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Chapter-1

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The discovery of high speed vehicles by mankind has put in immense pressure on the
engineering fraternity to put in if not larger efforts at least equal efforts into building better
roads on any given soil. Well-built and maintained roads play a major role in the
development of the nation. Hence considerable attention is required towards the construction
of new roads, modernization of existing roadways, their stability and periodic maintenance
works. Since the beginning of modern highways, engineers have strived continuously to
produce better pavement at lower cost. Modern developing society needs good trafficable
roads and railways; and that to almost maintenance free and with longer service life. This
need of strong and sound transportation way without any flaw has given importance to the
ground improvement technique for pavement construction. In India, most state highways in
the central part have problems of foundation due to presence of expansive soil i.e. black
cotton soil. Black cotton soil when associated with engineering structures with moisture
variation experiences either settlement or heave depending on the stress level and the soil
swelling pressure. Design and construction of civil engineering structures on and with
expansive soils is a challenging task for geotechnical engineers.
Conventionally, the expansive sub-grades are improved by soil stabilization techniques,
checking the entry of moisture content into expansive sub-grade, using cushion materials to
absorb the swelling of the expansive soil etc. These techniques have been found to be
effective in improving their engineering properties, strength characteristics and CBR value
but prove short duration improvement, cumbersome in execution, maintenance and/or costly.
Investigations for the present study have been divided in two sections essentially. The first
section involved the use of geotextile at the interface of expansive soil and cushion material
in locked and unlocked conditions, whereas the second section involved the stabilization of
expansive soil with metakaolin.
Geosynthesis are synthetic products used to stabilize terrain. They are generally polymeric
products used to solve civil engineering problems. This includes eight main product
categories:
 Geotextiles
 Geogrids
 Geonets
 Geomembranes

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 Geosynthetic clay liners
 Geofoam
 Geocells
 Geocomposites
The polymeric nature of the product makes them suitable for use in the ground where high
levels of durability are required. Tbhey can also used in exposed applications. Geosynthesis
are available in a wide range of forms and materials. These products have a wide range of
applications and are currently used in many civil, geotechnical, transportation,
geoenvironmental, hydraulic and private development applications including roads, airfields,
railroad, embankements, retaining structures, reservoirs, canals, dams, erosion control,
sediment control, landfill liners, landfill covers, mining, aquaculture and agriculture.

GEOTEXTILES:
Geotextiles form one of the two largest groups of geosynthetics. They are textiles consisting
of synthetic fibers rather than natural ones such as cotton, wool, or silk. This makes them less
susceptible to bio-degradation. These synthetic fibers are made into flexible, porous fabrics
by standard weaving machinery or are matted together in a random non woven manner. Some
are also knitted. Geotextiles are porous to liquid flow across their manufactured plane and
also within their thickness, but to a widely varying degree. There are at least 100 specific
application areas for geotextiles that have been developed; however, the fabric always
performs at least one of four discrete functions: separation, reinforcement, filtration, and/or
drainage.

Fig. 1.1 Geotextile

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GEOGRIDS:
Geogrids are used to prevent sliding on long and steep slopes during installation and use of a
landfill capping system. Geogrids represent a rapidly growing segment within geosynthetics.
Rather than being a woven, nonwoven or knitted textile fabric, geogrids are polymers formed
into a very open, gridlike configuration, i.e., they have large apertures between individual ribs
in the transverse and longitudinal directions. Geogrids are (a) either stretched in one, two or
three directions for improved physical properties, (b) made on weaving or knitting machinery
by standard textile manufacturing methods, or (c) by laser or ultrasonically bonding rods or
straps together. There are many specific application areas; however, geogrids function almost
exclusively as reinforcement materials.

Fig. 1.2 geogrid

GEONETS/GEOSPACERS:
Geonets, and the related geospacers by some, constitute another specialized segment within
the geosynthetics area. They are formed by a continuous extrusion of parallel sets of
polymeric ribs at acute angles to one another. When the ribs are opened, relatively large
apertures are formed into a netlike configuration. Two types are most common, either
biplanar or triplanar. Alternatively many very different types of drainage cores are available.
They consist of nubbed, dimpled or cuspated polymer sheets, three-dimensional networks of
stiff polymer fibers in different configurations and small drainage pipes or spacers within
geotextiles. Their design function is completely within the drainage area where they are used
to convey liquids or gases of all types.

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Fig. 1.3 Geonets
GEOMEMBRANES:
Geomembranes represent the other largest group of geosynthetics, and in dollar volume their
sales are greater than that of geotextiles. Their growth in the United States and Germany was
stimulated by governmental regulations originally enacted in the early 1980s for the lining
and sealing of solid-waste landfills. The materials themselves are relatively thin, impervious
sheets of polymeric material used primarily for linings and covers of liquids- or solid-storage
facilities. This includes all types of landfills, surface impoundments, canals, and other
containment facilities. Thus the primary function is always containment as a liquid or vapor
barrier or both. The range of applications, however, is great, and in addition to the
environmental area, applications are rapidly growing in geotechnical, transportation,
hydraulic, and private development engineering (such as aquaculture, agriculture, heap leach
mining, etc.).

Fig. 1.4 Geomembranes

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GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS:
Geosynthetic clay liners, or GCLs, are an interesting juxtaposition of polymeric materials
and natural soils. They are rolls of factory fabricated thin layers of bentonite clay sandwiched
between two geotextiles or bonded to a geomembrane and impermeable to water. Structural
integrity of the subsequent composite is obtained by needle-punching, stitching or adhesive
bonding. GCLs are used as a composite component beneath a geomembrane or by themselves
in geoenvironmental and containment applications as well as in transportation, geotechnical,
hydraulic, and many private development applications.

