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Ofer Aluf

Microwave
RF Antennas
and Circuits
Nonlinearity Applications in Engineering
Microwave RF Antennas and Circuits
Ofer Aluf

Microwave RF Antennas
and Circuits
Nonlinearity Applications in Engineering

123
Ofer Aluf
Netanya
Israel

ISBN 978-3-319-45425-2 ISBN 978-3-319-45427-6 (eBook)


DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-45427-6
Library of Congress Control Number: 2016950418

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017


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Preface

This book on microwave RF circuits: nonlinearity applications in engineering


covers and deals with two separate engineering and scientific areas and what
between. It gives advance analysis methods for Microwave RF Circuits which
represent many applications in engineering. Microwave RF Circuits come in many
topological structures and represent many specific implementations which stand the
target engineering features. Microwave RF Circuits include RFID antenna systems,
microwave elements, microwave semiconductor amplifiers, small-signal
(SS) amplifiers and matching networks, power amplifiers, oscillators, filters,
antennae systems, and high-power transistor circuit. The basic Microwave RF
Circuits can be characterized by some models and the associated equations. The
Microwave RF Circuits include RFID ICs and antennas, microstrip, circulators,
cylindrical RF network antennas, tunnel diode (TD), bipolar transistors, field-effect
transistors, IMPATT amplifiers, small-signal (SS) amplifiers, Bias-T circuits, PIN
diode, power amplifiers, LNAs, oscillators, resonators, filters, N-turn antennae, dual
spiral coils antennae, Helix antennas, linear dipole and slot array, and hybrid
translinear circuit. The Microwave RF Circuits analyze as linear and nonlinear
dynamical systems and their dynamics under parameter variations. This book is
aimed at newcomers to linear and nonlinear dynamics and chaos Microwave RF
Circuits. The presentation stresses analytical and numerical methods, concrete
examples, and geometric intuition. The Microwave RF Circuits analysis is devel-
oped systematically, starting with first-order differential equations and their bifur-
cation, followed by phase plane analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations, chaos,
iterated maps, period doubling, renormalization, and strange attractors.
Additionally, the book is dealt with delayed Microwave RF Circuits which char-
acterized by overall variables delayed with time. Each variable has specific delay
parameter and can be inspected for dynamics. More realistic Microwave RF
Circuits models should include some of the past states of Microwave RF Circuits
and systems; that is, ideally, a real Microwave RF Circuits should be modeled by
differential equations with time delays. The use of delay differential equations
(DDEs) in the modeling of Microwave RF Circuits dynamics is currently very
active, largely due to progress achieved in the understanding of the dynamics of

v
vi Preface

several classes of delayed differential equations and Microwave RF Circuits and


systems. This book is designed for advanced undergraduate or graduate students in
electronics, RF and electronic engineering, physics, and mathematics who are
interested in Microwave RF Circuits dynamics and innovative analysis methods. It
is also addressed to electrical and RF engineers, physics experts and researchers in
physics, electronics, engineering and mathematics who use dynamical systems as
modeling tools in their studies. Therefore, only a moderate mathematical and
electronic semiconductor background in geometry, linear algebra, analysis, and
differential equations is required. Each chapter includes various Microwave RF
Circuits drawing and their equivalent analyses circuits. Microwave RF Circuits
fixed points and stability analysis done by using much estimation. Various bifur-
cations of Microwave RF Circuits are discussed.
In this book, we try to provide the reader with explicit procedures for application
of general Microwave RF Circuits mathematical representations to particular
research problems. Special attention is given to numerical implementation of the
developed techniques.
Let us briefly characterize the content of each chapter.
Chapter 1. RFID Antenna Systems Descriptions and Analysis. In this chapter,
RFID antenna systems are described and analyzed. RFID is a dedicated short-range
communication (DCRC) technology. RFID system consists of an antenna and a
transceiver, which read the radio frequency, and transfers the information to a
processing device (reader) and a transponder, or RFID tag. Active RFID tag system
includes energy source (battery), and it consumes energy. The active RFID tag
system is analyzed as an excitable linear bifurcation system. RFID tag-dimensional
parameters are optimized to get the best performances. Under delayed electro-
magnetic interferences, there are delays in some RFID tag coil variables and we
analyze it for stability optimization. There is a unique structure of RFID system,
semi-passive RFID tags with double-loop antennae arranged as a shifted gate. The
structure is optimized under delayed electromagnetic interferences. RFID tag
detector circuit is implemented by using schottky diode, and stability is analyzed for
parameter values variation. RFID system burst switch is a very important element,
and its behavior in time is inspected. The analysis fills the gap of analytical methods
for RFID systems analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples. One of the
crucial RFID system optimization is in electromagnetic environmental which faced
RFID system variables delay in time. In some cases, RFID system can be repre-
sented as delayed differential equations, which depends on variable parameters and
delays. There are practical guidelines that combine graphical information with
analytical work to effectively study the local stability of RFID system models
involving delay-dependent parameters.
Chapter 2. Microwave Element Description and Stability Analysis. In this
chapter, microwave element stability is discussed. There are three types of
microwave circuits which include microwave elements. The first is a discrete cir-
cuit, packaged diodes/transistors mounted in coax and waveguide assemblies. The
second is Hybrid MIC (microwave integrated circuit), diodes/transistors and
microstrip fabricated separately and then assembled. The third is MMIC
Preface vii

(monolithic microwave integrated circuit), diodes, transistors, and microstrip


circuits, and other circuit elements, such as lumped capacitors and resistors, which
have parasitic effects influenced on overall system stability behavior. Microwave
transmission lines are delayed in time and are integral part of power limiter; the
stability is inspected for optimization. Reflection-type phase shifter (RTPS)
employs a circulator. The RTPS circuit includes microstrip transmission lines with
three-port active circulator and analyzes for stability optimization under time
delayed. Cylindrical RF network antennas for coupled plasma sources include
copper legs. They run as large-volume plasma sources and have stability switching
due to system’s copper leg parasitic effects. Tunnel diode (TD) is the p-n junction
device that exhibits negative resistance. Tunnel diode (TD) can be a microwave
oscillator. Transient is in the resonant cavity after turning the bias voltage ON. The
resonant circuit with NDR can oscillate. The Tunnel diode (TD) microwave
oscillator has parasitic effects in time and delay variables. The stability is optimized
when implementing tunnel diode (TD) in microwave oscillator.
Chapter 3. Microwave Semiconductor Amplifiers Analysis. In this chapter,
microwave semiconductor amplifier circuit analysis is discussed. Microwave
semiconductor amplifiers are widely used, and stability analysis is needed.
Microwave semiconductors can be bipolar transistors which operate at microwave
frequencies, and microwave field-effect transistors (FETs) minimize the adverse
effects of transit time and internal capacitance and resistance, IMPATT
(impact-ionization avalanche transit time) amplifier which widely used at the high
end of the microwave band. Stability of these microwave amplifiers is affected by
internal parameter variation and circuit microstrip parasitic effects. IMPATT diodes
which are a form of high-power diode are used in high-frequency electronic and
microwave devices. FET-combined biasing and matching circuit has many stability
issues which must be taken for every RF design, and analysis is done for best
performances.
Chapter 4. Small Signal (SS) Amplifiers and Matching Network Stability
Analysis. In this chapter, small-signal (SS) amplifiers and matching network
structures are analyzed for best performances. There are some types of amplifiers.
Amplifiers types are zero-frequency amplifiers (DC amplifiers), low-frequency
amplifiers (audio amplifiers), and high-frequency amplifiers (RF amplifiers).
Amplifiers come in three basic flavors: common base (CB) amplifiers, common
collector (CC) amplifiers, and common emitter (CE) amplifiers. It depends whether
the base, collector, or emitter is common to both the input and output of the
amplifier. When an amplifier’s output impedance matches the load impedance,
maximum power is transferred to the load and all reflections are eliminated. When
an amplifier’s output impedance unmatched the load impedance, there are reflec-
tions and less than maximum power is transferred to the load. There are instability
behaviors in these three types of amplifiers caused by circuit microstrip delays in
time parasitic effects. We use RF matching network in our design. There are typical
amplifiers matching networks: L matching network, T matching network, and PI
matching network. In design of microwave matching network, device parasitic
effects of length on RF circuit matching and stability. Bias-T three-port network
viii Preface

