Sunteți pe pagina 1din 128

23.Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Table of Contents


1. Overview...........................................................................................................................................1
1.1 General........................................................................................................................................1
1.2 Plumbing systems
1.2.1 Water supply ........................................................................................................................1
1.2.2 Hot water supply ..................................................................................................................4
1.2.3 Drainage...............................................................................................................................5
1.2.4 Venting.................................................................................................................................7
1.2.5 Water treatment....................................................................................................................8
1.2.6 Fire protection......................................................................................................................8
1.2.7 Gas .....................................................................................................................................15
1.3 HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems ..................................................18
1.3.1 Types of HVAC systems....................................................................................................18
1.3.2 Ventilation .........................................................................................................................25
1.3.3 Smoke exhaust ...................................................................................................................27

2. Construction preparations ...............................................................................................................33

2.1 Posture of site manager.............................................................................................................33
2.2 Drawings and specifications study............................................................................................33
2.3 Site survey.................................................................................................................................33
2.4 Confirmation of M&E subcontractor formation .......................................................................35
2.5 Confirmation of scope of work .................................................................................................37
2.6 Permit procedures .....................................................................................................................38
2.7 Construction scheduling............................................................................................................39
2.8 Coordination of others scope of work.......................................................................................39

3. Initial construction phase ................................................................................................................41

3.1 Construction management — key points ..................................................................................41
3.2 Prepare shop drawings ..............................................................................................................41
3.3 Checking of delivered equipment specifications ......................................................................42
3.4 Selection of equipment and materials .......................................................................................43
3.5 Line marking.............................................................................................................................43
3.6 Sleeves, box out and opening reinforcement ............................................................................43
3.6.1 Sleeves and box out ...........................................................................................................43

3.6.2 Reinforcement of openings ................................................................................................47
3.7 Delivery plan.............................................................................................................................48
3.8 Equipment foundations and platforms ......................................................................................49
3.9 Penetration detail ......................................................................................................................50
3.10 Ground subsidence strategy ....................................................................................................53
3.11 Factory inspection of equipment.............................................................................................57

4. Middle construction phase ..............................................................................................................60

4.1 Equipment delivery and installation .........................................................................................60
4.1.1 Equipment delivery and lifting plan...................................................................................60
4.1.2 Transportation of large M&E equipment ...........................................................................60
4.2 Suspended ceilings....................................................................................................................65
4.3 Support and gradient .................................................................................................................66
4.3.1 Own weight-supporting .....................................................................................................66
4.3.2 Rigid supporting.................................................................................................................69
4.3.3 Vibration-isolating support.................................................................................................70
4.3.4 Seismic protection supporting............................................................................................71
4.3.5 Support spacing..................................................................................................................71
4.3.6 Support methods ................................................................................................................74
4.3.7 Gradient .............................................................................................................................74
4.3.8 Strength of inserts and anchor bolts ...................................................................................75
4.4 Duct and pipe spaces and installtion detail ...............................................................................79
4.5 Pipes..........................................................................................................................................79
4.6 Ducts .........................................................................................................................................82
4.7 Pits ............................................................................................................................................89
4.8 Pit for M&E work .....................................................................................................................91
4.9 Covering and protection............................................................................................................92
4.10 Intermediate inspection...........................................................................................................92

5. Final construction phase .................................................................................................................93

5.1 Thermal insulation and paintwork ............................................................................................93
5.2 Fire separartion and penetration................................................................................................96
5.3 Coordinate device with architectural finish ..............................................................................98

6. Inspection, test and commissioning ..............................................................................................100

6.1 Preparations ............................................................................................................................100
6.2 Pre-inspections and in-house inspections................................................................................100
6.3 Authority inspection................................................................................................................102
6.4 Test run and adjustment ..........................................................................................................104

7. Hand over to client........................................................................................................................106
7.1 Completion inspection by client and architect/engineer .........................................................106
7.2 Hand over documents .............................................................................................................106

Appendix 1 SI units ......................................................................................................................108
Appendix 2 Pipe materials and joint map ..................................................................................... 111
Appendix 3 Quick reference for fire protection regulation...........................................................113
Appendix 4 Psychrometric chart...................................................................................................117
Appendix 5. Frost depths ..............................................................................................................118


This document has been prepared for the benefit of on-site construction engineers and young
engineers. It provides information about installation of air conditioning and plumbing systems and
is arranged for the efficiency of the overall construction process.

The Handbook Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems was extensively revised in April
2002, mainly to accommodate the changeover to SI units. This opportunity has also been used to
modify and reorganize all the handbooks to promote improved comprehension, particularly for the
benefit of construction engineers.

This Handbook should be used in on-site construction management to provide a better

understanding of coordination between general construction and M&E work processes.

For information about noise and vibration, refer to METS Technical Standards for Equipment
Design — Noise and Vibration.

Queries, suggestions and new information in relation to the construction handbooks should be
directed to the Editorial Office.
Editorial Office
Building Construction Management Division
Building Construction Technology Department
Technology Management Group
1. Overview

1. Overview

1.1 General
This Handbook is divided into two sections: Outline of M&E work and Construction. Outline of
M&E work provides details of plumbing and heating/cooling systems, while Construction describes
preliminary preparations, installation (divided into initial, intermediate and final installation phases),
and the inspection, test and commissioning final hand over procedures. The Construction section
describes the requirements of each stage, including coordination between architectural work and
M&E work, and provides relevant information about the most recent technical standards. The aim
is to enable Kajima staff directly involved in actual construction to appropriately direct and instruct

1.2 Plumbing systems

The general term “plumbing systems” refers to equipment and systems used to provide water and
gas supply throughout a building for human use or production work in a safe, hygienic and
convenient manner. These include the water supply, the hot water supply, plumbing fixtures and
fittings connected to both hot and cold water supplies, wastewater drainage and vent facilities for
removing used water (both hot and cold) and contaminants, and wastewater treatment systems (in
cases where access to city main sewerage is not available), as well as the gas supply and associated
fire protection equipment.

1.2.1 Water supply

Table 1.2.1 compares the advantages and disadvantages of three different types of water supply
systems for buildings.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Table 1.2.1 Three types of water supplies

Rooftop tank type Pump-up type Booster pump direct connection type (Tokyo
Rooftop tank
Storage tank not
Backflow check valve

Reducing Booster pump

System diagram

valve unit
Main pipe
Booster Storage
Pump Storage pump tank
The tank is located Pumps are used to supply A booster pump unit is installed on the service
above the highest water directly to water outlets. line from the main pipe to boost the water
water outlet and The number of pumps in pressure to the required level.
water is supplied by operation may be regulated, or An additional direct bypass connection is
gravity feed. the pump motors themselves sometimes provided to ensure continuity of
may be controlled, or a supply in the event of a power interruption.
Pressu Outline

combination of both
approaches may be used.
Stability generated Stability dictated by pump Stability dictated by pump capacity

by hydrostatic capacity

The minimum No restriction on pump lift as No restriction on pump lift as determined by


operating pressure is determined by calculation calculation

governed by the
height of the tank
Periodical Mechanical maintenance Inspection at least once per year plus

maintenance is required periodical maintenance/repairs

sufficient due to Maintenance required on
used equipments ongoing basis
overall stability

Inexpensive (when More expensive than other More expensive than roof top tank but no
installed in building) systems (may be equivalent storage tank required so saves space and

depending on height of roof therefore reduces building cost


top tank and seismic structure)

Operatio Inexpensive — More expensive than roof top Cheaper than direct pumping — effectively
n costs requires minimal tank — booster pump is utilizes pressure of main water pipe
electricity for always in operation
limited periods and
low maintenance
Space The pump and water Minimal space requirements No storage tank so space required for pump
requirem tank require space for pump only only
ents for installation Space required for storage (minimal space requirements)
Demands Rooftop water tank Space requirements of storage No space requirements for storage tank
on necessitates tank
architect reinforcement of
ural work building structure;
storage tank also
Remarks Tank should be on Most commonly used Suitable for small-scale residential buildings
rooftop or otherwise approach (less impact in terms of around 12 floors with service meter intake
as high as possible of off-site shadow restrictions) pipe up to 50 mm in diameter
33 four-person dwellings or 44 three-person
Pressurized rooftop tank systems other than as described above are sometimes used.
Skyscrapers and super high-rise buildings often employ a combination of gravity feed and direct

1. Overview

pumping systems.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

1.2.2 Hot water supply

The hot water supply may be configured either as a series of local systems or as a single central
system. Local systems provide hot water from a limited number of locations dispersed throughout
the building and are commonly used in configurations where assets and charging schemes are
clearly delineated within the building, such as in residential and retail buildings, and where hot
water is required for making beverages and the like. Central hot water systems, on the other hand,
are suited to large office buildings, hotels and hospitals.

(1) Local hot water systems (Stand alone)

The local approach involves small hot water heating units that are installed where required in
the building and supply hot water directly at the place of installation. Water may be heated
instantaneously, as shown in Figure 1.2.1, or heated continuously and stored in a hot water tank,
as shown in Figure 1.2.2. Heat sources for heating water include gas, electricity and steam.

Instant gas hot water system

Vanity unit

Gas in
Cold water in
Sink Wash Bath Washing Cold water in
basin machine
Stored hot water
Figure 1.2.1 Instant gas hot water system Figure 1.2.2 Stored hot water system (with
electric water heater)
(2) Central hot water system
The central hot water system consists of a boiler, storage tank and other equipment located in
the machine room of the building, together with pipes to distribute the hot water around the
building. Hot water is circulated constantly through the system by means of hot water return
pipes and pumps to ensure that hot water is immediately available at every tap. Figure 1.2.3
depicts the configuration of a central hot water system.
Supply tank
Expansion tank (*2)
Primary circulating

Heat source
Boiler etc. E
Air separator


Secondary hot water
circulating tank
Figure 1.2.3 Typical valves for vertical
configuration of pipe
central hot water

*2 Closed hot water tank equipped with heat exchanger
1. Overview

1.2.3 Drainage
Wastewater drainage is governed by access to the sewerage system. If there is no sewerage
access, then wastewater is directed to public waters or to water channels connected to public waters
line. If wastewater from the building does not meet the required standards for release into the
sewerage system, then the building must be equipped with a wastewater treatment facility.

(1) Types of wastewater (more detail is provided in the Engineering Handbook on Climate
Control and Sanitation Systems)
i. Public sewerage system
ii. River basin sewerage system
iii. Municipal sewerage system
iv. Characteristics of building sites with sewerage discharge systems
(2) Wastewater discharge standards and wastewater treatment facilities
The Sewerage Law stipulates standards for wastewater discharged into the public sewerage
system, while the Water Pollution Prevention Law similarly regulates wastewater released into
public waters.
• Wastewater of a particular nature, such as that generated by large-scale kitchen facilities and
steam boiler rooms and machine rooms, must be discharged into a separate system.
• Wastewater including ground waste from food waste disposer units must be discharged into a
separate system.
• The municipality sometimes directs rainwater to be absorbed into the ground within the site
Table1.2.2 shows typical combinations of wastewater drainage and sewerage systems.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Table 1.2.2 Combinations of wastewater drainage and sewerage systems

Configuration Flow sheet Remarks
Wastewater discharge Wastewater discharge • Note potential for unpleasant

Combined system
(a) Integrated on site off site
odors from rainwater system.
discharge Toilet/kitchen waste Do not allow toilet water to

Public waters
Public waste water t
mix with miscellaneous

reatment system
Public sewerage system
stream on Rainwater wastewater and/or rainwater.
site/in building Miscellaneous waste


sewer system

off site
(b) Separated discharge on site
Wastewater • Backflow prevention is
discharge off site
required on the wastewater
or integrated Toilet/kitchen waste Stand-alone wastewater treatment system. For shallow

Public waters
treatment sytem
Public sewerage system
outside treatment zone
open ditch, the wastewater
Combined wastewater
discharge Miscellaneous waste treatment system (See note-1) pipe gradient must be
considered and backflow
streams on Rainwater
sewerage system prevention designed for
site/in building maximum rainfall events.
Toilet/kitchen waste to be
+ pre treated before industrial
no access to wastewater treatment

system off-site
Wastewater discharge
(c) Integrated on site
Wastewater discharge • Note outdoor pipe space
off site
requirements and depth of
Public waters

discharge Toilet/kitchen waste pipe intersections

Public Public waste water
sewerage system treatment system
stream on Miscellaneous waste (separated type)

site/in building Public

sewerage system
(separated type)
separate sewer sewerage system

system off site

Note-1: Where used on a temporary basis when the public wastewater treatment system is incomplete

1. Overview

(3) Indirect wastewater

• The indirect wastewater configuration is often employed on equipment fitted with wastewater
outlets, particularly medical equipment and machinery for storing and handling food and drink,
in order to prevent contamination caused by backflow from the general wastewater system as
well as infiltration of sewerage gases and noxious insects.

• The following may not be connected directly to wastewater pipes. (Ministry of Construction
Notification No. 1597, Technical Standards for Water Supply and Drainage Sanitation
Service equipment
Medical and research equipment
Swimming pools
Wastewater from equipment pipes and equipment
Wastewater from steam and hot water systems

1.2.4 Venting
Vent pipes help to minimize air pressure fluctuations in wastewater pipes, protect the sealing
water and improve the efficiency of wastewater flow.

(1) Functions of vent pipes

i. Preventing loss of sealing water in traps via the siphon effect and back pressure
ii. Forcing air through the wastewater pipes for ventilation
iii. Allowing wastewater flow via gravity feed by maintaining atmospheric pressure in
wastewater pipes
(2) Methods
Figure 1.2.4 shows the two most commonly used venting methods.
i. Loop venting
Loop venting is the most commonly used system, where a combined vent pipe is installed on
two or more traps.
In a loop venting system, vent pipes from each floor are connected to a vent pipe or vertical vent
pipe that vents into the open air.
Separate venting systems must be provided on equipment or machines that are susceptible to

ii. Extended vent pipe

Vent pipe, where the top of the vertical wastewater pipe is extended higher into the atmosphere,
does not require stand-alone vertical vent pipes. This approach is often employed on residential
apartment buildings using special pipe joints.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Extended top vent pipe

Extended top vent pipe

fittings Sink
Loop vent pipe

Exit points
fittings Sink

Vertical vent pipe

Loop vent pipe

Escape vent pipe

Exit points
fittings Sink

a ≤ 1.5 m
(1) Loop vent (2) Extended top

Figure 1.2.4 Two ventilation methods

1.2.5 Water treatment

Where there is no public sewerage system or the public wastewater treatment system is
considered inadequate, every building must be provided with a wastewater treatment facility. Septic
tanks are designed for treatment of ordinary household wastewater.
Septic tanks are suitable for human waste as well as miscellaneous household wastewater from
the kitchen, laundry and bathroom.

1.2.6 Fire protection

Fire protection equipment is classified into different categories under Article 7 of the
Enforcement Ordinances of the Fire Services Law, as shown below. The primary purpose of fire
protection equipment is to extinguish fire at the initial stage. Depending on the size of the blaze,
fire protection equipment may also be used to subdue or otherwise prevent the spread of fire until
the arrival of the fire brigade.
(1) Fire extinguishers
Fire extinguishers are designed for manual operation to provide initial fire-fighting capability.
While fire extinguishers are more common, simple fire-fighting equipment and apparatus are
sometimes used. There are many types of fire extinguishers, distinguished by the type of
fire-extinguishing agent, including acid-alkali extinguishers, water and alkali salt extinguishers,
foam extinguishers, carbon dioxide extinguishers, halide extinguishers and dry chemical

(2) Indoor fire hydrants

Indoor fire hydrants are likewise designed for manual operation to provide initial fire-fighting
1. Overview

capability, and are classified into No. 1 fire hydrants, simple No. 1 fire hydrants, and No. 2 fire
hydrants. The No. 1 fire hydrant is the traditional type of fire hydrant. It requires at least two
people to operate and is designed so that water cannot be released until the hose is completely
unfurled. The simple No. 1 fire hydrant is a simplified version designed for operation by a single
person. The No. 2 fire hydrant is also designed for single-person operation and is easier to
operate since it releases less water than the No. 1 fire hydrant.
Figure 1.2.5 illustrates a typical indoor fire hydrant system configuration.
rooftop tank

Rooftop water

Indoor fire

Fire hydrant

Fire detector

Fire hydrant

Control panel


Figure 1.2.5 Typical configuration of indoor fire hydrant system

(3) Outdoor fire hydrants

Outdoor fire hydrants are used to fight fires on the ground and second floor levels and prevent
the spread of fire to neighboring buildings and/or structures.
Figure 1.2.6 shows a typical outdoor fire hydrant.

Pump startup button

Outdoor fire hydrant cabinet
(hose locker)
Startup lamp
To control
Outdoor fire panel


Figure 1.2.6 Typical outdoor fire hydrant

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(4) Sprinkler systems

Sprinkler systems are designed to detect fire and automatically put it out. They may also
include auxiliary hydrants that are manually operated.
Sprinkler systems are divided into several categories, as shown in Figure 1.2.7, depending on
the location and purpose of the system. The most common type is the wet sprinkler system,
where the pipes to the sprinkler heads are maintained at water pressure at all times.
Auxiliary hydrants are used for covering in stairwells, bathrooms and other areas where
sprinkler heads are not installed. They are sometimes installed in conjunction with sprinklers.

Auxiliary rooftop tank Closed sprinkler head

Sprinkler systems by type and purpose

Type Concept diagram Operation Purpose
Wet Fire activates sprinkler General Flow
heads; water issued detector Terminal
test valve
immediately Control Wet type
Dry Fire activates sprinkler Prevents Auxiliary outlet

heads; compressed air is freezing

discharged first, then
Unsuitable for high ceilings

AA water
Closed sprinkler head type

Open sprinkler head

Pre-ac 1. Fire detectors send Prevents
freezing Bell
tion signal to the flow Flow detector
detector, which accidental
Control valve Exhibition valve Open type
operation Discharge
releases water to the Stage
secondary side.
2. The sprinkler heads
are activated, releasing Control Fire alarm
Priming panel
first compressed air water tank
Gate valve
Pressure air
then water check valve

(NB: Both the fire Flow rate Pressure

detectors and the detector switch

sprinkler heads must

activate in order for water Sprinkler pump
to be released) Sprinkler water tank
Open The main line valve is Typically
sprinkler opened manually or used in Wet/open type sprinkler systems
head type
triggered by a fire exhibition
detector; water is issued stage areas Fire
from all sprinkler heads
connected to the main Internal
line screen

Fixed The main line valve is High Dome

spray head opened manually from ceilings
the on-site control panel
or triggered by a fire Internal monitoring Remote-controll
detector; water is issued station ed valve
Supply port
from all sprinkler heads Fire pump
connected to the main
Water source
control panel
Emergency Response

Flow detector Closed sprinkler head Fire alarm panel
Compressed Flow detector (with starter) Open sprinkler head Control board
Released into Spray head On-site
Main line valve
control panel Typical movable head sprinkler system using water gun type
Control line Manual valve Fire detector
Back flow check valve

Figure 1.2.7 Sprinkler systems by type and purpose, showing typical system configurations

1. Overview

(5) Connection to fire department and consolidated sprinkler system

i. Connection to fire department
The water supply for fire-fighting is connected to the fire department. Water is supplied by
a fire department pump truck located outside the building and is discharged via hoses and
nozzles. Buildings over 70 meters in height require an intermediate pressurization unit.

ii. Consolidated sprinkler system

The consolidated sprinkler system is used for fighting fires in underground areas. Water is
supplied by a fire department pump truck located outside the building, and is discharged
through sprinkler heads.
Figure 1.2.8 illustrates the linked supply system and linked sprinkler system.

Auxiliary rooftop tank

Rooftop outlet

Discharge equipment

Combined outlet

Single outlet Back flow
Open sprinkler head check valve Water intake


Outlet valve
Water intake

Wet type fire department connection system Open head consolidated sprinkler system

Figure 1.2.8 Fire department connection and consolidated sprinkler systems

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(6) Foam fire extinguisher system

Air foam sprayed from dedicated foam heads and nozzles covers the area of conflagration.
The fire is extinguished by smothering and also by the cooling effect of the moisture in the foam.
Foam is particularly effective on fires caused by flammable liquids and are commonly installed
in parking areas of buildings. Foam fire extinguisher systems are classified as either fixed type or
movable type. In a movable system, the foam is sprayed manually from nozzles.
Figure 1.2.9 illustrates the configuration of a typical foam fire extinguisher system.

Detector type sprinkler head Detector pipe Foam head

Main line valve

Flow detector Manual valve

Control valve

Pressure Control panel
Priming valve
air tank
water tank Backflow
valve Pressure Fire alarm
Diaphragm switch panel

Foam tank Pump

Water tank

Figure 1.2.9 Configuration of foam extinguisher system

1. Overview

(7) Carbon dioxide extinguishers

Carbon dioxide sprayed from nozzle heads extinguishes the fire primarily by cutting off the air
supply and/or reducing the oxygen content in the air so as to suffocate the flames. Due to the
potentially life-threatening health effects of carbon dioxide, this type of system can only be used
in protected zones fitted with safety systems such as warning displays and alarms in order to
ensure complete evacuation before operation commences.
Figure 1.2.10 shows how the carbon dioxide extinguisher system works.

Fire detector (fixed Fire detector

temperature type) (differential type)

Gas discharge
warning lamp Speaker
Display panel Spray head
Piston releaser

Fire protection zone 1

Manual device

Fire extinguishing zone 2

Shutoff valve Safety mechanism
Selector Cylinder valve
Control valve

To power source
display/system stop CO2 cylinders


solenoid Startup gas cylinder

Figure 1.2.10 Carbon dioxide extinguisher system

(8) Halogenated fire extinguishing systems

Halogenated fire extinguishing agent is released from spray heads or nozzles and suppresses
the fire by means of a combustion reaction with halogenated substances such as fluorine,
chlorine and bromine. Halogenated fire extinguishing agents include Halon 1301, Halon 1211
and Halon 2402. Production of these substances has been phased out due to the impact on the
ozone layer, and usage is also regulated. The system configuration and startup operation are
almost identical to the carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(9) Dry chemical fire extinguisher system

Dry chemical issued from spray heads or nozzles suppresses the fire by means of a
combustion reaction with the powdered agent. Different types of powdered agent may be used
depending on the type of fire. The system requires a pressurizing gas cylinder to feed the dry
chemical under pressure, as well as a cleaning mechanism to clean out the pipes after use.
Figure 1.2.11 shows the general configuration of the Dry chemical extinguisher system.

Dry chemical discharge

warning lamp


Spray head

Pressurized nitrogen gas cylinders Pressure switch

Pressure Safety mechanism

Fixed pressure Control
Selector panel
valve valve

Dry chmical
tank Cylinder
Flow rate control valve valve
Cleaning valve Main
valve Exhaust
Pressure regulator valve valve
Cylinder solenoid
Startup gas cylinder supply
Discharge cylinder

Figure 1.2.11 Configuration of dry chemical fire extinguisher system

(10) Water supply for fire fighting

The water supply is used by the fire department to contain a fire in a large building or
equivalent structure at the stage where the fire is threatening to spread.
Figure 1.2.12 shows the structure of the water supply.

Water outlet
Effective volume
4.5 m max.


Figure 1.2.12 Water supply for fire-fighting purposes

1. Overview

1.2.7 Gas
(1) City gas
Gas installation is performed by the gas company, in accordance with the provisions of the
Gas Utility Industry Law. The calorific value of the gas differs depending on the gas company
and the region. Gas fittings and appliances must be adequately ventilated as required under the
Building Standards Law.
As Figure 1.2.13 shows, city gas is supplied from the place of manufacture to end users via
underground pipes embedded beneath roadways. The gas supply is classified as either low
pressure (below 0.1 MPa), medium pressure (from 0.1 to less than 1 MPa) or high pressure (1
MPa or greater), according to the pressure inside the pipe. Low pressure supply is subject to
supply regulations which stipulate that governors must be installed on pipes to regulate the
Figure 1.2.14 depicts a typical low-pressure supply configuration and Figure 1.2.15 a typical
medium-pressure supply configuration.

Gas kmeter

Governor station Gas holder Industry

Office building and

Governor local-area air
Governor conditioning
pipe Low pressure pipe systems
Apartment buildings
(10 kg/m2= and over) Up to 1 Supply pipe
Governor Homes
Medium pressure kg/cm2
A pipe
Commercial premises
(from 3 to less than 10 kg/cm2)
Gas production Gas valve
plant Medium pressure B pipe

(from 1 to less than 3 kg/cm2)


Manufacturing Supplying
facilities facilities Consumers

Figure 1.2.13 City gas supply system

Property line

Low pressure main

pipe Gas
Gas valve
Meter cock
Shut-off valve

Figure 1.2.14 Typical configuration for low-pressure supply

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

uced gas
Medium pressure
Property line
Gas appliance
Boiler etc. (e.g. boiler)

Filter Meter
User shut-off valve
Emergency valve
Medium pressure
main pipe shut-off valve Equipment

Figure 1.2.15 Typical configuration for medium-pressure supply

1. Overview

(2) LP gas
LP gas, also known as LPG, is the abbreviation for Liquefied Petroleum Gas, and is also used
as a collective term for propane gas and butane gas. Figure 1.2.16 shows a typical LP gas supply
Cylinder installations of 300 kg or over (6 x 50-kg cylinders) are subject to fire department
regulations under Article 9-2 of the Fire Services Law. Installations of 1,000 kg or more (20 x
50-kg cylinders) are classified as storage facilities under the LP Gas Law and must be provided
with adequate separation from adjacent buildings as well as safety barriers or equivalent.
Unlike city gas, LP gas is heavier than air in terms of specific gravity. Gas detectors must
therefore be installed at a height of no more than 30 cm from the floor (see Figure 1.2.17).

