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Bondstrand LD ®

Large Diameter Piping and Duct for Industrial and Environmental Applications

Fiberglass - Composite Pipe Group


713/690-7777 • Fax 713/690-2842 • www.ameron.com
Table of Contents
Large Diameter Fiberglass Pipe Systems.......................... 2
Introduction .............................................................. 2
Materials................................................................... 2
Reinforcement .......................................................... 2
Physical & Mechanical Properties............................ 2
Typical Wall Laminate............................................... 4
Engineering Guidelines for
Designing Fittings & Joints......................................5
Joining Systems ........................................................6
Instructions for Butt & Strap Joints...........................7
FRP Flange Details 150lb Drilling..............................9
Recommended Bolt Torque in Foot Pounds.............9
Inspection, Handling & Storage ..............................10
Instructions for Underground Installation................11
Trenching .............................................................11
Bedding, Backfilling & Compaction ....................11
Pipe Sleeving at Rigid Penetrations ....................12
Soil Types ............................................................12
Classes of Trench Conditions..............................13
Fiberglass Duct Systems ....................................................14
Materials..................................................................14
Physical & Mechanical Properties...........................14
System Design ........................................................15
Round Ventilating Duct Properties ..........................15
Shipping & Installation of Reinforced Plastic Duct..16
Corrosion Resistance Guide ...................................17
Limitations in Service......................................................... 19
Safety Recommendations ................................................. 19
Important Notice ................................................................ 19
Introduction This specification covers the materials of construction, physical properties and the
procedures used in the manufacture of Bondstrand LD filament wound piping and
duct systems. The fittings are to be mitered filament wound or hand lay up fittings.
The joining of the pipe and fittings shall be gasketed, flanged or butt and strap
unless otherwise agreed to between purchaser and Ameron.

Materials The resin system selected shall be a thermosetting polyester or vinyl ester and shall meet
Ameron quality control standards. The resin system shall contain no more than 50%
styrene monomer by weight. The resin system may contain pigment and dyes only by
agreement between purchaser and Ameron. Fire resistant additives may be included per
specification.
Reinforcement Surface veil shall be Type “C” glass monofilament surfacing mat with silane finish and
styrene soluble binder. When required, a synthetic veil such as Nexus may be used in lieu
of “C” type surfacing veil. The interior layer shall be chopped strand glass fibers or
chopped strand mat of a commercial grade having a coupling agent which provides
suitable bond between the glass and resin. The continuous rovings for the structural
portion of the pipe shall be the continuous filament Type “E” glass having a coupling
agent compatible with resin system used. A resin-rich post coat containing ultraviolet
screening agent may be applied to pipe exterior surface.

Physical & Mechanical APPLICABLE STANDARDS


Properties RTRP Filament Wound Pipe ASTM-D-2996
Nuclear RTRP Pipe Standards ASME Case Code 1792
FRP Products NBS PS15-69
FRP Machine Made Pipe ASTM-D-2310
Method for Determining FRP Pipe Dimensions ASTM D-3567
Water Transmission Pipe AWWA - C950, 1995
Appearance
Pipe shall be free from detrimental visual defects such as foreign inclusions, dry spots, air
bubbles, pinholes or delaminations. Surface hardness of pipe shall have a Barcol
hardness at least 90% of resin manufacturer’s minimum specified hardness. Wall
thickness of pipe shall not be less than 87.5% of the nominal wall thickness specified.
The fittings shall be constructed to provide equal strength as pipe system. The pipe shall
be manufactured in 40-foot nominal lengths. The pipe shall provide a Hazen-Williams
Flow Factor of 150. The pipe typical ultimate physical properties are as shown in the
following table.

2
Physical & Mechanical Design Properties Design Properties
Properties (cont’d) Pipe Property Hoop (psi) Axial (psi)
Ultimate Flexural Stress 50,000 18,000
Flexural Modulus 3.5 x 106 1.0 x 106
Ultimate Tensile Stress 50,000 25,000
Tensile Modulus 3.5 x 106 1.7 x 106

Pipe Property Approximate Typical Values (psi)


Ultimate Shear Strength
Interlaminar 5,000
Cross 15,000
Ultimate Compressive Strength 25,000
Density .070
Pound/Cubic Inch
Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 6-10 x 10-6 inch/inch
Degrees F
Thermal Conductivity 2 BTU/ft.2/hr./in./°F
Flow Factor Hazen-Williams C-150
Hardness Barcol 30-45
Heat Distortion Temperature 250°F

Pipe wall thicknesses are based on internal pressure at 180OF for a 5:1 safety factor
on short term burst. Variation may be required for factors affecting pipe design
(buried or unburied, temperature, pressure, fluid transported, etc.). Ameron can
assist in custom designs on request.

Nominal Wall Thickness for Internal Design Pressures


Based on a nominal stiffness of 5 lb.in/in.
I.D. 50 psi 75 psi 100 psi 125 psi 150 psi
(in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.)
12 .17 .17 .21 .21 .21
14 .17 .17 .21 .21 .21
16 .17 .17 .21 .21 .25
18 .17 .17 .21 .25 .25
20 .21 .21 .21 .25 .29
24 .25 .25 .25 .29 .33
30 .29 .29 .29 .33 .37
36 .33 .33 .33 .37 .45
42 .37 .37 .37 .45 .53
48 .41 .41 .41 .49 .57
54 .45 .45 .45 .53 .65
60 .49 .49 .49 .61 .69
72 .57 .57 .57 .69 .85
Temperature = 180°F
Allowable Strain = 0.0020 in./in.
Note: For sizes above 72 inches contact your Ameron representative.

All wall thicknesses listed above contain a 50 mil corrosion barrier, consisting of a 10
mil surface veil and one layer of chopped strand fiberglass reinforcement.

3
Typical Wall Laminate
Cross Section

Corrosion Liner
Surface (V) has “C”-glass or other corrosion resistant veil chosen for service conditions,
plus resin. Remainder of corrosion liner (C) consists of chopped strand applied by
chopper gun or helically wound chopped strand mat. Liner is cured before structural
wall (S) is wound.
Structural Wall
Consists of computer controlled helically wound fiberglass rovings and resin, or
resin/filler matrix.
Resin-Rich Coating
Consists of resin which may include a UV inhibitor.