also suffers from instability under delayed microstrip in time. A PIN diode is
suitable for many applications and operates under high level of injection. The PIN
diode suffers from instability under parameter variations.
Chapter 5. Power Amplifier (PA) System Stability Analysis. In this chapter,
power amplifiers (PAs) are analyzed for best performances, and stability was also
discussed. Large-signal or power amplifiers (PAs) are used in the output stages of
audio amplifier systems to derive a load speaker. There are different types
of amplifiers which classified according to their circuit configurations and method
of operation. The classification of amplifiers ranged from linear operation with very
low efficiency to nonlinear operation but with a much higher efficiency, while
others are a compromise between the two. There are two basic amplifier class
groups. The first are the classically controlled conduction angle amplifiers forming
the more common amplifier classes (A, B, AB, and C). The second set of amplifiers
are the newer so-called switching amplifier classes (D, E, F, G, S, T). The most
commonly structured amplifier classes are those that are the most common type of
amplifier class mainly due to their simple design. We analyze the stability of these
amplifiers by inspecting the equivalent circuit differential equations. BJT transistor
is replaced by large-signal model in our analysis. The BJT model is known as the
Gummel–Poon model. The Ebers–Moll BJT model is a good large signal. We use
nonlinear dynamic in our analysis for amplifiers that feed by inputs/outputs exceed
certain limits. LNAs are used in many microwave and RF applications. We analyze
the stability of wideband low-noise amplifier (LNA) with negative feedback under
circuit’s parameter variation.
Chapter 6. Microwave/RF Oscillator Systems Stability Analysis. In this
chapter, our oscillator systems are discussed and their stability behavior is analyzed.
Oscillators can be classified into two types: relaxation and harmonic oscillators.
A microwave oscillator is an active device to generate power and a resonator to
control the frequency of the microwave signal. Important issues in oscillators are
frequency stability, frequency tuning, and phase noise. A phase-shift oscillator is a
linear electronic oscillator circuit that produces a sine wave output. The feedback
network “shifts” the phase of the amplifier output by 180° at the oscillation fre-
quency to give positive feedback, total phase shift of 360°. Phase-shift resonator
circuit stability analysis is done by considering BJT small-signal (SS) equivalent
circuit model. Closed-loop functioning oscillator can be viewed as feedback sys-
tem. The oscillation is sustained by feeding back a fraction of the output signal,
using an amplifier to gain the signal, and then injecting the energy back into the
tank. Closed-loop functioning oscillator stability is inspected and analyze. There are
types of transistor oscillators which use feedback and lumped inductance and
capacitance resonators. There are three types of transistor LC oscillators, Colpitts,
Hartley, and Clapp. In the Hartley oscillator, the feedback is supplied by the
inductive divider formed by two inductors. We apply the stability criterion of
Liapunov to our system. Colpitts oscillator is the same as Hertley oscillator and
instead of using a tapped inductance, Colpitts oscillator uses a tapped capacitance.
Colpitts oscillator circuit stability analysis is done by criterion of Liapunov.
Preface ix

Chapter 7. Filter Systems Stability Analysis. In this chapter, filter systems in


many circuits are inspected for dynamical behavior and stability analysis. The target
of analog and RF filtering is to modify the magnitude and phase of signal frequency
components. Many analog or radio frequency (RF) circuits perform filtering on the
signals passing through them. The analog and RF filter types are defined on the
criteria how they modify the magnitude and/or phase of sinusoidal frequency
components. Microwave and RF filters pass a range of frequencies and reject other
frequencies. A diplexer is a passive device that implements frequency-domain
multiplexing. Two ports are multiplexed onto a third port. A diplexer multiplexes
two ports onto one port, but more than two parts may be multiplexed. We analyze
BPF diplexer circuit stability by using geometric stability switch criteria in delay
differential systems. A diplexer filters to pass two bands to separate ports, and
stability analysis under parameter variation. The standard local stability analysis
about any one of the equilibrium points of dual-band diplexer filter circuit is done.
We use crystal in place of LC filter for low-frequency applications. There are lattice
crystal filter, half lattice, and cascaded half lattice filters. The standard local stability
analysis about any one of the equilibrium point of lattice crystal filter circuit is
done. A tunable BPF employing varactor diodes is ideal for many diverse wireless
applications. There are two types of tunable BPF employing varactor diodes: top
inductively coupled variable BPF and capacitively coupled variable band-pass
filter. BPF (varactor diodes) circuit involving N variables and stability behavior is
inspected.
Chapter 8. Antenna System Stability Analysis. In this chapter, we discussed
various antenna systems and behaviors for different conditions for best perfor-
mances. An antenna is a conductor or group of conductors used for radiating
electromagnetic energy into space or collecting electromagnetic energy from space.
There are many types of antennas and we discussed those antennas that operate at
microwave frequencies. Microwave refer to radio waves with wavelength ranging
from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter with frequencies between
300 MHz and 300 GHz. Another antenna area is for RFID applications.
A complete RFID system includes RFID reader and transponder units. N-turn
multilayer circular-coil antennas can be integrated with RFID IC for complete RFID
tags. We investigate the system stability optimization under delayed electromag-
netic interference and parasitic effects. The system is constructed from two
antennas: each one N-turn multilayer circular antenna. The standard local stability
analysis about any one of the equilibrium points (fixed points) of N-turn multilayer
circular-coil antenna RFID system is done. We analyze circuit stability where there
is a delay in the first and second RFIDs’ N-turn multilayer-coil antenna voltages
and antenna voltage derivatives. A double-rectangular spiral antenna is constructed
from two antennas, each antenna is a rectangular spiral antenna. Antennas are
connected in series with microstrip line and to the RFID IC. The standard local
stability analysis about any one of the equilibrium points of RFID tags with double
rectangular spiral antenna system is done. A system of single-turn square planar
straight thin-film inductor antenna (four segments) is constructed from four straight
thin-film inductors which are connected in a single-turn square structure. There are
x Preface

delays in time for the microstrip line parasitic effects, and stability switching is
inspected for different values of delay variables. A helical antenna is an antenna
consisting of a conducting wire wound in the form of a helix. The helical antennas
are mounted over a ground plane. Helical antennas can operate in one of two
principal modes: normal mode or axial mode. Helix antenna system stability is
inspected under parameter variation.
Chapter 9. Microwave RF Antennas and Circuits Bifurcation Behavior,
Investigation, Comparison and Conclusion. In this chapter, we summarized the
main topics regarding microwave and RF antennas and systems, inspect behavior,
dynamics, stability, comparison, and conclusion. Microwave RF antennas are an
integral part of every RF or microwave system. An antenna is an electrical device
which converts electric power into radio waves, and vice versa. In many wireless
applications, antennas are required by radio receiver or transmitter to couple its
electrical connection to the electromagnetic field. When we inspect system stability
which includes radio waves, we inspect electromagnetic waves which carry signals
through the space (or air) at the speed of light with almost no transmission loss.
There are mainly two categories of antennas. The first is omnidirectional antenna
which receives and/or radiates in all directions. The second is directional antenna
which radiates in a particular direction or pattern. Antennas are characterized by a
number of parameters, radiation pattern, and the resulting gain. Antenna’s gain is
dependent on its power in the horizontal directions, and antenna’s power gain takes
into account the antenna’s efficiency (figure of merit). The physical size of an
antenna is a practical issue, particularly at lower frequencies. Stability analysis
includes a complete RF system with antennas and matching networks.