Fig.1.5 Geosynthetic Clay liners


GEOFOAM:
Geofoam is a product created by a polymeric expansion process of polystyrene resulting in a
“foam” consisting of many closed, but gas-filled, cells. The skeletal nature of the cell walls is
the unexpanded polymeric material. The resulting product is generally in the form of large,
but extremely light, blocks which are stacked side-by-side providing lightweight fill in
numerous applications.

Fig. 1.6 Geofoam

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GEOCELLS:
Geocells (also known as Cellular Confinement Systems) are three-dimensional honeycombed
cellular structures that form a confinement system when infilled with compacted soil.
Extruded from polymeric materials into strips welded together ultrasonically in series, the
strips are expanded to form the stiff (and typically textured and perforated) walls of a flexible
3D cellular mattress. Infilled with soil, a new composite entity is created from the cell-soil
interactions. The cellular confinement reduces the lateral movement of soil particles, thereby
maintaining compaction and forms a stiffened mattress that distributes loads over a wider
area. Traditionally used in slope protection and earth retention applications, geocells made
from advanced polymers are being increasingly adopted for long-term road and rail load
support. Much larger geocells are also made from stiff geotextiles sewn into similar, but
larger, unit cells that are used for protection bunkers and walls.

Fig. 1.7 Geocells

GEOCOMPOSITES:
A geocomposite consists of a combination of geotextiles, geogrids, geonets and/or
geomembranes in a factory fabricated unit. Also, any one of these four materials can be
combined with another synthetic material or even with soil. As examples, a geonet or
geospacer with geotextiles on both surfaces and a GCL consisting of a
geotextile/bentonite/geotextile sandwich are both geocomposites. This specific category
brings out the best creative efforts of the engineer and manufacturer. The application areas
are numerous and constantly growing. The major functions encompass the entire range of

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functions listed for geosynthetics discussed previously: separation, reinforcement, filtration,
drainage, and containment.

Fig. 1.8 Geocomposites

1.2 SCOPE OF PROJECT:


Geotextiles are used in a wide range of applications, which continues to grow as new forms
of geotextiles are developed. The main applications are erosion control, soil filtration, road
sub-base separators, reinforcing soils in embankments and retaining walls, and protection of
geomembranes. However, the four basic functions are:
 Separation
 Filtration
 Drainage
 Reinforcement
 Protection

1.3 NEED AND IMPORTANCE


Need and Importance of geotextile is more. These days are durability and strength of the
pavements are very low and weak respectively when we are using black cotton soil, to
increase the strength of black cotton soil we need to use the geotextile and it is important.

1.4 SUPPORTING PROJECT & COMPANY


The project ‘USE OF GEOTEXTILE IN SUBSOIL MODIFICATION’ is major project as
we are lack with geotextile TECHFAB INDIA helped us by providing non woven geotextile.

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter is mainly to know and to get a clean awareness about the project which we are
working on it. We had gone through many case studies and journals. We had selected some
of the journals which are suitable to our project and we analysed more things and we learned
which will be helpful to our project.

2.2 IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD


Project: Improvement to Road from SH to Kandalgaon Road ODR-90Km 0/000 to 4/300,
Tal-Karveer, Dist-Kolhapur

Client: Executive Engineer (PMGSY), Maharashtra Rural Road Development Association


(MRRDA), Kolhapur.

Sanctioned & Approved: Director Technical NRRDA, Government of India, NewDelhi

Contractor: Triveni Constructions, Kolhapur


Product: TFI – 5300 Type-I & TechBox Metal Gabion (Zinc + PVC Coated)

Manufacturer:TechFab (India) Industries Ltd

Design Concept:TechFab (India) Industries Ltd.

Carriageway: 3.75m

Problem:
Road from SH to Kandalgaon Road ODR- 90Km 0/000 to 4/300, Tal-Karveer passes through
rich black cotton soil having a very low CBR value and erosion occurred due to cross-drain &
pond. The road was subjected to heavy vehicular traffic intensity because of State Highway
and was also surrounded by irrigation land.

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Benefits:
• Improved lateral confinement of aggregates
• Distributes load over a larger area
• Increase in bearing capacity & shear strength of sub grade
• Reduction in sub base thickness
• Increase in life of pavement.

2.3 WOVEN GEOTEXTILE TFI 5300 FOR SUBGRADE STABILISATION


Project : Improvement to Jejuri-Morgon Road MDR-65 Km 6/100 to 6/500 & 8/065 to
8/475, Taluka-Purandhar, District-Pune, Maharashtra

Owner : Public Works Department Pune/ Integrated Public Works Division, Pune.

Contractor : M/s H.J.Tekawade, Taluka-Purandhar, District-Pune.

Product : Woven Geotextile TFI-5300 (Meets requirement of Type –I of IRC SP 59-2002 &
Class 1 of AASHTO M288)

Manufacturer: TechFab (India) Industries Ltd.

Site Condition: Black Cotton Soil, Heavy water logging, Heavy Traffic Intensity

PROBLEM:
The given stretch of road was passing through rich black cotton soil area having a very low
CBR value of 0.67. Also the pavement was surrounded by sugarcane fields on both sides,
which was causing heavy water logging in the area. The same stretch was also an approach to
Someshwar Sahakari Sugar Factory Ltd and Indian Seamless (ISMT), which led to a heavy
traffic intensity of a maximum vehicular load of 80 MT.
Woven Geotextile TFI 5300 deployed at the interface between granular sub-base/ base course
and the sub-grade can improve the pavement performance by a combination of the following:
• Separation
• Reinforcement

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• Filtration
• Drainage

Benefits
 Prevents contamination of granular sub base/ base and prevents loss of aggregate to the
sub-grade during placing and compaction.
 Sub-grade stabilization.
 Increases the structural strength of the pavement by means of the tensile strength and
shear interaction of the geotextile.
 Minimizes rutting and disturbance of the sub-grade during compaction.