Wall Component Thickness (Resin-Glass) Percent Ratio by Weight


Corrosion Liner V = 0.01” - 0.02” (90-10)
C = 0.04” - 0.08” (70-30)
(as specified)
Structural Wall S = design thickness (30-70)
for internal pressure
and/or external
loading
Resin-Rich R = 0.01” - 0.02” (100-0)
Coating

The total wall thickness (T) equals the combined thickness of the corrosion liner,
structural wall and resin-rich coating.
Filament wound pipe is made by winding continuous fibrous glass strand roving onto
the outside of a mandrel. The fiberglass reinforcement roving is saturated with either a
liquid resin or a liquid resin/filler matrix. Winding is continued at predetermined angles
and tension on the roving to achieve specific mechanical properties. The strength of the
pipe is determined by the amount and orientation of the material wrapped on the
mandrel.
The resin used in the corrosion liner can be selected for specific corrosive conditions
and may differ from the resin used in the structural wall.

4
Engineering Guidelines Fittings and Specials
for Designing Fittings & Ameron designs and fabricates a full complement of standard fittings (tees, elbows,
Joints wyes and reducers). The dimensions of these standard fittings are given in a series of
figures and tables which follow. Where necessary, the laying lengths of the standard
fittings can often be varied to accommodate project conditions.
In addition, Ameron can design and fabricate a wide variety of specials to
accommodate those project conditions that require flow conditions that are not served
by the standard fittings. When such specials are required, contact your Ameron
Representative for further detail.
Fittings and specials are designed and fabricated for both gravity flow and pressure
conditions. Factors such as pressure, vacuum, depth of burial, angular flow change,
whether thrust blocks are used and temperature variations are accounted for in the
design of the filament wound pipe sections, in the reinforcement used to assemble pipe
sections and in the jointing of the fittings and specials to the other parts of the pipeline.

90° Smooth Sweep Elbow* 90° Mitered Elbow Tee


Cross
45° Lateral

45° Smooth Sweep Elbow* 45° Mitered Elbow Eccentric Reducer Concentric Reducer 30° Mitered Elbow

* See Note Below Table

Nominal A B C D E F G
Diameter (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.)
12 18 71/2 16 26 38 12 —
14 21 83/4 18 30 42 12 —
16 24 10 20 32 46 14 —
18 27 111/4 21 36 50 14 —
20 30 121/2 22 38 54 16 —
24 36 15 24 42 60 18 —
30 45 183/8 30 52 72 20 12
36 54 221/2 33 62 84 22 141/2
42 63 26 36 72 96 24 167/8
48 72 297/8 42 90 132 42 191/4
54 81 331/2 48 102 150 48 213/4
60 90 371/4 54 112 164 52 24
72 108 443/4 66 135 198 63 29
84 126 521/4 72 154 224 70 333/4
96 144 595/8 84 170 244 74 381/2
108 162 67 96 190 272 82 431/2
Note: 12” dia. - 24” dia. elbows maybe smooth flow. 30” dia. - 108” dia. elbows are mitered.
All dimensions are for plain end fittings for flanged or bell and spigot fittings contact Ameron
For intermediate sizes and sizes larger than 108” contact Ameron.
Mitered elbows are available for other angles. Angles between 0° and 30° will use two mitered sections,
angles between 31° and 60° will use three mitered sections, angles between 60° and 90° will use four
mitered sections. For laying lengths contact Ameron.

5
Joining Systems Flanged Joints
Bolts on flanged connection shall be tightened using the manufacturers recommen-
dation on torque. Washers are required under bolt heads and nuts. Field joining kits with
instructions can be provided by the manufacturer, unless otherwise agreed.
Butt and Strap Joints
The butt joint shall employ successive overlays of glass reinforcement and resin as
outlined in items 3.3.5 and 3.5.6 of PS 15-69.
Surface Preparation
To assure proper adhesion of the weld, all grease, oil, moisture, or other contaminates
must be removed from the ends of the duct being joined before it is sanded. In addition,
the surfaces must also be sanded or ground to remove the gloss from the pipe or duct.
A faulty joint will result unless the two pieces of pipe or duct being joined are securely
held in place without movement during the entire welding and curing process.
Storage of Field Weld Materials
Resin and curing agent shelf life will be preserved if stored in a cool, dry area,
maintaining an ideal temperature range of 40°F -75°F for maximum shelf life. Maximum
storage temperature is 100º F. Reinforcement shall be shipped in sealed, moisture proof
bags or containers, and should be stored in a dry area.
Gasket Joints
Two (2) types of large diameter gasket joints are available : (1) double O-ring (Fig. 1) or
(2) gasket assembly (Fig. 2). Prior to assembly, it is important to lubricate the O-ring or
rubber gasket with medium viscosity motor oil and ensure that all surfaces are free of
any foreign material. A test port may be installed in the bell end of the pipe located
between the O-rings (Type 1 only). No special end preparation is required prior to
assembly.

Fig. 1.Profile of a Double-O-Ring Joint Detail

Note: Additional optional key and grooves


may be used for partial thrust restraint
or pull-out resistance.

Fig. 2.Gasket Assembly Joint Detail

6
Instructions for Butt and Each weld kit is supplied with a premeasured quantity of glass strips for making the butt and
Strap Joints strap joint for a particular pipe size with a desired pressure rating. Therefore, it is extremely
important that all materials be properly applied to the joint to insure that the finished product
will have the required wall thickness and pressure rating of the pieces that are joined.