Auto switching

Gas cylinder Gas cylinder

Meter Gas valve

Gas appliance

Meter cock

Figure 1.2.16 LP gas supply system

Max. 30 cm
Max 8 m (for
gases lighter than

Gas valve
Gas appliance

Max. 30 Floor
Max. 4 m and as low to the floor
as possible (for gases heavier than

Figure 1.2.17 Location of gas detectors

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

1.3 HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Airconditioning) systems

1.3.1 Types of HVAC systems
Climate control (heating and cooling) refers to the process of regulating temperature, humidity,
air cleanliness and air flow to suit the needs of a specific location.
Climate control systems generally consist of: a heat source such as a boiler or chiller that uses
energy such as fuel or electricity to generate steam or hot or cold water; air conditioning equipment
to heat, cool and/or purify the air; a supply pump or fan to circulate the heating/cooling medium
from the source to the air conditioning equipment, together with associated pipes and ducts; and a
heat/cool storage tank for storing energy.
Depending on the heating/cooling medium, climate control systems are broadly divided into air
only type, combined air and water type, and refrigerant type. Further, the system are divided into
central or individual system, and may be controlled centrally, or by zone, or by individual areas.
Table 1.3.1 lists the different types of climate control systems.
A single building or space is not limited to one type of climate control system. Large buildings
often employ a combination of different systems tailored to the differing needs of individual areas.

Table 1.3.1 Types of climate control systems

Ranking: A (best) > B > C
Initial Power/energy requirements Running Individual
Type Configuration Maintenance Remarks
cost losses (machine costs control
room, ducts)
Low to Mid-range
Single duct A C A A -
medium buildings
Air only
Variable flow High-end
High A C B B -
single duct buildings
Combined fan Offices,
Low to
coil unit duct A B BC B Yes hotels,
(twin pipes) hospitals
Air/water Combined
High A B A B Yes office
Small to
Low to buildings,
Package unit A A AC AC -
medium local systems
refrigerant in large
Building Low to Mid-range
A A AC AC Yes
multi-system medium buildings

1. Overview

(1) Constant flow single duct configuration

Figure 1.3.1 shows how a single duct delivers air from the air conditioning unit to various
rooms. This configuration employs zoning, whereby each zone is provided with a separate air
conditioning unit, and is used to address the temperature and humidity imbalance in large
buildings and buildings with significant variation in thermal load characteristics with respect to
orientation, usage and operating times.

Cooling tower

Return Air

Return Air

Return Air

Outdoor air Return Air


Air conditioning unit

Heat source

Cooling Hot/cold water Air filter Fan

water pump pump Cooling coils
Heating coils
Figure 1.3.1 Constant flow single duct system

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(2) Variable flow single duct system

The variable flow single duct system delivers air from the air conditioning unit at a fixed
temperature, but can adjust the flow rate in each room to suit the load. The variable flow single
duct system normally provides better climate control in individual rooms than the constant flow
As Figure 1.3.2 shows, the end of every duct is fitted with a VAV (Variable Air Volume)
mechanism for controlling the air flow.

Cooling tower

VAV unit

Return Air

VAV unit

Return Air

VAV unit

Return Air

VAV unit

Outdoor air Return Air


Air conditioning unit

Heat source

Cooling water Hot/cold water Air filter Fan

pump pump
Cooling coils
Heating coils


Figure 1.3.2 Variable flow single duct system

1. Overview

(3) Fan coil unit system

The fan coil unit system consists of a compact air conditioning unit with built-in hot and cold
water coils and a fan. Cold or hot water supplied to the unit is used to heat or cool the rooms. As
Figure 1.3.3 shows, this system circulates air internally in rooms, so a separate supply of outside
air is also required. For this reason, fan coil unit systems are often used in combination with
single duct systems.
The fan coil unit system may have two pipes, which requires switching between cold water in
summer and hot water in winter, or four pipes, which allows hot and cold water to be circulated
separately. The system enables heating and cooling all year round with separate temperature
control in every room, and it is widely used in hotels and hospitals. Air conditioning units can
easily be installed beneath the window line along the outer wall of office buildings, known as the
perimeter zone, transferring the external air load via radiant transmitted heat from the window.
Fan coil units may be installed on the floor (either exposed or concealed) or concealed in the

Cooling tower

Fan coil unit Outdoor air


Return Air

Fan coil unit Outdoor air


Return Air

Fan coil unit Outdoor air


Return Air

Fan coil unit Outdoor air

Outdoor air
intake Return Air

Air conditioning

Heat source

Cooling water Hot/cold water

pump pump

Figure 1.3.3 Fan coil unit system (with air conditioning units on each floor)

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(4) Package unit system

The package unit system employs integrated air conditioning units consisting of fan,
refrigeration unit, direct expansion (DX) coils and filters in a single package. The units operate
using either watercooled with a cooling tower or aircooled. The air conditioning unit commonly
employs a heat pump. Figure 1.3.4 shows the package unit configuration (with separate units on
each floor), while Figure 1.3.5 illustrates the internals of a package air conditioning unit.
Package air conditioning unit (outdoor)

air intake

Return Air

air intake

Return Air

air intake

Return Air

air intake

Return Air

Package air
conditioning unit

Figure 1.3.4 Package unit system (installed on every floor)

Exhaust grille

Fan Air supply to room

Operating switches Cooling coils


Refrigeration unit Controller

(sealed type)

Figure 1.3.5 Internals of the package air conditioning unit

1. Overview

(5) Buil-multi system

Compact package units dispersed throughout the building are organized into groups, and each
group is supplied with refrigerant from an outdoor unit. The buil-multi system is relatively
inexpensive and quick and easy to install. It can also be readily reconfigured at a later date to
accommodate changes in load levels and room partitioning layouts. The buil-multi system is
therefore a common choice in small and medium-sized tenanted buildings, and is increasingly
seen in large buildings too. Figure 1.3.6 shows a typical configuration of the buil-multi system.
Buil-multi air conditioning unit

Buil-multi air conditioning units

air intake

Return Air Return Air Return Air Return Air

air intake

Return Air Return Air Return Air Return Air

air intake

Return Air Return Air Return Air Return Air

air intake

Return Air Return Air Return Air Return Air

Figure 1.3.6 Buil-multi system

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(6) Special-use systems

Clean rooms
Air contains harmful substances such as particulate matter and molecular contaminants. A
clean room purifies the air to maintain pollutant levels below a given limit. The materials
supplied to the clean room, including production supplies, chemicals and water, must be of a
similarly high level of purity. In addition to air cleanliness, environmental conditions such as
temperature, humidity and pressure differential in the clean room are also tightly regulated.
Table 1.3.2 shows the different types of filters used to remove contaminants and particulates
from the air, while Table 1.3.3 lists clean room purity classes.

Table 1.3.2 Types of air filters

Name Particulate diameter Collection efficiency
Coarse particulate air filter up to 5 µm 50% - 90%
Mid-range air filter up to 1 µm Up to 95%
HEPA filter 0.3 µm 99.97% - 99.999%
ULPA filter 0.15 µm Over 99.9995%
HEPA:High Efficiency Particulate Air
ULPA:Ultra Low Penetration Air

Table 1.3.3 ISO clean room cleanliness classes (ISO 14644-1)

Fed. Std.209B = U.S. federal standard
ISO Maximum concentration (particles per m3) indicates concentration of particles Fed. Std.
cleanliness of diameter greater than that shown below 209B
class (N) 0.1 µm 0.2 µm 0.1 µm 0.2 µm 5.0μm 0.5 µm
ISO Class 1 10 2
ISO Class 2 100 24 10 4
ISO Class 3 1,000 237 102 35 8 CL 1
ISO Class 4 10,000 2,370 1,020 352 83 CL 10
ISO Class 5 100,000 23,700 10,200 3,520 832 29 CL 100
ISO Class 6 1,000,000 237,000 102,000 35,200 8,320 293 CL 1,000
ISO Class 7 352,000 83,200 2,930 CL 10,000
ISO Class 8 3,520,000 832,000 29,300 CL 100,000
ISO Class 9 35,200,000 8,320,000 293,000

Clean room cleanliness classes as stipulated in ISO 14644-1 are defined by concentrations
of particulates in each size range.
There are four key principles for designing a clean room as follows.
1) Preventing dust from entering the room from outside—enhance building airtightness
2) Removing dust from the room interior—adequate ventilation and high performance
3) Preventing production of dust within the room—low-dust interior finishes
4) Preventing accumulation of dust—constant and uniform air flow, smooth finishes
Figure 1.3.7 shows a typical clean room.

1. Overview

FFU :Fan Filter Unit (fan and filter integrated into a single unit)


Class 3 (0.1 µm particulates) Class 6



Turbulent air flow type

Laminar air flow type RA

Figure 1.3.7 Air flow in the clean room
Source: Clean Room Environment Planning and Design, Japan Air Cleaning Association (JACA)

1.3.2 Ventilation
Natural ventilation utilizes a combination of natural airflow pressure and the buoyancy (or
density variation) generated by temperature variations between the interior and exterior of the
building to promote air exchange. Ventilation flow is not constant, but varies according to the
temperature and the wind speed and direction.
Mechanical ventilation uses fans to maintain a constant ventilation flow. There are three types of
mechanical ventilation, as shown in Figure 1.3.8.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Ventilation Type 1 mechanical ventilation (intake and exhaust by fans)
Mechanical Type 2 mechanical ventilation (intake by fan and exhaust outlet)
Type 3 mechanical ventilation (exhaust by fan and air intake)

Intake fan Exhaust fan Intake fan Exhaust fan


ventilator ventilator
(exhaust) (intake)
Room Room Room
interior interior interior

(a) Type 1 mechanical (b) Type 2 mechanical (c) Type 3 mechanical ventilation
ventilation ventilation

Figure 1.3.8 Mechanical ventilation

Type 1 mechanical ventilation enables regulation of internal air pressure, and is commonly used
for basement boiler and electrical rooms.
Type 2 mechanical ventilation maintains positive air pressure and ensures a consistent supply of
Type 3 mechanical ventilation keeps the room at negative air pressure and is suitable for toilets
(to contain smells), bathrooms (to contain water vapor) and areas where toxic gases are used (to
prevent the spread of contaminants).
Table 1.3.4 lists ventilation standards as required under legislations.
The external air intake port must be located a suitable distance from the exhaust outlet port to
prevent contamination of the air intake. Where possible, the two ports should be installed on
different walls. In cases where both ports are installed on the same wall, there should be a
separation of at least ten meters between the ports. If the ports are located on the rooftop, there
should be a horizontal separation of at least ten meters to ensure that the exhaust air is properly
dispersed and prevent contamination of intake air.

1. Overview

Table 1.3.4 Required ventilation equipment (Building Standards Law Article 28 and
associated ordinances Article 20-4)

Room Ventilation volume Requirement Relevant legislation

floor area (m )
• Mechanical ventilation (types 1 to 3) Building Standards Law
Habitable 20 x occupied area per person m3/h min.
• If no windows for ventilation and occupied area Enforcement Ordinances
rooms (m2/person)
per person is max. 10 m2 Article 20-2

floor area (m2)

20 x occupied area per person m3/h min. • Mechanical ventilation (types 1 to 3)
(m2/person) • Occupied area per person is max. 3 m2
(theaters and
cinemas) and
seating areas of 75 m3/h m2 • Total floor area
public halls 400 m2 or more: type 1 ventilation Building Standards Law
Where air conditioning is used, total air flow is 75
3 2 150 – 400 m2: type 2 ventilation Enforcement Ordinances
m /h m
3 2 up to 150 m2: type 3 ventilation Article 20-3
External air flow is 25 m /h m
All basement areas require type 1 ventilation
• Floor area
30 m3/h m2 Tokyo Metropolitan
1,000 m2 or more: type 1 ventilation
Underground Where air conditioning is used, total air flow is 30 Construction Safety
3 2 Less than 1,000 m2: type 2 ventilation
structures m /h m Regulations
3 2 NB: Does not apply to basement floors of ordinary
External air flow is 10 m /h m Articles 56, 57 and 59
Tokyo Metropolitan
Indoor work • When air volume per person is no more than 10
Construction Safety
areas (offices 30 m3/h m2 m3 or window area is no more than 5% of floor
etc.) area
Article 73 parts 23 and 24
Occupational Safety and
Health Regulations
• When area of windows or other openings is no
Minimum air change = 10 times/hr Articles 577, 600 and 601
Indoor car more than 5% of floor area
Health Standards for
Offices Articles 2 – 5
Enforcement Ordinances
• When floor area is 500 m2 or over and window
Min. 25 m3/h m2 relative to floor area of the Parking Facilities
area is no more than 10% of floor area
Law, Article 12
Tokyo Metropolitan
40 x theoretical waste gas volume x fuel • Mechanical ventilation (ventilation fans or Construction Safety
consumption equivalent) Regulations
Kitchens and Article 31-2
other areas 30 x theoretical waste gas volume x fuel
using naked consumption
Ministry of Construction
flames 20 x theoretical waste gas volume x fuel • Mechanical ventilation with hood (where hood is
Notification No. 1326
consumption exhaust hood stipulated in official notification)
NB: Theoretical waste gas volumes are stipulated
in Table 8-2.
High Pressure Gas Safety
Machine rooms
Min. 0.4 m3/min per ton of legally required Natural ventilation: effective opening area of 0.03 Law refrigeration
as defined in
refrigeration capacity m2/ton and larger equipment standards
the High
For details, refer to relevant local government • Tokyo Metropolitan Government recommends (voluntary standards from
Pressure Gas
regulations mechanical ventilation the Institute for High
Safety Law
Pressure Gas Safety)

1.3.3 Smoke exhaust

Smoke and gas generated by combustion or burning of combustible materials has potential heath
impacts and can also reduce visibility along evacuation routes. Smoke exhaust equipment is
required by law for protection during a fire and also to ensure safe access to evacuation routes (see
Table 1.3.5). The Building Standards Law requires smoke exhaust equipment in order to ensure
safe access to evacuation routes, while the Fire Services Law requires exhaust equipment to
minimize obstruction of fire-fighting activities.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(1) Design standards for smoke exhaust equipment

Table 1.3.5 Design standards for smoke exhaust equipment (1)

Buildings and sections thereof Buildings and sections thereof Sections of buildings where smoke
where installation of smoke exhaust exempt from smoke exhaust does not descend to a level that
equipment is mandatory (Article 35, equipment requirements would cause obstruction during
Enforcement Ordinances Article (Enforcement Ordinances Article evacuation (Smoke exhaust
126-2) 126-2) Exemptions: Construction
Notification No. 1436 and No. 4)
1. Designated special buildings 1) Sections of hospitals and other Parts Construction Notification No.1
((a) through (d) below )with facilities defined in (b) having through 3 are omitted due to
total floor area over 500 m2 either semi-fireproof floors and relaxation of smoke exhaust
(a) Theaters, cinemas, music walls or fire-fighting facilities mechanism as opposed to outright
halls, exhibition spaces, as stipulated in Article 2 Part exemption from smoke exhaust
public halls and 9-2 (b) and floor area of up to equipment requirements.
auditoriums 100 m2 (200 m2 for dwellings in 1) Rooms in buildings of height up
(b) Hospitals, clinics (where residential apartment buildings) to 31 m (excluding rooms of
used to accommodate 2) Schools, gymnasiums, bowling habitation) with walls, ceilings
patients), hotels and inns, centers, ski fields, skate centers, and interior surfaces finished in
board and lodging pools and sports grounds semi-nonflammable materials,
facilities, residential 3) Stairwells, elevator shafts where openings facing rooms of
apartment buildings, (including elevator lobbies) and habitation and fire escape doors
dormitories, child welfare equivalent are fitted with fire-prevention
facilities 4) Sections where smoke caused equipment as stipulated in
(c) Schools, gymnasiums, by a fire does not descend to a Enforcement Ordinances Article
museums, art galleries, level causing obstruction during 112 Section 14 Part 1 and other
libraries, bowling centers, evacuation and where the openings are fitted with doors or
ski fields, skate centers, ceiling height and wall and screens (Part 4 (c) 1))
pools, sports grounds ceiling finish materials conform NB: Provided for the primary
(d) Department stores, to Ministry of Land, purpose of the purpose fulfilled
markets, exhibition centers, Infrastructure and Transport by the designated special
cabarets, cafes, nightclubs, requirements (Construction building as listed in Appendix
bars, dance halls, gaming Notification No. 1436 (2000)) Table 1 column (b), excluding
centers, public baths, underground sections (same
meeting spaces, restaurants applies to 2), 3) and 4) below)
and drinking 2) Rooms in buildings of height up
establishments, retail to 31 m (excluding rooms of
facilities (floor area > 10 habitation) with floor area of up
m2) to 100 m2 delineated with smoke
barriers as per Enforcement
Ordinances Article 126-2 Part 1
(Part 4 (c) 2))
3) Rooms of habitation in buildings
of height up to 31 m, delineated
in areas of up to 100 m2 with
semi-fireproof floors and walls
or fireproof equipment as per
Enforcement Ordinances Article
112 Section 14 Part 1, where
walls and ceilings are finished
with semi-nonflammable
materials (Part 4 (c) 3))
4) Rooms of habitation in buildings
of height up to 31 m having
floor area of up to 100 m2,
where walls and ceilings are
finished with nonflammable
materials and associated furring
areas are made from
nonflammable materials (Part 4
(c) 4))

1. Overview

Table 1.3.5 Design standards for exhaust equipment (2)

Buildings and sections thereof Buildings and sections thereof Sections of buildings where smoke
where installation of smoke exhaust exempt from smoke exhaust does not descend to a level that
equipment is mandatory (Article 35, equipment requirements would cause obstruction during
Enforcement Ordinances Article (Enforcement Ordinances Article evacuation (Smoke exhaust
126-2) 126-2) Exemptions: Construction
Notification No. 1436 and No. 4
5) Rooms in buildings of height
over 31 m having floor area of
up to 100 m2 featuring fireproof
floors or walls or fitted with fire
prevention equipment as per
Enforcement Ordinances Article
112 Section 14 Part 1, where
walls and ceilings are finished
with semi-nonflammable
materials (Part 4 (b))
6) Storage or disposal facilities for
hazardous materials, vehicle
storage facility, communication
equipment room, textile factory
and similar facilities as
stipulated in Article 27, Section
2 Part 2) equipped with
nonflammable gas fire
extinguishers or dry chemical
extinguishers (Part 4 (b))
2. Buildings with three or more 1), 2), 3) and 4) above 1), 2), 3), 4), 5) and 6) above
floors and total floor area over 5) Rooms of habitation in
500 m2 buildings of height up to 31 m
where each section of floor area
no greater than 100 m2 is
delineated with smoke barriers
6) Machinery production plants,
warehouses used for storage of
nonflammable materials, and
equivalent facilities where the
main structure is made from
nonflammable materials
3. Rooms of habitation where 1), 2), 4) and 5) above 3), 4) and 5) above
opening windows (up to 80 cm 7) Rooms of habitation in buildings
from ceiling surface) constitute with no more than two floors
less than 2% of floor area and total floor area of up to 200
m2 (applies to both residential
apartments and row house), with
ventilating windows and
openings having an area of no
less than 5% of the floor area
(Part 4 (b))
4. Rooms of habitation with floor 5) above 3) and 5) above
area of over 200 m2 in buildings
with total floor area of over
1,000 m2

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(2) Structural standards for smoke exhaust equipment

Table 1.3.6 outlines structural standards for smoke exhaust equipment.

Table 1.3.6 Structural standards for smoke exhaust equipment (1)

Enforcement Ordinances Articles 126-2 and 126-3, Construction Notifications No. 1829 (1970) and No. 1436 (2000) parts 1, 2 and 3)
Category Key requirements Remarks
Smoke barrier  Smoke barrier must extend at least 50 • Smoke barrier must be of length
cm from the ceiling in a downward 50 and more, 80 and less cm
direction (Enforcement Ordinances measured from the ceiling
Article 126-2) surface
• Where exhaust port is provided in wall,
smoke barrier must extend to the lower
end of the exhaust port (Enforcement
Ordinances Article 126-3 Section 1 Part
Smoke compartment Floor area ≤ 500 m2 (Enforcement • Theaters, public halls and similar
Ordinances Article 126-3 Section 1 Part 1) facilities with ceiling heights of 3
m or more and minimum exhaust
capacity of 1 m3/min per m2 of
floor space (Construction
Notification No. 1436-2 (2000))
Position on flat Horizontal distance from all areas of the
plane Smoke compartment≤ 30 m (Enforcement
Ordinances Article 126-3 Section 1 Part 3)
Elevation position Maximum 80 cm from ceiling with length • Where ceiling height is 3 m or
no greater than smoke barrier more, at least 50% of ceiling
(Enforcement Ordinances Article 126-3 height and at least 2.1 m from
Section 1 Part 3) floor level (Construction
Notification No. 1436-3 (2000))
Size of exhaust Effective exhaust area of window to
port for natural outside ≥ floor area of Smoke
exhaust compartment x 1/50 (Enforcement
Ordinances Article 126-3 Section 1 Part 8)
Mechanical Exhaust flow rate ≥ floor area of Smoke • Exhaust port remains closed at all
exhaust system compartment x 1 m3/min (Enforcement times unless opened manually or
with normally Ordinances Article 126-3 Section 1 Part 9) by a detector or remote operation
closed exhaust port (Enforcement Ordinances Article
126-3 Section 1 Part 6)
Exhaust ports

Smoke exhaust equipment is

activated when the exhaust port
is opened (Enforcement
Ordinances Article 126-3 Section
1 Part 9)
Mechanical • Dedicated exhaust port (one for
exhaust system each Smoke compartment)
with normally open remains open at all times and
exhaust port equipment is activated manually
(Construction Notification No.
1436-1 (2000))
Manually opened, Height from floor of manually operated
manually activated device
Wall mounted: 1.5 m≤ h ≤ 0.8 m
Suspended from ceiling: h = 1.8 m approx.
(Enforcement Ordinances Article 126-3
Section 1 Part 5)
Other Must be made from nonflammable
(Enforcement Ordinances Article 126-3
Section 1 Part 2)

1. Overview

Table 1.3.6 Structural standards for exhaust equipment (2)

Category Key requirements Remarks
Smoke exhaust ducts • Must be made from nonflammable • Where fire dampers are installed
materials (Enforcement Ordinances on sections passing through
Article 126-3 Section 1 Part 2) fireproof zone, minimum plate
• Ceiling cavity, loft or equivalent must thickness = 0.5 mm
be provided with thermal insulation • Where fire dampers are not
(Enforcement Ordinances Article 126-3 installed on sections passing
Section 1 Part 7, Article 115 Section 1 through fireproof zone,
Part 3) minimum plate thickness = 1.5
• Fusing temperature of fusible
fire dampers is 280° C (New
Technical Guidelines for Smoke
exhaust Equipment)
Smoke exhaust fan Smoke exhaust discharge capacity Q • Smoke exhaust system must
• Single Smoke compartment have discharge capacity of at
Q = Smoke compartment area x 1 least 120 m3/min irrespective of
m /min minimum and no less than 120 the area of the fire zone
m3/min • If the Smoke compartment area
• Two or more Smoke compartments is 500 m2, smoke exhaust
Q = largest Smoke compartment area x discharge capacity is
2 m3/min minimum and no less than 500 m2 x 2 m3/min
120 m /min = 1,000 m3/min
(Enforcement Ordinances Article 126-3
Section 1 Part 9)
Smoke exhaust discharge capacity Q • Applicable to theaters, public
Q = combined area of Smoke halls other facilities listed in
compartment x 1 m3/min minimum and Enforcement Ordinances Article
no less than 500 m3/min (Construction 112 Section 1 Part 1 with ceiling
Notification No. 1436 (2) (2000)) heights of 3 m or more
Exhaust ports • The location and orientation of
exhaust ports used by smoke
exhaust systems must be
designed to prevent any impact
on adjacent buildings and to
prevent obstruction to
evacuation and fire-fighting
activities during a fire (New
Technical Guidelines for
Exhaust Equipment)
Backup power supply In the event of an interruption to the • A backup power line is not
normal power supply, the backup power required if there is an automatic
supply automatically switches on. This diesel generator system for
consists of either storage batteries with power interruptions. Fuel must
capacity for at least 30 minutes of power be stored in an appropriate
supply or a stand-by generator system. fireproof zone.
(Enforcement Ordinances Article 126-3
Section 1 Part 10)
(Construction Notification No. 1829

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(3) Basic evacuation safety verification

Table 1.3.7 summarizes the procedure for verification of basic evacuation safety in connection
with performance standards for smoke exhaust systems.

Table 1.3.7 Performance standards for smoke exhaust systems (basic evacuation safety

This diagram illustrates procedures for verifying the exemption conditions under (1) Performance standards for smoke exhaust
systems in relation to (4) When smoke has not descended to a height that would obstruct evacuation during a fire.
The evacuation safety appraisal involves determining the time taken to complete an evacuation during a fire (the evacuation
completion time) and the time taken for smoke and/or gases generated by the fire to descend to a level that begins to cause
obstruction directly through stairwells (the smoke descent time). This is calculated for individual rooms, individual floors, and for
the building in its entirety. If the evacuation completion time is shorter than the smoke descent time, then evacuation safety
appraisal is satisfied (see Figure 1).