2.4 ROAD DEVELOPMENT

Client : Public Works Department, Pune Project implemented in association with Reliance
Industries Ltd

Consultant : Dr. B. V. S. Viswanadham, IIT Powai, Mumbai

Site Location : Main District Road 82 (Dapodi Kadethan) near Kedgaon off Pune - Solapur
Highway.

Completion Date : April 2004

Product used :
Polypropylene Tape x Tape Woven Geotextile (Techfab TPP 265) in 5 mtr width
manufactured by TechFab India.

SITE DESCRIPTION :
Black Cotton Soil; CBR less than 2; High Water table. Traffic Intensity Medium.
Commercial vehicles mainly carrying sand and Sugarcane ply on this route. Usually the road
constructed in this section would not last for more than 6 months, developing severe rut
depths and pot holes and would become almost unmotorable.

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THE SOLUTION:
The Geotextile (Techfab TPP 265) was placed between the sub base of Black Cotton soil,
thus preventing the intermixing with the aggregate layer above. The Geotextile (Techfab TPP
250)would act as a reinforcing layer also and restrain the formation of rut depths.

2.5 CONSTRUCTION OF ROAD EMBANKMENT


Owner: National Highways Authority of India
Contractor: Bharat Geosystems, Chennai
Site Location: Calicut Bye pass phase III, NH – 17, Kerala
Completion date: October 2003`

The Problem
The thickness of the soft clays at the site varied from 3 m to 8 m. Hence issues of
embankment stability and post-construction settlements need to be carefully considered.
Also, the upper most clay layer was extremely soft with very high water content. Therefore, it
was not possible to carryout normal construction operations on this stratum. However,
removal of this layer was not a viable option because of uncertainty in thickness of layer, cost
and time involved in excavation and removal and environmental objections to disposal of the
excavated material. Hence innovative techniques were considered to find a satisfactory and
cost-effective solution to these problems.
The Solution
Pre-fabricated Vertical Drains were installed to accelerate the consolidation of the soft clays.
As the clay consolidated, there was a corresponding increase in the shear strength, thereby
ensuring adequate stability of the embankment. It also ensured that most of the settlements
occurred prior to construction of the pavement.

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CHAPTER 3
PROPERTIES OF GEOTEXTILE

3.1 Introduction: In our project, we are mainly concern about the mechanical and physical
properties of geotextile. We have used an non woven geotextile with the properties
 Mass per unit area - 150 g/ m2
 Thickness - 1.6 mm
 Grab tensile strength - 540 N
 Elongation@break - 60%
 Trapezoidal tear - 230 N
 Puncture strength - 315 N
 Permittivity - 2.4 S
 Apparent opening size - 180 µm
 Mullen burst -1655 Kpa
 UV resistance - 70% %@500hrs
 Roll length - 50mts
 Roll width - 2.5 mts
 Roll weight - 5.0 kg

3.2.1 SEPARATION:
When used as a separator, geotextile must prevent the intermixing of particles from two
layers with different properties. This prevents contamination which can impair the intended
behavior of granular soil layers.
Following figure gives more of a clear concept about the separation function.

Fig 3.1 Separation

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3.2.2 FILTRATION:
Where its role is that of filtering the geotextile must promote the development of natural
filter in adjacent layer, holding back the other soil particles, while at the same time allowing
water to pass through. A geosynthetic may function as a filter that allows adequate fluid to
flow with limited migration of soil particles across its plane over a projected service lifetime
of the application under consideration. The following figure represents the same.

Fig. 3.2 Filtration.


3.2.3 REINFORCEMENT:
The purpose of geotextiles in the reinforcement function is to reinforce the weak sub-grade or
subsoil. It helps to strengthen the soil surface and to increase the soils ability to stay put
especially on the slopes.
Due to this the slopes are stabilised either permanently or temporarily and creep stops or at
least diminishes. Further, it helps in preventing water from permeating a slope and
controlling the amount of infiltration that occurs during various rain events.
Reinforcing aspect of geotextiles can be used for roads, temporary roads, pavements, air
strips, stabilized road slopes, retaining walls, containment systems, controlling reflective
cracking, fibre or fabric reinforced concrete etc. Asphalt impregnated geotextile is used as a
paving fabric relieving stress and acting as moisture barrier.

Fig. 3.3 Reinforcement

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3.2.4 DRAINAGE:
The use of geotextile in drainage has made significant strides in changing the conventional
Procedure of using graded filters. Outstanding advantages of geotextiles in drainage are:
 It eliminates the filter sand with the dual media backfill.
 In some cases, it eliminates the need for perforated pipes.
 In situations where on only sand backfill is available, it is possible to wrap the
drainage pipe with fabric to act as a screening agent. The fabric, thereby, prevents the sand
from entering perforation in the pipe.

3.2.5 PROTECTION:
Lining is used for cushioning and protection of membrane used for applications such as land
fill and waste containment from puncture or training by sharp stone or stress. Geotextiles can
also be impregnated with polymeric or mineral sealing materials such as bentonite clay to
provide flexible barriers to mixtures. Usually spun bond or needle – punched non wovens are
preferred for such applications.
Table 3.1 Properties of Geotextile

SL.
CLASSIFICATION PROPERTIES
NO.