Netanya, Israel Ofer Aluf


Contents

1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


1.1 Active RFID TAGs System Analysis of Energy Consumption
as Excitable Linear Bifurcation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.2 RFID TAG’s Dimensional Parameters Optimization
as Excitable Linear Bifurcation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability Optimization Under
Delayed Electromagnetic Interferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas
Arranged as a Shifted Gate System for Stability
Optimization Under Delayed Electromagnetic Interferences . . . . . . 44
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis Under Delayed
Schottky Diode’s Internal Elements in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under
Delayed Internal Diode Circuitry Parasitic Effects in Time . . . . . . . 104
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis . . . . . . .... 155
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power
Limiters Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 156
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase
Shifter (RTPS) Circuit Transmission Lines Delayed
in Time System Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 171
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma
Sources Copper Legs Delayed in Time System Stability
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 196
2.4 Tunnel Diode (TD) as a Microwave Oscillator System
Cavity Parasitic Elements Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 221
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 267

xi
xii Contents

3 Microwave Semiconductor Amplifiers Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 279


3.1 Bipolar Transistor at Microwave Frequencies Description
and Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 279
3.2 Field Effect Transistor (FETs) at Microwave Frequencies
Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 299
3.3 Field Effect Transistor (FETs) at Microwave Frequencies
Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 318
3.4 IMPATT Amplifier Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 333
3.5 Multistage IMPATT Amplifier System Microstrip Delayed
in Time Stability Switching Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 373
3.6 FET Combined Biasing and Matching Circuit Stability
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 382
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 392
4 Small Signal (SS) Amplifiers and Matching Network
Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 405
4.1 Small Signal (SS) Amplifiers and Matching Network . . . . . . . .... 406
4.2 Small Signal (SS) Amplifiers PI & T’s Matching Network
and Transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 422
4.3 Small Signal (SS) Amplifiers Matching Network Stability
Analysis Under Microstrip Parasitic Parameters Variation . . . .... 435
4.4 Bias—T Three Port Network Stability Switching Under
Delayed Micro Strip in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 460
4.5 PIN Diode Stability Analysis Under Parameters Variation . . . .... 489
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 501
5 Power Amplifier (PA) System Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 513
5.1 Class AB Push-Pull Power Amplifiers Stability Analysis
Under Parameters Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 514
5.2 Class C Power Amplifier (PA) with Parallel Resonance
Circuit Stability Analysis Under Parameters Variation . . . . . . .... 528
5.3 Single Ended Class B Amplifier Gummel-Poon Model
Analysis Under Parameters Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 559
5.4 Wideband Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) with Negative
Feedback Circuit Stability Analysis Under Circuit’s
Parameters Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 573
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 587
6 Microwave/RF Oscillator Systems Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
6.1 A Resonator Circuit 180° Phase Shift from Its Input
to Output Stability Analysis Under Delayed Variables
in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602
6.2 Closed Loop Functioning Oscillator Stability Analysis
Under Parameters Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617
Contents xiii

6.3 Hartley Oscillator Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630


6.4 Colpitts Oscillator Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661
7 Filters Systems Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 673
7.1 BPF Diplexer Without a Series Input Stability Analysis . . . . . .... 674
7.2 Dual Band Diplexer Filter Stability Analysis Under
Parameters Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 697
7.3 A Crystal-Lattice BPF Circuit Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . .... 711
7.4 A Tunable BPF Employing Varactor Diodes Stability
Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 745
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 768
8 Antennas System Stability Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 783
8.1 N-Turn Multilayer Circular Coil Antennas Transceiver
System Stability Optimization Under Delayed
Electromagnetic Interferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 785
8.2 Double Rectangular Spiral Coils Antennas System Stability
Optimization Under Delayed Electromagnetic Interferences
and Parasitic Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 818
8.3 Single-Turn Square Planar Straight Thin Film Inductors
Antenna System Stability Optimization Under Microstrip
Delayed in Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 849
8.4 Helix Antennas System Stability Analysis Under
Parameters Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 873
Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 885
9 Microwave RF Antennas and Circuits Bifurcation
Behavior, Investigation, Comparison and Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . 903
Appendix A: RFID LF TAG 125 kHz/134 kHz Design
and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913
Appendix B: RF Amplifiers Basic and Advance Topics
and Design Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 941
Appendix C: BJT Transistor Ebers-Moll Model and MOSFET
Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1035
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1041
Introduction

Microwave RF antenna products are currently in a widely use in all aspects of


engineering designs. Microwave RF antenna products are transmission lines,
coaxial cables, waveguide, strip line and microstrip, microwave semiconductors
(PIN diode, RF bipolar transistor, RF FET, varactor, schottky diode, LDMOS,
DMOS, GaN devices, etc.), RF combiner and couplers, isolators and circulator,
filters, attenuators, switches, phase shifter, detectors, amplifiers, oscillators, tubes,
microwave antennas (dipole, slot, horn, spiral, helix, arrays, parabolic dish, phased
arrays), low-power communication antennas (ZigBee, RFID/NFC, Bluetooth,
Wi-Fi, GPS, etc.). The basic structure of Microwave RF antenna product contains
de/multiplexed amplifiers, filters, mixers, etc. The Microwave RF antenna system
ports are RF inputs, RF outputs, oscillators, and input control lines). The below
figure demonstrates the basic structure of Microwave RF antenna system:

Control
lines

RF inputs RF outputs
( VjiIN , IjiIN ) ( VjiOUT , IjiOUT )
Microwave
system

Oscillators

The input control lines can be connected to additional embedded system by


many kinds of interfaces (RS232, RS485, UART, SPI, SDIO, etc.). RF inputs can
be connected to various antennas and other RF systems. RF outputs can be

xv
xvi Introduction

connected to additional RF systems and devices. The overall Microwave RF


antenna system equation can be represented as below:

i¼1 Y
X j¼1
d n VjiIN d n IjiIN
fVjiOUT ; IjiOUT g ¼ f ðVji; IjiÞ ¼ kji ðVjiIN ; IjiIN ; ; Þ
n i
dtn dtn

The Microwave RF systems can be represented as RF input circuit and RF


output circuit. The RF system function contains high-degree derivatives of input
and output voltages.
The primary purpose of a Microwave and RF system application functionality on
input variables. Many topological Microwave/RF system schematics give a variety
of nonlinear behaviors which can be implemented in many engineering areas. Each
Microwave/RF system can be represented by a set of differential equations which
depend on Microwave/RF system’s variable parameters. The investigation of
Microwave and RF system’s differential equation bifurcation theory, the study of
possible changes in the structure of the orbits of a differential equation depending
on variable parameters. The book illustrates certain observations and analyzes local
bifurcations of an appropriate arbitrary scalar differential equation. Since the
implicit function theorem is the main ingredient used in these generalizations,
include a precise statement of this theorem. Additional analyze the bifurcations of a
Microwave/RF system’s differential equation of the circle. The bifurcation behavior
of specific differential equations can be encapsulated in certain pictures called
bifurcation diagrams. All of that for optimization of Microwave/RF system’s
parameter optimization—to get the best performance. Dynamics (Chaos, fractals)
change with systems that evolute in time. There are two types of dynamical sys-
tems: differential equations and iterated map (difference equations). Differential
equation has described the evolution of systems in continuous time. Iterated map is
arising in problems where the time is discrete. Differential equations can be divided
into two main groups: ordinary differential equations and partial differential equa-
tions. The differential equation system can be represented as below:
dX1
dt ¼ f1 ðx1 ; . . .. . .; xn Þ
:
:
dXn
dt ¼ fn ðx1 ; . . .. . .; xn Þ
:
Xi ¼ dX dt
i

Some of the Microwave/RF systems can be represented as an equation in


dimension “one.” Basic notions of Microwave/RF systems, circuit stability, and
bifurcations of vector fields are easily explained for scalar autonomous equations
dimension one—because their flows are determined from the equilibrium points.
Numerical solutions of such equations lead to scalar maps and show some of the
“anomalies” albeit profound and exciting that may arise when numerical approxi-
mation is a poor period doubling bifurcation, chaos, etc.
Introduction xvii

