ec (t) am em ac ec
5 260 130 320 160 5 130 65 150 75
10 320 160 400 200 10 150 75 170 85

200
Cast-In Lifting 33
Yard Cast

33.6 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Anchor load range
Description
2.5 tonne 5 tonne 10 tonne
EL050370 (Tear Drop)
Edge Lift Anchor EL025275 EL100400
EL050340 (Punched Hole)
Two Hole Anchor – RTA050 RTA100
Void Former VFP025RH VFP050RH VFP100RH
Support Plate SPP025 SPP050 SPP100
Lifting Clutch RCP025 RCE050 RCP100
Shear Bar Refer to table 33.4.1 SB150Y16 Refer to table 33.4.1

33.7 SPECIFICATION
EDGE LIFT ANCHORS TWO HOLE ANCHORS

Specify Specify
Ramset™ (Anchor Load Range)
Ramset™ (Anchor Load Range)
Two Hole Anchor
Edge Lift Anchor
(Part Number)
(Part Number)
Reinforced as per Ramset™ recommendations.

Example Example
Ramset™ 10 tonne Two Hole Anchor
Ramset™ 5 tonne Edge Lift Anchor
RTA100
EL050370
Reinforced as per Ramset™ recommendations.

To order accessories, refer to the Concrete Lifting Systems


section of the Ramset™ Product Guide.

201
34
SYSTEMS FOR

SITE CAST
WALL PANELS
OVERVIEW
Site casting of wall panels is a convenient solution for low
rise structures where adequate site space is available for the
production of panels.

Casting panels in an exposed environment however requires


that all equipment used is capable of surviving the often
punishing conditions presented, it is with this in mind that the
Ramset™ Systems For Site Cast Wall Panels have been
designed.

Ramset™ Systems For Site Cast Wall Panels are simple to


place and use and are tolerant of the conditions inherent with
site casting, helping to protect the project timeline and thus
offer benefits far in excess of the initial component cost outlay.

202
Cast-In Lifting 34
Site Cast

34.1 APPLICATIONS
34.1.1 FACE LIFT APPLICATIONS
Scenario:
Tilting panel from casting bed.

Attributes:
~ Suction.
~ Concrete strength.
~ Out of plane rotation of panel.
~ Tensile loaded lifting anchors.
~ Element will hang out of plumb.
~ Centre of gravity dictates off plumb angle.
~ Braking forces of crane – dynamic loads.

Solution:
Ramset™ Face Lift System.

Careful attention should be paid to the orientation of the face lift


anchors in the panel. Arrow markings on the face lift anchors shows
the correct orientation of the anchor with respect to the top and
bottom of the panel.

If it is found that the anchors are placed incorrectly, i.e. the arrow
markings point to left and right rather than to top and bottom,
advice should be sought from your local Ramset™ specialist Sales
Engineer prior to lifting.

34.2 INSTALLATION

Lifting Clutch

Void Former
Arrow markings must point to top and bottom of panel.

Face Lift Anchor with Bar Clip Mesh

2 x N12 x 300 mm cross bars required


for 125 mm to 150 mm thick panels.
Note: Orientation of anchor must be correct.

203
34 Cast-In Lifting
Site Cast

34.3 ANCHOR TYPES


34.3.1 FACE LIFT ANCHOR

Benefits, Advantages and Features


Convenient: Sizes available to suit panel thicknesses of:
~ Bar clip floats with mesh to prevent anchor movement ~ 125 mm
when trafficked.
~ 130 mm
Durable: ~ 150 mm
~ Zinc Plated Steel Insert for economical interior protection. ~ 170 mm
~ Steel Insert is Grade 350 steel in accordance with ~ 175 mm
AS3678 - 1996. ~ 180 mm
~ Engineered plastic base prevents rusting. ~ 200 mm
~ Strong, stable design withstands trafficking.
Efficient:
~ Upright “fingers” ensure rapid location of anchors in cast panel.
~ Void former designed for simple removal, speeding the
erection process.