Tools
• Power disc sander, with 12-24 grit grinding discs
• Saber saw, with 24 tooth metal-cutting blade or tungsten carbide blade
• 10” scissors or retractable razor knife
• Serrated aluminum or teflon rollers, 1” diameter x 3” wide
• Wrap-a-round or straight-edged gasket material

Supplies
Precut Strips • Cleaning solvent - acetone or methylene chloride
• 3” wide stiff bristle brushes, for wetting out glass strips
• Cellophane, mylar film or unwaxed paper, for pre-wetting glass strips
• Mixing sticks (wooden tongue depressors)
• Paper or plastic mixing cups
• Milliliter graduates for measuring resin and catalyst
• Safety goggles or glasses
• Protective gloves, neoprene or polyethylene
Application

All butt welds are to be made in accordance with NBS Specification PS 15-69. The actual
procedure will be performed as follows:
1. Measure off length of pipe (or duct) required and using a marker and straight edge,
draw a line completely around surface to be cut (Fig.1).
2. Cut pipe (or duct) with a saber saw using a fine toothed blade or a circular saw with an
abrasive blade. Cut ends will be coated with resin so as to cover any exposed fibers
(Fig. 2).
3. Pipe ends to be joined will be sanded back one foot beyond the required weld
dimension. (Fig. 3)

Cross section after entrapped


air is rolled out

Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3

7
Instructions for Butt and 4. Pipe will be placed in the position in which they are to be welded. A catalyzed
Strap Joints (cont’d) thixotrophic polyester paste will be applied to the joint seam. This will eliminate resin
flow through the crack as the actual weld is applied. (Fig. 4) Make certain work area
and surfaces are as clean as possible and dry.
5. The precut fiberglass kit is then saturated with catalyzed resin along side of joint area (Fig. 5).
6. The saturated weld is then picked up like a bandage and wrapped around the joint
(Fig. 6).

Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

7. A serrated roller is then used to smooth the weld and remove any air bubbles that may
have been trapped beneath the weld when applied (Fig.7).
8. The joint should be made in steps not to exceed 1/4 inch thickness. The outer surface
of each strip should be lightly sanded prior to the next being applied.
9. An inside weld, consisting of 2 layers of chopped strand mat may be used in larger
diameter pipe.
10. A final gel coat is applied after the weld has taken its initial cure (Fig. 8).

Fig. 7 Fig. 8

8
FRP Flange Details 150lb Drilling
Pipe Flange Bolt No Hole Bolt Spotface Flange Thickness Flange Stub
I.D. O.D. Circle Hole Dia. Size Dia. 25 50 75 100 125 150 Area Lg.
(in) (in) (in) (in) (in) (in) (in) (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi) (sq. ft.) (in)
1 41/4 31/8 4 5
/8 1
/2-13 13/8 1
/2 1
/2 1
/2 9
/16 5
/8 11
/16 .094 6
11/4 45/8 31/2 4 5
/8 1
/2-13 13/8 1
/2 1
/2 1
/2 9
/16 5
/8 11
/16 .109 6
11/2 5 37/8 4 5
/8 1
/2-13 15/8 1
/2 1
/2 1
/2 9
/16 5
/8 11
/16 .125 6
2 6 43/4 4 3
/4 5
/8-11 2 1
/2 1
/2 1
/2 9
/16 5
/8 11
/16 .175 6
21/2 7 51/2 4 3
/4 5
/8-11 2 1
/2 1
/2 5
/8 11
/16 3
/4 13
/16 .234 6
3 71/2 6 4 3
/4 5
/8-11 2 1
/2 1
/2 5
/8 11
/16 3
/4 13
/16 .258 6
31/2 81/2 7 8 3
/4 5
/8-11 2 1
/2 9
/16 11
/16 13/16 7
/8 15
/16 .328 6
4 9 71/2 8 3
/4 5
/8-11 2 1
/2 9
/16 11
/16 13/16 7
/8 15
/16 .355 6
5 10 81/2 8 7
/8 3
/4-10 21/4 1
/2 5
/8 3
/4 7
/8 1 11/16 .409 8
6 11 91/2 8 7
/8 3
/4-10 21/4 1
/2 5
/8 3
/4 7
/8 1 11/16 .464 8
8 131/2 113/4 8 7
/8 3
/4-10 21/4 9
/16 3
/4 7
/8 1 11/8 11/4 .646 8
10 16 141/4 12 1 7
/8-9 21/2 11
/16 7
/8 11/16 13/16 15/16 17/16 .852 10
12 19 17 12 1 7
/ -9
8 21/2 3
/4 1 11/4 17/16 15/8 13/4 1.19 10
14 21 183/4 12 11/8 1-8 23/4 13
/16 11/16 15/16 11/2 13/4 17/8 1.34 12
16 231/2 211/4 16 11/8 1-8 23/4 7
/8 13/16 17/16 15/8 17/8 - 1.62 12
18 25 223/4 16 11/4 11/8-7 3 15
/16 11/4 11/2 13/4 2 - 1.65 12
20 271/2 25 20 11/4 11/8-7 3 1 15/16 15/8 17/8 - - 1.95 12
24 32 291/2 20 13/8 11/4-7 31/2 11/8 11/2 17/8 - - - 2.45 12
30 383/4 36 28 13/8 11/4-7 31/2 13/8 17/8 - - - - 3.28 15
36 46 423/4 32 15/8 1 /2-6
1
4 13/4 - - - - - 4.48 15
42 53 491/2 36 15/8 11/2-6 4 2 - - - - - 5.70 15
48 591/2 56 44 15/8 11/2-6 4 - - - - - - 6.74 15
54 661/4 623/4 44 2 13/4-5 41/2 - - - - - - 8.03 15
60 73 691/4 52 2 13/4-5 41/2 - - - - - - 9.43 15

Recommended Bolt Flange Dia. 25 50 75 100 125 150


Torque in Foot Pounds (in) (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi)
11/2 25 25 25 25 25 25
Based on Full Face Flat Gaskets 2” thru 10” 2 25 25 25 25 25 25
and O’ring Gaskets 12” thru 108” dia. 3 25 25 25 25 25 25
experience has shown these values to work. 4 25 25 25 25 25 25
However, these values may be increased 50% 5 25 25 25 25 25 30
safely. Call Ameron before exceeding 150% of
6 25 25 25 25 35 40
these values. Bolt torques must be uniform
8 25 25 30 40 50 60
within a 10% range of recommended values.
10 25 25 30 40 50 70
Note: Uniformity of bolt torques is critical.
12 25 25 35 45 60 80
14 25 30 40 60 75 80
16 25 30 50 70 80 80
18 30 35 50 80 80 80
20 30 35 60 90 90 90
24 35 40 70 90 100 125
30 40 45 80 90 100 125
36 45 50 90 125 140 160
42 50 70 100 130 165 195
48 60 - - - - -
54 60 - - - - -
60 60 - - - - -