Microwave/RF systems equations can be turned to the dynamics and bifurca-


tions of periodic solutions of no autonomous equations with periodic coefficients’
dimension one and one half, where scalar maps reappear naturally as Poincare
maps. Microwave/RF system investigates the dynamics of planar autonomous
equations—dimension two—where, in addition to equilibria, new dynamical
behavior, such as periodic and homoclinic orbits, appears. Microwave/RF system
schematic stability of an equilibrium point, subtle topological aspects of linear
systems as well as the standard theory of Liapunov functions. Center manifolds and
the method of Liapunov–Schmidt to make a reduction to a scalar autonomous
equation. Periodic orbit—Poincare—Andronov—Hopf bifurcation—and its analy-
sis can be reduced to that of a nonautonomous periodic equation.
Additionally, we discussed Microwave RF antenna systems with delay elements
(parasitic effects, circuit component delays, microstrip delays, etc.). Our
Microwave RF antenna system delay differential and delay different model can be
analytically used with delay differential equations in dynamically. The need of the
incorporation of a time delay is often of the existence of any stage structure. It is
often difficult to analytically study models with delay-dependent parameters, even if
only a single discrete delay is present. There are practical guidelines that combine
graphical information with analytical work to effectively study the local stability of
models involving delay-dependent parameters. The stability of a given steady state
is simply determined by the graphs of some function of s1 ; . . .; sn ; n 2 N which can
be expressed explicitly and thus can be easily depicted by MATLAB and other
popular software. We need only look at one such function and locate the zero. This
function often has only two zeros, providing thresholds for stability switches. As
time delay increases, stability changes from stable to unstable to stable. We
emphasize the local stability aspects of some models with delay-dependent
parameters. Additionally, there is a general geometric criterion that, theoretically
speaking, can be applied to models with many delays, or even distributed delays.
The simplest case of a first-order characteristic equation provides more
user-friendly geometric and analytic criteria for stability switches. The analytical
criteria provided for the first- and second-order cases can be used to obtain some
insightful analytical statements and can be helpful for conducting simulations.
Chapter 1
RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions
and Analysis

RFID is short for radio frequency identification; RFID is a dedicated short range
communication (DSRC) technology. The term RFID is used to describe various
technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects.
With RFID, the electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the RF (radio fre-
quency) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used to transmit signals. RFID
system consists of an antenna and a transceiver, which read the radio frequency and
transfers the information to a processing device (reader) and a transponder, or RF
tag, which contains the RF circuitry and information to be transmitted. The antenna
provides the means for the integrated circuit to transmit its information to the reader
that converts the radio waves reflected back from the RFID tag into digital infor-
mation that can then be passed on to computers that can analyze the data. In RFID
systems, the tags that hold the data are broken down into two different types.
Passive tags use the radio frequency from the reader to transmit their signal and
Active tags. Passive tags use the radio frequency from the reader to transmit their
signal. Passive tags will generally have their data permanently burned into the tag
when it is made, although some can be rewritten. Active tags are much more
sophisticated and have an on-board battery for power to transmit their data signal
over a greater distance and power random access memory (RAM) giving them the
ability to store up to 32,000 bytes of data. RFID systems can use a variety of
frequencies to communicate, but because radio waves work and act differently at
different frequencies, a frequency for a specific RFID system is often dependent on
its application. An RFID system is always made up of two components:
transponder, which is located on the object to be identified, detector or reader,
which, depending upon design and the technology used, may be a read or write/read
device. There is a need to analyzing RFID systems. The analysis is based on
nonlinear dynamics and chaos models and shows comprehensive benefits and
results. The dynamics of RFID systems provides several ways to use them in a
variety of applications covering wide areas. The analysis fills the gap of analytical
methods for RFID systems analysis, concrete examples, and geometric examples.
The RFID systems analysis is developed systematically, starting with basic passive
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017 1
O. Aluf, Microwave RF Antennas and Circuits,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-45427-6_1
2 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

and active RFID systems, differential equations and their bifurcations, followed by
fixed point analysis, limit cycles and their bifurcations. One of the crucial RFID
system optimization is in electromagnetic environmental which faced RFID system
variable delay in time. In some cases RFID system can represent as a delayed
differential equations which, depending on variable parameters and delays. There
are practical guidelines that combine graphical information with analytical work to
effectively study the local stability of models involving delay dependent parame-
ters. The stability of a given steady state is determined by the graphs of some
function [2–4, 85].

1.1 Active RFID TAGs System Analysis of Energy


Consumption as Excitable Linear Bifurcation System

Active RFID Tags have a built in power supply, such as a battery, as well as
electronics that perform specialized tasks. By contrast, passive RFID TAGs do not
have a power supply and must rely on the power emitted by an RFID Reader to
transmit data. Thus, if a reader is not present, the passive TAGs can’t communicate
a data. Active TAGs can communicate in the absence of a reader. Active RFID
Tags system energy consumption can be a function of many variables: q(m), u(m), z
(m), t(m), tms(m), when m is the number of TAG IDs which are uniformly dis-
tributed in the interval [0,1). It is very important to emphasize that basic
Active RFID TAG, equivalent circuit is Capacitor (Cic), Resistor (Ric), L (RFID’s
Coil inductance as a function of overall Coil’s parameters) all in parallel and
Voltage generator Vs(t) with serial parasitic resistance. The Voltage generator and
serial parasitic resistance are in parallel to all other Active RFID TAG’s elements
(Cic, Ric, and L (Coil inductance)). The Active RFID TAG equivalent circuit can
be represented as a differential equation which depending on variable parameters.
The investigation of Active RFID’s differential equation based on bifurcation
theory, the study of possible changes in the structure of the orbits of a differential
equation depending on variable parameters. We first illustrate certain observations
and analyze local bifurcations of an appropriate arbitrary scalar differential equa-
tion. Finally, investigate Active RFID TAGs system energy for the best perfor-
mance using an excitable bifurcation diagram. Active RFID Tags have a built in
power supply, such as a battery. The major advantages of an active RFID Tags are:
It can be read at distances of one hundred feet or more, greatly improving the utility
of the device. It may have other sensors that can use electricity for power. The
disadvantages of an active RFID Tags are: The TAG cannot function without
battery power, which limits the lifetime of the TAG. The TAG is typically more
expensive. The TAG is physically larger, which may limit applications. The long
term maintenance costs for an active RFID tag can be greater than those of a passive
Tag if the batteries are replaced. Battery outages in an active TAGs can result in
expensive misreads. Active RFID TAGs may have all or some of the following
1.1 Active RFID TAGs System Analysis of Energy Consumption … 3

features: Longest communication range of any TAG, the capability to perform an


independent monitoring and control, the capability of initiating communications,
the capabilities of performing diagnostics, and the highest data bandwidth. The
active RFID TAGs may even be equipped with autonomous networking; the TAGs
autonomously determine the best communication path. Mainly active RFID TAGs
have a built in power supply, such as battery, as well as electronics that perform
specialized tasks. By contrast, passive RFID TAGs do not have a power supply and
must rely on the power emitted by an RFID Reader to transmit data. There is an
arbitration while reading TAGs (TAGs anti-collision problem). First, identify and
then read data stored on RFID Tags [85] (Fig. 1.1).
It is very important to read TAG IDs of all. The Anti-collision protocol based on
two methods: ALOHA and its variants and Binary tree search. ALOHA protocol,
reducing collisions by separating TAG responds by time (probabilistic and simple).
TAG ID may not read for a very long time. The Binary tree search protocol is
deterministic in nature. Read all TAGs by successively querying nodes at different
levels of the tree with TAG IDs distributed on the tree based on their prefix.
Guarantee that all TAGs IDs will be read within a certain time frame. The binary
tree search procedure, however, uses up a lot of reader queries and TAG responses
by relying on colliding responses of TAGs to determine which sub tree to query
next. Higher energy consumption in readers and tags (If they are active TAGs).
TAGs can’t be assumed to be able to communicate with each other directly. TAGs
may not be able of storing states of the arbitration process in their memory. There
are three anti-collision protocols: All’s include and combine the ideas of a binary
tree search protocol with frame slotted ALOHA, deterministic schemes, and energy
aware. The first anti-collision protocol is a Multi Slotted (MS) scheme, multiple
slots per query to reduce the chances of collision among the TAG responses. The
second anti-collision protocol is a Multi Slotted with Selective sleep (MSS) scheme;
using sleep commands to put resolved TAGs to sleep during the arbitration process.
Both MS and MSS have a probabilistic flavor, TAGs choose a reply slot in a query
frame randomly. The third anti-collision protocol is a Multi Slotted with Assigned
slots (MAS), assigning tags in each sub tree of the search tree to a specific slot of
the query frame. It’s a deterministic protocol, including the replay behavior of tags.
All three protocols can adjust the frame size used per query. Maximize energy
savings at the reader by reducing collisions among TAG responses. The frame size
is also chosen based on a specified average time constraint within which all TAGs
IDs must be read. The binary search protocols are Binary Tree (BT) and Query Tree