Building evacuation safety appraisal

Evacuation safety appraisal

Evacuation of room affected by fire Evacuation of floor affected by fire Evacuation of entire building

Room specifications Evacuation route specifications Pit-dwelling and evacuation

(1) Purpose of use (1) Location and number of floor specifications
stairs (1) Locaiton and number of
(2) Floor area (2) Location and area of stairs
(3) Ceiling height corridors (2) Performance ratings of
(3) Performance ratings of walls/barriers and doors
(4) Room finishes walls/barriers and doors (fireproof, smokeproof,
(5) Position/ number/ (fireproof, smokeproof, etc.)
width of doors etc.) (3) Evacuation route of

Calculating the evacuation time from rooms of Calculating the Calculating the
habitation tescape evacuation time from evacuation time from
(1) Start of evacuation (tescape)t the whole floor (tescape) the entire building
(2) Walking time ttravel (ttravel) (1) Start of evacuation (tescape)
(3) Time to pass through exit (tqueue) (tstart) (1) Start of evacuation
(2) Walking time (tstart)
(ttravel) (2) Walking time
(3) Time to pass (ttravel)
through exit (3) Time to pass
(tqueue) through exit

Requirements of
Requirements of Requirements of smoke
smoke exhaust system
smoke exhaust system exhaust system in
in room pit-dwelling and
on evacuation route
(1) Type of system evacuation floors
(1) Type of system
(2) Capacity of (1) Type of system
(2) Capacity of
system (2) Capacity of system

Calculating the smoke Calculating the smoke Calculating the smoke

descent time (ts) descent time (ts) descent time ts

If conducting
evaluation of entire
Room safety Whole floor safety building
appraisal: Entire building safety
appraisal: appraisal:
tescape ≤ ts ? tescape ≤ ts ? tescape ≤ ts ?

End End

Figure 1 Evacuation safety appraisal procedure

The notification on evacuation safety appraisal procedures assume that individuals are capable of evacuating without
assistance. It is not applicable to hospitals and other facilities where people may require assistance.

2. Construction preparations

2. Construction preparations

2.1 Posture of site manager

The success of a construction project depends not just on the skills of the on-site workers but also
on the planning expertise of the construction manager, the selection of subcontractors, and the skills
of the on-site leaders of each process. Only when all of these individuals are able to exercise their
competencies to the fullest is it possible to provide the client with a building completed to a high
level of quality.
Plumbing and air conditioning systems have become increasingly complex and multi-functional
as the technology becomes increasingly advanced and specialized. While installation processes are
most important, identifying and resolving potential conflict issues at the earliest possible stage
through such things as coordination of M&E work with overall building construction is also vital to
construction process quality. To this end, construction management by on-site construction
managers requires integration and coordination of building construction and M&E work processes.

2.2 Drawings and specifications study

The quality standards required by the client are conveyed to the construction managers in the
form of the design quality incorporated in the drawings and specifications. A thorough study of the
drawings is required in order to understand the design requirements.
The purpose of studying the drawings is to gain an understanding of the drawings and
specifications ahead of the actual construction process and an appreciation of the design
requirements. The study is also used to identify potential nonconformities that might occur during
construction and develop associated construction strategies and countermeasures.
In particular, it is important to identify at the earliest possible stage any potential issues that may
arise in connection with coordination of and contact between building construction and M&E work
processes, as mentioned above. These can then be incorporated into the construction schedule.
Checking methods include the Construction and M&E Work Coordination Checklist and the
Construction Preparations Checklist.

2.3 Site survey

There are many aspects that cannot be readily determined from the design drawings. The site
survey is used to investigate the site conditions, the surrounding area (including roads, traffic
conditions and local characteristics) and weather conditions. A site survey of utilities such as mains
water, sewerage, gas and electricity is conducted at the design stage. This is checked for
consistency with the design.

An important part of the site survey is to check the details on the building permit documentation
and provide feedback to Kajima managers responsible for M&E work as well as the relevant

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

The following aspects are investigated prior to commencement of construction.

(1) General
i. Local by-laws
Check by-laws and guidelines issued by local governments to ensure that these have been
properly incorporated into the drawings and specifications.
ii. Site conditions
Check the physical condition and features of the proposed construction site area and the general
environment, particularly with respect to the impact on drainage capacity of height differences
within the site area.
iii. Transport access
The state of the road network will have a major impact on delivery of materials and
transportation of large M&E equipment.
iv. Ground type, water table and weather conditions
These factors impact on processes such as excavation for wastewater treatment pits and oil tanks,
pipe laying, and the selection of pipe materials.
v. Maximum and minimum air temperatures
The outside temperature can cause pipes and tanks to freeze over, and can impact on insulation
vi. Seasonal changes in wind direction
The wind direction influences the design and location of discharge vents from wastewater
treatment and the ventilation system of the building, as well as intake grilles and stacks.
vii. Potential impact of changes to regulatory standards on major renovations and building
expansions (enforcement of new regulations)
viii. Impact of noise generated by building equipment and facilities on the surrounding area, and
impact of ambient noise on the building
ix. Impact of air pollution
(2) Water supplies and fire-protection equipment
i. Location of main water supply pipe
Where a main water supply pipe is used, the location and depth of the pipe, the pipe diameter and
materials, the water pressure, and the water supply by-laws and other regulations applicable to
the site.
ii. If a well is used instead of mains water, the location, capacity and water quality at existing
wells in the vicinity.
iii. Requirements pertaining to fire-protection equipment should be determined through
consultation with the local fire department. Note the comments on building permit application.
(3) Wastewater
i. Wastewater main pipe (where used) and type, diameter, depth and location of sewerage pipes.
ii. Wastewater treatment (if used) and the location and depth of wastewater pipes and side gutters
and wastewater treatment standards.

2. Construction preparations

iii. Main sewerage pipe laying construction plan (where applicable) and associated schedule.
(4) Gas equipment
Main gas pipe (where used) and type of gas, depth and location of pipe, pipe diameter and gas
As part of the survey at the design stage, the M&E work site survey document (connection to
utilities) is used to confirm details of water supply connection, wastewater connection and gas
connection prior to commencement of installation work.
If Pre-Commencement Consultation Application documents have been submitted to
authorities, these should also be confirmed.

2.4 Confirmation of M&E subcontractor formation

On-site managers from the M&E subcontractors should be trustworthy and responsible engineers
with the required level of experience and expertise in the relevant area of specialization. For this
reason, M&E subcontractors, once selected, are required to immediately submit a Notification of
Commencement of M&E Work (see Table 2.4.1) providing information about the projects
experiences, licences, organization, quality control officers. And those information shall also be
confirmed by site construction manager.

To Kajima Corporation Date Management Structure

Company Stamp
Quality control
M&E work commencement (quality assurance) Constructio
notification n manager
Table 2.4.1


Scope of work: electrical/Plumbing/air conditioning/other Safety

Contract period: from .................... to ..................... management representative

Main Name Stamp

We commit to carry out this work with responsibility in accordance with the
23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Construction Management Plan of Individual M&E Installation and the Order Address
Conditions Document under the management structure shown on the right.

Sub Date of birth (Age: )
Builder Licence No.
Highest level of education achieved Year
Waste disposal
team Years experience in construction (after joining the company)
Trader code
Formal licences

Basic Contract number Sales team Main projects Year completed

Position Construction company
(Licences not
Legend Department
Notification of commencement of M&E work

Name Home telephone

Division manager Deputy manager Construction section Construction supervisor


Document No. 961021 To be submitted within two weeks of agreement
Kajima corporation
2. Construction preparations

2.5 Confirmation of scope of work

Check the details of the design drawings, specifications, special note on Q&A document and
other documentation to ascertain the delineation between building construction and M&E work, the
delineation between the various M&E works and delineation from out of scope and supplies. These
delineations are very important in the budgeting process, so it is important to confer about them
through documentation rather than verbally.
In case of Kajima’s design/built uses the estimation classification table shown in Table 2.5.1, so
this is used as the basis for checking.
Table 2.5.1 Estimation Classification Table (extract)
 denotes applicable ( O denotes not applicable and out of scope)
Estimation Classification Table
Abbreviation: A = architectural, S = structure, E = electrical, T = elevators, P = Plumbing, M = heating/cooling


Out of scope

Description Remarks

(1) Common A/S E T P M O

1 Temporary power, water, sewerage and gas connections (including connection fees and usage)      Allocate to related work
Connection fees for permanent power, main water supply and main sewerage
2     Fees are included in architectural scope.
Fee for joining the sewerage system
3 Base charges after connection to power, water and sewerage up until handover to client   
4 Charges for power usage after connection up until handover to client   
5 Charges for water and sewerage usage up until handover to client  
6 Permanent gas connection and associated fees 
7 Charges for gas usage up until handover to client   
8 Applications fee directly related to construction       Allocate to related work
9 Applications, notifications and registrations fee not directly related to construction 
Rectifying interference with television reception in surrounding areas and associated costs
10 
(including survey expenses)
11 Costs associated with prevention and/or resolution of conflicts with neighboring parties 
Changes and modifications as instructed by authorities (typically arising from hazardous
12 
materials permit and building permit)
13 Cost of removing unforeseen large buried objects 
14 Permanent telephone systems and connections and associated fees and charges 
15 Network system equipments (including LAN equipment)  
16 Cabling for network systems (including LANs)  
17 Kitchen equipment   
18 Heating and cooling systems dedicated for kitchen   
19 Kitchen hot water systems   
20 Pipes, ducts and hoods for kitchen equipments   
Fire-protection equipment for ducts, panel boards and secondary wiring to kitchen equipments
21  
(primary side power is included in main construction)
22 Audio and video systems 
23 Power, telephone and LAN outlets under OA floor (including cabling)  Zone boxes are category “E”
24 Cost of having the supervising electrical engineer supervise the connection to incoming power 
25 Cost of rectifying areas with poor mobile phone reception 
26 Installation and contract costs for CATV systems 
27 Equipment and cabling for security system   Conduit is category “E”
28 As-built drawing      Coordination is category “A”
29 Completion photographs 
30 Relocation of power poles 
31 Rectification of internal areas with poor mobile phone reception 
32 Heat source for regional heating and cooling system 

(2) Miscellaneous A/S E T S M A

1 Internal signage (room names, stairwell, entrances and exits, information boards, etc.)  
2 Special-purpose signs  
3 Signage lighting    Power supply is category “E”
4 Stairwell displays, entrance and exit displays, information boards  Emergency exit light is category “E”
Name tag and marker are installed by
5 Name tag and marker for M&E equipment, pipes and cables   
category where those are required
6 Danger warnings (black and yellow stripes), preventing collision 
7 Line marking in indoor parking areas, roads and corridors 
8 Snow melting heaters (roads, rooftop, rain gutter)   
9 Evacuation apparatus 
10 Fire hydrant box doors (steel panels, stone cladding) 
11 Fire extinguisher boxes 
12 Fire extinguishers 
13 Blinds, roll blinds, curtains  Boxes are category “A”
14 Electric blinds, electric roll blinds  
Conduits and cables are “E” while
15 Pipes, cables and auto controllers for the above   
automatic control is “M”
16 Screen boxes   
17 Air quality measurement  
18 Floor level adjusters other than floor heating panels 
19 Bonding between grounding system and curtain walls for lightning protection  

(3) Other A/S E T P M

1 Furniture installation 
2 Ice thermal storage installation  Contracted out to TEPCO
3 Front road walkway undercut and landscaping work 
4 Cost of treating contaminated soil within site area 

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

2.6 Permit procedures

Permit and approval applications and notifications to government authorities can have a major
bearing on the progress of construction. It is important to ensure that all applications and
notifications are submitted on time.
M&E work is governed by a variety of different laws, regulations and local by-laws, and it can
be very difficult to keep abreast of them all. Though subcontractors act as proxy under the
leadership of the M&E staff, it is ultimately the responsibility of the site manager to be aware of the
deadlines for application procedures within the context of the overall construction process.
Submission to contractors as part of the construction planning documents is mandatory, so it is
worth checking at least the title and deadline of notifications.
Table 2.6.1Permit and approval applications and notifications (■ = required, □ = not required)

NB: Normally these documents must be signed or stamped by either the client or Kajima
Corporation. Local by-laws are shown for Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Example is
for a new office building. Other information included as required.

2. Construction preparations

2.7 Construction scheduling

Construction scheduling is used to ensure that all required processes are executed within the
required timeframe as economically, efficiently and safely as possible. To this end, the managers of
the relevant processes are brought together prior to commencement to discuss the requirements of
different processes and draw up a process schedule designed to accommodate all requirements with
minimum wastage.
Before drawing up detailed construction process charts, the site manager checks the following
points and prepares a general process chart showing how the various processes are to be
1) The state of the preparation of the shop drawings for related processes with respect to the size
and difficulty level of the building.
2) Application procedures and inspection schedules, particularly the date of power receiving,
inspections by government authorities, and connection to mains water and sewerage.
3) Delivery dates for materials and equipment, number of days required for approval, method
delivery and scheduled delivery date.
4) New technology and construction techniques; scheduling of and coordination between
different construction processes.
5) Coordination with previous and subsequent processes as well as concurrent processes.
6) Timing of transfer from temporary to permanent facilities.
7) Timing of permanent power receiving.
8) Timing of test and commissioning of all machinery, equipment and systems.
9) Scheduling of “out of scope work”, “equipment furnished by others” and associated schedules
(ie. delivery dates).

2.8 Coordination of others scope of work

Installation of plumbing and heating/cooling system involves a wide range of highly complex
processes, and it is most important to ensure that these are properly coordinated with other
construction processes through negotiation in order to prevent omissions and duplication. To this
end, issues with the potential to impact on the architectural plan or on the structural system should
be investigated at the earliest possible stage. To ensure proper coordination with other construction
processes, Coordination Drawings illustrating the interrelationship between building work and
M&E work should be prepared, showing basic details such as position, height, detail and
The Coordination Drawings provide plan views and internal elevation drawings of individual
rooms or entire floors, based on the information in the design drawings, which are divided into
separate drawings for architecture, structure and M&E. The Coordination Drawings provide an
overview of the interrelationships between all construction processes, and are used to prepare the
shop drawings with greater efficiency and accuracy.
The following considerations are taken into account in the preparation of the Coordination

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(1) Configuration of equipment location
i Positioning of air diffusers and air inlets
ii Location of fire alarm detectors and sprinkler heads
iii Location of lighting fixtures; illuminance at floor level
iv Relation of switches, socketoutlets with partitions and orientation of doors
v Relation of equipment support rods with ducts and pipes
vi Intersection of ducts and pipes
vii Joins in ceiling finish materials relative to location of fixtures and devices
viii Joins in marble and other stone finishes relative to location of fixtures and devices
(2) Internal ceiling space
i Priority of installation of equipment in ceiling space (wastewater pipes → ducts →
plumbing and air conditioning pipes → fire-protection pipes → conduits)
ii Under beam dimensions, duct height and height and dimensions of recessed mounted
iii Coordinate route of ducts, pipes and conduits connected to equipment
iv Relation of recessed mounted equipment with ducts and pipes
v Beam height and sleeves for M&E work
(3) Location of fixtures installed on/in floor
i Location of Japanese-style toilets relative to structural beams
ii Location of pipes connected to fixtures and structural beams (such as floor-mounted fan
iii Location of floor-mounted socketoutlets
iv Location of floor-mounted fan coils and floor mounted socket outlets for relative fancoil
(4) Equipment spaces (DS, PS, EPS)
i Working space between ducts and pipes
ii Space for inspection and maintenance of valves and dampers
iii Location and dimensions of inspection access hatches
iv Design considerations to enable future M&E equipment renewals
(5) Other
i Delineation of fire zones and smoke zones
ii Structural check of heavy equipment and machinery
iii Installation hook bolts, effective width and height of machine hatches, corridor doors and
stairs on routes used to transport heavy equipments
iv With or without door louvers (where needed) and check for effective area of louvers

3. Initial construction phase

3. Initial construction phase

3.1 Construction management — key points

Construction management involves on-site management as well as site operations management.
It is important to have a clear understanding of the differing objectives of these two areas, and to
appreciate the relative importance of all construction processes, and to always strive to use the
limited time and organizational structure with optimum efficiency and to prevent omission of key
By having a proper understanding of the target quality, it is possible to accurately appraise the
salient aspects and determine the key management points, with reference to the following items:
1) Approve appointment of M&E work managers
2) Receipt documentation for M&E work estimation
3) Implement examination of drawings
4) Plan and report of M&E work operations policy
5) Register data in M&E work database
6) Attend design briefing upon commencement of construction
7) Organize meetings to examine drawings
8) Prepare M&E work operational budget
9) Select sub-contractors
10) Confirm sub-contractors’ project organization
11) Organize briefing meeting at commencement of M&E work
12) Select M&E equipment suppliers
13) Prepare M&E work execution plan
14) Attend Work Preparations Committee (overall construction)
15) Screening of Preliminary Work Preparations Committee (M&E work)
16) Launch the M&E Work construction Committee

3.2 Prepare shop drawings

The shop drawings constitute a more detailed representation of the drawings and specifications
and are used as the work instructions provided to workers. However the shop drawings cannot
provide absolutely all the required information, so they must be read in conjunction with the
construction guidelines and standard details. Preparations for the shop drawings include: drawing
up a schedule for preparation of the shop drawings to prevent delays in construction processes;
confirming building structure, regulatory standards and coordination with other works and
processes; and determining the scale, dimensions, symbols and notifications used for materials.
Symbols and notifications should be consistent with the design drawings and specifications. The
key requirements of the shop drawings are listed below.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

1) Location and dimensions of sleeves and supporting materials

2) M&E equipment installation drawings (Consider for maintenance and replacement
3) Areas requiring complex coordination with other works
4) Important details illustrating key functionality
5) Overall construction details
Prior to making the shop drawings, it is necessary to prepare floor and ceiling layout drawings
(showing lighting fixtures, air diffusers, sprinklers, socketoutlets and telephone outlets), wall layout
drawings (showing socketoutlets, switches, water outlets, toilet fittings, basins, sinks and heating
and cooling control panels,) and exterior wall layout drawings (showing outside lights, vent caps
and air intake and exhaust outlets). The layout drawings must be approved by the relevant staffs
before commencing work on the shop drawings.
The shop drawings are checked in accordance with the M&E Shop Drawings Checklist.

3.3 Checking of delivered equipment specifications

The drawings and specifications generally describe the functions of the M&E
equipment specified therein, but may not always provide full details. For this reason,
it is important to either prepare shop drawings prior to fabrication of M&E
equipment, or to obtain samples and check these against the drawings and
specifications. Construction staff and M&E staff check the equipment shop drawings
using the following lists.
(1) Checklist used by construction staff
i. Installation location of equipment and date of delivery
ii. Type of packaging, installation method, delivery method, weight and dimensions
iii. Carry out after completion (where applicable)
iv. Finish color
(2) Checklist used by M&E staff
i. Selected manufacturer
ii. Equipment functionality (check against drawings and specifications)
iii. Coordination with other equipment (power requirements, alarms, water pressure and
water volume)
iv. Weight and dimensions
v. Finish specifications (exterior finish, equipment foundations/base, nuts and bolts, color
scheme and coordination with surrounds)
vi. Maintenancebility (including future overhaul or replacement)
vii. Regulatory requirements
viii. Vibration damping and anti-earthquake specifications (check against drawings and
ix. Packaging for delivery, lifting hooks and anchor bolts

3. Initial construction phase

x. Noise and vibration levels

The M&E equipment Delivery Specifications Checklist is used for checking equipment delivery

3.4 Selection of equipment and materials

(1) Where there are multiple equipment and materials manufacturers, technological standards
will have a major bearing on equipment performance and ongoing maintenance, so the following
criteria should be borne in mind when selecting manufacturers.

○ Technological capabilities
○ Financial resources
○ Capital structure (corporate grouping)
○ Previous performance
○ Business relationship (Give and take etc.)
○ New products
○ Geographical factors

(2) Where the equipment or material manufacturer is not specified, documentation on the quality
and performance of the equipment or materials should be submitted for approval by the
architect/engineer or the client.
(3) Where the equipment or material quality requirements are not specified in the drawings or
specifications, the quality standard should be selected in accordance with other materials used in
the project.
Equipment and materials should be selected on the basis of ratings and standards such as JIS
(Japanese Industrial Standard), Japan Water Works Association (JWWA), fire department certified
products, the Society of Heating, Air-conditioning and Sanitary Engineers of Japan (SHASE) and
BL certified products.

3.5 Line marking

Line marking is performed in accordance with the shop drawings using column lines, column
centers, wall centers and floor level markings as reference. The markings are used to indicate the
final location of equipment and fittings such as pipes, ducts, plumbing fixtures and fire hydrant
boxes, based on the construction reference markings.

3.6 Sleeves, box out and opening reinforcement

3.6.1 Sleeves and box out
(1) Beam sleeves
i. For non-circular sleeve configurations, the diameter of the opening through which the beam
passes shall be defined as the diagonal line as shown in Figure 3.6.1.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Diameter Diameter Diameter

Figure 3.6.1 Measuring the diameter of beam openings

ii. Sleeves may be fabricated from steel pipe, steel sheeting, rigid PVC pipe or paper. Sleeves
should be secured to formwork to prevent movement during concrete pouring. For more
information, refer to the Construction Equipment Standards Detail.
iii. The location shall be at the center of the beam where the shear force is smallest (normally near
the center of the span).
iv. In the Kajima Corporation Construction Equipment Standard Detail, the hole position is
defined as shown in Figure 3.6.2.
v. Sleeves attached for the purpose of future use should be sealed and sheathed in nonflammable
material where passing through a fireproof zone.

3. Initial construction phase

D/3 and 150 D/4 and 150 Must not pass through here


Figure 3.6.2 Preferred area for RC crossbeam opening

(2) Box out in wall

i. The box out should be strong enough to withstand deformation and damage during concrete
pouring and should be reinforced with timber or steel members as shown in Figure 3.6.3 if the
width is 500 mm or greater. If the width is 800 mm or greater, ventilation holes must also be

1.1 Wooden 1.2 Insert ductitself 1.3 Steel sheeting 1.4 Box width 800 mm or more
(duct box) (internal flange)

Reinforcing Void or spiral

section steel duct
Duct (H)

Check hole
Check Check hole
10 ø
hole 10 ø
Timber Steel sheeting
10 ø
At least 30 x Ventilation hole 10 ø (painted) or zinc
galvanized steel Ventilation hole 10 ø
30 timber
Cross section sheeting
Ventilation hole
Cross section 10 ø Cross section Cross section
Duct (W)

Void or
Duct (H)


Bolt hole 5/16 (100 pitch)

Ventilation hole 10 ø

Front view Front view Front view Front view

Figure 3.6.3 Boxing around sections passing through walls

(3) Penetration to block walls and ALC walls

i. Block walls require reinforcement with a lintel or equivalent construction of steel or steel
23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

reinforced concrete. Ducts and pipes must not be subjected to load from the blocks.
ii. Where multiple pipes and ducts pass through a block wall, blocks cannot be restored to their
original state. Instead, the ducts and pipes pass through a concrete wall that is suspended from
the beam as shown in Figure 3.6.4.


Suspended wall



Figure 3.6.4 Suspended wall for ducts and pipes in block wall

(4) Floor sleeves and boxing

i. Void sleeves, steel sheet sleeves and steel pipe sleeves are bound to the steel reinforcement to
prevent movement and capped. Boxing for pipe sleeves and ducts is normally at least 100 mm
clear of the ground. Buried sleeves are buried at a depth of approximately 20 mm and covered
with steel plating to prevent possible damage from scaffolding foundations. Caps are screwed
or taped into place to prevent movement and slippage.
ii. The main frame is made from cedar board or form boards of minimum thickness 9 mm, while
reinforcing and fixing materials are square timber of dimensions at least 30 x 30.
iii. For special construction methods such as the unbonded flat slab method, openings in the floor
and other matters must be discussed beforehand with the structural engineer (refer to the
Kajima Flat Slab Method Construction Guidelines).
Figure 3.6.5 shows examples of floor sleeves and boxing.

a. Steel pipe or steel sheeting b. Void sleeve c. Buried sleeve d. Wooden box
A Cap
Cap Form boards of
100 min. minimum
100 min. 100 min. thickness 9 mm

Duct width +

Duct height +
Water stop Fixed with nails or Fixed with nails or screws in 100
screws in minimum minimum three locations
three locations

Figure 3.6.5 Floor sleeves and boxing

3. Initial construction phase

3.6.2 Reinforcement of openings

(1) Reinforcement around openings in RC beams
Figure 3.6.6 illustrates reinforcement of openings for RC beams.

Requirements of through holes

RC beams SRC beams S beams
Shape Circular Circular, square or rectangular Circular, square or rectangular
1/3 of beam height 1/2 of beam height 1/2 of beam height
Number of Where diameter is 25% or
No restrictions (consult with No restrictions (consult with
holes per more of beam height: no more
structural engineer) structural engineer)
beam than three holes
Center-to-center spacing must Center-to-center spacing must
Center-to-center spacing must
be at least three times the be at least three times the
be at least twice the average
average diameter and the average diameter and the
Hole spacing diameter and the hole-to-hole
hole-to-hole surface hole-to-hole surface
surface dimensions must be
dimensions must be separated dimensions must be separated
separated by at least 200 mm
by at least 300 mm by at least 300 mm
• When beam height is
• When beam height is
minimum 600 mm and
minimum 600 mm and
hole diameter is maximum
Exemptions hole diameter is maximum
100 mm
from steel 100 mm • Consult structural engineer
• When beam height is less
reinforcement • When beam height is less
than 600 mm and hole
than 600 mm and hole
diameter is maximum 50
diameter is maximum 50 mm

RC beam hole reinforcement R ≤ D/6

D/6 < R ≤ D/3 (SRC not used)

D13 stirrup Reinforcing stirrup


Total 4 – D13

Vertical reinforcement

Diagonal reinforcement

Figure 3.6.6 Reinforcement of openings for RC beams

(2) Reinforcement around openings in walls

Corner sections in openings are subject to concentrated stresses in the form of internal strain,
compression and seismic stress. Reinforcement as shown in Figure 3.6.7 provides protection
against diagonal tension in the corners.
1) Multiple vertical and horizontal reinforcement in selected locations
1) Earthquake-resistant walls: as per drawings and specifications
2) Reinforcement of non earthquake-resistant walls

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Double steel reinforcement to

prevent shrinkage cracks (six
a. With joins strips of length 1,200 mm and b. Without joins Double steel reinforcement to
diameter same as wall prevent shrinkage cracks (six
strips of length 1,200 mm and
Vertical join reinforcement)
diameter same as wall
Double steel reinforcement to
prevent shrinkage cracks (six
strips of length 1,200 mm and
diameter same as wall
Reinforcement Wall reinforcement Wall reinforcement
around Reinforcement
opening around opening

Figure 3.6.7 Typical reinforcement of opening in non earthquake resistant wall

2) Reinforcement via welding

Welding may be used for reinforcement of welded wire mesh and steel reinforcement
mesh with good crack dispersion properties.

