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# A report on

of

## Optics and Modern Physics Lab (PHY-408)

Department of Physics,

Submitted by:

Group 01 Boys:

INTRODUCTION

## J.J. Thomson measured the charge to mass ratio in 1897.

THEORATICAL EXPLAINATION

## In this Experiment when a filament is heated a beam of Electron is Produced .

there are two coils having Sepration equal to the radius of a Coil . These two coils named has
Helmholtz coil . these coils produce magnetic field perpendicular to Electron beam when
current flows through the coil due to presence of magnetic field will experience a magnetic
force which bends the Electron beam to move in a circular path this magnetic field provides
the necessary centripetal force.

PRINCIPLE

When an electric charge ‘e’ enters into a uniform magnetic field of density B at right
angle to the magnetic field at a speed of v, the electric charge receives a force F perpendicular
to its moving direction.

𝐹𝐵 = 𝑒𝑣𝐵

MATHEMATICAL EXPLAINATION

𝐹𝐵 = 𝑒𝑣𝐵 (1)

𝑚𝑣 2 (2)
𝐹𝐶=
𝑟

At Equilibrium Condition ,

𝐹𝐵 = 𝐹𝐶 (3)

𝑚𝑣 2 (4)
𝑒𝑣𝐵 =
𝑟

We get,

𝑒 𝑣 (5)
=
𝑚 𝐵𝑟
we know that kinetic Energy is Equal to the Potenial Energy according to the Law of
conservation of energy

So,

𝐾. 𝐸 = 𝑃. 𝐸

1 (6)
𝑒𝑉 = 𝑚𝑣 2
2

(7)
2𝑒𝑉
𝑣=√
𝑚

Putting value of 𝑣 in eq. (6), by solving the this Equation we get the final Expression is we
get

𝑒 2𝑉 (8)
= 2 2
𝑚 𝐵 𝑟

𝑒
If the values of 𝑉, 𝐵 and 𝑟 are known then we can find the value of 𝑚.

## For Helmholtz coil the value of B is calculated by

4 3/2 𝑛𝐼 (9)
𝐵 = ( ) 𝜇0
5 𝑅

where “𝜇0 ” is space permeability, “n” is the number of turns, “I” is Current of coil, “R” is

𝜇0 = 4𝜋 × 10−7 (𝐻/𝑚)

𝑛 = 130

𝑅 = 0.15 𝑚

## 𝐵 = 7.8 × 10−4 𝐼 (10)

Putting value of B from Equ (10) in Equ (8) we get

𝑒 2𝑉
=
𝑚 (7.8 × 10−4 𝐼)2 𝑟 2

𝑒 𝑉
= 3.3 × 106 2 2
𝑚 𝐼 𝑟

APPRATUS

## DC regulated power supply ; DC ammeter ; DC voltmeter ; Step down Transfarmer

DC Multimeter ; Converter AC to DC

FIGURE
OBSERVATIONS

## Sr.no Acc. Voltage (V) Coil Current(I) Electron Radius (r) 𝑒 𝑉

= 3.3 × 106 2 2
(volt) (A) Diameter(D) (m) 𝑚 𝐼 𝑟
(m) (C/kg)
01 126.2 0.9 0.0956 0.0478 1.84 × 1011
02 121.9 0.9 0.0854 0.0427 2.21 × 1011
03 138.7 0.9 0.1046 0.0523 1.66 × 1011

RESULT

PERCENTAGE ERROR

## 𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

%age Error = × 100 %
𝐴𝑐𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

1.755×1011 −1.9033×1011
= × 100%
1.755×1011

## %age Error = 7.8%

Uncertainty Principle = 𝑥 ± ∆𝑥

CONCLUSION

## There is some error in experiment due to systematic error ; Some Poor

Observation ; It may be due to error in apparatus.We can resolve these errors and Persentage
of Error Decreases by Experiment again Sensitively . but some Envoirmental Effects must be
Added and we can never make it Ideal . So, Some Error must be Added.