1. Specific gravity
2. Weight
1 Physical properties 3. Thickness
4. Stiffness
5. Density

1. Tenacity
2. Tensile strength
3. Bursting strength
2 Mechanical properties
4. Drapability
5. Compatibility
6. Flexibility

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7. Tearing strength
8. Frictional resistance

1. Porosity
2. Permeability
3. Permitivity
3 Hydraulic properties
4. Transitivity
5. Turbidity /soil retention
6. Filtration length etc.

1. Biodegradation
2. Hydrolytic degradation
3. Photo degradation
4 Degradation properties 4. Chemical degradation
5. Mechanical degradation
6. Other degradation occurring due to attack of
rodent, termite etc.

1. Elongation
5 Endurance properties 2. Abrasion resistance
3. Clogging length and flow etc.

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CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY
4.1 INTRODUCTION
We have done investigation to compare the properties of the soil before using the geotextile
and after using the geotextile.
Firstly we need to do some experiments to know the index properties of the soil and also
strength characteristics of the soil.
To find identify the soil we had four classification system
 I S classification system
 Highway research board
 Sieve classification system
 Unifed classification system
From the above, we choosed I S classification system.
To know the index properties of soil
 Grain size distribution curve
 Atterberg’s limits
To know the strength characteristics of soil
 Standard proctor test
 CBR value
To know the swelling properties of soil
 Swell Index
4.2 GRAIN SIZE ANALYSIS OF SOIL
The grain size analysis is widely used in classification of soils. The data obtained from grain
size distribution curves is used in the design of filters for earth dams and to determine
suitability of soil for road construction, air field etc. Information obtained from grain size
analysis can be used to predict soil water movement although permeability tests are more
generally used. The grain size analysis is an attempt to determine the relative proportions of
different grain sizes which make up a given soil mass.

A set of Sieves including lid and pan(4.75mm to 75 microns), Tray, Weighing


Balance(Sensitivity – 0.1%), Oven, Sieve Shaker. Sieve Cleaning Brush.

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PROCEDURE:
1. Take about 500g of soil sample.
2. Carefully check all the sieves and remove any particles sticking to the sieve mesh.\
3. Sieves are arranged in the descending order of their sizes with a pan at bottom.
4. The sieving operation shall be conducted by lateral and vertical motion of the sieve so
as to keep the sample moving continuously over the sieve surface.
5. The soil particles shall not be turned or manipulated through the sieves by hand.
6. Sieving shall be continued until not more than 1 percent by mass of the residue passes
any sieve during 60 seconds.
7. Remove the sieves from the sieve shaker and carefully weigh the soil retained on each
sieve
8. Remove the particles sticking to the sieve mesh and should be included to the weight
retained.
9. Tabulate the data and calculate the percentage passing as shown in the following table.

GRAPH:
Gradation curve is obtained by plotting percentage passing on y-axis and log of sieve size on
x-axis using a semi-log paper. Gradation curves are the best representation of soil nature i.e.
it is well graded uniformly graded or poorly graded soil. Uniformity coefficient (C U) and Co-
efficient of gradation (Cg) can also give us an idea of soil nature.

CONCLUSION:
From these experiments we can know the type of soil. It may be well graded soil, poorly
graded soil or uniformly graded soil based on coefficient of uniformity and coefficient of
curvature values.

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Graph 4.1 Grain size Distribution
4.3 ATTERBERG’S LIMIT

The liquid limit is the moisture content at which the groove, formed by a standard tool into
the sample of soil taken in the standard cup, closes for 10 mm on being given 25 blows in a
standard manner. At this limit the soil possess low shear strength.
Liquid limit device (Casagrende’s), Measuring Balance, Grooving tool (Casagrende’s tool
and ASTM tool), Mixing dishes, Spatula, Electrical Oven, 425micron (µ) I.S sieve, Air tight
containers.
About 120 gm of air-dried soil from thoroughly mixed portion of material passing
425 micron I.S sieve is to be obtained.
• Distilled water is mixed to the soil thus obtained in a mixing disc to form uniform paste.
The paste shall have a consistency that would require 30 to 35 drops of cup to cause closer
of standard groove for sufficient length.
• A portion of the paste is placed in the cup of LIQUID LIMIT device and spread into
portion with few strokes of spatula.

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• Trim it to a depth of 1cm at the point of maximum thickness and return excess of
soil to the dish.
• The soil in the cup shall be divided by the firm strokes of the grooving tool along the
diameter through the centre line of the follower so that clean sharp groove of proper
dimension is formed.
• Lift and drop the cup by turning crank at the rate of two revolutions per second until
the two halves of soil cake come in contact with each other for a length of about 1 cm by flow
only.
• The number of blows required to cause the groove close for about 1 cm shall be
recorded.
• A representative portion of soil is taken from the cup for water content
determination.
• Repeat the test with different moisture contents at least three more times for blows
between 10 and 40.

GRAPH:
Draw a graph showing the relationship between water content (on y-axis) and number of
blows (on x-axis) on semi-log graph. The curve obtained is called flow curve.
The moisture content corresponding to 25 drops (blows) as read from the represents liquid
limit. It is usually expressed to the nearest whole number.

Fig. 4.1 liquid limit

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DETERMINATION OF ATTERBERG LIMIS
(B) PLASTIC LIMIT
• Take about 20gm of thoroughly mixed portion of the material passing through 425
micron I.S. Sieve obtained in accordance with I.S. 2720 (part 1).
• Mix it thoroughly with distilled water in the evaporating dish till the soil mass
becomes plastic enough to be easily molded with fingers.
• Allow it to season for sufficient time (for 24hrs) to allow water to permeate
throughout the soil mass
• Take about 10gms of this plastic soil mass and roll it between fingers and glass plate
with just sufficient pressure to roll the mass into a threaded of uniform diameter throughout its
length. The rate of rolling shall be between 60 and 90 strokes per minute.
• Continue rolling till you get a threaded of 3 mm diameter.
• Kneed the soil together to a uniform mass and re-roll.
• Continue the process until the thread crumbles when the diameter is 3 mm.
• Collect the pieces of the crumbled thread in air tight container for moisture content
determination.
• Repeat the test to at least 3 times and take the average of the results calculated to the
nearest whole number.