Fig. 1.1 Reader TAG


interrogation diagram TAG 0

Reader Interrogation
Unit signal (query)

TAG n
4 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

(QT). Both work by splitting TAG IDs using queries from the reader until all tags
are read. Binary Tree (BT) relies on TAGs remembering the results of previous
inquiries by the readers. TAGs susceptible to their power supply. Query Tree
(QT) protocol, is a deterministic TAG anti-collision protocol, which is memory loss
with TAGs requiring no additional memory except that required to store their ID
(Fig. 1.2).
The approach to energy aware anti-collision protocols for RFID systems is to
combine the deterministic nature of binary search algorithms along with the sim-
plicity of frame slotted ALOHA to reduce the number of TAG response collisions.
The QT protocol relies on colliding responses to queries that are sent to internal
nodes of a tree to determine the location of TAG ID. Allow tags to transmit
responses within a slotted time frame and thus, try to avoid collisions with
responses from other tags. The energy consumption at the reader is a function of the
number of queries it sends, and number of slots spent in the receive mode. Energy
consumption at an active TAG is a function of the number of queries received by
the TAG and the number of responses it sends back. Neglect the energy spent in
modes other than transmit and receive for simplicity. Assumption: Time slot in
which a reader query or message is sent is equal to the duration as that of a TAG
response. The energy model of the reader is based upon a half-duplex operation.
Reader transmits energy, and its query for a specific period and then wait in
receiving mode with no more energy transmission until the end of the frame. The
flow chart for reader query and TAGs: (Fig. 1.3).
Response mechanism is as below: (Fig. 1.4).
Pulse based half duplex operation is termed as sequential (SEQ) operational
(Fig. 1.5).

Query
(prefix)

TAGn+1 (no
Reader Perfix)
TAG1
(Perfix)
TAG2
(Perfix)
Responds (Perfix
+ TAG ID)

TAGn
(Perfix) TAGn+k (no
Perfix)

Fig. 1.2 Reader TAGs system query and responds


1.1 Active RFID TAGs System Analysis of Energy Consumption … 5

Reader Wait time


query (Receive mode)
Energy No Energy
consumption consumption
One Frame
Start of End of
Frame Frame

Fig. 1.3 One frame reader query and wait time

Start

n=1

Reader query
(specific prefix)

TAG n, TAG n+1


….. Respond

No. of TAGs respond YES


to a specific prefix
query (reader) > 1

NO
Reader extends
TAG is resolved and the prefix by
uniquely identified ‘0’ or ‘1’ bit
and continues
the query with
n=n+1 this longer

Fig. 1.4 Flow chart for reader query and TAGs


6 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

One slot for a query F slots reader wait


from reader for response

Fig. 1.5 One slot for a query and F slots reader wait for a response

The power required by the reader to transmit The power required by the reader to receive
PRtx PRrx

The power required by an active TAG to The power required by an active TAG to
transmit receive
PTtx PTrx

Reader energy consumption: q(m)  (PRtx + PRrx  F) when q(m) is the number
of queries for reading m TAGs. The energy consumption of all active TAGs:
q(m)  PTrx + u(m)  PTtx when q(m) is the number of reader queries, u(m) is the
number of TAG responses. For MSS scheme (include sleep command) the reader
energy consumption is q(m)  (PRtx + PRrx  F) + z(m)  PRtx. The total energy
consumption for all active TAGs is q(m)  PTrx + u(m)  PTtx + z(m)  PTrx,
when z(m) is the number of sleep commands issued by the reader. The average
analysis of energy consumption:


qðmÞaverage number of reader queires:

uðmÞaverage number of TAG responses:
zðmÞaverage number of sleep commands
issued by the reader ðonly for MSS SchemeÞ
tðmÞaverage number of time slots required to read all TAGs:
tMS ðmÞaverage number of time slots required to read m TAGs

m TAG IDs are uniformly distributed in the interval [0.1]. We get the expression for
one active RFID TAG total energy consumption U(m) = u(m):

1
TAG Power ¼  ½qðmÞ  PTrx þ UðmÞ  PTtx þ ZðmÞ  PTrx
m

Active RFID TAG can represent as a parallel Equivalent Circuit of Capacitor


and Resistor in parallel with Supply voltage source (internal resistance) (Fig. 1.6).
The Active RFID TAG Antenna can be represented as Parallel inductor to the
basic Active RFID Equivalent Circuit. The simplified complete equivalent circuit of
the label is as below: (Fig. 1.7)
1.1 Active RFID TAGs System Analysis of Energy Consumption … 7

Active RFID TAG


LA

LB Voltage
source

Antenna

Fig. 1.6 Active RFID TAG system

V(t)

Rs Active RFID Antenna


C1 L1
R1
Vs(t)

Active RFID's Equivalent circuit

Fig. 1.7 Active RFID TAG’s equivalent circuit

Zt1
dI 1
VL1 ¼ L1  ) I L1 ¼  VL1  dt;
dt L1
0

dVc1 X
4
IC1 ¼ C1  ; Ij ¼ 0
dt j¼1

V ¼ Vc1 ¼ VL1 ¼ VR1


Zt1
V dV 1 V  VsðtÞ
þ C1  þ  V  dt þ ¼0
R1 dt L1 Rs
0

1 dV d2V 1 dV 1 dVsðtÞdt !eð0\e1Þ


f  þ C1  2 þ Vþ  g  ! 0
R1 dt dt L1 dt Rs
:: 1 1 : 1 1
e  1 ) V C1 þ ð þ Þ  V þ  V ¼  V_ S ðtÞ
R1 Rs L1 Rs
1 dV d2 V 1 dV dVsðtÞ 1
 þ C1  2 þ V þ½   ¼0
R1 dt dt L1 dt dt Rs
8 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

dV1 dV
V2 ¼ ¼ ; V1 ¼ V
dt dt
dV1 dV2 1 1 1 1 dVsðtÞ
¼ V2 ; ¼ ½ þ   V2   V1 þ 
dt dt C1  R1 Rs  C1 C L Rs  C1 dt
! !  1 1 !
dV1
0 1 V1 0
dt
¼  þ dVsðtÞ
dV2  C11L1 ½C11R1 þ RsC
1
 V2 RsC1  dt
1
dt
hl i
1

Lcalc ¼ 0  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp


p

L1 = Lcalc !
2  Aavg  Bavg
X1 ¼ Aavg  ln pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
d  ðAavg þ Aavg2 þ Bavg2 Þ
!
2  Aavg  Bavg
X2 ¼ Bavg  ln pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
d  ðBavg þ Aavg2 þ Bavg2 Þ
 qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ffi
X3 ¼ 2  Aavg þ Bavg  Aavg2 þ Bavg2 ; X4 ¼ ðAavg þ BavgÞ=4

The RFID’s coil calculation inductance expression is the definition of limits,


Estimations: Track thickness t, Al and Cu coils (t > 30 lm). The printed coils as
high as possible. Estimation of turn exponent p is needed for inductance calculation.