9
Inspection, Handling & Inspection
Storage Upon receipt of ordered items, check the shipment as follows:
• Make overall inspection of load. If the load arrives intact, ordinary inspection while
unloading will normally be sufficient to make sure the pipe and/or fittings have arrived
without damage.
• If the load has shifted or indicates rough treatment, then carefully inspect each pipe
section for damage.
• Check quantity of each item against bill of lading.
• Note on the bill of lading any transit damage or loss and have the carrier represen-
tative sign your copy of the receipt. Make prompt claim against the carrier in
accordance with their instructions.
• Do not dispose of any damaged items. The carrier will notify you of proper disposal
Fig. 1 procedure.
• If any defect other than transit damage is found, immediately telephone your Ameron
representative. DO NOT USE PIPE THAT APPEARS DEFECTIVE.

Unloading and Handling


Unloading large diameter fiberglass pipe is the responsibility of the customer. Be sure to
maintain control of the pipe during unloading. Do not drop, impact or bump the pipe, partic-
ularly at pipe ends.
Use pliable straps, slings or rope to lift. DO NOT USE STEEL CABLES OR CHAINS TO LIFT
OR TRANSPORT THE PIPE. Pipe lengths to 40 ft. can be lifted with only one support point
Fig. 2 (Fig. 1). However, it is good field practice to lift at two support points 15 ft. apart (Fig. 2).

Storage
Pipe less than 4 ft. in diameter may be stored directly on sandy soil. When storing pipe
directly on the ground, be sure that the ground is flat and free of rocks larger than 1/2” in
diameter, and other potentially damaging debris (Fig.3).

Fig. 3.CORRECT.

Fig. 4.INCORRECT: Pipe stored


on objects, uneven surfaces.

Pipe 4 ft. in diameter and larger shall be placed on a minimum of two (2) cradles (90° - same
as used in shipping) placed so that they support the pipe at the wall. Narrow flat supports are
not adequate substitutes. All ribbed pipe shall be stored in a way that will avoid point loading
of the rib area. Pipe should not be stacked.
If at any time during handling or installation of the pipe, any minor damage, such as gouges
or scratches should occur to the interior surface of the pipe, such damage should be coated
with catalyzed resin before the section is installed. Any damage beyond this kind of minor
occurrence may be cause to repair or replace the pipe section. If in doubt, don’t use the pipe;
contact your Ameron Representative for further advice and coordination of repair or
replacement.
10
Instructions for This recommended practice describes procedures for installing fiberglass reinforced
Underground Installation thermosetting resin pipe produced by Ameron. Piping can support large earth loads and
traffic without excessive deflection through a combination of the pipe’s stiffness and the
mobilization of lateral passive soil forces. Proper installation techniques in accordance
with the type of burial classification recommended by Ameron’s Engineering Department
insures that the necessary passive soil pressure at the sides of the pipe will be developed
and maintained.
To achieve proper installation, trenches should be dug to at least 12 inches below the pipe
base bedding, and the backfilling and bedding shall be maintained in accordance with this
specification. Description and identification procedures for suitable backfill materials are
found under Soil Types (pg. 13) and type of burial classifications are described under
Classes of Trench Conditions (pg. 14).
Attention is called to the following list of specifications and methods:
ASTM D-698 Moisture-Density Relations of Soils
ASTM D-883 Nomenclature Relations of Soils
ASTM D-2310 Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Plastic Pipe
ASTMD-2412 External Loading Properties of Plastic Pipe by Parallel Plate Loading
ASTM D-2487-66T Tentative Method for Classification of soils for Engineering Purposes
ASTM D-2487-66T Description of Soils (Visual Manual Procedure)