3.7 Delivery plan

For M&E equipment that have significant requirements in terms of reinforcement and special
openings in the main structure, a delivery plan and delivery procedure must be drawn up
beforehand to ensure optimum coordination with overall construction schedule and M&E work
(See Section 4.1 Delivery and installation of M&E equipment.)
The key considerations of the delivery plan are listed below.
(1) All M&E work sub-contractors must submit information on dimensions, weight, delivery
deadline and packaging specifications of major equipment and materials.
(2) Delivery plans for M&E equipment to be lifted by tower cranes or other large-scale lifting
equipment during construction of the main structure should be prepared at the earliest
possible stage.
(3) Large machinery such as tower cranes should be located away from key equipment areas
such as electrical rooms, machinery rooms and the main shafts.
(4) Reinforcement for the transportation route should be checked. Exit routes after completion
should also be included in the plan, along with reinforcement as required.
(5) Location and capacity of transportation and lifting equipment.
(6) Location, dimensions and structure of machine hatches.
(7) Temporary openings in floors or walls (where required), and coordination of delivery
schedule with building construction.
(8) Protective covering for M&E equipment.
(9) Temporary use of elevators (where applicable)
(10) Applications of exclusive use of roadways (where applicable).

3. Initial construction phase

(11) Treatment/disposal of construction by-products.

3.8 Equipment foundations and platforms
Key considerations in relation to equipment foundations and platforms are listed below.
(1) If the combined foundation weight and equipment operating weight exceeds the allowable load
on the floors and beams, reinforcement of the building structure may be required.
(2) On floors with a wide span, vibrating machinery may generated unwanted sympathetic vibration
in the floor slab. It may be necessary to choose a different location or provide additional
reinforcement of the beams.
(3) Machinery that generates significant vibration or that is installed directly above, below or
adjacent to rooms that require silence shall be fitted with vibration isolators to minimize floor
(4) M&E equipment should be either secured to the building structure or fitted with seismic
stoppers to prevent movement or collapse in the event of an earthquake or other external force.
(5) Foundations installed on floor slab containing waterproofing layer
i. Low weight machinery (on exposed waterproof layer)
Where machinery foundations are installed on top of the waterproof layer, the base area of the
foundations should be distributed as widely as possible in order to disperse the pressure
exerted on the waterproof layer (maximum 1,000 kg/m2). Also, the edges of the foundations
can potentially rupture the waterproof layer. In the case of asphalt waterproofing, thick asphalt
roofing (at least 4 mm) should be laid on top of the waterproof layer before preparing the
concrete foundations.
Figure 3.8.1 illustrates foundations for low-weight machinery.
ii. Figure 3.8.2 shows machinery foundations installed on a rooftop with lightweight concrete
1) Maximum loading on waterproof layer = 3,000 kg/m2.
2) Machinery foundations must not intrude onto rooftop expansion joints or, if this is
unavoidable, then the joints must be remade.
Machine channel
Machine channel
Taper washer
Liner Taper washer Anchor bolt
Anchor bolt Anchor bolt Liner
Asphalt roofing
(min. 4 mm)
waterproof layer
60 +

Total load range

Load bearing area
Thermal insulation

Figure 3.8.1 Foundations for low-weight machinery Figure 3.8.2 Foundations for low-weight machinery
(on exposed waterproof layer) (on rooftop with concrete cover)

iii. High-load machinery

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Foundations installed on top of the waterproof layer should be constructed as part of the
rooftop slab to bring up the waterproof layer as shown in Figure 3.8.3.
iv. General considerations for outdoor foundations
1) Anchor bolts should be surrounded with sealant to prevent infiltration of rainwater that
can cause corrosion of bolts and eventually concrete damage (see Figure 3.8.2).
Anchor bolts should be either treated with hot dip zincing or made from stainless steel.
Figure 3.8.3 shows foundations for heavy machinery.

Machinery channel
Taper washer Machinery channel
Anchor bolt Taper washer Liner
Sealant Anchor bolt

More than 60

d = diameter of
steel reinforcement

Figure 3.8.3 Foundations for heavy machinery

3.9 Penetration details

Through holes must be finished properly to prevent water leakage and infiltration. The list below
discusses each section in turn.
(1) Rooftop and above-ground through holes
i. Double sealing is normally required on exterior wall surfaces. A dual structure helps to
prevent infiltration of water into the interior of the building given that outward-facing
sealant tends to be susceptible to deterioration from the action of materials it is bonded to
and the effects of exposure to sunlight and ultraviolet radiation (see Figure 3.9.1).
ii. Where pipes and ducts are required to access the rooftop, either use the walls of the rooftop,
dog house and towers so that they do not need to pass through the waterproof layer, or
provide a suitable canopy or eaves (see Figure 3.9.2).
iii. Pipes and ducts subject to vibration and contraction/elongation must be isolated from the
main structure with suitable buffer material, and either secured at points before and after
the opening or provided with other countermeasures designed to minimize the impact of
expansion and contraction.
iv. Where two or more pipes pass through an exterior wall, the sleeves should have exterior
surface gap of at least 150 mm. If there are many pipes, a sash may also be required.

3. Initial construction phase

v. Pipes and/or ducts with thermal insulation must be fitted with eddy plates or racking to
prevent direct contact between outdoor insulating materials and external wall sealant. If a
vent pipe is installed in the rooftop slab for unavoidable reasons, it should be designed as
shown in Figure 3.9.3.

Indoor Outdoor

Rock wool or equivalent Secondary sealant

Primary sealant (applied after secondary sealant has hardened)
Sealant Duct
Sealant (*1)

Deep vent cap


Gradient 1/50

Insulation to
prevent moisture

Figure 3.9.1 Exterior walls with exposed concrete or spray-coat tiling

Minimum 300 mm and at an angle of 45° from

the base surface of the pipe seal
Min. 150

Brick blocks
Min. 200

Max 1,000

Figure 3.9.2 Dog house with flow on both sides

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Sealant Cap
Backup material

Holding screw

Waterproof cover
Backup material copper wire 2.6 mm
Stop ring (#10 steel wire point
Sleeve (steel tube)
Chamfer strip
Asphalt waterproofing
Thermal insulation


Anchors x 3
Nail holes for securing formwork

Pipe support bracket

Diameter Sealant

Cross-section (Exposed
Figure 3.9.3 Through hole in rooftop slab

(2) Basement level through holes

i. Pipes passing through exterior walls and girders on basement levels are encased in steel
tube sleeve wrapped in nonvulcanized butyl waterproof sheeting which is then embedded
in the concrete.
ii. Rustproof coating is not applied on surfaces where the sleeve is in direct contact with the
iii. Pipes that pass from the ground through to basement level areas must be encased in a pipe
sleeve. The pipe sleeve must not be made from rigid PVC.
(3) Through holes in internal waterproof floors
Where possible, pipes should be routed so as to avoid passing through the waterproof layer of the
floor. In cases where this is unavoidable, the pipes should be enclosed in a sleeve raised at least
150 mm above floor level. The sleeve should be made of stainless steel or equivalent to prevent
corrosion from water used to clean the floor.
(4) Through holes in ordinary floors and walls (non fireproof type)
Pipes and ducts should be enclosed in sleeves when passing through ordinary floors and walls. The
gap around the sleeve must be filled in with mortar or equivalent nonflammable material, except
where the pipes or ducts are thought to be subject to condensation, contraction/elongation and/or
vibration, in which case the gap between the sleeve and the floor or wall slab should be packed
with rock wool or equivalent nonflammable material.
3. Initial construction phase

(5) Through holes in walls of refrigeration and freezer rooms

Where the structure itself of the building is used to refrigeration or freezer rooms and a pipe passes
through a wall of such a room, the material of the sleeve enclosing the pipe should be consistent
with the material used in the moisture-proof layer applied to the internal walls of the room.
(6) Through holes in fireproof zones
i. Pipes
Where a pipe passes through the walls of a fireproof zone, the gap around the pipe must be
backfilled with nonflammable material to ensure equivalent or better fireproof performance to
the rest of the fireproof zone.
ii. Ducts
Where a duct passes through a the walls of a fireproof zone, a fire damper must be fitted and
the gap between the duct and the building structure must be backfilled with nonflammable
material to ensure equivalent or better fireproof performance to the rest of the fireproof zone.
Note that an exhaust duct connected directly to a hot water heater is treated as a chimney stack
and a fire damper shall not be used.

3.10 Ground subsidence strategy

(1) Land subsidence strategy under building
If wastewater or other pipes are buried beneath floor slabs or ground slabs, ground subsidence can
lead to inverse draft or cause damage to pipes. Trying to repair such problems after completion
of the building is an extremely costly process, so it is important to consider changing the route
layout or running the pipes through pits. Where there is no option but to bury pipes beneath the
floor, or in small-scale projects, the pipes should be supported from the floor slab or ground slab
as shown in Figure 3.10.1. The spacing between supports and the metal type used is dictated by
the weight of the pipes and the earth pressure (see Section 4.3). Stainless steel is recommended
for support brackets.
Piping should not be installed until the backfill has had time to settle. Backfill with pit sand around
the pipes.

Hanging bracket Pit sand

Wastewater pipe
Figure 3.10.1 Underfloor buried pipes

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(2) Ground subsidence strategy outside building

i. In the event of ground subsidence due to soft ground or backfill in the vicinity of the building,
place pipes or catch basin on a concrete jaw from the building structure as shown in Figure
3.10.2 or a stainless steel angle as shown in Figure 3.10.3 to prevent uneven subsidence.

Support bracket
Support bracket

Figure 3.10.2 Concrete jaw Figure 3.10.3 Concrete platform and bracket
ii. In areas considered susceptible to subsidence due to soft ground, suitable countermeasures
should be taken to protect buried pipes that lead from the building against the anticipated amount of
subsidence. These locations should be marked with a catch basin or other signage for the purpose of
future maintenance and inspection.
Figures 3.10.4 through 3.10.6 show the countermeasures that can be used.

3. Initial construction phase

Indoors Support material or concrete platform
Holding bracket
Flexible PVC pipe
Connector joint
Epoxy resin
Flexible PVC pipe

Epoxy resin
or steel pipe

Length of flexible
plastic pipe L

Connector joint
PVC joint (45° elbow)

Sand treatment of above joints

2. Cross section

Holding bracket

Flexible PVC pipe


Epoxy resin

Figure 3.10.4 Wastewater pipe VP

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Weld Sleeve
Mortar or
Indoors Welding Whip

Inspection cover

Min. 50

Outdoors Min. 150



Flexible rubber
joint (min. 150)

Drain hole
Pipe support bracket Concrete plate to hold
catch basin
Overhead view (pipe take out from side of A-A’ cross section (catch basin placed on
catch basin) top of concrete plate)
Figure 3.10.5 Absorbing ground subsidence with flexible rubber joint (pressure pipe)
Mortar or concrete
Sand placed in bottom
of ditch
Concrete support


Min. 10
Compact firmly
Ground at bottom of ditch

Position of hume pipe support Dimensions of support

Figure 3.10.6 Concrete foundations
iii. Pipes in soft ground outdoors
Firmly compact the bottom of the excavated ditch, then lay at least 10 cm of even-grained
sand on the bottom to ensure uniform contact with the entire pipe surface. After laying the
pipe, backfill around 10 – 15 cm around the pipe, then compact with a rammer. Repeat this
process until a depth of around 30 cm above the pipe is reached. Sprinkle with water and
compact again, then backfill with good quality soil while compacting.
Where a substantial amount of subsidence is expected, use flexible joints in addition to the
If Hume pipe is used, the following procedure is required.
1) Expected subsidence = up to 100 mm
Hume pipe joints should be provided with concrete foundations as shown in Figure
3.10.6. The under concrete of the concrete foundations or the width of the concrete blocks
should be 50% greater than the socket width.
2) Expected subsidence = up to 200 mm

3. Initial construction phase

Use suitable pine logs or equivalent to fashion a raft to support the pipes as shown in
Figure 3.11.7.

Hume pipe
Pine log

Figure 3.10.7 Foundations made of pine logs

3.11 Factory inspection of equipment

The user checks for omissions in the items and methodology of new machinery reliability testing
and finish and material quality testing, based on the manufacturer’s factory inspection items and
guidelines, and forwards the results to the manufacturer. This constitutes the factory inspection.
Common check items
O External dimensions of equipment, packaging, dimensions in disassembled form, weight and
O Equipment inspection schedules and delivery date
Factory inspection items for major equipments are listed below.
(1) Turbo Chillers
i. Check external appearance and dimensions
ii. Check for leakage from evaporator/condenser
iii. Check for leakage from chiller unit
iv. Insulation resistance test
v. Capacity test
1) Test run at 100% freezing capacity
2) Test run at 100% heating capacity
3) Noise test
4) Vibration test
5) Test of safety devices
(2) Heat pump chillers
i Check external appearance and dimensions
ii Pressure test
iii Airtightness test
iv Hydraulic test
v Insulation resistance test
vi Dielectric strength test
vii Capacity test
1) Performance test

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

2) Test of safety devices

(3) Boilers
i Steel plate boilers and sectional boilers
1) Check external appearance and dimensions
2) Hydraulic test
3) Burner test
a Check external appearance and dimensions
b Combustion test
c Leakage test
d Safety functions test
(4) Check for “Tested” stamp by authorities
ii Vacuum hot water heater
1) Check external appearance and dimensions
2) Vacuum test
3) Hydraulic test
4) Performance test (operation testing of vacuum pumps and switches using test burner)
5) Burner test
a Check external appearance and dimensions
b Combustion test
c Leak test
d Safety functions test
Test run and other test procedures (automatic and manual operation, pressure switches, safety
devices, combustion flame condition and evaporation rate)
(4) Air handling unit and fan
i Check external appearance and dimensions
ii Water leak check (hydraulic test) — not required for fans
iii Performance tests
1) Airflow volume/static pressure, fan revolution, motor shaft power (current/voltage)
2) Insulation resistance test
3) Dielectric strength test
4) Noise and vibration tests
5) Pumps
i Check external appearance and dimensions
ii Performance tests
1) Flow rate and lift, revolution and motor shaft power (current/voltage)
2) Insulation resistance test
3) Dielectric strength test
4) Noise and vibration tests
(6) Pressure vessels

3. Initial construction phase

i Check external appearance and dimensions

ii Welding quality inspection
iii Hydraulic test
(7) Fan coils
i Check external appearance and dimensions
ii Hydraulic test
iii Operations test
(8) Unit piping and prefab piping
i Check external appearance and dimensions
ii Hydraulic test
iii Welding quality inspection

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

4. Middle construction phase

4.1 Equipment delivery and installation

4.1.1 Equipment delivery and lifting plan
(1) All M&E work sub-contractors must submit information on dimensions, weight, delivery
deadline and packaging specifications of major equipment and materials.
(2) Delivery plans for M&E equipment to be lifted by tower cranes or other large-scale lifting
equipment during construction of the main structure should be prepared at the earliest
possible stage.
(3) Large machinery such as tower cranes should be located away from key equipment areas
such as electrical rooms, machinery rooms and the main shafts.
(4) Reinforcement for the transportation route should be checked. Exit routes after completion
should also be included in the plan, along with reinforcement as required.
(5) Location and capacity of transportation and lifting equipment.
(6) Location, dimensions and structure of machine hatches.
(7) Temporary openings in floors or walls (where required), and coordination of delivery
schedule with building construction.
(8) Protective covering for M&E equipment.
(9) Temporary use of elevators (where applicable)
(10) Applications of exclusive use of roadways (where applicable).
(11) Treatment/disposal of construction by-products.
(12) Appoint work leaders and registered workers as necessary (see Table 4.1.1).

4.1.2 Transportation of large M&E equipment

(1) Prepare a list of boilers, chillers and other large M&E equipment to be transported showing the
size, weight and decomposition (where applicable).
(2) Prepare a transportation plan detailing the method used to transport each piece of equipment
(see Figure 4.1.1).
i. Location and height of machine hatch
ii. Timing of delivery/exit and associated conditions on site and architectural finish status
iii. Availability of temporary lifting equipment at time of delivery/exit; usage delineation of
lifting device at time of delivery
iv. Positioning of lifting hooks to suit M&E equipment height
v. Delivery and exit routes
vi. Details of trailer used for transportation (including transportation plan if low-bed trailer)
vii. Location and size of machine room door
(3) Verify the delivery plan with the structural engineer.
i. Check load capacity of lifting hooks
ii. Determine whether delivery route requires reinforcement (site conditions at time of delivery

4. Middle construction phase

and at time of future renewal)

(4) Careful consideration should be given to the location of the machine hatch, tough requirements
such as waterproof design and reserve access flow lines.
(5) Electrical conduits and mechanical piping and ducts must not be installed above, below or in the
vicinity of the machine hatch.
(6) Electrical conduits and mechanical piping and ducts should only be installed along delivery/exit
routes where this does not obstruct transportation of equipment.
(7) Consideration should be given to delivery/exit routes required in the event of future renewal.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems


Waiting room
Storage Storage

Storage Toilets

Tool storage Central

control room

Boiler room

Air conditioning machinery


Plan view (transportation route from machine hatch to

electrical room)

Temporary hook

Cross-section view showing lifting at machine hatch

Figure 4.1.1 Transporting large M&E equipment and machinery

4. Middle construction phase

Table 4.1.1 Work requiring a work leader

Description Relevant text

Work involving the use of load moving vehicles Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 151-4
Repair of load moving vehicles and attachment/removal of attachments Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 151-15
Repair of construction vehicles and attachment/removal of attachments Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 165
Loading and unloading of items weighing 100 kg or more from rough Industrial Safety and Health
terrain hauler vehicles Regulations 151-48
Loading and unloading of items weighing 100 kg or more from fixed Industrial Safety and Health
platform trucks Regulations 151-62
Loading and unloading of items weighing 100 kg or more from road Industrial Safety and Health
trucks Regulations 151-70
Assembly/disassembly of feed pipes for mobile concrete pump trucks Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 171-3
Assembly, disassembly, modification and transportation of pile drivers Industrial Safety and Health
and pile removers Regulations 190
Work involving use of cherry picker vehicle Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 194-6
Repair of cherry picker vehicles and attachment/removal of work Industrial Safety and Health
platforms Regulations 194-14
Manufacturing or handling of dangerous articles Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 257
Work involving fuse wire blasting Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 319
Work involving electrical blasting Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 320
Work involving suspension of power supply and live wires (in close Industrial Safety and Health
proximity thereto) with high voltage and special medium-voltage circuits Regulations 350
Providing protection for gas pipes exposed through lighting excavation Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 362-3
Fire protection and prevention for gas welding in tunnels Industrial Safety and Health
Regulations 389-3
Loading and unloading of any article weighing 100 kg or more from Industrial Safety and Health
freight cars Regulations 420
Construction/demolition of buildings and structures (excluding work Industrial Safety and Health
processes where a leader is required) Regulations 529
23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Assembly/disassembly of cranes Crane Regulations 33

Assembly/disassembly of jibs on movable cranes Crane Regulations 75-2
Assembly/disassembly of crane derrick Crane Regulations 118
Inspection, repair and painting of buildings, M&E equipment in close Crane Regulations 30-2
proximity to ceiling cranes
When a crane is subject to a load that exceeds its rated load by special Crane Regulations 23
When a derrick is subject to a load that exceeds its rated load by special Crane Regulations 109
Assembly/disassembly of elevator hoist ways and towers Crane Regulations 153
Assembly/disassembly of construction lifts Crane Regulations 191
Modification, repair and cleaning of equipment that is or has been used to Oxygen Regulations 15-2
hold excrement, putrefied matter, wastewater, pulp liquid and other
material vulnerable to decomposition or spoilage

4. Middle construction phase

4.2 Suspended ceilings

Suspended ceilings are where a variety of equipment including lighting fixtures, pipes and ducts,
fans, fan coil units and small air conditioning units can be accommodated, as well as lighting
fixtures affixed to the ceiling and which protrude into the ceiling space. Details inside suspended
ceiling are confirmed at the preliminary preparations stage against the plan view and cross-section
view (see Figures 4.2.1 and 4.2.2).

Radiant heat Floor

Min. 549 Vent pipe Min. 150

Min. 260 Min. 280

100 + transverse length x

Min. 10° Clearance = 50
Light fixture installation
Min. 380 for LY Light fixture
depth = 120 - 300

Min. 480 for LTY

Figure 4.2.1 Light fixture installed directly below Japanese style toilet bowl

Asphalt binding

Location of water pipe in

Asphalt waterproofing cases where it cannot be
taken down from the

100 + transverse length x 1/100 Anti-corrosion


Clearance = 50 tape
Light fixture installation depth
= 120 - 300

Light fixture

Figure 4.2.2 Light fixture and pipes installed directly below Western style toilet bowl

Key considerations are listed below.

(1) Ducts and light fittings directly beneath beams (Figure 4.2.3)
(2) Location of wastewater pipes, hot water pipes and other pipes where gradient is required
relative to beams and ducts
(3) Duct routes and sprinkler pipes
23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(4) Pipes, ducts and devices in the vicinity of small air conditioning units and fan coil units and
gradient of drain pipes
(5) Two-dimensional and three-dimensional layout of pipes and ducts relative to grease traps and
floor slabs
(6) Consideration for adopting fall ceilings
i Door heights and open and closed dimensions
ii Mandatory location of ceiling-mounted fire protection devices
iii Height of wall-mounted fittings
iv Configuration of air-diffusers in fall ceiling and air flow distribution
v Sprinkler water spray hazard
vi Operation of fire doors
vii. Furniture heights
(7) Where ceiling space is a return space for air conditioning (air conditioning return plenum
chamber), In case steel frame requires fire resistant in the ceiling space, confirm if fire resistant
material is to prevent exfoliation and scattering of pieces.
(8) Location of inspection hatch to ceiling


Beam Thermal insulation

Duct Duct height


Ceiling Light fixture Light fixture installation

depth = 120 - 300

Figure 4.2.3 Ducts and light fixtures directly below beam

4.3 Support and gradient

Types of support techniques
Pipes may be own weight-supporting or may be provided with rigid-support,
vibration-isolation supporting or seismic-protection supporting.

4.3.1 Own weight-supporting

(1) Supported from floor slab
i Horizontal pipe configuration
Own weight-supporting structures are described in Figure 4.3.1 and Table 4.3.1.

4. Middle construction phase

1. Suspended with U bolts and steel angle Weighted thread bolt without M
Metric thread bolt with M
Insert bracket
Weights and specifications for 1 and 2 materials
Type Size (mm) Length (W) and maximum load steel member
Contin 9 mm or M10 200 kg per bolt
uous 12 mm or M12 440 kg per bolt
thread 16 mm or M16 650 kg per bolt
U bolt or U band stud
25 x 25 x 3 10 kg at 1,000 mm (Fig.1) or 20 kg (Fig. 2)
AA 30 x 30 x 3 50 kg at 1,000 mm (Fig.1) or 100 kg (Fig. 2)
Washer nut 40 x 40 x 5 150 kg at 1,000 mm (Fig.1) or 300 kg (Fig. 2)
50 x 50 x 6 300 kg at 1,000 mm (Fig.1) or 600 kg (Fig. 2)
75 x 40 x 5 x 7 450 kg at 1,200 mm (Fig. 1) or 900 kg (Fig.
Channe 2)
l steel 100 x 50 x 5 x 840 kg at 1,200 mm (Fig. 1) or 1,680 kg (Fig.
2. Suspended with suspension bolts and steel angle 7.5 2)

Insert bracket If length is multiplied by a then maximum load is

Nut multiplied by 1/a3.
Suspension If maximum load is multiplied by b then length is
bolt Washer multiplied by 1/3b.
Either weld a suspension bolt two sizes larger than the
suspension bolt to the end of the steel member, or use
a double-spacer bracket designed for this purpose.

Enlargement of A

Suspension bolt
Suspension bolt
3/8 ø U bolt

Double nut
Double nut

Figure 4.3.1 Horizontal pipes suspended as a group

Table 4.3.1 When W ≤ 1,000

Type Size (mm) Maximum Remarks

load (kg)
Steel 9 50 Per bar
Equal 25 x 25 x 3 10 Max. deflection ≤ 5 mm
angle 30 x 30 x 3 50 Max. deflection ≤ 5 mm
steel 40 x 40x 5 150 Max. deflection ≤ 5 mm
50 x 50 x 6 300 Max. deflection ≤ 5 mm

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

ii Vertical pipes
In cases such as Figure 4.3.2, own weight-supporting structures with U bolts cannot
withstand large loads, so the pipes are normally secured to other structures or more robust
supporting structures are used.
(2) Wall-mounted supports
Pipes, ducts and equipments can be supported with wall-mounted brackets in a number of
ways. Figures 4.3.2 to 4.3.4 show some of the more common approaches.