[a] Plastic limit test. [b] Cylinder rolling process


Fig. 4.2 plastic limit

OBSERVATION AND REPORTING:


Compare the diameter of thread at intervals with the rod. When the diameter reduces to 3
mm, note the surface of the thread for cracks.

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4.4 COMPACTION TEST
Compaction is the process of densification of soil mass, by reducing air voids under dynamic
loading. On the other hand though consolidation is also a process of densification of soil mass
but it is due to the expulsion of water under the action of continuously acting static load over
a long period.
The degree of compaction of a soil is measured in terms of its dry density. The degree of
compaction mainly depends upon its moisture content during compaction, compaction energy
and the type of soil. For a given compaction energy, every soil attains the maximum dry
density at a particular water content which is known as optimum moisture content (OMC)Air
dried soil passing through the I.S sieve 4.75mm size is taken.

Fig. 4.3 Compaction test

1. It is then thoroughly mixed with small quantity of water in a pan.


2. Weigh the empty mould [W1] and find its volume [V].

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3. Fill the mould in 3 layers, compacting each layer by 25 blows with a hammer.[ make a
rough surface on the soil before II and III compaction]
4. The total compaction depth of soil= 13cm.
5. Then the soil is trimmed to the top of the mould.
6. Weigh the mould with the soil [W2].
7. Take a sample of the soil and determine its water content[w] using oven drying method.
8. Repeat the procedure for 5 ranges of water content or even more if necessary.

COMPUTATION OF RESULTS:
The result is to be analyzed from a graph of ‘w’ vs. ‘ϒd’. Therefore plot ‘w’ vs. ‘ϒd’ and
draw a smooth curve. From the graph, note down the maximum value of d and the
corresponding value of water content, ‘w’
Then the maximum dry density ϒd= ………………. gms/cm3
Optimum moisture content = …………………%

4.5 CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO (CBR) TEST


This method was originally devised by O.J.Porter, the of the California State Highway
Department, but it has since been developed and modified by other authorities in U.S.A.,
notably the U.S. Corps of Engineers. The method combines a load penetration test performed
in the laboratory or in-situ with the empirical design charts to determine the thickness of
pavement and of its constituent layers.
This is probably the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement. The
thickness of the different elements comprising a pavement is determined by CBR values.
The CBR test is a small scale penetration test in which a cylindrical plunger of 3in2 c/s area
is penetrated into a soil mass at the rate of 0.05 in. per minute (1.25mm/min).
The CBR is defined as the ratio of the test load to the standard load, expressed as percentage,
for a given penetration of the plunger, CBR = (Test load/Standard load)*100
The test may be performed on undisturbed specimens and on remoulded specimens which
may be compacted either statically or dynamically.
The following table gives standard loads adopted for different penetrations for the standard
material with a CBR value of 100%

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Table 4.1 Penetration standard values
Penetration of plunger [mm] Standard load [kg]
2.5 1370
5.0 2055
7.5 2630
10.0 3180
12.5 3600

Fig. 4.4 CBR Apparatus


PROCEDURE FOR TEST SPECIMEN:
UNDISTURBED SPECIMEN:
1. Attach the cutting edge to the mould and push it gently into the ground.
2. Remove the soil from the outside of the mould which is pushed in.
3. When mould is full of soil, remove it from the pit.
4. Trim the top and bottom surfaces.
5. The density of the soil should be determined by weighing the soil with the mould or by
any field method near the spot.
6. Determine the density.

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REMOULDED SPECIMEN:

1. Prepare the remoulded specimen at proctor’s maximum dry density or any other density
at which CBR is required.
2. Maintain the specimen at optimum moisture content or the field moisture as required.
3. The material used should pass 20mm I.S sieve but it should be retained on 4.75mm
sieve.
4. Prepare the specimen either by dynamic compaction or by static compaction.

DYNAMIC COMPACTION:
1. Take about 4.5 to 5.5 kg of soil and mix thoroughly with the required water.
2. Fix the extension collar and the base plate to the mould. Insert the spacer disc over the
base. Place the filter paper on the top of the spacer disc.
3. Compact the mixed soil in the mould using either light compaction or heavy
compaction.
4. Remove the collar and trim off excess soil. Turn the mould upside down and remove
the base plate and the displacer disc.
5. Weight the mould with compacted soil and determine the bulk density and dry density.
6. Put filter paper on the top of the compacted soil[collar side] and clamp the perforated
base plate on to it

STATIC COMPACTION:
Calculate the weight of the wet soil at the required water content to give the desired density
when occupying the standard specimen volume in the mould from the expression

ϒd = (1+W)/ V

Where W = weight of the wet soil


ϒd = desired dry density
W = desired water content
V = volume of the specimen in the mould

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Take the weight W of the mix soil and place it in the mould. Place filter paper and the
displacer disc on the top of the soil.
Keep the mould assembly in static loading frame and compact by pressing the displacer disc
till the level of the disc reaches the top of the mould.
Keep the load for some time and then release the load. Remove the displacer disc. The test
may be conducted for both soaked as well as un soaked conditions.
If the sample is to be soaked, in cases of compaction, put a filter paper on the top of the soil
and place the adjustable stem and perforated plate on the top of the filter paper.