Trenching
Trench Width - The width of the trench at any point should be sufficient to provide
adequate room for joining the pipe in the ditch with bell holes permissible at the joints. The
pipe O.D. plus 24 inches per side is the normal trench width for large pipe diameters.
Trench Contour - The trench bottom should be continuous, relatively smooth, shaped
and compacted in accordance with the bedding and backfilling classification specified.
Where ledge rock, hardpan, large rocks, timbers or other foreign materials are
encountered, it is advisable to pad the trench bottom using sand or compacted fine
grained soils at least 6 inches thick.
Unstable Trench Conditions - Where an unstable soil condition is encountered such as
may be caused by excavation below ground water, the bottom of the trench must be
stabilized before laying the pipe. This can usually be accomplished by lowering the water
table at least 12 inches below grade with well-points, shoring the sides, overexcavating
the bottom material, and replacing with a mixture of sand and coarse gravel or crushed
stone or by a combination of the above methods. In the case where shoring or sheeting is
required, the width of the trench need only be sufficient to provide adequate working
room. When shoring or sheeting is to be removed, the backfill should be placed and
compacted as the sheeting is being pulled to avoid the occurrence of voids beneath the
sheeting. Should soft plastic soil incapable of supporting pipe and pavement be
encountered when the excavation is opened, it should be removed and replaced with
suitable material—preferably granular—to a depth that will provide a firm, stable bedding.
If dewatering is required, the use of well points is recommended.
Bedding, Backfilling & Compaction
Bedding Grade - The pipe should be uniformly and continuously supported over its entire
length on firm, stable material. Blocking should not be used to change pipe grade or to
intermittently support pipe across excavated sections.
Backfilling - Pipe is installed in a wide range of subsoils. These soils should be not only
stable but also applied in such a manner as to physically shield the pipe from damage.
Attention should be given to local pipe laying experience which may indicate solutions to
particular pipe bedding problems. Backfill materials according to the requirements under
Soil Types (pg. 13) with a particle size of 1/2 inch or less should be used to surround the
pipe; it should be placed in layers. Each soil layer should be sufficiently compacted to
uniformly develop lateral passive soil forces during the backfill operation.
Compaction - Both the bedding and backfill must be compacted to the specified percent
of its maximum density as described in Methods D-698. Care should be taken when
11
Instructions for compacting sidefill to avoid shifting the pipe. During compaction the moisture content of the
Underground Installation backfill material should be within 2 percent of its optimum in accordance with Methods D-698
(cont’d) Test for Moisture-Density Relations Soils using 5.5 lb. rammer and 12 inch drop. In cases
where soil test data are not available, the required moisture for satisfactory compaction of
clay soils may be determined by checking the least amount necessary to hand roll a sample
into a 1/8” round thread. Vibratory methods are preferred for compaction. The compaction
within 6 inches to 18 inches of the pipe is usually done with hand tampers. After the side fills
have been compacted to required density, a 12 inch layer of the same material should be
placed over the top of the pipe and lightly tamped. Excessive tamping of this top layer should
be avoided as it may result in distortion of the pipe. In wide, deep trenches, lightweight tractor
powered track-mounted equipment of less than 5 psi pressure is permitted at least 24 inches
away from the pipe and not across the pipe until 4 ft. of overburden is compacted. Wet
puddling or water flooding for consolidating the backfill is not recommended, since this may
lead to trapped air cavity around the perimeter of the pipe. Water addition may be used to
obtain the optimum compaction of the backfill material.
Lateral Pipe Deflection During Backfillng - Compacting each soil layer by means of a
mechanical tamper, or similar tool will produce an inward horizontal eccentricity in the pipe.
This lateral displacement during compaction is acceptable provided it does not exceed 7
percent of the nominal pipe inside diameter. If over 7 percent horizontal eccentricity is
encountered, the compaction density should be decreased to 85 percent of the Modified
Proctor maximum dry density, and also notify Ameron of this condition. Less eccentricity is
expected and allowable in the joint area due to the increased stiffness with an additional wall
thickness. Pipe strutting to produce a prescribed increased vertical deflection prior to pipe
backfilling is sometimes used.
Pipe Sleeving at Rigid Penetrations
The optimum sleeve length shall be at least one nominal pipe diameter. The clearance
between the O.D. of the pipe and I.D. of the sleeve shall be at least 3 inches. The use of a low
density filler such as flexible foam, treated rags, or equivalent at the end of the sleeve
between it and the pipe will prevent the trench fill from entering the sleeve.
Soil Types
A soil is considered stable if it provides dependable support to the pipe and undergoes only
slight volume change with variation in its moisture content. The ability of a soil to provide
support depends upon its resistance to consolidation and its shear strength. In general,
coarse grained soils are considered stable. In ASTM D-2487- 66T, these are defined as soils
of which 50 percent or less pass U.S. Standard No. 200 sieve. The particle passing through
No. 200 sieve is about the smallest size visible to the naked eye.
Using the group symbols of ASTM D-2487-66T (under Soil Classification Symbols, pg. 14),
the following are considered stable backfill: GW, GP, GM, GC, SW, SP, provided that
maximum particle size is not greater than 1/2 inch.
In terms of overall use, gravel with fines and sand are the best backfill material for pressure
pipe. Sand or gravel mixed with silts or clays, in which the sand or gravel constitutes at least
50 percent of the mixture, is also suitable. Certain soils should not be used as backfill
material; these include highly organic soils, identified by odor or spongy feel, and fat, highly
plastic expansive clay. Frozen soil should not be placed in contact with the pipe.
Field Identification of Soils
Gravel - Minimum grain size 1/4 inch.
Sand - Individual grains visible to the naked eye with maximum particle size about 0.25 inch.
Fine sand displays dilitancy and is nonplastic. Note: To test for dilitancy, place pat of moist
soil on palm of hand. If the soil displays dilitancy, water will appear at the surface of the pat on
shaking and disappear when the pat is compressed by the fingers.
Silt - Individual grains difficult to see with the naked eye. May be slightly plastic. Displays
dilitancy. Easily washed from fingers. Low dry strength.
Lean Clay - Individual grains difficult to see with the naked eye. Dry lumps have moderate to
high strength. Can be rolled into a 1/8 inch thread having low to moderate strength. Does not
display dilitancy.
12
Instructions for Fat Clay - Shows no or very slow dilitancy and should not be used unless mixed with
Underground Installation coarse grained material. Has high dry strength. Has soapy feel and shiny streak results if
(cont’d) fingernail is run over damp surface. Can be rolled into 1/8 inch threads having relatively
high strength.
Soil Classification Symbols
GW - Well-graded gravel, gravel-sand mixtures, little or no fines.
GP - Poorly graded gravel, gravel-sand mixtures, little or no fines.
GM - Silty gravel, poorly graded gravel-sand-silt mixtures.
GC - Clay gravel, poorly graded gravel-sand-clay mixtures.
SW - Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines.
SP - Poorly graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines.
SM - Silty sands, poorly graded sand-silt mixtures.
Classes of Trench Conditions
Class A is that method of bedding conduits in which the lower part of the conduit exterior
is bedded in a cradle, constructed of 2,000 lb. concrete or better, having a minimum
thickness under the pipe of 1/4 of the nominal internal diameter and extending up the
sides of the pipe for a height equal to 1/4 of the outside diameter.
Class B for trench conduits is that method in which the trench conduit is set on fine
granular materials in an earth foundation carefully shaped to fit the lower part of the
conduit exterior for a width of at least 60 percent of the conduit breadth. The remainder of
the conduit is entirely surrounded to a height of at least one foot above its top by granular
materials carefully placed by hand to fill all spaces under and adjacent to the conduit
completely. The fill is tamped thoroughly on each side and under the conduit, as far as
practical, in layers not exceeding 6 inches in thickness—all under the direction of a
competent engineer represented by a competent inspector constantly present during the
operation.
Class B for embankment conduits is that method of bedding projecting conduits, having a
projection ratio not greater than 0.70, in which the conduit is carefully bedded on fine
granular materials in an earth foundation carefully shaped to fit the lower part of the
conduit exterior for at least 10 percent of its overall height. The earth fill material is
thoroughly rammed and tamped in layers not more than 6 inches deep around the conduit
for the remainder of the lower 30 percent of its height. In the case of rock foundations, the
pipe is bedded on an earth cushion having a thickness under the pipe of not less than 1/2
inch per foot of height of fill with a minimum allowable thickness of 8 inches, and with the
earth foundation carefully shaped and filled around the conduit the same as for first class
projecting embankment bedding on an earth foundation.
Class C is that method of bedding in which the conduit is bedded with ordinary care in an
earth foundation shaped to fit the lower part of the conduit exterior with reasonable
closeness for at least 10 percent of its overall height (for at least 50 percent of the conduit
breadth in the case of the trench conduit). The remainder of the conduit is surrounded by
granular materials, placed by shovel to fill all spaces completely under and adjacent to the
conduit—all under the general embankment conduit pipe is bedded on an earth cushion
having a thickness under the pipe of not less than 1/2 inch per foot of height of fill, with a
minimum allowable thickness of 8 inches and the earth foundation carefully shaped and
filled around the conduit the same as for ordinary projecting embankment bedding on an
earth foundation.
Class D is that method of bedding in which little or no care is exercised either to shape the
foundation surface to fit the lower part of the conduit exterior or to fill all spaces under and
around the conduit with granular materials. This type of bedding also includes the case of
conduits on rock foundations in which an earth cushion is provided under the conduit, but
is so shallow that the conduit, as it settles under the influence of vertical load, approaches
contact with the rock.