Coil manufacturing technology P


Wired 1.8–1.9
Etched 1.75–1.85
Printed 1.7–1.8

Active RFID can be considered as a Van der Pol’s system. Van der Pol’s
equation provides an example of an oscillator with nonlinear damping, energy
being dissipated at large amplitudes and generated at low amplitudes. Such systems
typically possess limit cycles, sustained oscillations around a state at which energy
generation and dissipation balance. The basic Van der Pol’s equation can be written
:: :
in the form: X þ a  /ðxÞ  X þ X ¼ b  qðtÞ.
:: 1 1 : 1 1
e  1 ) V C1 þ ð þ ÞV þ  V ¼  V_ S ðtÞ
R1 Rs L1 Rs
:: 1 1 1 : 1 1
e1)V þ ð þ ÞV þ V ¼  V_ S ðtÞ
C1 R1 Rs L1  C1 Rs  C1
1 1 1 1 1
X ! V; a  /ðxÞ !  ð þ Þ; ! 1;  V_ S ðtÞ ! b  qðtÞ
C1 R1 Rs L1  C1 Rs  C1
1.1 Active RFID TAGs System Analysis of Energy Consumption … 9

Let’s define:

:: 1 1 : 1 1
fs ðtÞ ¼ V_ S ðt Þ ) e  1 ) V C1 þ ð þ ÞV þ  V ¼  fs ðtÞ
R1 Rs L1 Rs

“f” is a “T” periodic function of the independent variable t, and k ¼ Rs 1

The term k  fs ðtÞ ¼ Rs  V_ S ðtÞ is called the forcing function k ! 0 ) Rs


1 1
!0)
Rs ! 1 there is no forcing and the system act as Van Der Pol Oscillator. It is
necessary to examine the trajectories (V1, V2, and t) of the non-autonomous Active
RFID system in R2 xR rather than the orbits in R2 . Equivalently, we may consider
the orbits of the Active RFID TAGs three dimensional autonomous systems.
dV1
¼ V2
dt
dV2 1 1 1 1
¼ ½ þ   V2   V1 þ  fs ðtÞ 8 fs ðtÞ ¼ V_ S ðtÞ
dt C1  R1 Rs  C1 C1  L1 Rs  C1
dV3
¼ 1 8 ðV3 ðtÞ ¼ tÞ
dt

First examine the case of k ¼ 0 ) Rs  C1 ! 1; C1 ¼ const; then Rs ! 1


The limit cycle, the isolated periodic orbit, of the unforced oscillator of Van Der
Pol becomes a cylinder; that is, topologically it is a homomorphism to S1  R. The
cylinder is an invariant manifold in the sense that any solution starting on the
cylinder remains on it for all positive time. This invariant cylinder attracts all nearby
solutions. For k ¼ 0, k ! 0 Rs ! 1 the Active RFID TAG invariant cylinder is
filled with a family of periodic solutions. The cylinder under the projection R2 
R ! R2 simply becomes the limit cycle. Actually active RFID TAGs act as peri-
odic forcing with small amplitude, that jkj small. In this case, there is still a cylinder
in R2  R close to the invariant cylinder of the unforced oscillator. This new
cylinder is an invariant manifold of solutions of the forced equation and attracts all
nearby solutions. The flow on the invariant cylinder of the forced equation can be
quite different from the one of the unforced oscillators. In Active RFID TAG
concern to the Van Der Pol’s equation, we get the equation:
:: :
X þ a  /ðxÞ  X þ X ¼ k  fs ðtÞ
:: 1 1 1 : 1 1
e  1 ) V þð þ Þ V þ V ¼  fs ðtÞ
R1 Rs C1 L1  C1 Rs  C1
:: 1 1 1 : 1 1
e  1 ) V þð þ Þ V þ V ¼  V_ S ðtÞ
R1 Rs C1 L1  C1 Rs  C1
1 1 1 1
then /ðxÞ ¼ 1; a ¼ ½ð þ Þ  ; ! 1ðL1  C1  1Þ
R1 Rs C1 L1  C1
/ðxÞ ¼ 1 [ 0 8 jtj [ 1 sec; fs ðt) is T periodic and a; b are non
1 1 1
negative parameters: a ¼ ð þ Þ  C1 ; b ¼
R1 Rs Rs  C1
10 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Unforced investigation: k ¼ 0 ) Rs 1
! 0 ) Rs ! 1 then we return to
Passive RFID TAG since the battery has a very high serial resistance—discon-
nected status. Active RFID equivalent circuit total TAG power is a summation of all
power elements.

X
N X
N
1
Ptotal ¼ pi ¼ TAG Power, pi ¼  ½qðmÞ  PTrx þ UðmÞ  PTtx þ ZðmÞ  PTrx 
i¼1 i¼1
m
X
N Zt Zt
0 0
pi ¼ pRs þ pC1 þ pR1 þ pL1 ; energy ) Wðt0 ; tÞ , pðt Þdt ¼ vðt0 Þ  iðt0 Þdt0
i¼1
t0 t0

dWðt0 ; tÞ d X N
1
PðtÞtotal ¼ ¼ ½ wi ; energy ) winductor ¼  L  I 2
dt dt i¼1 2
Q2
energy ) wcapacitor ¼ ; Presistor ¼ I 2 R; PR1 ¼ IR21 R1 ; PRs ¼ IRs
2
Rs
2C
1 d :
energy ) wL1 ¼  L1  IL21 ) PL1 ¼ wL1 ¼ L  IL1  IL1
2 dt
:
Q2 d Q C  QC 1
energy ) wC1 ¼ C1 ) PC1 ¼ wC1 ¼ 1
2  C1 dt C1

C1  VC21 d :
energy ) wC1 ¼ ) PC1 ¼ wC1 ¼ C1  VC1  VC1
2 dt
Zt :
VL1 X p QC 1  QC 1
N
1 : :
IL 1 ¼  VL1 dt ) IL1 ¼ ; i ¼ IR1 R1 þ IRs Rs þ L  IL1  IL1 þ
2 2
L1 L1 i¼1 C1
0
X
N 2
½V  VsðtÞ2 : :
pi ¼ V þ þ L  IL1  IL1 þ C1  VC1  VC1
i¼1
R1 Rs
X Zt
N
1 1 2  V  VsðtÞ ½VsðtÞ2 V :
pi ¼ V ½ þ  
2
þ þ  Vdt þ C1 V  V
i¼1
R1 Rs Rs Rs L1
0
1 1 1
 ½qðmÞ  PTrx þ UðmÞ  PTtx þ ZðmÞ  PTrx  ¼ V 2 ½ þ 
m R1 Rs
2 Zt
2  V  VsðtÞ ½Vs ðtÞ V :
 þ þ  Vdt þ C1 V  V
Rs Rs L1
0
dV1 dV2 1 1 1 1
¼ V2 ; ¼ ½ þ   V2   V1 þ  V_ S ðtÞ
dt dt C1  R1 Rs  C1 C1  L1 Rs  C1

Now we consider linear system: dV dt ¼ f ðV1 ; V2 Þ; dt ¼ gðV1 ; V2 Þ


1 dV2

And suppose that ðV1 ; V2 Þ is a fixed point: f ðV1 ; V2 Þ ¼ 0; gðV1 ; V2 Þ ¼ 0


Let U1 ¼ V1  V1 ; U2 ¼ V2  V2 Denote the components of a small disturbance
from the fixed point. To see whether the disturbance grows or decays, we need to
1.1 Active RFID TAGs System Analysis of Energy Consumption … 11

derive differential equations of U1 and U2. Let’s do the U1 equation first: dU


dt ¼ dt
1 dV1

Since V1 being constant.

dU1 dV1
¼ ¼ f ðU1 þ V1 ; U2 þ V2 Þ ¼ f ðV1 ; V2 Þ
dt dt
@f @f
þ U1  þ U2  þ OðU12 ; U22 ; U1  U2 Þ
@V1 @V2
@f @f
(Taylor series expansion). To simplify the notation, we have written @V 1
and @V2

these partial derivatives are to be evaluated at the fixed point ðV1 ; V2 Þ; thus they are
numbers, not functions. Also the shorthand notation OðU12 ; U22 ; U1  U2 Þ denotes
quadratic termss in U1 and U2. Since U1 and U2 are small, these quadratic terms are
extremely small. Similarly, we find
@g @g
dt ¼ U1  @V1 þ U2  @V2 þ OðU1 ; U2 ; U1  U2 Þ, Hence the disturbance (U1, U2)
dU2 2 2
0 dU 1
1 ! !
@f @f
B dt C @V1 @V2 U1
evolves according to @ A ¼ @g @g  þ Quadratic terms.
dU2 @V1 @V2 U2
dt !
@f @f
@V1 @V2
The Matrix A ¼ @g @g is called the Jacobian matrix at the fixed
@V1 @V2 ðV1 ;V2 Þ
point ðV1 ; V2 Þ and the Quadratic terms are tiny, it’s tempting to neglect them
altogether. If we do that, we obtain the linearized system.
0 dU 1
1 ! !
@f @f
B dt C @V1 @V2 U1
@ A¼ @g @g 
dU2 @V1 @V2 U2
dt

Who’s dynamic can be analyzed by the general methods.