Put annular weights to produce a surcharge equal to weight of base material and pavement
expected in actual construction. Each 2.5 kg weight is equivalent to 7cm construction. A
minimum of two weights should be put.
Immerse the mould assembly and weights in a tank of water and soak it for 96 hours. Remove
the mould from the tank.

Note the consolidation of the specimen.

PROCEDURE FOR PENETRATION TEST:

1. Place the mould assembly with the surcharge weights on the penetration test machine.
2. Seat the penetration piston at the centre of the specimen with the smallest possible load,
but in no case in excess of 4 kg so that full contact of the piston on the sample is established.
3. Set the stress and strain dial gauge to read zero. Apply the load on the piston so that the
penetration rate is about 1.25mm/min.
4. Record the load readings at penetrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5,10
and 12.5mm. note the maximum load and corresponding penetration if it occurs for a
penetration less than 12.5mm
5. Detach the mould from the loading equipment. Take about 20 to 50g of soil from the
top 3cm layers and determine the moisture content.

25
Fig. 4.5 CBR Apparatus line Diagram

4.6 DETERMINATION OF FREE SWELL INDEX OF SOILS


Take two representative oven dried soil samples each of 10 grams passing
through 425 micron sieve.
Pour each soil sample in to each of the two glass graduated cylinders of 100ml capacity.
Fill one cylinder with kerosene and the other with the distilled water up to the100ml mark.
Remove the entrapped air in the cylinder by gentle shaking and stirring with a glass rod.
Allow the samples to settle in both the cylinders for Sufficient time, not less than 24 hours
shall be allowed for soil sample to attain equilibrium state of volume without any further
change in the volume of the soils. Sample kept for free swell index.

26
CHAPTER 5
5.1 TESTS AND RESULTS
Grain size distribution curve of red soil

Table 5.1 Grain size distribution curve of red soil


IS SIZE MASS % CUMULATIVE CUM
RETAINEDD RETAINED % RETAINED FINER%
4.75 0.0440 8.8 8.8 91.2

2.00 0.1110 22.2 31 69

1.00 0.1395 27.9 58.9 41.1

0.6 0.0770 15.4 74.3 25.7

425 0.0470 9.4 83.7 16.3

300 0.0260 5.2 88.9 11.1

150 0.0360 7.2 96.1 3.9

90 0.0020 0.4 96.5 3.5

75 0.0120 2.4 98.9 1.1

PAN 0.0050 1.0 99.9 0.1

From the graph we got D10 =0.27


D30 = 0.7
D60 = 1.6

CU: D60 / D10 : 5.92


CC: D302 /( D10 × D60 ) :1.134

From calculation we got CU and CC Values are 5.92 and 1.134 respectively.

27
Fig. 5.1 Grain size

Grain Size Distribution Curve


100

80

60
finer%
40

20

0
PAN 0.075 0.09 0.15 0.3 0.425 0.6 1 2 4.75
IS size

CUMULATIVE FINER%

Graph 5.1 Grain size distribution curve red soil

RESULT : Well graded soil.

28
5.2 Grain size analysis of black cotton soil.

Table 5.2 Grain size analysis of black cotton soil

IS SIZE MASS % CUMULATIVE CUM


RETAINEDD RETAINED % RETAINED FINER%
4.75 0.04234 8.46 8.46 91.54

2.00 0..0112 22.47 30.93 69.07

1.00 0.0145 29.02 59.95 40.05

0.6 0.084 16.86 76.81 23.19

425 0.046 9.27 86.08 13.92

300 0.027 5.4 91.48 8.52

150 0.028 5.6 97.08 2.92

90 0.00821 1.64 98.72 1.28

75 0.002 0.40 99.126 1.1

PAN 0.004 0.8 99.926 0.1

Grain Size Distribution Curve


100

80

60
finer%
40

20

0
PAN 0.075 0.09 0.15 0.3 0.425 0.6 1 2 4.75
IS size

CUMULATIVE FINER%

Graph 5.2 Grain size distribution curve black cotton soil

29
From the graph we got D10 =0.35
D30 = 0.8
D60 = 1.6

CU: D60 / D10 : 4.57


CC: D302 /( D10 × D60 ) :1.14

From calculation we got CU and CC Values are 4.57 and 1.14 respectively.

RESULT: Well graded soil.

5.3 ATTERBERG’S LIMIT

Liquid limit and plastic limit of red soil:

Table 5.3 Liquid limit of red soil

Water content 28% 30% 32%

Weight of 28.63 39.70 20.78


container+ wet soil
Wt of container + 19.92 28.24 14.03
dry soil (gms)
Weight of water 8.71 11.46 6.75

Weight of oven 19.92 28.24 14.03


dry soil
Moisture content 43.72 40.58 48.1
(%)
No. of blows 30 17 6

30
Liquid Limit
33%
32%
31%
Water content 30%
29%
28%
27%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
No. of blows

Water content

Graph 5.3 liquid limit red soil

Fig. 5.2 liquid limit

31
Plastic limit of red soil:

Table 5.4 Plastic limit of red soil

Wt. of container + 19.53 10.89 13.48


wet sample(gms)
Wt. of container+ 13.61 8.31 8.64
dry sample

Wt. of dry sample 13.61 8.31 8.64

Wt. of water in soil 5.92 2.58 4.84

Water content(%) 41.2 31 56

Fig. 5.3 plastic limit

32
RESULT: From liquid limit and plastic limit, we identified that the classification soil is CI.

5.4 liquid limit and plastic limit of black cotton soil

Liquid limit

Table 5.5 Liquid limit black cotton soil

Water content 45% 47% 49%

Weight of 18.68 10.07 20.04


container+ wet soil
Wt of container + 13.42 7.35 13.94
dry soil (gms)
Weight of water 5.26 2.72 6.1