13
Duct Systems Fume and ventilation ductwork is manufactured to handle a broad range of aggressive
environments. Corrosive gases, mists and vapors are handled with excellent efficiency.
Ameron offers expert guidance in selecting chemical resistant resins that will provide a long
service life and maximum fire retardant properties where required. FRP air protection
systems are gaining widespread usage in replacing more costly fume handling materials.
Fiberglass duct offers these features:
• Light weight
• High temperature resistance
• Fire retardancy and low smoke emission
• Low installation cost
• Excellent thermal insulation properties
Fiberglass duct is available with plain ends for field butt-and-strap joining, flanges and/or
gasketed joints at customer’s request. Ameron also offers the capability to provide
rectangular duct per customer specifications.

Materials The generic term “Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic” can refer to many plastic materials.
The plastic duct construction covered in this section is confined to glass-fiber
reinforced thermosetting polyester fabricated to the Department of Commerce
Voluntary Standard NBS PS 15-69
The choice of composite materials is the responsibility of the design engineer whose
choice should include considerations of both the corrosives encountered and the fire
retardancy required.
Ameron duct can be manufactured to have a flame spread rating of 25 or less as
measured in accordance with ASTM E-84-69 “Standard Method of Test for Surface
Burning Characteristics of Building Materials”.

Physical & Mechanical Pipe Property (Filament Winding) Value


Properties Density (lb./cu. in.) 0.070
Specific Gravity 1.7
Hoop Modulus PSI @ 180°F/@ 73° F 3 x 106/3.5 x 106
Compressive Strength PSI 30,000
Ultimate Tensile Strength PSI (Hoop) 50,000
Flexural Modulus PSI 1.0 x 106
(Contact Molding)
Density (lb./cu. in.) 0.070
Specific Gravity 1.7
Hoop Modulus PSI .95 x 106
Compressive Strength PSI 15,000
Ultimate Tensile Strength PSI 15,000
Flexural Modulus PSI 1.0 x 106

14
System Design The workmanship and assembly of the duct and hoods shall conform to the
Department of Commerce Standard PS 15-69. The minimum mechanical properties of
all laminates shall conform to Table I taken from PS 15-69.
The size of round duct shall be determined by the inside diameter in inches. Unless
otherwise specified, the tolerance shall be ± 1/16 inch for ducting up to and including 6 inch
diameter, and ± 1/8 inch or 1%, which ever is greater, for ducting exceeding 6 inches.
The size of rectangular duct shall be determined by the inside dimensions. The
tolerance shall be ± 3/16 for dimensions up to 18 inches and under ± 1% for
dimensions over 18 inches.
The minimum thickness of round, contact molded duct shall be in accordance with
Table 2 taken from PS 15-69. For rectangular ducting, the minimum thickness shall be
specified as in Table 2 substituting the longer side for the diameter.
The maximum deflection of a side on a rectangular duct shall not exceed 1% of the
width of the side under operating conditions. Ribs or other special construction shall
be used to meet the deflection requirement.
Hangers shall be band-type metal or of equivalent fire retardancy to the duct material,
contacting 180 degrees of the duct surface. The maximum pipehanger spacing shall
be in accordance with Table 3 (PS 15-69).
Other design detail such as fittings, flanges, methods of joining, etc., are to conform to PS 15-69.
Note: Consultation between customer and fabricator is advisable prior to the beginning of
fabrication to establish the dimensional requirements of extensive factory-made duct
sub-assemblies involving the mounting of multiple offsets and fittings. Tie-ins with
either existing or new equipment may dictate close tolerances and may require the use
of special duct jigging fixtures. Field butt joints are advisable at changes of direction of
sub-assemblies and at other locations to facilitate the field installation.