1 1 1 1
f ðV1 ; V2 Þ ¼ V2 ; gðV1 ; V2 Þ ¼ ½
þ   V2   V1 þ  V_ S ðt)
C1  R1 Rs  C1 C1  L1 Rs  C1
@f @f @g 1 @g 1 1
¼ 0; ¼ 1; ¼ ; ¼ ð þ Þ
@V1 @V2 @V1 C1  L1 @V2 C1  R1 Rs  C1

0 dU 1
1   !
B dt C 0 1 U1
@ A¼  C11L1 ½C11R1 þ

RC1 
1
dU2 U2
dt

The basic Active RFID Forced Van Der Pol’s equation


12 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

:: 1 1 1 : 1 1
e  1 ) V þð þ Þ V þ V ¼  V_ S ðtÞ
R1 Rs C1 L1  C1 Rs  C1
1 1 1 1 1
then /ðxÞ ¼ 1; a ¼ ½ð þ Þ  ; ! 1ðL1  C1  1Þ; b ¼
R1 Rs C1 L1  C1 Rs  C1

In our case /ðVÞ ¼ 1; /ðVÞ [ 0 for jVj [ 1 and V_ S ðtÞ is T periodic


and,ðR11 þ Rs
1
Þ  C11 , RsC
1
1
is non-negative parameters. It is convenient to rewrite the
Active RFID forced Van Der Pol’s equation as an autonomous system.

dh : 1 1 1 : 1
h¼t) ¼ 1; V ¼ Y  ð þ Þ   /ðVÞ; Y ¼ V þ  V_ S ðhÞ
dt R1 Rs C1 R1  C1
:
h ¼ 1; ðV; Y; hÞ 2 R2 x S1 :

/ðVÞ ¼ 1 remain strictly positive as jVj ! 1 for unforced system, R11C1 


V_ S ðhÞ ! 0 but R11C1 6¼ 0 then V_ S ðhÞ ¼ 0 no energy is supplied to the Active RFID
TAG, become Passive RFID TAG. First, we suppose that a  1ððR11 þ Rs 1
Þ  C11  1Þ
is a small parameter, so the autonomous system is a perturbation of linear oscillator.
: :
V ¼ Y; Y ¼ V Has a phase plane filled with circular periodic orbits each period
of 2  p. Using regular perturbation or averaging methods, we can show that pre-
cisely one of these orbits is preserved under the perturbation. Selecting the
invertible transformation:
!   !
n1 cosðtÞ  sinðtÞ V
¼ 
n2  sinðtÞ  cosðtÞ Y

Which “freezes” the unperturbed system and


The autonomous system become:
: 1 1 1
n1 ¼ ð þ Þ  cos t  ½ðn1  cosðtÞ  n2  sinðtÞÞ3 =3  ðn1  cosðtÞ  n2  sinðtÞÞ
R1 Rs C1
: 1 1 1
n2 ¼ ð þ Þ   sin t  ½ðn1  cosðtÞ  n2  sinðtÞÞ3 =3  ðn1  cosðtÞ  n2  sinðtÞÞ
R1 Rs C1

This transformation is orientation reversing approximations the function n1; n2


: :
which vary slowly because n1 ; n2 being small. Integrating each function with
respect to time (t) from 0 to T ¼ 2  p, holding n1; n2 fixed we obtain:
: 1 1 1
n1 ¼ ð þ Þ  n  ½1  ðn1 2 þ n2 2 Þ=4=2
R1 Rs C1 1
: 1 1 1
n2 ¼ ð þ Þ   n  ½1  ðn1 2 þ n2 2 Þ=4=2
R1 Rs C1 2
1.1 Active RFID TAGs System Analysis of Energy Consumption … 13

2
This system is correct at first order, but there is an error of Oð½ðR11 þ RsÞ
1
 C11  Þ .
In polar coordinates, we therefore have

: r 1 1 1 r2 1 1 1 2
r¼ ð þ Þ  ð1  Þ þ Oð½ð þ Þ   Þ
2 R1 Rs C1 4 R1 Rs C1
: 1 1 1 2
u ¼ 0 þ Oð½ð þ Þ   Þ
R1 Rs C1
2
Neglecting the Oð½ðR11 þ Rs
1
Þ  C11  Þ terms this system has an attracting circle of
fixed points at r = 2 reflecting the existence of a one parameter family of almost
sinusoidal solutions: V ¼ rðtÞ  cosðt þ uðtÞÞ with slowly varying amplitude

1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2
rðtÞ ¼ 2 þ Oð½ð þ Þ   Þ; uðtÞ ¼ u0 þ Oð½ð þ Þ   Þ
R1 Rs C1 R1 Rs C1
2
1 1 1
uðtÞ ¼ u0 þ Oð½ð þ Þ   Þ
R1 Rs C1

Constant u0 is being determined by initial conditions.


When the value of ðR11 þ Rs 1
Þ  C11 is not small the averaging procedure no longer
works and other methods must be used. The investigation can be done for Active
RFID’s system forced Van Der Pole. Let’s consider V_ S ðtÞ 6¼ 0 we suppose
ðR11 þ Rs
1
Þ  C11 ; RsC
1
1
 1 and use the same transformation as we use in the unforced
_
system V S ðtÞ 6¼ 0 . When our interest in the periodic forced response we use the 2p x
periodic transformation [2–4].
!   !
n1 cosðxtÞ  x1  sinðxtÞ V
¼ 
n2  sinðxtÞ  x1  cosðxtÞ Y

: 1 1 1 x2 1
n1 ¼ ð þ Þ  /ðVÞ  cosðx  tÞ  ð Þ  V  sinðx  tÞ
R1 Rs C1 x
1
  sinðx  t  V_ S ðtÞÞ
Rs  C1  x
: 1 1 1 x2 1
n2 ¼ ð þ Þ   /ðVÞ  sinðx  tÞ  ð Þ  V  cosðx  tÞ
R1 Rs C1 x
1
  cosðx  t  V_ S ðtÞÞ
Rs  C1  x
1
C1 L1 ! 1; /ðVÞ ¼ 1 in our case.
14 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

: 1 1 1 x2 1 1
n1 ¼ ð þ Þ  cosðx  tÞ  ð Þ  V  sinðx  tÞ   sinðx  t  V_ S ðtÞÞ
R1 Rs C1 x Rs  C1  x
: 1 1 1 x2 1 1
n2 ¼ ð þ Þ   sinðx  tÞ  ð Þ  V  cosðx  tÞ   cosðx  t  V_ S ðtÞÞ
R1 Rs C1 x Rs  C1  x

Active RFID TAG system can be represented as Voltage source (internal


resistance), Parallel Resistor, Capacitor, and Inductance circuit. Linear bifurcation
system explains Active RFID TAG system behavior for any initial condition V(t)
and dV(t)/dt . Active RFID’s Coil is a very critical element in Active RFID TAG
functionality. Optimization can be achieved by Coil’s parameters inspection and
System bifurcation controlled by them. Spiral, Circles, and other Active RFID
phase system behaviors can be optimized for better Active RFID TAG performance
and actual functionality. Active RFID TAG losses also controlled for best perfor-
mance and maximum efficiency.