Weight of oven 13.42 7.35 13.94


dry soil
Moisture 39 37 43
content(%)
No. of blows 30 25 7

Liquid Limit
50%
49%
48%
Water content 47%
46%
45%
44%
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
No. of blows

Water content

Graph 5.4 liquid limit black cotton soil

33
Plastic limit:

Table 5.6 Plastic limit black cotton soil

Wt. of container + 11.91 18.41 9.7


wet sample(gms)
Wt. of container+ 8.70 14.73 8.07
dry sample

Wt. of dry sample 8.70 14.73 8.07

Wt. of water in soil 3.21 3.68 1.63

Water content(%) 36 24 20

RESULT: From liquid limit and plastic limit, we identified that the classification soil is CH

5.5 Standard proctor test for red soil:

Table 5.7 (a) Standard proctor test for red soil

Water content 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%

Wt. of container 33 51 80 30 87
+wet soil( w4)gms
Wt of container 29.5 44.96 69.5 25.5 74.5
+dry sample, W5
gms
Wt of water 3.5 6.04 10.5 4.5 12.5
( W5 – W4) gms
Wt of dry soil 29.5 44.96 69.5 25.5 74.5

Water content 11.86 13 15 17 16

Average : 14%

34
Table 5.7 (b) Standard proctor test for red soil

S. no Wt of Weight of γb Water γd
mould + soil soil content

1. 4. 210 2.062 1.677 11.86 1.84

2. 4.203 2.055 1.748 13 1.82

3. 4.141 1.993 1.683 15 1.79

4. 4.121 1.973 1.606 17 1.75

5. 4.110 1.962 1.652 16 1.71

OMC
1.86
1.84
1.82
γd 1.8
1.78
1.76
1.74
0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% 12%
Water content

γd

Graph 5.5 compaction test red soil

RESULT: Optimum moisture content of red soil is 4%.

35
Fig. 5.4 Compaction test

By calculating dry density and bulk density, we can know the optimim moisture content of the
soil from the graph.

36
5.6 Standard proctor test for black cotton soil:

Table 5.8 (a) Standard proctor test for black cotton soil:

Water content 10% 12% 14% 16% 18%

Wt. of container 31.11 38.570 35.38 28.76 45.09


+wet soil( w4)gms
Wt of container 28.4 35.5 32.3 25.5 40.2
+dry sample, W5
gms
Wt of water 2.71 3.07 3.08 3.26 4.89
( W5 – W4) gms
Wt of dry soil 14.89 17.70 18.21 17.90 21.97

Water content 18.2 17.13 16.9 18.21 22.3

Table 5.8 (b) Standard proctor test for black cotton soil:

S. no Wt of Weight of γb Water γd
mould + soil soil content

1. 4. 052 1.904 1.677 18.2 1.4187

2. 4.133 1.985 1.748 17.3 1.4901

3. 4.059 1.911 1.683 16.9 1.439

4. 4.847 1.824 1.606 18.21 1.35

5. 4.899 1.876 1.652 22.3 1.35

RESULT: Optimum moisture content of black cotton soil is 14%.

37
OMC
1.55

1.5

1.45

γd 1.4

1.35 γd

1.3

1.25
12% 14% 16% 18% 20%
Water content

Graph 5.6 compaction test black cotton soil

5.7 CBR TEST FOR RED SOIL UNSOAKED

Table 5.9 CBR TEST FOR RED SOIL UNSOAKED

Penetration penetration Proving ring Corrected load


reading P R *0.0534
0 0 0 0
50 0.50 8.0 0.4272
100 1.0 17.00 0.9078
150 1.5 23.00 1.22
200 2.0 27.00 1.44
250 2.5 32.00 1.708
300 3.0 36.5 1.9491
350 3.5 40 2.136
400 4.0 44 2.3496
450 4.5 48.4 2.584
500 5.0 52.5 2.8035
550 5.5 56.2 3.00
600 6.0 58.8 3.139
650 6.5 62.5 3.337
700 7.0 65.8 3.513
750 7.5 69.2 3.695
800 8.0 72.5 3.871
850 8.5 75.3 4.021
900 9.0 77.8 4.154
950 9.5 80.8 4.314

38
1000 10.00 83.8 4.474
1050 10.50 86.8 4.635
1100 11.00 89.5 4.77
1150 11.5 92.5 4.939
1200 12.00 95.5 5.099
1250 12.50 100.4 5.20
1300 13.00 103.2 5.361
1350 13.50 106.00 5.510
1400 14.00 109.00 5.660
1450 14.50 111.50 5.820
1500 15.00 112.5 5.9541

CBR
3

2.5

Corrected load 1.5

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Penetration

Corrected load

Graph 5.7 CBR test for red soil unsoaked

RESULT: CBR value is greater at 2.5mm penetration.

39
Fig. 5.5 CBR test

40
5.8 CBR TEST FOR BLACK COTTON UNSOAKED

Table 5.10 CBR TEST FOR BLACK COTTON UNSOAKED

Penetration Penetration Proving ring Corrected load


reading P R *0.0534
0 0 0 0
50 0.50 4.5 0.2403
100 1.0 9 0.4806
150 1.5 13.2 0.704
200 2.0 16.2 0.865
250 2.5 18 0.961
300 3.0 20 0.1068
350 3.5 21 1.1214
400 4.0 21.9 1.169
450 4.5 22.5 1.2015
500 5.0 23.2 1.2388
550 5.5 24 1.2816
600 6.0 24.7 1.318
650 6.5 25.4 1.3536
700 7.0 26.2 1.399
750 7.5 26.8 1.43112
800 8.0 27.3 1.45
850 8.5 27.9 1.4898
900 9.0 28.1 1.500
950 9.5 28.2 1.5058
1000 10.00 29.2 1.55
1050 10.50 29.9 1.59
1100 11.00 30.2 1.61
1150 11.5 30.9 1.65
1200 12.00 31.2 1.66
1250 12.50 31.7 1.692
1300 13.00 32 1.70
1350 13.50 32.2 1.71
1400 14.00 32.9 1.75
1450 14.50 33.1 1.76
1500 15.00 33.3 1.778

41
CBR
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
Corrected load
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Penetration

Corrected load

Graph 5.8 cbr test for black cotton unsoaked

RESULT: CBR value is greater at 2.5mm penetration.