Channel steel

U bolt H steel


Steel plate
Column (steel

H steel Weld

Example shows galvanized carbon steel pipe

Figure 4.3.2 Supporting a vertical section of a Figure 4.3.3 Supporting a bend in a vertical pipe
vertical pipe

Selecting steel used for supports and vibration dampers

Dimensions of support
Bearing Dimensions of member
structure (mm)
load (kg)

L H Steel angle Insert

500 1000 L-50 x 50 x 6 M12 x 2
1000 1000 L-60 x 60 x 5 M12 x 2
500 1000 L-75 x 75 x 6 M12 x 2
1000 1000 L-75 x 75 x 6 M12 x 2
500 1000 [-100 x 50 x 5 x 7.5 M12 x 2
1500 1500 [-100 x 50 x 5 x 7.5 M12 x 2
1000 1000 [-100 x 50 x 5 x 7.5 M16 x 2
1500 1500 [-100 x 50 x 5 x 7.5 M16 x 2
45° max.

Figure 4.3.4 Supporting steel angle

4. Middle construction phase

4.3.2 Rigid support

Rigid support must be designed to withstand stresses such as pressure from liquids in pipes,
reaction forces from expansion joints and from seismic forces during an earthquake. See Figures
4.3.5 through 4.3.7.
Where a rigid support is held in place with a U bolt, it must be welded around the entire
(1) Expansion joints

Expansion joint

Expansion and contraction Expansion and contraction

U bolt welds Expansion joint

(a) Single expansion joint (b) Multiple expansion joints

Figure 4.3.5 Expansion joint

(2) Expansion and contraction pipes

Insulation Insulation

Pipe Pipe
U bolt welds U bolt welds

Figure 4.3.6 Fixing points (for U bolts) Figure 4.3.7 Main and intermediate fixing points
(for U bolts)

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

4.3.3 Vibration-isolating support

Vibration-isolating support for pipes consists of elastic suspension brackets and isolating rubber
dampers and spring damper designed to insulate the building from the vibration of the pipes.
Vibration-isolating support members must not come into contact with other members. See Figures
4.3.8 through 4.3.10.

Vibration insulation

If gradient

Double nutU band Channel Angle

or angle
Figure 4.3.8 Pipes suspended in a group

Vibration insulation

Figure 4.3.9 Separate vibration isolation

Glass wool Stand pipe
C steel insulation
Insulation sleeve

Steel plate 1.6 mm

Steel plate

Welded Rubber
(a) Overhead view (b) Side view

Figure 4.3.10 Vibration isolation in vertical pipes

4. Middle construction phase

4.3.4 Seismic protection supporting

Key considerations for seismic supports are listed below.
(1) Total load during an earthquake is a combination of dead weight, operating load, internal
pressure and seismic load.
(2) The seismic load on the pipe system during an earthquake is essentially dictated by the seismic
force and the relative story displacement in the building.
(3) Seismic isolation should be designed to prevent the piping system vibrating in sympathy with
the natural frequency of the building.
Figures 4.3.11 and 4.3.12 show seismic pipe support structures.

Anchor bolt

U bolt Thermal insulation

Figure 4.3.11 Grouped suspension

Anchor bolt

U bolt

Thermal insulation

Figure 4.3.12 Seismic supports mounted on floor slab

4.3.5 Support spacing

The fixing positions and spacing between supports is determined on the basis of earth pressure
and seismic calculations.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(1) Pipes (inside building) – Table 4.3.2

Table 4.3.2 Spacing between pipe supports

Type Specifications Supports/spacing
Cast iron Straight One per pipe
Vertical pipes

Irregular Two One on either pipe

continuous Three One in the center
Steel At least one on each
Lead, PVC and copper Maximum spacing =
1.2 m
Cast iron Straight One per pipe
Irregular One per section
Steel Pipe diameter up to 20 Maximum spacing =
mm 1,800 mm
Pipe diameter = 25 – Maximum spacing =
40 mm 2,000mm
Pipe diameter = 50 – Maximum spacing =
80 mm 3,000mm
Pipe diameter = 90 – Maximum spacing =
150 mm 4,000mm
Pipe diameter = 200 Maximum spacing =
mm+ 5,000mm
Lead (over 0.5 m) If the pipe is deemed to be susceptible to
deformation, provide supports at maximum spacing of
1,500 mm holding the pipe with a semi-circular piece
of galvanized steel sheet of minimum thickness 0.4
Horizontal pipes

Copper Pipe diameter up to 20 Maximum spacing =
mm 1,000 mm
Pipe diameter = 25 – Maximum spacing =
40 mm 1,500mm
Pipe diameter = 50 Maximum spacing =
mm 2,000mm
Pipe diameter = 65 – Maximum spacing =
100 mm 2,500mm
Pipe diameter = 125 Maximum spacing =
mm+ 3,000mm
Rigid PVC Pipe diameter up to 16 Maximum spacing =
mm 750 mm
Pipe diameter = 25 – Maximum spacing =
40 mm 1,000mm
Pipe diameter = 50 Maximum spacing =
mm 1,200mm
Pipe diameter = 65 – Maximum spacing =
100 mm 1,500mm
Pipe diameter = 150 Maximum spacing =
mm+ 2,000mm

Kajima standard spec

4. Middle construction phase

(2) Spacing between support structures for pipes buried beneath earth concrete or floor slab (see
Table 4.3.3)

Table 4.3.3 Spacing between support structures for embedded pipes

Steel pipe (screwed)

Diamet Depth
er (mm) (mm)

Steel pipe (welded)

Diamet Depth
er (mm) (mm)

PVC pipe (VP)

Diamet Depth
er (mm) (mm)


Notes to Table 4.3.3.

i “N/A” denotes situations of high load (i.e., earth pressure) on pipes where an independent
support structure such as concrete floor is required over the entire pipe length.
ii Buried depth H is measured from the ground surface to the bottom of the pipe
iii Earth load on pipes defines the weight as (see Figure 4.3.13).


Figure 4.3.13

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(3) Spacing between suspension brackets and support brackets for rectangular ducts (Table 4.3.4)

Table 4.3.4 Spacing between supports — rectangular ducts

Metal suspension brackets Metal support brackets
Plate thickness
(gauge) Section steel and rod Maximum Section Maximum
steel (mm) spacing (m) steel (mm) spacing
0.5mm (#26) 25 x 25 x 3 ø9 3.0 25 x 25 x 3 3.6
0.6mm (#24) 25 x 25 x 3 ø9 3.0 25 x 25 x 3 3.6
0.8mm (#22) 30 x 30 x 3 ø9 3.0 30 x 30 x 3 3.6
1.0 mm(#20) 40 x 40 x 3 ø9 3.0 40 x 40 x 3 3.6
1.2mm (#18) 40 x 40 x 5 ø9 3.0 40 x 40 x 5 3.6

(4) Spacing between suspension brackets and support brackets for spiral ducts (Table 4.3.5)

Table 4.3.5 Spacing between supports — spiral ducts

Metal suspension Metal support Maximum
Duct diameter (mm) spacing
brackets brackets spacing (m)
Suspension band
25 mm x 3 mm
Up to 300 ø or FG and 9 mm 3.0 3.0
flat steel
steel rod
25 mm ø 3 mm
Over 300 ø and up to 25 mm x 3 mm
flat steel and 9 3.0 3.0
1,500 ø flat steel
mm ø steel rod
30 mm ø 3 mm
25 mm x 3 mm
Over 1,500 ø flat steel and 9 3.0 3.0
flat steel
mm ø steel rod

4.3.6 Support methods

(1) Two or more horizontal pipes in parallel are suspended using a common shape steel bracket.
(2) Do not double up suspension brackets, i.e. do not hang pipes from other pipes.
(3) Roller or slider type supports should be used in locations subject to significant expansion and
contraction due to heat.
(4) Supports for heating and cooling pipes and steam pipes should be provided with ring type
thermal insulation to prevent condensation and heat damage and minimize heat loss.
(5) As a general rule, do not join a hanger bolt halfway down.
(6) Do not suspend lighting fixtures from support brackets intended for pipes and ducts.
(7) When using hanger bolts on common platforms, do not use at three points. If it is absolutely
necessary to use at three points, arrange such that the load is evenly distributed among the

4.3.7 Gradient
Pipes that require a gradient include hot water pipes, wastewater pipes, steam pipes, steam
condensation water return pipes, heating and cooling pipes, and cooling water pipes and refrigerant

4. Middle construction phase

The gradient serves two purposes.
(1) It allows the contents of the pipe to be carried by gravity (as in wastewater pipes).
(2) It directs air trapped in the pipes to designated collection points (as in hot water pipes).
Insufficient gradient can cause pipes to become blocked and cause flooding from connected
appliances, particularly in wastewater pipes. In pipes where air bubbles tend to accumulate (such
as hot water pipes), poor gradient can cause trapped air to discharge from equipment and
appliances, affecting performance levels, causing noise and corrosion. Thus it is most important
to ensure that the required gradient is achieved. Table 4.3.6 lists gradients for different types of
pipes. Right angled expansion loops (torii-haikan) (both upward and downward) should be

Table 4.3.6 Pipes and pipe gradients

Type of pipe Gradient
Hot water pipe (proper incline) At least 1/200
Wastewater pipe (proper incline)
Wastewater horizontal branch
Normally 1/50 although 1/100 allowed for 100 mm +
Wastewater horizontal main
As above
Site wastewater pipe Minimum gradient is 1/200
Steam pipe
Horizontal pipe proper gradient At least 1/250
Horizontal pipe reverse gradient At least 1/100
Steam condensation water
At least 1/2501
return pipe proper gradient
Heating and cooling pipes proper
At least 1/250
Cooling water pipe proper
At least 1/250
Oil pipes At least 1/250
Refrigerant pipes At least 1/400
Ideally 1/100 or more (1/50 or more is recommended) in light of frequent reports of

4.3.8 Strength of inserts and anchor bolts

Tables 4.3.7 and 4.3.8 list strength requirements for inserts and brackets used to support pipes
and ducts as shown in Figure 4.3.14. Inserts and anchor bolts designed to transfer the load of pipes
and ducts to the building structure are normally embedded directly in the concrete.
(1) Inserts
Inserts used for hanging equipment, fittings, pipes and ducts are embedded in the concrete of
the building structure. To this end, the inserts are attached to the concrete formwork prior to
pouring the concrete. The following considerations apply to inserts.
1) Color coding: Inserts are color coded as follows: plumbing = blue, air conditioning =
green, electrical = yellow, fire protection/fire alarm systems = red, architectural = white.
2) Nominal diameter of insert: To match the nominal diameter of the hanger (normally
Whitworth thread is denoted mm and metric thread is denoted M)
23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

3) Thermal insulation on inserts: Thermal insulation is not normally required on hangers,

except in very cold regions or cold storages.
4) Nails: Visible portions of nails are cut and finished.
5) Load: Consult construction manager if the weight bearing on the insert is in excess of
1.47 kN (150 kgf).
6) Once the locations of equipments, fittings, pipes and ducts are known, prepare the shop
drawings and submit to the construction manager for approval, then mark lines and attach
inserts to formwork.
7) Figure 4.3.14 shows examples of inserts.

Poly block
Embedded Nailed to Poly block
depth formwork


Hanger Deck plate




(a) Steel insert (b) Cast iron insert (c) Steel insert (in ceiling with (d) Steel insert (in deck plate)
Figure 4.3.14 Types of inserts

Table 4.3.7 Steel inserts Table 4.3.8 Cast iron inserts

Insert dimensions Allowable pull-out Insert dimensions Allowable pull-out
Bolt Bolt
load load
diameter d diameter d
L B1 Short Long term L B1 Short Long
(nominal) (nominal)
term term term
M10 28 28 300 kgf 200 kgf M10 20 21 150kgf 100kgf
M12 45 33 660 440 M12 22 27 200 135
M16 56 37 980 650 M16 25 35 280 190

4. Middle construction phase

(2) Mechanical anchor bolts and chemical anchor bolts

Anchor bolts are installed after pouring the concrete. There are two types of anchor bolts:
mechanical and chemical. Tables 4.3.9 and 4.3.10 and Figure 4.3.15 illustrate several different
types of post-installed expanding metal anchor bolts.
Table 4.3.11 shows different types of chemical anchor bolts and Figure 4.3.16 shows how
chemical anchor bolts are installed.

Table 4.3.9 Types and features of post-installed expanding anchor bolts

Name Sleeve expansion anchor Wedge expansion anchor Cone nut anchor
Torque wrench Torque wrench Torque wrench


bolt Cone

As the nut is tightened, the tapered As the nut is tightened, the As the nut is tightened, the cone nut
portion of the bolt forces the sleeve tapered section of the bolt is is pulled upwards, forcing the
operation to expand into the concrete. pulled upwards, forcing the expanding section of the sleeve into
wedge into the concrete. the concrete.

Flat washer


Box joint
nut Min. 2L and min. 5d
Min. 20
Min. 2L and min. 10d (minimum dimensions 100)
Long nut (with
window) Continuous
thread bolt
Fastening nut
For U deck slab, avoid grooves (insufficient expansion

Figure 4.3.14

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Table 4.3.10 Allowable long-term pull-out load on male thread post-installed metal expansion bolts
(sleeve expansion anchor, wedge expansion anchor, cone nut anchor) kN (kgf)

Bolt diameter d
Concrete thickness (120 – 200 mm) Embedded depth L
kN (kgf)
M8 1.96 (200) 40
M10 2.45 (250) 45
M12 4.41 (450) 60
M16 5.98 (610) 70
M20 7.84 (800) 90
M24 7.84 (800) 100
1) Assumes concrete design standard strength Fc = 17.7 kN/cm2 (180 kgf/cm2).
2) Short-term pull-out load = 1.5 x long-term pull-out load.
3) Maximum bolt embedding depth = slab thickness – 20 mm.

Table 4.3.11 Types of chemical anchor bolts

Material Resins
Method Polyester Epoxy Epoxy Ceramic
Cement acrylate
Capsule     
Pre-filled     -
Pot-injection  - -  -

Injection mix (poured in)

1) Capsule anchor Bolt 2) Pre-filled anchor 3) Pot-injection
Capsule Bolt Bolt


Flat washer

Allowable short-term pull-out load on chemical anchor bolts (kN)

Concrete thickness (mm) Embed Hole
Bolt diameter ded diamet
(nominal) 120 150 180 200 depth
Min 2 l and M10 7.45 7.45 7.45 7.45 80 13.5
min. 5 d M12 9.02 9.02 9.02 9.02 90 11.5
Min 2 l and M16 - 11.8 11.8 11.8 110 20
min. 10 d 100)
M20 - - 11.8 11.8 120 24
Maximum bolt
Min. 20

100 130 160 180
depth L
NB: To convert from kN to kgf, multiply by 1000/9.80665.
Figure 4.3.16 Installing chemical anchor bolts (outdoor use as per A-2011 and A-2012)

4. Middle construction phase

4.4 Duct and pipe spaces and installation detail

Duct and pipe spaces should be configured such that ducts, pipes and electrical conduits do not
cross over one another. Duct and pipe spaces should also be provided with access hatches opening
to a corridor or other public space. Where it is necessary to access the interior of the duct and pipe
space, the access door should take into account the size of the pipes and equipments inside the shaft
and the frequency of use for inspection purposes should also be taken into account (see Figure
In the case of hot water pipes with short life span, the access door into the duct and pipe space
should be large enough to allow for replacement of pipes. Where inspection and maintenance is
performed from the corridor or other external access point and there is no need for access to the
interior of the duct and pipe space, hot water and other pipes should be laid close to the access point
to facilitate maintenance, and the opening height of access hatch should ideally be between the
floor and ceiling (as per the Access Hatch Guidelines).
Electrical conduits and cables should not be laid in a pipe space that contains gas pipes. Where
electrical conduits and cables are present in the same shaft due to unavoidable circumstances,
separators must be provided, together with ventilation louber on access hatch, and any gas pipe that
passes through the electrical shaft must be a single continuous section of pipe with no joints.
Duct and pipe spaces should be connected directly to machine rooms and configured to link
upper and lower floors.

Inspection hatch

Through holes
in wall

Length of a b c
side of duct
Up to 300 200 200 600
Over 300 400 300 600
C is for maintenance space
Figure 4.4.1 Standard shaft space

4.5 Pipes
(1) Freeze protection for pipes
Water turns to ice at 0° C under normal atmospheric pressure conditions, a phenomenon known
as freezing. In windy locations, water may freeze even at temperatures above 0° C. Freezing in
pipes and equipment affects performance and potentially causes damage if not resolved quickly.
This is because solid ice has around 9% greater volume than water. In sealed vessels that are not
designed for deformation, this can generate expansion pressure of several hundred kg per cm2.
Freeze protection for pipes and equipment is required in nearly all regions of Japan other than
23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Okinawa, particularly in the colder northern regions of Hokkaido and Tohoku and in high altitude
It is important to investigate freeze protection strategies used by other buildings in the area, and
to seek the advice of the local water bureau. There are many different approaches to freeze
protection. General considerations are listed below (see also Figure 4.5.1).
i Electric heaters or equivalent should be installed in sections where water is stored to ensure that
the water is kept above freezing point at all times.
ii Water is less likely to freeze when it is flowing (even at 0° C), so ensure that water is
continuously moving.
iii Outdoor buried pipes should be buried below the frost depth (see Table 4.5.1).
iv Pipes should not be exposed in the outdoor environment or installed in similarly cold
environments such as inside the ceiling of the eaves, inside the ceiling of a wind shelter or in
car parking.
v Keep pipes straight and avoid undulations in order to encourage good drainage flow.
vi Never set pipes embedded in external walls. When it is unavoidable situation, Pipes mounted
on external walls must be enclosed within a second wall.
vii Thermal insulation on pipes should be designed to prevent infiltration of water and internal
viii Locate storm water and wastewater pipes normally through the building interior and provide
condensation proof. Outside the building, these pipes should be buried below the frost depth.
ix In locations considered more susceptible to freezing, pipes should be provided with thicker
insulation or encased in pipe heaters. This is particularly important for small air pipes and
small wastewater pipes outside the building.
x If operation is to be suspended for an extended period, the entire pipe system should be drained
of water.
xi Use anti-freeze (but not in drinking water supplies).

Table 4.5.1 Frost depth in the major cold region cities

Wakkanai 105 Aomori 63
Asahikawa 121 Morioka 69
Sapporo 90 Akita 48
Kitami 133 Sendai 18
Kushiro 104 Fukushima 33
Obihiro 123 Yamagata 55
Muroran 75 Niigata 18
Hakodate 81 Nagano 59
(specific heat = 4)

Roof drains
• Heating element for freeze protection around roof drains condensation proof
• Immersion heaters
tanks Outside air handling unit
Should water
normally be fully enclosed • Consider replacing OA handling unit with unit with heat
• Insulation on external walls and roof exchanger
• Utilize warmth of tank room • Freeze protection for coils
• Install heater or continuous flow device in water tank • Utilize warmth of machinr room
• Outdoor tanks should be provided with freeze protection and reinforcement against accumulated Cooling tower
Pipe shafts
snow load
• Avoid mounting pipe shafts on external walls • Must be provided with freeze protection if used during winter
• Access hatch from outside should of airtight and thermally insulated • Foundations should be high enough to avoid snow buildup
Water fauset Air intake and exhaust louver
• Should not be exposed to direct oncoming wind in winter
• Use screw-down or suspended • Provided with wind shields and hoods
• Fitted with dampers or equivalent that can be closed when not in use
Water meters
• Maximum air speed = 2 m/s
• Require thermal insulation, including valves • Pipes should not be directly exposed to outside air
Square-arch pipe configurations Hot water pipes
• Install automatic air intake valves • Pipe shafts must not be mounted on external walls
Drain cocks • Freeze protection provided across entire pipe system
• Install drain valves Air diffuser and radiation
• Use remote-controlled drain cocks • Should be installed either below or above openings subject to
• Pipes beyond the drain cock should have an upward gradient significant heat loss in order to prevent cold draughts
Water receiving tank room Expansion tank

• Should normally be fully enclosed • Should be sealed expansion tank type; must not be installed
• Insulation on roof outdoors under any circumstances
• Utilize warmth of tank room Oil supply port
Mains water supply pipes (outdoor buried pipes) • Should be installed in a location where snow can be removed
• Pipes should be located below frost depth readily; self-standing or wall-mounted
Water meter Air conditioning equipment
• Freeze protection is required for pipes and coils
• Bury below frost depth, double-layer covers
• Machine room should have floor waterproofing and drainage as
Lawn fausets Wind shelters Eaves well as high door sills (to prevent secondary damage from frozen
• Install in conjunction with drain cocks • Seal against cold winds • Avoid mounting pipes in eaves where water leaks)
• Incorporate wind direction into design possible; otherwise, ceiling to be with Air supply to boiler
Vertical pipes — water supply • External air should not be supplied directly to boiler
External walls thermal insulation and sealing
• Install drain valves to prevent stagnation of water over extended • Install lining blocks;, do not mount water Construction • Boiler operation is linked to room ventilation fans
periods of non-use such as New Year holidays pipes on external walls • Fitted with dampers or equivalent that can be closed when not in use
• Mount pipes inside thermal insulation
Vertical pipes — storm water Shutters Boiler
• Ensure shutter boxes are airtight;, ensure
• Horizontal pipes buried beneath vertical pipes to be • Should have capacity to enable thermal storage.
ceiling is sealed against cold winds

Figure 4.5.1 Architectural and M&E work considerations in cold regions

located below frost depth

Mains water, wastewater and plumbing systems Architectural construction Heating, cooling and ventilation systems
4. Middle construction phase
23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

4.6 Ducts
Air conditioning ducts and ventilation ducts should exhibit minimal deformation at normal
internal air pressure, as well as minimal air resistance and leakage, and should be designed to carry
air flow with minimal noise. Ducts are commonly made from zinc galvanized steel sheeting, glass
wool or concrete (although concrete ducts made from ALC and blocks are often subject to leakage
problems). Other duct materials include stainless steel, aluminum, PVC, and PVC coated steel.
Ducts may be rectangular or round in shape, and may operate at high pressure or low pressure.
Rectangular ducts should have an aspect ratio (the ratio of the short side length to long side length)
of no greater than 1:4, irrespective of the effective cross-sectional area. This is particularly
important in confined ceiling spaces. If the aspect ratio is too large the air flow may be restricted,
and noise and vibration can become a problem.
(1) Rectangular ducts
i Steel sheet thickness (see Table 4.6.1)

Table 4.6.1 Long side length on rectangular duct (mm)

Duct type Low pressure duct High pressure 1 duct High pressure 2 duct
Working pressure
(Pa) -500 ~ 500 -1000 ~ -501 -2000 ~ -1001
Sheet thickness 501 ~ 1000 1001 - 2000

0.5 ~450
0.6 451~750
0.8 751~1,500 ~450 ~450
1.0 1,500~2,200 451~1,200 451~1,200
1.2 2,201~ 1,201~ 1,201~

ii Joining methods (see Table 4.6.2)

Table 4.6.2 Specifications for flanges, rivets and joining bolts including spacing gaps
Duct length (long Joining flange Flange join rivets Bolts

side) Angle steel Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum spacing

dimensions spacing nominal spacing nominal Corner Other than

diameter diameter corner

~750 25253 3640 (1820) 4.5 65 M8 100 150 (100)

751~1,500 30303 2730 (1820) 4.5 65 M8 100 150 (100)

1,501~2,200 40403 1820 4.5 65 M8 100 150 (100)

2,201~ 50505 1820 4.5 65 M8 100 150 (100)

Key points
• Use flange section steel to weld all four corners to external surfaces, then assemble and make holes so
that the flange joins are smooth.
• Electric spot welding may be used instead of rivets.
• Brackets denote values applicable to high pressure 1 ducts, high pressure 2 ducts and equipment
common specifications.

4. Middle construction phase

iii Sealing (see Table 4.6.3)

Table 4.6.3 Duct types and sealing applied place
Purpose Low pressure duct High pressure 1 duct High pressure 2 duct
Sealing 1) Duct join flange folded Button punch seam joint 1) Duct join flange folded
back at 4 corners
back at 4 corners 1) Duct join flange folded back
2) Vertical seam joint
at 4 corners
3) Duct join
2) Vertical seam joint
(tie rods passing through
(Pickburg seam joint)
duct (where applicable) =
1) Duct join flange folded back
rivets, bolts, tie rods)
at 4 corners
Key points
• Sealing is required at branch joins on high pressure 1 ducts and high pressure 2 ducts.
• Sealing requirements in special applications such as clean rooms and where passing through ducts
are as per the additional notes.

iv Reinforcement (see Tables 4.6.4 and 4.6.5 and Figure 4.6.1)

Table 4.6.4 Reinforcement on low pressure ducts
Duct length (long Reinforcement in transverse Reinforcement in vertical Attachment rivets for angle

side) direction (angle steel) direction (angle steel) steel

Dimensions Maximum Dimensions Number of Nominal Spacing

spacing locations diameter

(251~750) 25253 1840 (925) 4.5 100

751~1,500 30303 925 4.5 100

1,501~2,200 40403 925 40403 At least one 4.5 100

2,201~ 40405 [3] 925 40405 [3] At least two 4.5 100

• Brackets denote together with tie rod (not shown in Equipment Common Specifications)

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Table 4.6.5 Reinforcement on high pressure ducts (using angle steel)

Duct length (long Reinforcement in transverse Reinforcement in vertical Attachment rivets for angle

side) direction (angle steel) direction (angle steel) steel

Dimensions Maximum Dimensions Number of Nominal Spacing

spacing locations diameter

251~750 25253 925 4.5 100

751~1,500 30303 925 4.5 100

1,501~2,200 40403 925 40403 At least one 4.5 100

2,201~ 40405 [3] 925 40405 [3] At least two 4.5 100

• Flange joins are reinforced in the transverse direction only.