34.4 CAPACITY INFORMATION


34.4.1 FACE LIFT ANCHOR CAPACITY
Anchor Panel Effective Critical Critical Working Load Limit (t)
load range thickness / anchor depth, edge distance, spacing, at concrete compressive strength
(t) Anchor length, h ec ac
L (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) 15 MPa 20 MPa 25 MPa 40 MPa
125* 78 250 500 3.0 3.4 3.8 4.3
130* 83 250 500 3.1 3.5 3.9 4.4
150* 103 350 700 3.4 3.9 4.4 4.9
5 170 123 400 800 4.3 4.8
175 128 400 800 4.6
180 133 400 800 4.8 5.0
200 153 400 800
* 2 x N12 x 300 mm cross bars required for 125 to 150 mm panels.
Note: Minimum edge distance to top of panel from the top positioned anchors in a face lift situation should be 2 * ec.

204
Cast-In Lifting 34
Site Cast

34.5 DESCRIPTION AND PART NUMBERS


Panel thickness / Anchor length, L (mm)
Description
125 mm 130 mm 150 mm 170 mm 175 mm 180 mm 200 mm
5 Tonne Face Lift Anchor
FL050125B* FL050130B* FL050150B* FL050170B FL050175B FL050180B FL050200B
with Bar Clip
Lifting Clutch FLTC050
* 2 x N12 x 300 mm cross bars required for 125 to 150 mm panels.

34.6 SPECIFICATION
FACE LIFT ANCHORS

Specify
Ramset™ Face Lift Anchor
FL050
(Panel Thickness/Anchor Height, mm)

Example
Ramset™ Face Lift Anchor
FL050150

To order accessories, refer to the Concrete Lifting Systems


section of the Ramset™ Product Guide.

205
35
SYSTEMS FOR

COMPONENT
PRECAST
OVERVIEW
The production of precast components offers a unique
challenge for the precaster.

Components can vary greatly in both size and shape and it is


therefore important that the systems utilised are ‘scalable’ to
handle these variations and yet still offer a consistent
installation method.

The Ramset™ Systems For Component Precast meet this


requirement and additionally represent one of the simplest
solutions for the production of pipes, pits, lids, culvert
sections, stairs, plats, columns and beams.

206
Cast-In Lifting 35
Component Precast

35.1 APPLICATIONS
35.1.1 PINHEAD APPLICATIONS
Scenario:
Lifting of item from casting location/removal to stack location.

Attributes:
~ Even load distribution ensured by sling configuration.
~ Suction.
~ Concrete strength.
~ Tensile loaded lifting anchors (in plane of component).
~ Transitional movement of component (no out of plane forces).

Solution:
Ramset™ Pinhead System.

Scenario:
Fixed sling lifting of item.

Attributes:
~ Non preferred method.
~ Suction.
~ Cannot guarantee load distribution to 4 legs of sling,
i.e. must design for load to 2 legs only.
~ Shear load component acting on lifting anchors towards
unrestrained free edge of component.
~ Requires additional restraining reinforcement.

Solution:
Ramset™ Pinhead System.

Applications continued on next page.

207
35 Cast-In Lifting
Component Precast
Scenario:
Inverting a component.

Attributes:
~ Complex load cases.
~ Internal formwork.
~ Suction.
~ In plane rotation.
~ Multiple handling required.

Solution:
Ramset™ Spread Anchor System.

Where possible, lifting anchors and rigging should be


configured to ensure that shear loads toward edges are
minimised or eliminated as they will require additional
restraining reinforcement detail and will have less capacity
than for lifting anchors loaded in tension.

This can be achieved through the use of spreader bars and


careful consideration of load case/rigging orientation.