Round Ventilating Duct I.D. Wall Allowable Allowable Flange Flange Bolt Bolt No. of
Properties Constructed Thickness Vacuum2 Pressure2 Dia. Thickness Circle Hole Bolt
(Min.) (O.D.) Dia. Dia. Holes
per NBS 15-69
(in) (in) (in. of water) (in. of water) (in) (in) (in) (in) (in)
2 0.125 405 750 63/8 1
/4 5 7
/16 4
3 0.125 405 500 73/8 1
/4 6 7
/16 4
4 0.125 210 410 83/8 1
/4 7 7
/16 4
6 0.125 64 350 103/8 1
/4 9 7
/16 8
8 0.125 30 180 123/8 1
/4 11 7
/16 8
10 0.125 16 340 143/8 3
/8 13 7
/16 12
12 0.125 9 280 163/8 3
/8 15 7
/16 12
14 0.125 7 220 183/8 3
/8 17 7
/16 12
16 0.125 6 290 203/8 1
/2 19 7
/16 16
18 0.125 5 240 223/8 1
/2 21 7
/16 16
20 0.125 5 190 243/8 1
/2 23 7
/16 20
24 0.187 9 140 283/8 1
/2 27 7
/16 20
30 0.187 7 100 343/8 1
/2 33 7
/16 28
36 0.187 5 70 403/8 1
/2 39 7
/16 32
42 0.250 10 120 463/8 5
/8 45 7
/16 36
48 0.250 9 100 543/8 5
/8 52 9
/16 44
54 0.250 7 80 603/8 5
/8 58 9
/16 44
60 0.250 6 60 663/8 5
/8 64 9
/16 52
1) 5 to 1 design factor of safety based on data in Table 1. Also based on 10-foot lengths between stiffener rings
for vacuum service.
2) These ratings are suitable for use up to 180°F (82.2°C) in pressure service and ambient atmospheric tempera-
tures on vacuum service. For ratings at higher temperatures, consult Ameron.

15
Recommended Practices The purpose of these recommended standard practices is to serve as a supplement to
for Shipping & Installation Product Standard PS 15-69. These recommendations include dimensional tolerances
of duct sub-assemblies which are fabricated by the manufacturer prior to shipment.
of Reinforced Plastic Duct
They also serve as a guide for shipping, installation, and use of reinforced plastic
as Described in Product
chemical resistant ducting.
Standard PS15-69
Chemical resistant fiberglass reinforced plastic duct is used to handle corrosive gases
and vapors which are encountered in industrial processes. Contained herein are
minimum standards of materials, construction and workmanship deemed necessary to
insure minimum fire hazard in the operation of these systems.

Shipping Because of the light weight of FRP the chief determinants of the overall dimensions of the
sub-assemblies will be the dimensional shipping limitations and the access passage
dimensions at the installation site. The overall dimensions of the sub-assemblies shall be
determined by the requirements of both the manufacturer and the customer.
The manufacturer shall protect all flange faces, small diameter duct, and the more fragile
appurtenances of the sub-assemblies, with padding between pieces of duct in order to
prevent one piece from impacting with another, and by crating or other means for shipment.
Upon arrival at the installation site, the duct shall be carefully examined by the customer for
damage in transit. If damage has occurred, a claim shall be filed with the carrier by the
customer.
Duct and sub-assemblies shall be unloaded with care and stored in a location where
they will be free from damage. Impact of a tool or other heavy object may result in
fracture of the inner lining and affect the service life of the duct.
Large sub-assemblies shall be supported during unloading to prevent excessive
deflection and overstressing.

Installation The duct should not pass through fire walls or fire-rated floors. When penetrating a fire-rated
shaft wall or fire partition, the opening shall be protected by fire dampers. Duct shall not be
installed in concealed spaces other than fire-rated shafts.
Manifolded systems shall be limited to 50,000 cfm capacity, except when engineering
considerations necessitate larger manifolded systems. Such systems shall be designed by
a registered engineer.
Flexible Connections
Vibration isolation between ductwork and air-moving equipment can be accomplished by
flexible connections at the inlet and discharge of the equipment.
All hoods and air-moving equipment (AME) which are part of the system shall have flame
spread rating equal to the material of the duct system. Design and workmanship shall meet
physical requirements consistent with PS 15-69.
Fire Protection
Automatic protection shall be provided at the duct intake, hood, canopy and the immediate
areas thereof to quickly extinguish source fires. Sensing elements provided at these afore-
mentioned sources shall be arranged to shut down the blower system. This automatic shut
down shall be waived if fire control can be improved through continued operation.
Identification
Fiberglass reinforced plastic duct components shall be identified as to the manufac-
turer, type of material and flame spread rating.

16
Corrosion Resistance Polyester Vinyl Ester
Guide % Concentration % Concentration
Substance @ Max. Temperature °F @ Max. Temperature °F
ACIDS
Acetic Acid 2 170 10 200
Acetic Acid 25 170 25 200
Acetic Acid 50 125 75 150
*Organic Surface Mat
Benzene Sulfuric 30 75 Sat. 200
Recommended
Benzoic Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Chloracetic NR NR 50 150
NR - Not Recommended
Chromic 5 75 10 80
*Fluoboric Sat. 75 20 180
Sat. - Saturated
Fluosilicic 25 75 25 100
Formic NR NR 50 100
Conc. - Concentration
Hydrobromic 50 150 50 150
Hydrochloric 20 150 10 200
Note: These tabulated data are based
Hydrochloric 30 150 20 200
on laboratory tests compiled by the
Hydrochloric 37 100 37 100
resin supplier. While all data presented
*Hydrofluoric NR NR 10 100
are based on the best information
Hypochlorous 10 75 10 150
available and believed correct, such
Hypochlorous 20 75 20 120
data are not to be construed as a
Lactic Sat. 160 Sat. 200
warranty. The user should perform his
Nitric 5 160 5 150
own tests to determine suitability for a
Nitric 10 80 10 120
specific application.
Oxalic Sat. 80 Sat. 200
Perchloric NR NR 10 150
Perchloric NR NR 30 80
Phosphoric - - 10 200
Phosphoric - - 25 200
Phosphoric 85 130 85 200
Phthalic Sat. 100 Sat. 200
Sulfuric 25 150 25 180
Sulfuric NR NR 50 180
Sulfurous NR NR Sat. 100
Tannic Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Tartaric Sat. 170 Sat. 200

ALKALIES
Ammonium Hydroxide 3 75 5 130
Ammonium Hydroxide NR NR 10 120
Ammonium Hydroxide NR NR 20 100
Ammonium Bicarbonate 15 130 50 150
Ammonium Carbonate NR NR 50 100
*Calcium Hydroxide 25 170 10 160
Magnesium Carbonate Sat. 160 Sat. 180
Potassium Hydroxide NR NR 25 150
Sodium Carbonate 20 75 20 160
*Sodium Hydroxide NR NR 5 150
*Sodium Hydroxide NR NR 10 150
*Sodium Hydroxide NR NR 25 120
Trisodium Phosphate NR NR Sat. 200