• Vertical reinforcement is attached on the outside or the inside.

• Brackets denote together with tie rod (not shown in Equipment Common Specifications).

Vertical reinforcement

Horizontal reinforcement
Transverse reinforcement on duct by angle steel Vertical reinforcement on duct by angle steel (attached on the outside)

Figure 4.6.1 Reinforcement of rectangular ducts

(2) Round ducts

i Steel sheet thickness and seam joint pitch on spiral ducts (see Tables 4.6.6 – 4.6.9)

Table 4.6.6 Zinc galvanized steel sheet thickness Table 4.6.7 Stainless steel sheet thickness
High pressure 1 duct
High pressure 1 duct and
Displayed Low pressure duct Displayed Low pressure duct and high pressure 2
high pressure 2 duct
thickness nominal dimensions thickness nominal dimensions duct nominal
nominal dimensions
0.5 (mm) Up to 450 Up to 200 0.5 (mm) Up to 560 Up to 250
Over 450 and up to Over 560 and up to
0.6 Over 200 and up to 560 0.6 Over 250 and up to 560
710 800
Over 710 and up to Over 800 and up to
0.8 Over 560 and up to 800 0.8 Over 560 and up to 800
1,000 1,000
Over 1,000 and up to Over 800 and up to
1.0 Over 800 and up to 1,000 1.0 Over 1,000
1,250 1,000
1.2 Over 1,000 1.2 Over 1,000
(Official Standard Specifications machinery and SHASE; with
SHASE, however, low pressure ducts 1.0 are over 1,000)

4. Middle construction phase

Table 4.6.8 Duct seam joint pitch (mm) Table 4.6.9 Duct types (Pa)
Seam joint Duct Normal pressure
Internal diameter of duct
pitch classification Positive pressure Negative pressure
Up to 100 Up to 125 Low Over +500, up to Up to –500
pressure +1,000
Over 100 and up to 1,250 Up to 150 duct
High Over +500, up to Over –500, up to –1,000
(Fold width is min. 4.0 mm in Official pressure 1 +1,000
Standard Specifications machinery duct
and 4.8 mm in SHASE) High Over +1,000, up to Over –1,000, up to –2,500
pressure 2 +2,500

(Official Standard Specifications machinery and SHASE)

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

ii. Installation detail (see Figure 4.6.2)

1) Insertion joint

Sealant (high speed duct base*1)

L/2 approx. Duct tape


Insertion joint
10-15 approx.
Overview A detail

Figure 4.6.2 Example of insertion joint

2) Flange joint (see Figure 4.6.3)

Gasket Gasket
Rivet Loose flange
Steel screw

Sealant Flange color

a. Fixed flange b. Loose flange

Figure 4.6.3 Example of flange joints

iii Dimensions
Insert length of insertion joint (see Tables 4.6.10 and 4.6.11)

Table 4.6.11 Sheet thickness of

Table 4.6.10 Insert length of insertion joint (mm) insertion joint (nominal
Minimum length Stated
Nominal dimensions
Minimum length (Official Standard thickness
Nominal dimensions
(SHASE) Specifications 0.6 Up to 315
Machinery) 0.8 Over 315 and up to 710
Up to 125 25 1.0 Over 710 and up to 1,000
Over 1,000 and up to
Over 125 and up to 300 50 1.2
(Official Standard
Over 300 and to 1,250 100 Specifications Machinery,

4. Middle construction phase

(3) Duct fittings

i Volume damper (VD) (see Figure 4.6.4)
Volume dampers include the butterfly damper, a single blade revolving type, and the louver
damper, which is split into two or more blades.
ii Fire damper (FD) (see Figure 4.6.5)
Fire dampers are installed on ducts that pass through fire zones.

Blade stopper

Worm gear

box Double-sided



Figure 4.6.4 Volume damper (louver type)

Casing t = 1.6

Air flow

Figure 4.6.5 Fire damper

iii Canvas coupling
Canvas couplings may be used to cut vibration from vibrating machinery such as fans to ducts.
Canvas couplings are made from glass cloth (JIS R 3414) or equivalent noncombustible material.
The flange spacing at either end of the canvas coupling should be at least 150 mm.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

(4) Kitchen hoods

Access hatches must be provided to enable access for cleaning grease and other contaminants
that tend to collect inside exhaust ducts (see Figures 4.6.6 and 4.6.7 and Tables 4.6.12 and

Rock wool 50 mm (if insufficient space to provide the normal minimum

separation of 10 cm between duct and flammable material)

Exhaust duct

Suspension bolts
Duct access hatch

Fire damper with air flow adjustment Ceiling

Ceiling access hatch

Grease filter
Stainless steel hood


Grease trap Minimum 1 m separation

between fire source and
lowest point of filter

Figure 4.6.6 Kitchen hood installation

Screw holes
Exhaust duct


A-A’ cross section


Plan view gasket
Exhaust duct
B detail

Figure 4.6.7 Duct access hatch

4. Middle construction phase

Table 4.6.12 Hoods in commercial kitchens

Minimum sheet thickness (mm)
Long side of hood (mm) Zinc galvanized
Stainless steel
Up to 450 0.6 0.5
Over 450 and up to 1,200 0.8 0.6
Over 1,200 and up to 1,800 1.0 0.8
Over 1,800 1.2 1.0

Table 4.6.13 Sheet thickness on exhaust ducts

Minimum sheet thickness (mm)
Long side of duct (mm) Zinc galvanized
Stainless steel
Up to 450 0.6 0.5
Over 450 and up to 1,200 0.8 0.6
Over 1,200 and up to 1,800 1.0 0.8
Over 1,800 1.2 0.8

4.7 Pits
The double floor space in the building structure created by ground beams provides valuable
space for M&E work. The building structure itself can be used to house sewage and wastewater as
shown in Figures 4.7.1 and 4.7.2.

(1) Tanks in the pit

Figure 4.7.3 shows a typical installation of sanitary and wastewater discharge tanks inside pit.
Tank capacity is subject to regulation by the Tokyo Metropolitan Building Pit Council. These
regulations are designed to control odors from the tanks.

NB: Tank capacity is

determined at the
construction planning

Access hatch Vent pipes

Drain pipe (80ø approx.)

Sump water Sanitary swage Waste water Sump water Sump water Sump water

Inspection ladder (SUS)

Connector pipes (half pipe structure)

NB: See below for explanation of (1) through (8)

Figure 4.7.1 Tanks utilized in a pit

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Key considerations for water tanks

(1) Sanitary and wastewater tanks (see Figure 4.7.2) must be provided with odor-proof
manholes of minimum diameter 600 ø to enable access for inspection purposes and pump
maintenance and servicing.
(2) Vent pipes and connector pipes must not pass through dividing walls separating different
types of tanks.
(3) The water level electrodes should be attached in a location that is readily accessible but
does not impede passage.
(4) Manholes should be large enough to allow removal of pump Large manholes may need to
be split into sections so that they are not too heavy. And provide hook above manhole.
(5) All tanks must have vent pipes. Vent from sanitary and wastewater tanks must be
discharged to outside air.
(6) Ventilation and connector pipes are provided between multiple tanks of the same type.
(7) Sanitary and wastewater tanks must not be located directly beneath electrical rooms.
(8) Where it is not possible to provide manholes on all tanks with the same content, access
tunnel of minimum diameter 600 ø should be provided instead.
(9) Check the dimensions of overflow pipes and water correcting pits in fire water tanks.
(10) The internal finish requirements for kitchen wastewater tanks are as per the corrosion
proofing design and execution requirements for kitchen wastewater and general
wastewater tanks.
(11) Water correcting pit depth is dictated by the pump specifications.
(12) Manholes are not permitted on special evacuation stairways and anterooms.

For sanitary and

Gate valve
wastewater tanks
Chuck valve
Inlet pipe

Timer Cable
Power Air vent pipe Vent pipe

Odor-proof Electrode (fresh water and

Odor-proof manhole Sealant wastewater tanks only; sanitary
Hook manhole sewage tanks use float switch

Actual height of sanitary and

wastewater tanks (1.5 – 2.0h)

h = effective water depth

Inspection ladder

Inspection stairway (sanitary and wastewater tanks) Min. 200

Min. 200 Min. separation Min. 200
Gradient = 1/10 ~ 1/15 (sanitary and wastewater tanks) of 3D

Shutoff water lebel electrodes (either one)

Figure 4.7.2 Installation of sanitary and wastewater tanks

4. Middle construction phase

(2) Piping space inside pit

Where the pit is used to house pipes on account of ground subsidence, it is important to
provide sufficient space for maintenance work and to provide suitable protection against
corrosion of pipes and support brackets.
Where the ground floor is an earth floor, ideally an additional pit should be installed to provide
space for the toilet pipes.

4.8 Pit for M&E work

There are various types of equipment pits, such as wastewater pits to service kitchens, car
parking lots and machine rooms. In recent years it has become increasingly common to provide pits
for buried pipes carrying potentially hazardous substances such as oils and gases, as a way to
minimize corrosion.
Pipes that service bathrooms at golf clubhouses and leisure centers tend to have a short life span.
For this reason, pipes are installed as configurations shown in Figure 4.8.1.

• Brackets denote reference dimensions

• Waterproof layers should extend beyond shower
Ceramic tiles head height (where applicable)
Asphalt waterproofing
Min. 300 height

Stone t = (30)

Stainless steel angle

(50 x 50) Pipe space
(Min. 250)

Ceramic tiles

Hot and cold water pipes

Pipe base (stainless steel)

Min. 20
drainage trench

Drain pipe

Figure 4.8.1 Pipe configuration in bathroom

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

4.9 Covering and protection

(1) Equipment and fixtures
Where plumbing equipment (ceramic fixtures such as toilet bowls) are installed prior to
internal finish, manufacturers should be informed of protection requirement so the equipment
can be installed with the protective covering attached. Fixtures and fittings should be covered
with sheeting or equivalent to protect against dirt, damage and the potential impact of water,
humidity and fire during delivery and installation prior to use.
Materials, temporary constructions and the like located in areas such as the rooftop should be
tethered to the building with cables, ropes or equivalent to prevent accidents due to strong or
sudden winds, or covered with protective netting or sheeting to prevent accidents.
Warning signs prohibiting the use of naked flame should be fitted to cooling towers and other
fixtures that use flammable materials.

(2) Pipes and ducts

Ducts, pipes and joints should be protected with caps and sheet covering and should be stored
in an orderly manner. This applies equally to delivery, transportation, and loading into the storage
Where piping work is suspended, pipe ends should be fitted with plugs or caps or otherwise
securely closed over in order to keep out small animals and dirt and other contaminants.
Protective coverings are also required for fire-resistant coating and spray mortar.
Before commencing welding, check adjacent areas and lower floors for cables, thermal
insulation and other materials that could cause fire, and cover as appropriate. Consult with the
relevant personnel beforehand on whether to give priority to welding or execute by non-welding
method in that particular area. In the case of renewal work, welding should be avoided where
Suitable covering should be provided before commencing the tests in cases where unexpected
leaks during hydraulic tests or flush tests could cause water damage to internal finishes and
fixtures, or where dust or dirt could be emitted from ducts during fan tests.

4.10 Intermediate inspection

The intermediate inspection is performed at a suitable time about mid-way through construction.
Normally this is after completion of the main structure when interior finish work is about to get
i The intermediate inspection focuses on the main structure and steel frame as well as concealed
portions and other sections that are difficult to inspect during the actual construction process.
Check if Follow-up Sheets are used/examined.
ii The inspection supervisor must give acceptance to the previous construction before subsequent
processes begin. The inspection supervisor may grant special permission where a process has to
get underway before this.

5. Final construction phase

5. Final construction phase

5.1 Thermal insulation and paintwork

The final phase includes installation of thermal insulation (heating and cooling) on pipes, ducts,
equipment and tanks associated with air conditioning systems, water supply and drainage and other
systems, together with anti-condensation covering, thermal protection, painting, rust-proofing and
anti-corrosion mechanisms. In addition to visual appearance, it is important to ensure good
workmanship with respect to protection against condensation, freezing, heat loss, corrosion and
other flaws with the potential to cause incidents such as outbreaks of burn injury.
(1) Thermal insulation
The design drawings and specifications stipulate the type, constitution and thickness of the
thermal insulation cladding material. Thermal insulation materials must be non-flammable.
Depending on the installation environment, it may also be necessary to select materials that are
non-hygroscopic and/or non-absorbent.
Note that in an installation environment that is particularly moist or damp, the finish materials
and dehumidifying agent will be different.
Installation of thermal insulation takes place after hydraulic and air leak tests have been
completed, and is coordinated with other construction processes. Where the building does not yet
become dry condition and/or where there is still welding or other work involving flames to be
carried out on upper or lower floors, special care should be taken to prevent subsequent damage
to thermal insulation. In addition, workers must not use thermally insulated pipes (racking pipe)
as scaffolding.
i Thermal insulation on pipes
Table 5.1.1 shows standard insulation thicknesses based on the internal pipe temperature
and the ambient environmental conditions. Hygroscopic and/or absorbent materials such as
rock wool or glass wool should be avoided in exposed outdoor locations and in kitchen and
bathroom areas (due to high moisture levels) and near exterior walls in extremely cold regions
(due to condensation).
Thermal insulation materials suitable for pipes include:
1) Rock wool insulating sheath
2) Glass wool insulating sheath
3) Polystyrene foam No. 3 sheath

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Table 5.1.1
Standard Specification for Air-Conditioning and Plumbing Works (SHASE) (mm)
Type of pipe Nominal diameter 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 300

Conditions/insulation material
Standard environment Rock wool sheath 20 25 40
(internal temperature = 15° Glass wool sheath 20 25 40 50
C, ambient temperature = 20 25
30° C, relative humidity = Polystyrene foam No.
85%) 3 sheath
Drinking water
Wastewater Humid environment Rock wool sheath 20 30 40
(internal temperature = 15° Glass wool sheath 20 30 40 50
C, ambient temperature = 20 30 40
30° C, relative humidity = Polystyrene foam No.
90%) 3 sheath
Standard environment Rock wool sheath 20 25 40
(internal temperature = 20 25 40 50
100° C, ambient Glass wool sheath
temperature = 20° C)
Hot environment Rock wool sheath 20 25 40
Hot water
(internal temperature = 20 25 40 50
Heated water
150° C, ambient Glass wool sheath
temperature = 20° C)
Hot environment Rock wool sheath 20 30 40
(internal temperature = 20 30 40 50
180° C, ambient Glass wool sheath
temperature = 20° C)
Standard environment Rock wool sheath 25 30 40
(internal temperature = 5° Glass wool sheath 25 30 40 50
C, ambient temperature = 25 30 40
30° C, relative humidity = Polystyrene foam No.
85%) 3 sheath
Standard environment Rock wool sheath 25 30 40
(internal temperature = 7° Glass wool sheath 25 30 40 50
C, ambient temperature = 25 30 40
30° C, relative humidity = Polystyrene foam No.
Chilled water 3 sheath
Humid environment Rock wool sheath 40 50 65
(internal temperature = 5° Glass wool sheath 40 50 65
C, ambient temperature = 40 50 65
30° C, relative humidity = Polystyrene foam No.
3 sheath
Humid environment Rock wool sheath 40 50 65
(internal temperature = 7° Glass wool sheath 40 50 65
C, ambient temperature = 40 50 65
30° C, relative humidity = Polystyrene foam No.
3 sheath

ii Insulation of pipe support brackets

Where pipes are used to carry chilled water, coolant and other fluids at temperatures below
the ambient temperature, the support brackets may be subject to condensation through thermal
conduction. The pipes and support brackets should be provided with insulation sleepers or
other forms of thermal protection.
iii Insulation of ducts
Table 5.1.2 shows thermal insulation specifications for ordinary ducts.

Table 5.1.2 Thermal insulation specifications for ordinary ducts

Duct type Rectangular ducts Rounded ducts
Exposed Concealed Exposed Concealed
Insulation material
Glass wool sheet No.2, 24 K 25mm 25mm 25mm
No.2, 40 K 25mm*1 25mm
Glass wool strip No.2, 24 K 25mm 25mm
Rock wool sheet No. 1 25mm*1 25mm 25mm
Rock wool sheet No. 2 25mm*1*2
Rock wool strip No. 1 25mm 25mm
Formed polystyrene sheet No. 3 25mm*3
*1 Where ducts are subject to cosmetic appearances, ideally 50 mm should be used to consider flange
*2 When glass cloth finish is required.
*3 For ducts in outdoor areas and humid environments.
5. Final construction phase

Thermal protection for smoke exhaust ducts is described below.

SHASE specifications: 24K 25 mm or greater glass wool thermal insulation or rock wool
insulation with aluminum foil paper or aluminum glass cloth backing, or aluminum foil paper
or aluminum glass cloth with surface covering.
Public Building Construction Standard Specifications: rock wool insulation with aluminum
glass cloth backing, thickness 25 mm for concealed ducts.

iv Insulation of coolant pipes

Insulation on pipes, ducts and coolant pipes is described in the Kajima Corporation
Equipment Standard Detail.
v Noncombustible materials
It has already been mentioned that regulations stipulate work on certain locations when
using certain noncombustible insulation methods. This can lead to conflicts with Article 129 of
the Building Standards Law Enforcement Ordinance regarding the materials that can be used
on certain designated types of buildings.
The Ordinance provides definitions of noncombustible materials and accreditation thereof
and should therefore be referred to at the time of construction. Table 5.1.3 shows
classifications of combustible and noncombustible materials.

Table 5.1.3 Classification of noncombustible materials

Noncombustible Combustible
Calcium silicate insulation Cow hair felt
Perlite insulation Foamed polystyrene insulation

Rock wool insulation Hardened urethane foam insulation

Glass wool insulation Glass wool heat reserving belts
[All specifications for sheeting, sheathing and
blankets excluding heat reserving belts]

Cement mortar
Plaster Cotton
External finish

Hard cement Linen


Glass cloth Vinyl tape

Zinc galvanized sheet Pulp cement sheet
Aluminum sheeting
Flexible board
Packing crates
Metal formwork Cardboard molds

Aluminum foil Roofing


(2) Painting
Painting is divided into finish painting of equipment and fittings (which is performed by the
manufacturer at the point of production and completed prior to delivery) and painting of pipes,
ducts, supports and fixed brackets (which is performed on site after installation).
i. Painting at the point of production

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

When equipment is painted at the factory, generally the manufacturer has its own
specifications. Color samples are supplied at the time of ordering for approval by the
In outdoor installations and other situations involving exposure to the elements, a more
durable paint coating may be required, particularly in coastal regions (due to the potential
for salt damage) and in hot spring regions.
ii. Painting on site
The specifications give detailed instructions about the type of paint and the number of
applications based on where is to be painted. Painting shall be performed after confirming
above specifications
As mentioned above, the specifications should also be consulted for painting of outdoor
pipes and ducts.
Safety is a key consideration when painting on site, particularly the proximity of flame
and adequacy of ventilation. It is also important to have an orderly and organized
working environment for painting work. Painting is prohibited if the ambient temperature
falls to 5° C or less, during rain or strong winds (due to dust and particles carried in the
air), and on very hot days when the surface to be painted is too hot. Similar care should
be taken with storage of paints and solvents.

iii. Identification schema

i. Color coding
Pipes and ducts are color coded by system and/or purpose to create a pleasing visual palette
upon completion. Painting each system a different color requires repeated use of scaffolding
and coverings and takes more time and expense than simply painting them all the same color.
ii. Color bands
This approach is often used on pipes. Color bands that identify the different piping systems are
attached at a given height and location where all the pipes come together. The bands are
normally 10 cm in width.
iii. Labels
Where pipes and ducts are all painted the same color, labels may be used to specify the system
name and the direction of air or fluid flow. Labels may also be used on equipment such as air
conditioning systems, pumps and water tanks to indicate the equipment name and
specifications and the system it belongs to. This information may be written directly on the
pipe or duct. In recent times, pre-printed labels have become popular for direction arrows,
color bands and text information.
In some cases, the client or architect/engineer specifications will include specific requirements
about color coding of label information.

5.2 Fire separation and penetration

5. Final construction phase

Where a pipe or duct passes through a fireproof zone, the gap around the pipe or duct must be
completely backfilled with nonflammable material to ensure fireproof performance equivalent to or
better material than the fire separation wall.
Pipes and ducts are sometimes made from plastics such as rigid PVC. These must be replaced
with nonflammable material up to one meter on either side of sections passing through a fire
separation wall, as stipulated in the Building Standards Law Enforcement Ordinance and other
relevant regulations.
Table 5.2.1 shows exemption standards for certain types of pipes and pipe diameter.
Where pipes and ducts pass through a steel frame sleeve, care must be taken to avoid damage to
the fireproof sheathing.

Table 5.2.1 Exemptions to nonflammable pipe material requirements where passing through a fire
separation wall
(Ministry of Construction Notification No. 1422, May 31 2000)
Pipe or Sheathing Material Min. Outer diameter of pipe/conduit
conduit (Y/N) thickness
type Structural classification of floor, wall, column or
Fireproof 30 min. fire 1 hour fire 2 hour fire
resistant resistant resistant
Water Fire 5.5 mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm
supply pipe retarding (75 VP) (75VP) (75VP) (75VP) (75VP)
material or 6.6 mm 115mm 115mm 115mm 90mm
rigid PVC (VP) (100VP) (100VP) (100VP)
Electrical Fire 5.5 mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm
conduits retarding (82 VP) (82VE) (82VE) (82VE) (82VE)
material or
rigid PVC
Wastewater No Fire 4.1 mm 61mm 61mm 61mm 61mm
pipes and sheathing retarding (50 VP) (50VP) (50VP) (50VP) (50VP)
associated material or 5.5 mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 61mm
vent pipes rigid PVC (75 VP) (75VP) (75VP) (75VP)
6.6 mm 115mm 115mm 90mm 61mm
(100 VP) (100VP) (100VP)
Steel Fire 5.5 mm 90mm 90mm 90mm 90mm
sheet of retarding (75 VP) (75VP) (75VP) (75VP) (75VP)
minimum material or 6.6 mm 115mm 115mm 115mm 90mm
thickness rigid PVC (100 VP) (100VP) (100VP) (100VP)
0.5 mm
7.0 mm 141mm 141mm 115mm 90mm
(125 VP) (125VP) (125VP)
1. The structural classification “30 min. fire resistant” denotes the ability to resist the heat of an ordinary
fire for a period of 30 minutes. Similarly, “1 hour fire resistant” denotes the ability to resist heat for one
hour and “2 hour fire resistant” for two hours.
2. Where pipes or conduits pass through the eaves, floor, wing wall or equivalent structures as per in the
proviso to Article 112, Paragraph 10 of the Building Standards Law Enforcement Ordinance, a 30 minute
fire resistant structure is assumed.
3. Reserve pipes or ducts that do not yet contain electrical conduits must be sealed at the ends.

NB: Brackets indicate nominal dimensions of suitable rigid PVC pipes.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

5.3 Coordinate device with architectural finish

M&E work at the finishing stage includes installation of concealed pipes and ducts as well as
fittings and fixtures. Particular care is required with fixtures and fittings since these will ultimately
be visible. As such, these are subject to design constraints pertaining to efficient and effective
configuration and aesthetic considerations, and must be positioned accurately to ensure a good fit
with the architectural finish materials. To this end, it is important to coordinate architectural finish
and M&E work processes beforehand with respect to procedures and methodologies (see also
Section 2.8 Coordination of others scope of work).
(1) Ceiling-mounted fittings
Ceiling-mounted fittings include light fittings, diffusers for air-conditioning and ventilation
systems, smoke exhaust hatches, sprinkler heads, fire alarm detectors and speakers. The pipes,
conduits and ducts leading to these fittings must be fitted into the ceiling space within an
appropriate area. To this end, a integrated ceiling plan is drawn up to enable optimum coordination
of electrical, plumbing, air conditioning, architectural and other trades within the ceiling space.
i. Air diffusers should be positioned for optimum airflow distribution, taking care to
avoid overlap with the minimum dispersion radii of adjacent diffusers.
ii. Valves and dampers inside the ceiling should be positioned close to access hatches as
shown in Figure 5.3.1 to facilitate maintenance and inspection.
iii. Sprinkler heads should not exceed in their configuration the designated maximum
horizontal separation allowable for the building usage classification. Care should also
be taken to avoid obstruction of water delivery.
iv. Care should be taken when relocating, opening or closing sliding walls, entrance and
exit doors, or suspended cabinets, to prevent obstruction of ceiling fittings and
v. In many cases where a fitting opening that are cut through to the ceiling frame,
reinforcement should be provided as shown in Figure 5.3.2.
vi. The ceiling frame supporting rod must not be used as duct supports. Similarly, the
ceiling frame supporting rod may not under any circumstances be suspended from
duct angles or equivalent.
In recent years, standardization of construction materials and simplification of work procedures
have encouraged a trend towards integrated “system ceilings” that are easier and quicker to install
and help to improve the consistency of quality standards.
Ceiling access hatches should be located close to the equipment, fittings and connectors that will
require inspection and in a position that enables inspection without obstruction by ducts, pipes and
electrical conduits.