208
Cast-In Lifting 35
Component Precast

35.2 INSTALLATION
35.2.1 PINHEAD FOOT ANCHOR SYSTEM 35.2.2 PINHEAD EYE ANCHOR SYSTEM

Pinhead Pinhead
Lifting Clutch Lifting Clutch

Pinhead Pinhead Void Former


Void Former

Pinhead Pinhead Eye Anchor


Foot Anchor

Tension Bar

35.2.3 SPREAD ANCHOR SYSTEM

Lifting Clutch

Support Plate

Void Former

Spread Anchor

Tension Bar

209
35 Cast-In Lifting
Component Precast

35.3 ANCHOR TYPES


35.3.1 PINHEAD FOOT ANCHORS 35.3.3 PINHEAD COMBINED ANCHORS

Benefits, Advantages and Features Benefits, Advantages and Features


Economical: Reliable:
~ Simple design provides cost effective lifting of large sections. ~ Added reliability of foot in combination with component
Identifiable: reinforcement.
~ Easy verification of anchor, as load range and length is Identifiable:
visible when cast. ~ Easy verification of anchor, as load range and length is
Outstanding exterior durability: visible when cast.
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating. Outstanding exterior durability:
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.

35.3.2 PINHEAD EYE ANCHORS 35.3.4 SPREAD ANCHORS

Benefits, Advantages and Features Benefits, Advantages and Features


Versatile: Versatile:
~ Design allows use in thin or congested sections. ~ Design provides section rotation capability.
Identifiable: ~ Design allows use in thin or congested sections.
~ Easy verification of anchor, as load range and length is Outstanding exterior durability:
visible when cast. ~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.
Outstanding exterior durability:
~ 42 micron Hot Dip Galvanised coating.

210
Cast-In Lifting 35
Component Precast

35.4 LIFTING ANCHOR REINFORCEMENT DETAIL


35.4.1 TENSILE REINFORCEMENT FOR 35.4.2 TENSILE REINFORCEMENT FOR
PINHEAD EYE ANCHORS AND SPREAD ANCHORS
COMBINED ANCHORS

Deformed Bar
Deformed Bar (‘V‘ shaped bar of equivalent length
(‘V‘ shaped bar of equivalent length is acceptable.)
is acceptable.)
The spread anchor may only be used with its component
The eye anchor may only be used with its component reinforcement according to the table below.
reinforcement according to the table below.
Comply with the radius of curvature given by the
Comply with the radius of curvature given by the reinforcement manufacturer.
reinforcement manufacturer.
Spread Anchor tensile reinforcement
Pinhead Eye Anchor and Combined Anchor Anchor Tensile Total length of tensile reinforcing bar
tensile reinforcement load range reinforcing (m) at concrete compressive strength
(t) bar size 15 MPa 20 MPa 32 MPa
Anchor Tensile Total length of tensile reinforcing bar
load range reinforcing (m) at concrete compressive strength 2.5 R10* 1.1 0.7 0.6
(t) bar size 15 MPa 20 MPa 32 MPa 5 N16 1.6 1.1 0.9
1.3 R8* 0.7 0.6 0.5 * Hook ends required for round bar
2.5 R10* 1.1 0.7 0.6 reinforcement.

5 N16 1.6 1.1 0.9


10 N20 2.0 1.4 1.1
20 N32 3.0 2.0 1.7
30°
* Hook ends required for round bar
reinforcement.
Note: Combined Anchors available in
1.3, 2.5 and 5 tonne load range
only.

30°

211
35 Cast-In Lifting
Component Precast

35.5 CAPACITY INFORMATION


35.5.1 PINHEAD FOOT ANCHOR WORKING LOAD LIMIT
TENSILE CAPACITY
˘≥ 3h
~ Single anchor uninfluenced by edge distance or anchor h
spacing effects, minimum anchor spacing = 6 * h,
minimum anchor edge distance = 3 * h

~ Capacity information complies with the requirements


of AS3850 - 2003.

Anchor Anchor Critical edge Critical Concrete compressive strength


load range length, L distance, ec spacing, ac
(t) (mm) (mm) (mm) 15 MPa 20 MPa 25 MPa 32 MPa

35 105 210 0.36 0.43 0.49 0.56