GASES & VAPORS


Carbon Dioxide - 200 - 200
Carbon Monoxide - 160 - 200
Chlorine Dry - 140 - 200
Chlorine Wet - NR - 200
Hydrogen Chloride Dry - 75 - 200
17
Corrosion Resistance Polyester Vinyl Ester
Guide (cont’d) % Concentration % Concentration
Substance @ Max. Temperature °F @ Max. Temperature °F
Hydrogen Sulfide - 140 - 170
Sulfur Dioxide - 75 - 200
Sulfur Trioxide - 75 - 200

*Organic Surface Mat SALTS


Recommended Aluminum Sulfate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Aluminum Nitrate 60 150 10 200
NR - Not Recommended Ammonium Sulfate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Calcium Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Sat. - Saturated Chromium Sulfate - - Sat. 170
*Cupric Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Conc. - Concentration *Cupric Cyanide - - Sat. 200
*Cupric Nitrate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Note: These tabulated data are based *Cupric Sulfate Sat. 140 Sat. 200
on laboratory tests compiled by the *Cuprous Sulfate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
resin supplier. While all data presented Ferric Nitrate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
are based on the best information Ferrous Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200
available and believed correct, such Lead Acetate Sat. 170 Sat. 150
data are not to be construed as a Lead Chloride - - Sat. 200
warranty. The user should perform his Lead Nitrate - - Sat. 200
own tests to determine suitability for a Magnesium Carbonate Sat. 150 Sat. 150
specific application. Magnesium Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Magnesium Nitrate Sat. 150 Sat. 200
Mercuric Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Mercurous Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Nickel Nitrate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Nickel Sulfate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Potassium Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Potassium Dichromate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Potassium Ferrocyanide Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Potassium Nitrate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Potassium Permanganate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Sodium Acetate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Sodium Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Sodium Nitrate Sat. 170 Sat. 200
Stannic Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 180
Zinc Chloride Sat. 170 Sat. 200

ORGANIC CHEMICALS
Acetone/Water NR NR 10 100
Carbon Tetrachloride NR NR 100 100
Diethyl Ether NR NR 100 75
Diethyl Phthalate NR NR 100 80
Ethanol 95 80 100 75
Ethylene Chloride NR NR 100 75
Gasoline 100 75 100 75
Kerosene 100 75 100 75
Perchlorethylene 100 75 100 80
Sour Crude Oil 100 120 100 200
Xylene 100 75 100 200

18
Limitations in Service The duct system shall only be used in the environment for which it was designed.
The manufacturer’s recommendation on support spacing usually allows for the weight
of a certain amount of corrosive condensate in the duct. If corrosive condensation is
likely to build up at a low point in the system beyond that used in the design calculation,
drains should be provided to allow for its removal.
If the system is designed to allow for a graded vacuum requirement, as determined by
the flow characteristics, provision shall be made to prevent an interruption of flow
which would result in the entire system being placed under maximum vacuum.
Otherwise, the entire system shall be designed for the maximum vacuum.

Safety Recommendations Engineering Controls:


• A fabrication area should be set up in which to perform as much of the
fabrication work as is practical or possible.
• Ventilation of the work area should be controlled. This can be done by means
of fans or dust collectors.
• Work area should be kept clean, including floor or other horizontal surfaces.
Rinsing with water or sweeping with brushes or brooms (using floor sweep)
is recommended. Never use compressed air to clean area or to remove dust
for personal cleaning. Brushes should be used to remove residue from
tapered surfaces.

Personal Protection:
• Barrier cream should be applied to the skin in areas which may be exposed
to shavings prior to beginning work.
• Clean clothes should be worn each day. Do not wear clothing that has not
been laundered to begin a work shift. More frequent changing may be
required by conditions.
• Long sleeved shirts or worksuits should be used. Tape should be used at
sleeve opening.
• Cotton or flannel shirts under workshirts may be worn to prevent rubbing of
skin at opening of worksuit.
• Gloves with elastic cuff should be worn at all times. Replace worn or
contaminated gloves as necessary. Gloves with flared, stiff cuffs act as a
gathering funnel for shavings.
• Pant legs should be worn outside work boots. If necessary for safety
purposes, the pant legs can be taped to fit closely to the boot. Over-the-calf
socks can be used to prevent chafing of the boot on the skin.
• Wristbands and watches should be removed to prevent rubbing or accumu-
lation of particles on skin underneath the band.
• Dust masks and face shields should be used as necessary and practical.
Contact points with the skin should be kept free of dust to prevent dust from
being imbedded into skin from movement of the mask during normal use.

Personal Hygiene:
• Wash exposed skin with soap solution (liquid soap preferred) and cool water.
• Use washcloth with “brushing” motion to remove dust or fibers. Do not
scrub the skin. This could result in the fibers being imbedded into the skin.
• Rinse thoroughly with clean, cold water.
• Apply lotion or cream to skin (non-detergent formulas such as baby lotion) to
soothe irritation or prevent further immediate irritation.

Important Notice This literature and the information and recommendations it contains are based on data reasonably believed to be
reliable. However, such factors as variations in environment, application or installation, changes in operating
procedures, or extrapolation of data may cause different results. Ameron makes no representation or warranty,
express or implied, including warranties of merchantability or fitness for purpose, as to the accuracy, adequacy
or completeness of the recommendations or information contained herein. Ameron assumes no liability
whatsoever in connection with this literature or the information or recommendations it contains. Product specifi-
cations are subject to change.
19
Notes

20
FIBERGLASS - COMPOSITE PIPE GROUP - HEADQUARTERS
P.O. Box 801148 • Houston, TX 77280 • Tel: (713) 690-7777 • Fax: (713) 690-2842 • http://www.ameron.com

Asia Europe Americas Centron International


Ameron (Pte) Ltd. Ameron B.V. P.O. Box 878 P.O. Box 490
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info@ameron.com.sg Fax: +31 345 587 561 http://www.centrongre.com
info@ameron-fpg.nl
21
© 2000 Ameron • FP875 (11/00) • Printed in U.S.A. • 5M [3005]