5. Final construction phase

Max. 500 Max. 200 Duct

access hatch
Valve, or Fire damper or
the like equivalent

Ceiling access
450 x 450
Figure 5.3.1 Location of access hatches

M bar
C channel
C channel


M bar M bar

C channel
(a) M bar cut (b) C channel cut

Figure 5.3.2 Reinforcement of openings in ceiling frame

(2) Wall-mounted fittings

Many ceiling-mounted fixtures and fittings are also mounted on walls, together with specific
wall-mounted fittings such as switches, panels, air inlet and outlet louvers, plumbing fixtures,
and fire hydrant boxes. The positioning and configuration of these should be coordinated with
reference to the internal elevation drawings for the room.
i. Avoid locations where partitions may be required in the future.
ii. Wall-mounted air inlet and outlet louvers should be kept away from ceilings to
prevent air currents from dirtying the ceiling surface.
iii. Fire hydrant boxes should be positioned in readily visible locations and on the door
opening side for optimum access.
iv. Where heavy items such as washbasins are mounted on walls that have a light steel
framework, reinforcement in the form of studs is required, and the heavy items should
be affixed to supporting wooden boards attached at designated locations.
v. Large openings cut into ALC walls or block walls for ducts or the like should be
provided with reinforcement to prevent the load from being transferred directly to them.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

6. Inspection, test and commissioning

6.1 Preparations
(1) Posture
Inspections include pre-inspections, in-house inspections and inspections by authorities, as
shown in Figure 6.2.1. Inspections by authorities are designed to ensure that the completed
building conforms with the relevant legislation, particularly with respect to safety and
workmanship. The evaluation of the entire project depends on the building being passed by the
authorities based on their overall assessment, so it is particularly important to comply fully.
Inspection applications are submitted in the client’s name, so it is important to check the
execution thoroughly beforehand to ensure that the building is passed successfully without any
repairs or modifications being ordered.
Inspections can have a major impact on the overall progress of building construction, not just
on the area subject to inspection, so it is important to achieve good coordination between the
project manager and the on-site M&E managers, as well as the client and the architect/engineer.

(2) Preparations
Things to prepare prior to and on the day of the inspection are listed below.
i. Prior meeting with authorities of inspection schedule and methodology
ii. Inspection start time and list of officials and representatives in attendance
iii. Prior meeting with client, architect/engineer, subcontractor and manufacturers
iv. Inspection schedule (strict adherence to inspection times)
v. Preparation of application documents, minutes of meetings, drawings and specifications,
shop drawings, equipment shop drawings, relevant code books, test circuit diagrams
vi. Approved shop drawings, equipment performance test results, on-site testing data
vii. Construction photographs
viii. Copies of all documents submitted to regulatory authorities, permit and approval
ix. Power, water, sewerage, and lighting as required for the purpose of inspection
x. Supplies for inspection
xi. Staff assignment
xii. Ensuring equipment and machinery is readied for operation
xiii. Tools, gloves, helmets and other necessary items
xiv. Clearing routes and passages through the site as required for the purpose of conducting
inspections, clearing away and cleaning up equipment and facilities, ensuring a safe

6.2 Pre-inspections and in-house inspections

(1) Pre-inspections

6. Inspection, test and commissioning

Pre-inspections are conducted prior to the formal inspections performed by the client,
architect/engineer and regulatory authorities, in exactly the same way and using the same
inspection scope and procedure.
The aim of the pre-inspection is to identify any defects requiring rectification, or unfinished
work requiring completion, in order to ensure that no problems will be encountered during the
subsequent formal inspection. The pre-inspection is thus extremely important, and attention to
detail is required.
The system of inspections at Kajima Corporation, which is based on the Basic Quality
Assurance System, sets out the objectives, work flow and division of roles and responsibilities in
the M&E Work Procedures Document. This document should be confirmed by the project
manager, the supervisor and the on-site M&E managers.

(2) In-house inspection

The in-house inspection is used to evaluate the final level of workmanship (including
equipment functionality) and conformance with design quality requirements, and determine
whether the building is ready to be handed over to the client.
At the final inspection, inspectors use the points listed in the Construction Management
Follow-up Sheet and Intermediate and Completion Inspection Checklist II, along with their own
personal techniques, to inspect documentation and samples taken of physical items. Matters
identified in the inspection are recorded on the Construction Management Follow-up Sheet and
rectified prior to the client inspection.

Intermediate inspection by sub-contractor

Intermediate inspection as M&E

Test and commissioning and compilation of test data

Pre-completion inspection by sub-contractor

Pre-completion (M&E performance) inspection

In-house completion inspection (final M&E inspection)

Inspections by regulatory authorities

Completion inspection by client and design team

Figure 6.2.1 Inspection system at Kajima Corporation

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

6.3 Authority inspection

Building completion inspections by authorities include inspection by the building district
surveyor in accordance with the Building Standards law and other inspections in accordance with
the Fire Services Law and other legislation. The minimum prerequisite for inspection is the
completion of fire-protection equipment and escape routes, and once the other work that is subject
to inspection, including all finishing touches, has been confirmed to have been completed, the
building is deemed to have passed inspection, and an inspection completion certificate is issued.
As mentioned in the preceding section it is important to be fully prepared for the inspection both
mentally and in terms of prior checks and preparations.
Table 6.3.1 lists deadlines for the key submission documents required by the authorities, together
with the name of the authority and inspectors.

Table 6.3.1 Key submission documents—deadlines and names of authorities and inspectors
Deadline for
Document submission of Name of authority Inspector
Notification of completion of At completion Building district surveyor Building district surveyor
Mains water (supply system) At completion Water supply office administrator Water supply office administrator
Dedicated water supply When used Prefectural governor or Minister Water supply office administrator
of Land, Infrastructure and
Rooftop water tanks At completion Building district surveyor Water supply office administrator
Site wastewater connected to At completion Sewerage office administrator Sewerage office administrator
sewerage system
Excrement treatment tank At completion Building district surveyor Public health center
Fire-protection equipment After installation Fire chief or head of fire Fire chief or head of fire
department department
Equipment that uses flame After installation Fire chief, head of fire department Fire chief, head of fire
or mayor department or mayor
Hazardous material storages During construction Prefectural governor or municipal Prefectural governor or municipal
mayor mayor
Boilers and pressure vessels At completion Director of supervisory bureau Director of supervisory bureau
Refrigeration equipment Prior to installation Bureau of Environmental Official responsible for
Protection (in Tokyo) refrigeration equipment
Note: In addition to the above there are also applications, notifications, requests for permission to use, and applications.

The list below shows the main check items for general construction and M&E work associated
with various inspections by authorities. This should be confirmed thoroughly with construction

(1) Construction confirmation inspection

i Fire separations
1) Check state of treatment of penetrations for ducts, pipes electrical conduits, cables, bus
ducts, etc.
2) Check operation of fire shutters and fire doors that mark out fire separations (operation

6. Inspection, test and commissioning

should be coordinated with smoke detectors, etc.)

3) Check FD and SFD installation in ducts passing through fire separations and operation
4) Check fire doors on PS, DS and EPS.
5) Check operation of emergency equipment and systems and displays in central control
room (emergency response center).
6) Check damper inspection windows and access hatches.
7) Check display of fusing temperature on damper temperature fuses.
8) Check penetration through fire separation for water supply and wastewater pipes (should
be non-flammable material for one meter on either side).

ii Ventilation equipment and systems

1) Check performance of mandatory mechanical ventilation equipment (actual
2) Check the position, size and flow rate of effective air inlets and outlets used for
3) Check ventilation equipment in rooms where flame is used, toilets, and other areas as

iii Smoke exhaust equipment and systems (natural and mechanical)

1) Check operation of shutters, doors, hanging walls and windows that mark out smoke
compartments (check activation of/with smoke detectors).
2) Check operation of exhaust outlets and air intake ports (including manual operation).
3) Check location, size and air flow of exhaust outlets, air intake ports and equivalent
4) Check performance of smoke exhaust equipment and systems (actual measurement).
5) Check operation of duct SFD and interlock with supply fan, exhaust fan and
air-conditioning equipment associated with smoke exhaust system.
6) Check operation, controls and displays of emergency equipment in central control rooms
such as the emergency response center.
7) Check the location, signage and operation of manually operated smoke hatch.
iv Water supply, sewerage and other piping and equipment
1) Check state of treatment of pipe penetrations through fire separations.
2) Check sanitary status of water supply tanks and reservoir tanks.
3) Check workmanship of internal and external wastewater and sewage pipes and catch

(2) Fire-protection equipment inspection

i Fire-protection equipment

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

1) Check operation, control and displays on fire-protection equipment associated with fire
alarm system, including fireproof shutters, fire doors, hanging smoke partition walls, exhaust
windows, SFD, exhaust ports and air inlets.
2) Check for obstruction of sprinkler heads, for instance, from louver ceiling or display
3) Check for cosmetic appearance with the location of emergency exit lights.
4) Check windowless and windowed status.
5) Check structure, capacity, location and other details of fire water tanks.
6) Check evacuation routes.
7) Check operation, controls, displays etc. of emergency equipment in central control rooms
such as the emergency response center.

ii Fire separations—as per (1) i above

iii Evacuation facilities—effective location of tools, operation check, evacuation routes
iv Provide access routes for fire-fighting personnel
v Hazardous materials and places for general handling hazardous materials (including the
1) Check fitness of building structure for buried oil tanks—concrete thickness, dimensions,
steel reinforcement, etc.
2) Check legal requirements for indoor oil tanks, such as height of oil spill protection walls.

(3) Labor Standards Office (in relation to boilers)

i Check legally mandated separation distance between boilers and building structure.
ii Number of entrances to boiler room, escape routes in two directions, size.

6.4 Test and commissioning

The test and commissioning phase occurs after construction is complete and just before official
completion. The purpose of the test run is to check that the installed machinery, equipment and
systems provide functionality and performance consistent with the requirements outlined in the
drawings and specifications. The test run provides a final opportunity to take measurements and
make adjustments as necessary. Measurement data then presented to the client and the
architect/engineer forms part of the completion handover documents.
The equipment test and commissioning is normally divided into operational, safety and
performance checking of individual pieces of equipment and systems, and a combined test run to
check the overall performance of the system and equipment including coordination between the
various different components. In order to perform the test run with the equipment and systems in a
completed state, it is important that building construction, electrical work and all other related work
is completed prior to commencement. Cleaning of the building and movement of workers should be
sufficiently restricted during the test run.

6. Inspection, test and commissioning

The operation of M&E equipment can be difficult to master, and there is a major risk of
accidents occurring post completion due to lack of experience with maintenance procedures or
incorrect operation. In order to minimize the dangers, prevent equipment damage and promote
good system administration practices, the client should be asked to assign maintenance officers at
the earliest opportunity and operating instructions should be provided from the test and
commissioning stage.
The list below shows the key check items for architectural and M&E work in the test and
commissioning phase.
(1) Schedule coordination with other related works
i. Completion of architectural finish, fittings such as sinks and site works
ii. Start using water supplies, sewerage and gas facilities
iii. Receiving power and energize load side
iv. Obtain fuel supplies necessary for test runs
v. Clearance certificates from authorities (inspection passed certificates)
vi. Select and notify qualified equipment and machinery operators (request to client)
vii. Cleaning of building, pipes, ducts and machinery interiors

(2) Prepare test and commissioning plan

i. Prepare process schedule and form of measured data
ii. Staff assignment
iii. Prepare M&E systems diagrams
iv. Factory inspection record
v. Consider how to respond to water leaks and other problems

The operation of M&E equipment can be difficult to master, and there is a major risk of
accidents occurring post completion due to lack of experience with maintenance procedures or
incorrect operation. In order to minimize the dangers, prevent equipment damage and promote
good system administration practices, the client should be asked to assign maintenance officers at
the earliest opportunity and operating instructions should be provided from the test and
commissioning stage.

23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

7. Hand over to client

7.1 Completion inspection by client and architect/engineer

The completion inspection, conducted prior to formal transfer of the building to the client,
provides the client and architect/engineer with the opportunity to confirm that construction has
been carried out in accordance with the design drawings and specifications, to evaluate facility and
equipment performance, workmanship and quality standards, and to assess compliance with laws
and regulations.
Normally the completion inspection is carried out before the building is put into service. Any
problems or issues raised during the inspection may then be corrected prior to use of the building.
As soon as this has been done, a written completion report is provided.

7.2 Hand over documents

The format and number of copies of documents to be submitted at the point of hand over to the
client is specified in the contract and the drawings and specifications documents.
(1) As-built drawings
The as-built drawings should accurately portray all the details of construction for the purpose
of ongoing maintenance as well as future expansion or refurbishment projects. As-built drawings
to follow requirement by client and architect/engineer.

(2) Notifications to authorities, inspection certificates

Once the competent supervising authorities have conducted their inspections, the client is
provided with copies of the inspection certificates as well as duplicates of the notification
documents that were submitted to authorities; although in some cases the submitted documents
are retained by the relevant authorities.
(3) Other key documents
i. Operation and maintenance manuals
ii. Equipment shop drawings
iii. Equipment performance test records
iv. Operating instruction manuals supplied by equipment manufacturers
v. Contact information (authorities, Kajima, sub-contractors, manufacturers, distributors, etc.)
vi. List of spare parts, tools and accessories
The document entitled Building Management and Operation, which is presented to the client
upon formal completion of construction, contains a list of the above documents, along with
maintenance and management instructions and document preparation guidelines, and guides to
building maintenance and management.



23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Appendix 1 SI units
Appendix 1.1 Main SI units and conversion rates

Appendix Table 1.1

SI unit Main unit not to be used Conversion rates etc.
Symbol (title)
m3, cm3 cc 1 cc = 1 cm3
Volume L or l
m3 (N) (for normal m3)
m/s3 G 1G = 9.80665 m/s2
Gal (used in seismic design) 1Gal = 10-2 m/s2

kg (kilogram)
t, g
kgf 1 kgf = 1 kgw
Force N (Newton)
kgw = 9.80665 N
Weight (= kgm/s2)
dyn 1 dyn = 10-5 N
kgf/cm2 1 kgf/cm2 = 98.0665 kPa
Pa (Pascal) mAq 1 mAq = 9.80665 kPa
Pa (abs) = absolute pressure mmAq 1 mmAq = 9.80665 Pa
Pa (G) = gauge pressure mmH20 1 mmHg = 133.322 Pa
Pressure atm (only for 1 atmosphere) mmHg or Torr 1 bar = 100 kPa
1 atm = 101.325 kPa
Terms such as head, water head and lift are used to refer to height, all of which may be
expressed in m. For example, pump lift can be denoted as a certain number of meters.
NB: Reference
and temperature deg T[K] = 273.15+t [°C]
(°C may also be used)
Heat and heat J (Joule) (= Ws = Nm)
kcal 1 kcal = 4.18605 kJ
value Ws, Wh
Heat flow rate W (Watt) (= J/s) 1 kcal/h = 1.16279 W
Refrigeration Rt, JRt 1 JRt = 3.860 kW
W (Watt)
capacity USRt 1 USRt = 3.516 kW
Thermal 1 kcal/(mh°C)
W/(mK) kcal/(mh°C)
conductivity = 1.16279 W/(mK)
Coefficient of
1 kcal/(m2h°C)
thermal W/(m2K) kcal/(m2h°C)
= 1.16279 W/ (m2K)
Thermal 1 kcal/°C
J/k kcal/°C
capacity = 4.18605 kJ/K
1 kcal/(kg°C)
Specific heat J/(kgK) kcal/(kg°C)
= 4.18605 kJ/ (kgK)
Key points:
• Temperatures may be expressed as thermodynamic temperature (Kelvin, K) or Celsius (°C).
• The °C to K conversion formula is T = t + 273.15. Note that for temperature differences, t = T.
Celsius may also be used in place of Kelvin to express temperature intervals.
• Pressure units are classified as either absolute pressure (denoted by term “abs” appearing after the
reading) or gauge pressure (denoted by G).
E.g.: absolute pressure 5 MPa (abs), gauge pressure5 MPa (G).
• When expressed as height, the units mm, cm or km may be used; however these are not used to
denote pressure.
E.g.: X mmAq, mAq, mmH2O
Pump lift may also be expressed in meters.


Appendix 1.2 SI standard units and prefixes

Appendix Table 1.2 Appendix Table 1.3
SI Standard Units SI prefixes
Length meter m 1012 tera 10-1 deci
Mass kilogram kg 10 9
giga 10-2 centi
Time second s 106 mega 10-3 milli
Current Ampere A 103 kilo 10-6 micro
Thermodynamic Kelvin K, (°C) 102 hecto 10-9 nano
temperature* 101 deca 10-12 pico
Molarity mole mol
Luminous candela cd
* °C may also be used as SI unit

Appendix Table 1.4

Appendix 1.3 Conversion of main units
N dγn kgf
Force 1 1105 1.0197210-1
110-5 1 1.0197210-6
9.80665 9.80665105 1

Pa bar kgf/cm2 atm mmAq mmHg or Torr

1 110-5 1.0197210-5 9.8692310-6 1.0197210-1 7.5006210-3
1105 1 1.01972 9.8692310-1 1.01972104 7.50062102
Pressure 9.80665104 9.8066510-1 1 9.6784110-1 1104 7.35559102
1.01325105 1.01325 1.03323 1 1.03323104 7.60000102
9.80665 9.8066510-5 110-4 9.6784110-5 1 7.3555910-2
1.33322102 1.3332210-3 1.3595110-3 1.3157910-3 1.3595110 1
NB: 1 Pa = 1 N/m2

J kW  h kgf  m kcal
Work 1 2.7777810-7 1.0197210-1 2.3888910-4
Energy 3.600106 1 3.67098105 8.6000102
Heat 9.80665 2.7240710-6 1 2.3427010-2
value 4.18605103 1.1627910-3 4.26858102 1
NB: 1 J = 1 Ws, 1 cal = 4.18605 J (from the Measurement Law)

kW kgf  m/s PS Kcal/h

Heat 1 1.01972102 1.35962 8.6000102
flow 9.8066510-3 1 1.3333310-2 8.43371
rate(moti 7.35510-1 7.510 1 6.32529102
ve 1.1627910-3 1.1857210-1 1.5809510-3 1
NB: 1 W = J/s, 1 PS = metric horsepower (metric system), 1 PS = 0.7355 kW, 1 HP
(horsepower) = 7.457 x 102 W

J/(kg  K) kcal/(kg  °C)

Specific 1 2.3888910-4
heat 4.18605103 1
NB: 1 cal = 4.18605 J (from the Measurement Law)

Thermal W/(m  K) kcal/(h  m  °C) W/(m2  K) kcal/(h  m2  °C)

conductiv Coefficient
1 8.600010-1 1 8.600010-1
ity of thermal
1.16279 1 1.16279 1

Appendix 1.4 Frequently used constants in plumbing system Appendix Table 1.5
Title Value
Specific heat of water (1 x 105 Pa, 20° C) C 4187 J/ (kgK)
Latent steam heat of water (0 Pa, 0° C)  2499 kJ/ kg
Specific heat of air at constant pressure (1 x
105 Pa, 20° C) Cp 1010 J/ (kgK)
Specific heat of air at constant volume (1 x
105 Pa, 20° C) CV 721 J/ (kgK)
23. Installation of Plumbing and HVAC Systems

Acceleration under normal gravity gc 9.80665 ms-2

Normal atmospheric pressure P0 1.01325 x 105 Pa

Appendix 2 Pipe materials and joint map

Pipe materials and joint map 1/2 Created (date):

Appendix 2 Pipe materials and joint map

(Designed to be used in conjunction with the Guide to Selection of Pipe Materials and Joints) Project: Quality Assurance Officer:
Person in charge:

Wastewater cast iron pipe joints—insert

Type of joint

Pressurized wastewater flexible joints

Pipe type, specifications, usage

Wastewater steel pipe screw joints

Expander pipe rubber ring joints
(excludes pipes used for outdoor wastewater, test wastewater, special-purpose wastewater,

Wastewater cast iron pipe joints

hot springs water and process applications)

Mechanical type grip joints

Wastewater flexible joints
Weld branch saddle joints

Roll group housing joints

Pipe type Specifications Purpose
Indoor wastewater

Ring housing joints

Packing type joints
Loose flange joints

—mechanical type
Hot/Chilled water

Joints with flange

Air conditioning
Sanitary sewage
Industrial water

Steam (supply)
Steam (return)
Cooling water

Kitchen waste

Flange joints
Screw joints
Storm water


Main water

Weld joints
Hot water

Vent pipe


Stee Carbon steel pipe (white) JIS G 3452        *1 *2           
Carbon steel pipe (black) JIS G 3452              
Pressurized carbon steel pipe (white) JIS G 3454            
Pressurized carbon steel pipe (black) JIS G 3454              
Galvanized steel water pipe JIS G 3442        *1 *2           
Steel water pipe with rigid PVC lining JWWA K 116         
Steel water pipe lined with internal and external
JWWA K 116        
rigid PVC lining
Steel water pipe with thermal resistant rigid PVC

Appendix Table 2.1

JWWA K 140       
Steel water pipe with thermal resistant rigid PVC      
WSP 043
lining (external rigid PVC sheath)

Steel water pipe with polyethylene powder lining JWWA K 132         

Steel water pipe with polyethylene powder lining       
JWWA K 132
(external polyethylene sheath)
Steel fire-protection pipe with rigid vinyl
WSP 041     
chloride external sheath
Steel fire-protection pipe with polyethylene   
WSP 044  
external sheath
Steel wastewater pipe with rigid vinyl chloride 
WSP 042        
Steel wastewater pipe with tar epoxy coating WSP 032            
Steel wastewater pipe with tar epoxy coat     
WSP 032    
external sheath

Nylon coated steel pipe Manufacturer’s

          
Cast iron wastewater pipe JIS G 5525    
Cast iron

Mechanical type cast iron wastewater pipe SHASE 210    

Legend: , ○= permitted Selection

△ = may be permitted project by project considerations

E.g. MD joints; not used for pressurized pipes. If used, supports and
Pressurized pipe recommended to allow margin for corrosion

Note gradient requirement (refer to METS Plumbing edition)

No symbol = normally not permitted
Requires same anti-corrosion treatment of pipe ends as for

Note heat resistant temperature of lined steel pipe (refer to

Note heat resistant temperature of lined steel pipe (refer to

and product name

Used with pressurized pipe but with supports and fixing

and standard

fixing brackets are as per documentation from manufacturer.

Note gradient requirement — Standard Detail C-2152

Not suitable for cutting grooves or on-site processing

How to use the map
detail number of
For GT onwards; for lined pipes, check wastewater

1. Select the pipe type based on the intended purpose of

brackets as per documentation from manufacturer

Supports and fixing brackets as per manufacturer
the pipe. joint
Check wastewater temperature (refer to Guide)
Weld/screw joins (in locations that enable

2. From the pipe type group, select the joint type.

Use saddle that is suitable for positioning

Selection of the pipe and joint type should be based on
information given in Selection considerations and product
name and standard detail number of joint and in the

Not for use at 0.3 MPa or above

Remarks column.
Standard Detail C-1011, 1021
temperature (refer to Guide)

(1) Mark the selected pipe and joint materials with a circle

E.g. Straub coupling joint


or triangle, or, if using a pipe or joint of a type that is not

Standard Detail C-1012

normally permitted, a square.

E.g. welded flange

(2) Triangle and square types are subject to further

mains water pipes

E.g. screw flange

(pipe thickness)

investigation, so a valid reason for selection must be

Unit joints, etc.


3. Attach the marking map to FUS (Follow Up Sheet) and



present the reasons for selection to the Equipment chapter



of the Execution Preparations Committee for discussion.

Construction Management Division, Construction Equipment Section
Created: March 31, 2004 (Kajima Corporation, Tokyo Branch, Construction Section, M&E Work and Management Section)
Revised: May 26, 2005 (Pipe Materials and Joint Map Committee)
Pipe materials and joint map 2/2 Created (date):

23. Installation of Air Conditioning and Sanitation Systems

(Designed to be used in conjunction with the Guide to Selection of Pipe Materials and Joints) Project: Quality Assurance Officer:
Person in charge:
Type of joint

Pipe type, specifications, usage

Metal joints designed for plastic pipe

(excludes pipes used for outdoor wastewater, test wastewater, special-purpose wastewater,

Mechanical joints for refrigerant

hot spring water and process applications)
Specifications Purpose
Pipe type Indoor wastewater

Elongation flexible joints

Form rolling screw joints

Electrically fusion joints

Thermally fusion joints

Expander pipe joints
Air conditioning

Housing type joints

Compression joints
Loose flange joints
Hot/Chilled water

Pressurized pipes
Sanitary sewage

Snap-ring joints

Soldering joints
Industrial water

Grip type joints

Adhesive joints
Steam (supply)

Steam (return)

Packing joints
Kitchen waste

Press-fit joint
Flange joints
Screw joints
Mains water

Storm water

Insert joints

Weld joints
Hot water

Vent pipe

S General-purpose stainless steel pipe JIS G 3448               Poor
U Stainless steel water pipe JWWA G 115              
resistance to
Few pipe types chlorinated

Appendix Table 2.1 (continued)

S Stainless steel pipe chemicals
JIS G 3459            
Copper pipe for construction JIS H 3300        
Copper pipe

Sheathed copper pipe (JIS H 3300)      

Tin coated copper pie (JIS H 3300)      
Copper refrigerant pipe Manufacturer’s
  

Rigid vinyl chloride pipe JIS K 6741          
Rigid vinyl chloride water pipe * Maximum pressure for
all plastic pipes is 0.3
JIS K 6742      
MPa; note temperature
Plastic pipe

Rigid impact-resistant vinyl chloride water pipe JIS K 6742     
Rigid high-performance impact-resistant vinyl
JIS K 6742     
chloride water pipe
Rigid heat-resistant vinyl chloride pipe JIS K 6776     
Fiber reinforced mortar vinyl laminated pipe (JIS K 6741)        
Cross-linked polyethylene pipe JIS K 6769     *3  
Cross-linked polyethylene metal reinforced pipe Manufacturer’s
   
Polybutene pipe JIS K 6778        
Polyethylene water pipe JIS K 6762     

Legend: ,○… = permitted Selection

*3 Pipe used for closed system should be impervious to

△ = may be permitted project by project considerations,

Note wastewater temperature and pressure and support
In position that enables inspection and maintenance of
SUS pipe can be corroded by chlorine disinfectants so

No symbol = normally not permitted

Note wastewater temperature in vinyl chloride pipes

product name

Requires protection against pop-out since secure

How to use the map and standard
detail number of

Pipe supports as per manufacturer document

1. Select the pipe type based on the intended purpose of the pipe.
Requires countermeasures against thermal
disinfection methods should be confirmed

2. From the pipe type group, select the joint type.

E.g. SUS LOCK, KOMA push joint

Selection of the pipe and joint type should be based on information

In location that permits inspection

given in Selection considerations and product name and standard

E.g. Nice Joint, Z lok, SUS FIT

pop-out structure not available

Standard Detail C-1031-1032

detail number of joint and in the Remarks column.