5.9 CBR TEST FOR B.C SOIL WITH GEOTEXTILE SOAKED

Table 5.11 CBR test for b.c soil with geotextile soaked

Penetration Penetration Proving ring Corrected load


reading P R *0.0534
0 0 0 0
50 0.50 0.4 0.02136
100 1.0 0.5 0.0267
150 1.5 0.6 0.03204
200 2.0 0.7 0.03738
250 2.5 0.9 0.04506
300 3.0 0.9 0.04806
350 3.5 0.9 0.04806
400 4.0 0.9 0.0496
450 4.5 1.00 0.0534
500 5.0 1.1 0.05874
550 5.5 1.1 0.05874

42
600 6.0 1.2 0.06408
650 6.5 1.2 0.06408
700 7.0 1.2 0.06408
750 7.5 1.3 0.06942
800 8.0 1.3 0.06942
850 8.5 1.3 0.06942
900 9.0 1.4 0.07476
950 9.5 1.4 0.07476
1000 10.00 1.5 0.0801
1050 10.50 1.6 0.08544
1100 11.00 1.6 0.08544
1150 11.5 1.7 0.09078
1200 12.00 1.7 0.09078
1250 12.50 1.7 0.09078
1300 13.00 1.8 0.09612
1350 13.50 1.8 0.09612
1400 14.00 1.9 0.10146
1450 14.50 1.9 0.10146
1500 15.00 2.0 0.1068

CBR
0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
Corrected load
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Penetration

Corrected load

Graph 5.9 CBR test for b.c soil with geotextile soaked

43
RESULT: CBR value is greater at 2.5mm penetration.

5. 10 CBR TEST FOR B.C WITHOUT GEOTEXTILE UNSOAKED

Table 5.12 CBR test for b.c without geotextile unsoaked

Penetration penetration Proving ring Corrected load


reading P R *0.0534
0 0 0 0
50 0.50 0.3 0.0160
100 1.0 0.3 0.0160
150 1.5 0.4 0.0214
200 2.0 0.4 0.0214
250 2.5 0.5 0.0267
300 3.0 0.5 0.0267
350 3.5 0.5 0.0267
400 4.0 0.5 0.0267
450 4.5 0.6 0.0324
500 5.0 0.6 0.0324
550 5.5 0.6 0.0324
600 6.0 0.6 0.0324
650 6.5 0.7 0.0374
700 7.0 0.7 0.0374
750 7.5 0.7 0.0374
800 8.0 0.7 0.0374
850 8.5 0.8 0.0427
900 9.0 0.8 0.0427
950 9.5 0.8 0.0427
1000 10.00 0.8 0.0427
1050 10.50 0.9 0.0481
1100 11.00 0.9 0.0481
1150 11.5 0.9 0.0481
1200 12.00 1.0 0.0534
1250 12.50 1.0 0.0534
1300 13.00 1.1 0.0587
1350 13.50 1.1 0.0587
1400 14.00 1.2 0.0641
1450 14.50 1.2 0.0641
1500 15.00 1.3 0.0694

44
RESULT: CBR value is greater at 2.5mm penetration.

CBR
0.0350
0.0300
0.0250
0.0200
Corrected load
0.0150
0.0100
0.0050
0.0000
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Penetration

Corrected load

Graph 5. 10 CBR test for b.c without geotextile soaked

Fig. 5.6 Comparision of soil expansion with and without Geotextile

45
CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

After Performing the laboratory test on Sand with non woven geotextile.Comparing the test
results,there is a small increase in strength parameter of sand.

 The CBR value at 2.5 mm penetration without geotextile was 1.9 and CBR value at
2.5mm penetration with geotextile was 2.72.

 From above, we can clearly say that use of geotextile increases the strength of black
cotton soil.

 As the cost of the geotextile is not that high, we can use it for road pavement.

46
CHAPTER 7
REFERENCES

 A Paper on “ Improvement to Road “ from SH to Kandalgaon Road ODR-90Km 0/000


to 4/300, Tal-Karveer, Dist-Kolhapur

 Project : Improvement to Jejuri-Morgon Road MDR-65 Km 6/100 to 6/500 & 8/065 to


8/475, M/s H.J.Tekawade, Taluka-Purandhar, District-Pune.

 A Paper on “TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL” CLAY MINERALS (1996)


31,243-252 BY L.H. MOLLINS, D. I STEWART AND T.W. COUSENS (1995).

 Indian Standard Code 2720 part 2-Determination of water content.

 Indian Standard Code 2720-part 5- Determination of liquid and plastic limit.

 Indian Standard Code 2720-part 7- Determination of water content-dry density relation


using light compaction.

 A Text book on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering – K.R. ARORA.

 A Text on Geotechnical Engineering by C. VENKATARAMAIAH.

 A Text book on Soil Mechanics and Foundations by B.C. PUNMIA.

 A Text book on Soil Mechanics Engineering Practice – TERZAGHI, K & R.B. PECK,
JOHNWELLY & SONS, NEWYORK.

47