Normally double press type

In principle factory welded

E.g. MRILA coupling joint

(1) Mark the selected pipe and joint materials with a circle or

In principle factory joined

In principle factory joined

brackets (refer to Guide)

triangle, or, if using a pipe or joint of a type that is not normally

Standard Detail C-1012

Standard Detail C-1051

Standard Detail C-1041

Standard Detail C-1011

permitted, a square.
(2) Triangle and square types are subject to further investigation, so

E.g. abacus joint

(refer to Guide)
soldering joints

a valid reason for selection must be provided.

E.g. MR joint
3. Attach the marking map to FUS (Follow Up Sheet) and present

the reasons for selection to the Equipment Chapter of the Execution

Preparations Committee for discussion.

Construction Management Division, Construction Equipment Section

Created: March 31, 2004 (Kajima Corporation, Tokyo Branch, Construction Section, M&E Work and Management Section)
Revised: May 26, 2005 (Pipe Materials and Joint Map Committee)

Appendix 3 Quick reference for fire protection regulation

Appendix Table 3.1
Sprinkler system Indoor fire hydrants Outdoor fire Interconnected
Category of hydrants water supply
fire-protection system pipes
Fire Services Law Article 12 Fire Services Law Article 11 Fire Fire Services
Services Law Article 29
Law Article
Fire protection object

flammable materials

flammable materials
Object with 11 floor levels

and floors from 4th

windowless floors

windowless floors
(excluding underground
Underground and

Underground and
Appendix Table 1 of the

floors inclusive
From 4th to 10th


Enforcement Ordinance of the

and above

Fire Services Law

Theaters, cinemas, Stage Underground Floor Floor All At least Total area 500 m2 + Area 100

floor level shall be treated as the same structure.

horizontal separation from the center lines between the exterior walls of adjacent structures is no more than three meters at ground level or five meters on the first
2. Where there are two or more structures on the same site (excluding fire-resistant structures and quasi fire-resistant structures), any portions where the
structure, 3,000 m2 for other structures
1. Minimum total floor area on ground floor or ground floor and first floor combined = 9,000 m2 in fire-resistant structure, or 6,000 m2 for quasi fire-resistant
5. Sections provided for use as roadways
4. Table 1 (18) — installation as per arcades of total length 50 m or more
3. Fire protection objects as listed in Table No. 1 (16-2) with total floor area of 1,000 m2 or more
2. Buildings with at least five floors above ground and a total floor area of at least 6,000 m2 (installed on the third floor and above)
1. Buildings with at least seven floors above ground (installed on the third floor and above).
a performance spaces and windowless area area 1,000 (1000) m2 +
auditoriums floors, 4th floor 1000 1500 times the [1500] (200)
Meeting halls and and above at m2 m2 quantity [300]
300 m2+, other
b community halls floors at 500 listed in
m2 + No. 4 of
Cabarets, cafes, Not single story, Hazardous 150
2 nightclubs with total floor area 1000 1000 Materials (300)
b Game halls, dance halls of 6,000 m2 or more Table [450]
Waiting rooms, cooking (except
a for

At least 750 times the quantity listed in No. 4 of Hazardous Materials Table (except for flammable liquids)
3 1000 1500 flammable
Eating and drinking
b liquids)
Department stores, 3000 1000 1000 700
markets, other retail (1400)
4 [2100]
outlets and exhibition
Inns, hotels and 1000 1500
accommodation facilities
Board and dormitory 11th
facilities, residential floor
apartment buildings and
Hospitals, clinics and Hospitals All Designated
a 3000
maternity clinics facilities
Elderly welfare Designated
facilities, private elderly facilities
persons homes, elderly
persons facilities,
rehabilitation facilities, 700
child welfare facilities, (1000)
b facilities for disabled 1000 [1000]
6 persons, facilities for 1000 1500
handicapped persons,
social rehabilitation
facilities for
handicapped persons
Kindergartens, schools 6000
for the blind, schools for
c (1400)
the deaf, protective
Elementary schools, 11th
junior high schools, high floor
schools, vocational and
schools, universities, above
other schools and
equivalent institutions
Libraries, museums, art
8 galleries and equivalent
Steam baths, hot-air 6000 1000 1500 All
a baths and equivalent
Public baths other than 11th
23. Installation of Air Conditioning and Sanitation Systems

those listed in (a) above floor

Train stations and ports and
for ships and aircraft above
Temples, shrines, 1000 200
11 churches etc
(2000) (400)
[3000] [600]
Factories and
a 700 150
12 (1400) (300)
Film studios, television
b [2100] [450]
Vehicle storerooms and
parking lots
13 Aircraft and helicopter
b shed
Warehouses Rack type Over 10
m in 700 150
14 height (1400) (300)
[2100] [450]
and 700 (1400)
Other than above 1000 200
15 facilities
(2000) (400)
[3000] [600]
Mixed-use buildings of Floors containing 1000 1500 All
which one or more the relevant portion *1000
sections is used for the where the total floor
16 purposes listed in (1) area of the
*1 through (4), (5) a, (6) or designated portion is
(9) a at least 3,000 m2
Mixed-use buildings 11th
used other than (16) a floor
Underground shopping Total area is at least and 150
16-2 malls 1,000 m2 above (300)
Quasi-underground Total area of at least
shopping malls 1,000 m2, where
Connects to the combined total floor
underground levels of a area of portions
building and faces and provided for
underground designated purposes
16-3 passageway and is at least 500 m2
constructed in
conjunction with the
passageway and
provided for a
designated purpose
Important cultural assets, As per (1)
important tangible through
17 cultural assets, buildings (15)
of historical or aesthetic
1) Designated portions refers to portions provided as fire protection objects as listed in (1) through (4), (5) a, (6) and
(9) a.
2) In terms of fire-protection system applicability, portions of a fire protected building delineated by fireproof
structure floors or walls with no openings are treated as separate fire protected structures.
3) Grey areas in the table indicate designated fire protected structures.
4) <no translation required>
5) Figures in square brackets apply to fire resistant buildings that are subject to internal construction restrictions.
6) Figures in round brackets apply to fire resistant buildings or quasi fire resistant buildings that are subject to
internal construction restrictions.
7) Additional notes about item (6)—general notes on sprinkler systems and internal fire hydrants
• Hospitals are defined as only those hospitals among the fireproof structures listed in (6) a
• Designated facilities are defined as “fire protection objects” in (6) b used to house persons with physical and/or
mental disabilities who are unable to evacuate without assistance as defined in the Local Government regulations
Article 13-2 as listed below
Short-term elderly welfare facilities, elderly persons homes, special homes for the elderly, private elderly persons
homes (generally limited to facilities for persons requiring nursing care), elderly health care facilities, reformatories,
homes for infants, facilities for intellectually handicapped persons, homes for blind, deaf and mute children*,
facilities for physically disabled children*, facilities for children with severe physical and/or mental disabilities,
rehabilitation facilities for persons with severe physical and/or mental disabilities, rehabilitation facilities for
persons with visual disabilities, rehabilitation facilities for persons with auditory or language disabilities,
recuperation facilities for persons with physical and/or mental disabilities, workplaces for handicapped persons,
rehabilitation facilities for persons with intellectual disabilities*, workplaces for persons with intellectual
disabilities*, dormitories for workers with intellectual disabilities (* excluding day care facilities)
8) In *1 (16) mixed-use fire protection objects, other than the standards shown in the Table, in each usage category

in (1) through (15), installed in accordance with the standards corresponding to the relevant usage.
9) In (16) a, *1000 refers to floors provided for uses stated in (2) and (4).

23. Installation of Air Conditioning and Sanitation Systems

Appendix Table 3.1 (continued)

Interconnected Fire-fighting service Fire-fighting equipment Sprinklers, water spray, foam, carbon dioxide, halide, and powder extinguishers
water supply water
system Article 12 through Article 18
Enforcement Article 27 Article 10
Ordinance of
Fire Services Fire-fighting equipment
Law Article

Carbon dioxide
floors at 3rd floor and above

“Small quantities

Water spray
windowless floors and

materials” etc.
of hazardous

Underground and


Appendix Table 1 (13) b

Total floor area 1. Site area = 20,000 a (1) Airplane and helicopter sheds

Floor area of 50 m2 or more

Low quantity of hazardous material below designated quantity or designated flammable material of quantity greater than that specified in Hazardous Materials Table No. 4
At least 20% of designated quantity
of underground m2 +, and minimum  
floors = 700 m2 combined floor area b
+ (1) through on ground floor and Total area
(15), (16-2) and first floor levels is 150 m2 + Rooftop landing pads for helicopters and vertical
(17) 15,000 m2 (for a (2) takeoff and landing type aircraft
fire-resistant  
buildings), 10,000 m2 All
(quasi fire resistant
buildings) or 5,000 Areas provided for use Rooftop: 600 m2 and larger
m2 (other buildings), a (3) as roadways (as
excluding buildings stipulated by local
listed in the following 150 government decree)    
b Other: 400 m2
items and
shopping precincts (4)
2. Buildings higher Areas provided for the Underground floors,
than 31 meters with a (5) purpose of vehicle aboveground floors other
total floor area of at repair and than ground floor : 200 m2
least 25,000 m2 150 b maintenance
(excluding    
underground floors) Ground floor: 500 m2
3. Where there are a (6)
two or more
structures on the b
same site portions of 150
which have Area Underground floors, aboveground
horizontal separation c provided for floors other than ground floor : 200 m2
from the center lines the purpose
between the exterior (7) of vehicle
300 parking
walls of adjacent Ground floor: 500 m2
Fire protection objects as per Appendix Table 1

structures of no more (8)

than three meters at 300
ground level or five a (9)
meters on the first
Rooftop: 300 m2     
floor level and the 150
sum of quotients b
divided by the floor
area of 15,000 m2 (10)
(for fire-resistant 300
buildings), 10,000 m2 Multi-story car park with capacity for
(11) 10 or more vehicles
(quasi fire resistant 300
buildings) or 5,000
m2 (other buildings) a (12)
is equal to 1 or more,
150 Electrical room for generators, transformers and other
they shall be treated b electrical equipment: 200 m2
as the same structure   
a (13)

150 Forging facilities, boiler rooms, drying rooms and

b other facilities involving considerable use of flame:
200 m2   
Communication equipment rooms: 500 m2
300   
a (16)

Area used to Cotton, wood wool,, wood shavings,

store and cloth rags, paper scraps, yarn, straw, 
  
treat at least synthetic resins (*2) (all)
1,000 times
the Cloth rags, paper scraps (impregnated
(16-2) designated with animal and vegetable oils), coal,   
All quantity of charcoal
designated Flammable solids, flammable liquids,
flammable synthetic resins (*3) 
materials     
All *4

Processed timber, wood scraps

 
  
(17) (all) (all)

*2 Limited to rubber products, rubber semi manufactured goods, raw rubber

and rubber scraps that are not inflammable or flame resistant
*3 Excluding rubber products, raw rubber and rubber scraps that are not
inflammable or flame resistant.
*4 Excluding flammable liquids.
(all) denotes sprayed over entire area
Square symbol denotes may be subject to halon restrictions


Appendix 4 Psychrometric chart

Appendix Table 4.1
Partial water vapor pressure pw (kPa)

Absolute humidity x (kg/kg(DA))

Relative humidity (%)

Saturation degree (%)

Specific volume v (m3/kg(DA))


Full pressure 101.325 kPa, temperature

Relative enthalpy h
Humid air h – x curve

-10 ~ +50° C



difference ratio
Sensible heat
u = dh/dx (kJ/kg) factor



23. Installation of Air Conditioning and Sanitation Systems

Appendix 5. Frost depths

Frost depth is normally determined on the basis of thermal conduction, using Stefan’s and
Neumann’s formulas for the ice layer depth of stagnant water. Assuming that the ground is
relatively uniform, the frost depth can be determined from a simplified version of the Neumann
formula as follows.

Z = frost depth (cm)
F = freezing index (°C・days)
K = average of thermal conductivity when frozen and when not frozen
(cal/cm・sec ・°C)
L = latent heat of fusion ( 0.80 W・d , cal/cm3)
W = water content (%)
d = drying density (g/cm3)
λ = correction coefficient
μ = fusion parameter (=Q・F/L・t)
t = freezing period (days)
C = specific heat (= 0.17 + 0.0075 W, cal/cm3・°C)
τ = heat factor

The correction coefficient λ can be obtained from fusion parameter μ and heat factor τ in
Appendix Figure 5.1 and heat factor τ from Appendix Figure 5.2.
Fusion parameter µ
Correction coefficient λ

Appendix Figure 5.1 Correction coefficient λ and fusion parameter µ versus sensible heat factor τ


Heat factor τ

Freezing index F (C・days)

Appendix Figure 5.2 Freezing index versus Heat factor τ

23. Installation of Air Conditioning and Sanitation Systems

Appendix Table 5.1 Maximum freezing indices in Japan (1968 – 1978)

Geographic name Freezing Altitude Geographic name Freez Altitude Geographic name Freez Altitude Geographic name Freezi Altitude
index (m) in (m) in (m) ng (m)
g g ind
in in ex
de de
x x
Hokkaido Yokote 290 59 Kitakami 260 87 Shinjo 230 94
Wakkanai 690 3 Washizu 280 29 Yokokawame 290 110 Tsuruoka 80 16
Asahikawa 920 112 Minehama 150 20 Wakayanagi 270 170 Kaneyama 250 180
Rumoi 580 22 Odate 340 59 Senmaya 330 77 Mukaihara 250 227
Sapporo 510 17 Noshiro 170 22 Taneichi 180 20 Hijiori 300 365
Iwamizawa 674 33 Hanawa 340 134 ono 370 220 Hidarisawa 240 115
Otaru 430 24 Kamikoani 260 65 Yamagata 350 280 Nagai 200 200
Abashiri 790 38 Aniai 280 110 Kuji 200 29 Miyauchi 260 240
Kitami 1,100 84 Gojome 230 6 Fudai 250 30 Oguni 150 140
Nemuro 630 28 Iwamisannai 230 55 Omoto 50 20 Fujishima 70 13
Kushiro 680 32 Obonai 400 230 Iwaizumi 240 105 Kushibiki - 33
Obihiro 950 39 Kakunodate 280 56 Kadoma 700 620 Yamagata Airport 250 106
Muroran 350 43 Kariwano 320 16 Kawai 170 200 Sasunabe 220 122
Urakawa 390 34 Omagari 320 30 Toyomane 100 28 Kuriyasawa 250 100
Hakodate 410 33 Honjo 100 11 Setamai 280 190 Tateoka 210 95
Akanko-linc 1,380 430 Shimogo 250 117 Yahagi 60 60 Mazawa 160 215
Aomori Yashima 180 72 Matsurube 170 350 Nakamura 320 440
Aomori 250 4 Yuzawa 310 96 Arasawa 260 300 Sagae 130 145
Hirosaki 280 32 Kemanai 400 126 Kitaokunakayama 580 430 Miyajuku 170 170
Fukaura 170 68 Hinai 300 80 Hanamaki 160 91 Takahata 240 220
Hachinohe 230 27 Yonaizawa 260 65 Yuda 400 373 Odaino 240 416
Odanosawa 230 6 Kamiiwakawa 230 35 Mizusawa 180 62 Karikawa 140 17
Kominato 230 22 Wakimoto 120 20 Joboji 390 349 Otsuna 120 284
Kanita 280 3 Fujikura 180 68 Kurosawajiri 170 59 Oya 190 120
Imabetsu 180 7 Taishoji 220 20 Tase 330 155 Zao 410 1,660
Goshogawara 290 9 Ota 310 70 Ishibuchi 220 260 Takamine 180 272
Ajigasawa 180 40 Numadate 340 43 Miyagi Toyosato 180 120
Kuroishi 290 40 Minase 340 250 Sendai 20 38 Komatsu 220 240
Ochiai 330 120 Innai 240 166 Ishinomaki 25 43 Fukasawano 210 365
Higashimeya 350 100 Yoroihata 360 280 Hara 190 310 Fukushima
Ikarigaseki 390 200 Kasuke 200 32 Tsukidate 190 38 Fukushima 70 67
Rokkasho 240 57 Yunotai 350 320 Tsuya 41 40 Hirano - 68
Noheji 250 43 Oani 430 210 Hanayama 110 150 Iizaka - 100
Tenmabayashi 300 82 Kosaka 210 184 Minamikata 60 8 Moniwa 160 250
Shichinohe 260 40 Kamihinokinai 390 260 Furukawa 190 23 Yanagawa 100 46
Momoishi 240 23 Nagashida 150 103 Ohira 160 60 Kawamata 50 160
Sanbongi 290 42 Tokiwa 200 12 Kawasaki 180 180 Iwashiro 30 210
Kozawaguchi 250 100 Iwate Shiroishi 110 50 Funehiki 220 460
Gonohe 260 61 Morioka 300 155 Kawatabi 220 200 Ononiimachi - 433
Oma 160 14 Miyako 140 42 Kesennuma 150 40 Nakahata 60 290
Ohata 220 3 Ofunato 110 37 Wakayanagi 70 13 Ishikawa 160 300
Kawauchi 220 4 Ichinoseki 220 68 Towa - 30 Samegawa 150 420
Tairadate 160 3 Karumai 390 153 Tome 70 20 Shirakawa 140 354
Kodomari 80 3 Fukuoka 270 120 Shizugawa 130 30 Bandai Kogen 320 725
Shariki 260 23 Tayama 470 310 Iwadeyama 50 52 Inawashiro 370 521
Kanagi 200 12 Araya 430 310 Miyazaki 110 87 Konan 340 540
Misawa 230 39 Okunakayama 600 430 Kashimadai 200 3 Wakamatsu 210 212
Tanabe 230 3 Kuzumaki - 395 Shiogama 120 105 Kitakata 230 212
Sannohe 300 40 Iwate-Matsuo 450 280 Nikkawa 210 267 Nishiaizu 180 110
Fujisaki 190 30 Shizukuishi 400 208 Hippo 110 320 Bange 300 180
Sukayu 640 920 Kouma 420 205 Aone 160 440 Kaneyama 220 290
Nakui 160 15 Gando 900 678 Yuhara 230 490 Kuimaru 380 520
Mutsu 190 - Yabukawa 910 680 Takesawa 240 375 Tadami 260 377
Onizawa 180 30 Wakahata 510 370 Yamagata Nangou 410 570
Takko 220 147 Sawauchi 470 327 Yamagata 190 151 Tateiwa 410 690
Yasumiya 400 405 Ohasama 370 140 Sakata 70 3 Hinoemata 450 932
Akita Tsukimoushi 560 460 Yonezawa 220 254 Tajima 320 550
Akita 150 9 Tono 400 273 Obanazawa 240 98 Yumoto 270 540


Appendix Table 5.1 Maximum freezing indices in Japan (1968 – 1978) (continued)
Geographic name Freezing Altitude Geographic name Freezin Altitude Geographic name Freezin Altitude Geographic name Freezing Altitude
index (m) g (m) g (m) index (m)
inde ind
x ex
Iitate 230 690 Iriyamabe 400 1,253 Shirakawa 210 496 Izumi 230 430
Tsushima 150 - Togura 170 383 Furukawa 270 493 Imajo 50 160
Kawauchi 80 - Kawakami 450 1,180 Kawai 190 450 Nishitani 160 530
Miwa 70 - Kitamaki 270 880 Tochio 270 806 Minamirokushi 190 400
Tochigi Mochizuki 220 705 Hirayu 740 1,240 Otani 240 485
Nikko 480 1,292 Iwamurada 230 722 Itadori 260 330 Kotando 230 620
Nikko Hanaishi 170 630 Oiwake 320 999 Shiratori 150 372 Okochi 150 420
Gunma Wada 230 805 Nojiri 170 538 Kyoto
Kusatsu 480 1,210 Bessho 170 540 Maze 150 600 Hieizan 240 832
Katashina 310 813 Nakajo 150 435 Takane 340 976 Osaka
Akagi 730 1,340 Nojiri 300 659 Natsumaya 480 838 Tennnou 110 489
Tashiro 570 1,230 Hokujo 310 700 Niigata Hyogo
Kozu 330 1,060 Yumata 600 1,560 Niigata 20 2 Rokkosan 180 865
Shima 180 650 Shinanozaka 530 1,040 Nagaoka 60 - Nara
Ikaho 140 630 Taishoike 870 1,520 Takada 20 13 Kojindake 300 1,250
Mihara 350 810 Ikeda 190 595 Aikawa 10 34 Dorogawa 110 820
Sudagai 190 720 Aida 180 630 Murakami 30 9 Wakayama
Saitama Soga 220 772 Shimozeki 80 36 Ryujin 10 403
Nakatsugawa 180 865 Tatenoumi 430 1,250 Nakajo 60 17 Koyasan 210 820
Mitsumine 220 1,101 Tamagawa 280 905 Sugatani 70 40 Okayama
Kanagawa Fujimi 300 952 Niitsu 60 6 Kayo 20 280
Sengokuhara 130 665 Kawagishi 260 765 Maki 30 2 Yagami 70 360
Nagano Tatsuno 210 719 Tsugawa 150 60 Chiya 120 450
Nagano 220 418 Kiso 410 980 Morimachi 90 72 Osa 40 345
Matsumoto 190 610 Okuwa 190 525 Irihirose 160 230 Kaminagata 150 440
Suwa 240 760 Inasato 230 870 Kawaguchi 150 127 Hiroshima
Karuizawa 410 999 Akaho 180 677 Muikamachi 160 180 Yoshiwa 210 585
Takato 220 770 Odaira 410 1,140 Tsunan 430 452 Yahata 310 775
Ueda 130 459 Seinaji 220 770 Kashiwazaki 30 7 Oasa 160 385
Nozawa-Onsen 210 571 Hiraya 390 920 Matsunoyama 210 345 Chiyoda 80 272
Iiyama 340 313 Maruko 170 532 Yasuzuka 130 135 Tsutsuga 110 290
Hakuba 330 700 Mitake 280 870 Sekiyama 160 335 Midori 70 360
Omachi 350 789 Makisato 160 530 Itoigawa 50 70 Funo 70 220
220 437 Kinasa 270 720 Nakaoki 60 7 Takano 180 550
Hotaka 210 540 Sakai 280 644 Iwasawa 60 25 Ozuka 110 500
Azumi 220 750 Nakabusagawa 310 851 Okutadami 430 783 Seranishi 150 380
Tateshina 280 720 Toyama 190 400 Asagai 530 939 Yahoko 190 535
Kisofukushima 200 750 Asage 270 794 Shirakuzure 860 1,499 Shimane
Yachiho 250 776 Ooka 260 818 Akakura 460 910 Mitsuino 250 729
Nagiso 140 560 Yokoya 280 - Sanegawa 110 240 Tonbara 160 420
Iijima 140 720 Shinonoi 160 356 Yuzawa 220 377 Nita 100 280
Oshika 150 730 Yamanashi Toyama Akana 170 444
Saku 240 687 Kobuchisawa 140 852 Toyama 30 7 Yokota 160 340
Shinanomachi 340 676 Kawaguchiko 190 860 Tottori
Togakushi 370 900 Masutomi 200 1,085 Kurobeko 820 1,459 Miyaichi 90 250
Sakakita 230 608 Kaiochiai 340 1,122 Fukumitsu 60 91 Kurosaka 80 220
Toubumachi 280 950 Fujitoyoshige 180 1,029 Nishiakao 160 340 Abire 230 530
Ina 210 760 Shikishima 70 779 Oyabe 50 15 Nichinan 70 290
Nobeyama 540 1,350 Nagasaka 110 704 Uozu 40 68 Fukuoka
Sugadaira 720 1,240 Kiyosato 460 1,380 Yatsuo 77 Sefuri-san 250 960
Nakano 240 370 Yamanaka 310 985 Ishikawa Oita
Shiga Kogen 780 1,480 Aichi Kanazawa 10 26 Handa 190 828
Minamiotari 250 467 Inahashi 150 505 Suzu 40 19 Nagasaki
Sasadaira 410 800 Gifu Torigoe 160 180 Unzendake 150 668
Kaida 500 1,090 Kuguno 300 708 Yanagida 60 100 Kumamoto
Tamataki 310 924 Takayama 250 560 Yamanaka 30 126 Aso-san 250 1,143
Tateshina 490 1,240 Hatahoko 450 946 Fukui Miyazaki
Komoro 240 746 Shokawa 420 786 Ikeda 110 220 Ebino 220 1,150

(Asphalt Paving Principles, Japan Road Association)

Reference: Japan Road Association Road and Public Works/Road and Drainage Works Guideline 9. rev. 1979-2 (or, Report of the
Public Works Laboratory 1981.2, No.76)

23. Installation of Air Conditioning and Sanitation Systems

Revised 2005
Editorial Team

Building Construction Management Division

Toshio Nezuka
Tadao Adachi
Shin-ichiro Goto

Building Construction
Handbook 23
Installation of Plumbing and
HVAC Systems
First published 1966
March 2006
Published by
Kajima Corporation, Building
Construction Management

Produced by Kajima Publishing Group