1.2 RFID TAG’s Dimensional Parameters Optimization


as Excitable Linear Bifurcation Systems

RFID Equivalent circuits of a Label can be represented as Parallel circuit of


Capacitance (Cpl), Resistance (Rpl), and Inductance (Lpc). The Label measurement
principle is as follows: Label positioned in defining distance to measurement coil,
Low current or voltage source, Measuring of |Z| and Teta of measurement coil,
Resonance frequency fro at Teta = 0, Calculation of unloaded quality factor Q0 out
of measured bandwidth B0. The Coil design procedure is based on three important
steps. The RFID equivalent circuit can be represented as a differential equation
which, depending on variable parameter. The investigation of RFID’s differential
equation based on bifurcation theory [1], the study of possible changes in the
structure of the orbits of a differential equation depending on variable parameters.
We first illustrate certain observations and analyze local bifurcations of an appro-
priate arbitrary scalar differential equation [2]. Since the implicit function theorem
is the main ingredient used in these generalizations, include a precise statement of
this theorem. Additional analyze the bifurcations of a RFID’s differential equation
on the circle. The bifurcation behavior of specific differential equations can be
encapsulated in certain pictures called bifurcation diagrams. Analysis is done for
optimization of RFID TAG’s dimensional parameters to get the best performance.
RFID TAG can be represented as a parallel Equivalent Circuit of Capacitor and
Resistor in parallel. For example, see below NXP/PHILIPS ICODE IC, Parallel
equivalent circuit and simplified complete equivalent circuit of the label (L1 is the
antenna inductance) [7, 85] (Fig. 1.8).
1.2 RFID TAG’s Dimensional Parameters Optimization … 15

I-CODE RFID
TAG

LA LB

Fig. 1.8 NXP/PHILIPS ICODE IC, Parallel equivalent circuit and simplified complete equivalent
circuit of the label (L1 is the antenna inductance)

C1 ¼ Cic þ Ccon þ Cc; R1 ¼ ðRic  RpcÞ=ðRic þ RpcÞ:


Zt1
dIl dVc 1
Vl1 ¼ L  ; Ic1 ¼ C  ; Il1 ¼  Vl1  dt
dt dt L1
0

X
i¼3 Zt¼t1
V dV 1
Ii ¼ 0; þ C1  þ  V  dt ¼ 0
i¼1
R1 dt L1
t¼0
1 dV d2V 1
 þ C1  2 þ V ¼0
R1 dt dt L1

We get differential equation of RFID TAG system which describe the evolution
of the system in continues time. V = V(t).
Now I define the following Variable setting definitions:, And get the dynamic
dt ¼ V2 , dt ¼  C1 R1  V2  C1 L1  V1
equation system: dV 1 dV2 1 1

The system shape is as nonlinear system equations:

dV1 dV2
¼ f1 ðV1 ; V2 . . .; VnÞ;
dt dt

The V1 and V2 variables are the phase space dimension two. Now Let’s Move to
three variable system—which the time (t) is the third variable, V3 = t (Fig. 1.9).

dV1 dV2 1 1 dV3


¼ V2; ¼  V1   V2 ; ¼1
dt dt C1  L1 C1  R1 dt

d ¼ 2  ðt þ wÞ=p; Aavg ¼ a0  Nc  ðg þ wÞ; Bavg ¼ b0  Nc  ðg þ wÞ

a0, b0—Overall dimensions of the coil. Aavg, Bavg—Average dimensions of the


coil. t—Track thickness, w—Track width, g—Gap between tracks. Nc—Number of
turns, d—Equivalent diameter of the track. Average coil area; −Ac = Aavg  Bavg.
Integrating all those parameters gives the equations for inductance calculation:
16 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Aavg

A0

w B0 Bavg

Fig. 1.9 RFID’s coil dimensional parameters

!
2  Aavg  Bavg
X1 ¼ Aavg  ln pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
d  ðAavg þ Aavg2 þ Bavg2 Þ
!
2  Aavg  Bavg
X2 ¼ Bavg  ln pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
d  ðBavg þ Aavg2 þ Bavg2 Þ
 qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ffi
X3 ¼ 2  Aavg þ Bavg  Aavg þ Bavg ; X4 ¼ ðAavg þ BavgÞ=4
2 2

The RFID’s coil calculation inductance expression is


hl i
Lcalc ¼ 0
 ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp ; L1 ¼ Lcalc
p

Definition of limits, Estimations: Track thickness t, Al and Cu coils (t > 30 lm).


The printed coils as high as possible. Estimation of turn exponent p is needed for
inductance calculation.

Coil manufacturing technology P


Wired 1.8–1.9
Etched 1.75–1.85
Printed 1.7–1.8

Now I integrate the Lcalc value inside the differential equations which charac-
terize the RFID system with the Coil inductance.
1.2 RFID TAG’s Dimensional Parameters Optimization … 17

dV1
¼ 0  V1 þ 1  V2 þ 0  V3
dt
dV2 1 1
¼    V1   V2 þ 0  V3
dt C1  lp0  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp C1  R1
dV3
¼ 0  V1 þ 0  V2 þ 0  V3 þ 1
dt

The above differential equations can be represented as Matrix formulation:


2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
dV1 0 1 0 V1 0
6 dV
dt
7 4 f l 1
g f C11R1 g 0 5  4 V2 5 þ 4 0 5
4 dt2 5¼ C1 ½ p0 ½X1 þ X2 X3 þ X4 Ncp 
dV3 V3 1
dt 0 0 0
2 3
2 3 0 1 0 2 3 2 3
dV1
6  g 07 V1 0
7 6 f f C11R1 g
1
6 dV
dt
P 7 4 5 4 5
4 dt2 5¼6 7  V2 þ 0
4
l0
4 C1  p ðX3 þ Xk ÞNc p
5
dV3 k¼1;k6¼3 V3 1
dt
0 0 0

And denote the matrix’s elements as functions K1 and K2 of Coil overall


parameters.

1
K1 ¼ K1 ða0 ; b0 ; w; g; d; NC ; t; p; C1 ; R1 Þ ¼ f l0 g
C1  p  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp
1
K2 ¼ K2 ða0 ; b0 ; w; g; d; NC ; t; p; C1 ; R1 Þ ¼ f g
C1  R1

Denote the RFID Matrix systems with those K1, K2 parameter function gives:
 dV1  
0 1 V1
dt
dV2 ¼ 
dt
K1 K2 V2

Now the consideration of trajectories of the form [3]: VðtÞ ¼ ekt  S, Where
S <> 0 is some fixed vector to be determined, and k is a growth rate, also to be
determined. If a such solution exists, they correspond to exponential motion along
the line spanned by the vector S. To find the condition on S and k, we substitute
: 0 1
VðtÞ ¼ ekt  S into V ¼ A  V; A ¼ and obtain k  ekt  S ¼ ekt  A  S
K1 K2
and cancellation the nonzero scalar factor ekt yields to k  S ¼ A  S which state that
the desired straight line solutions exist if S is an eigenvector of A with corre-
sponding eigenvalue k and the solution is Eigen solution. The eigenvalues of a
matrix A are given by the characteristic equation detðA  k  IÞ ¼ 0 when I is the
1 0
identity matrix I ¼ , we get
0 1
18 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

D ¼ detðAÞ ¼ 0  K1 ¼ K1
s ¼ traceðAÞ ¼ 0 þ K2 ¼ K2
k2  s  k þ D ¼ 0
k2  K2  k  K1 ¼ 0
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 1
k1;2 ¼  K2
 K22 þ 4  K1
2 2

The above k1;2 is a quadratic solution. The typical solution is for the eigenvalues
are distinct k1 6¼ k2 . In this case, a theorem of linear algebra states that the cor-
responding eigenvectors S1 and S2 are linearly independent, and hence span the
entire plane. Any initial condition V0 can be written as a linear combination of
eigenvectors, V0 ¼ C1  S1 þ C2  S2 . Then the general solution for V(t) it is simply
VðtÞ ¼ C1  ek1 t  S1 þ C2  ek2 t  S2 . By insertion quadratic solutions into the last
V(t) equation we get
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
VðtÞ ¼ C1  e½2K2 þ 2 K2 þ 4K1 t S1 þ C2  e½2K2 2 K2 þ 4K1 t S2
1 1 2 1 1 2

RFID TAG which gives the best performance is one that his equivalent circuit
(Capacitor, Resistor, and Inductance (Antenna) in parallel), and his Voltage/Voltage
derivative respect to time phase plane converge (Spiral converge, fixed point
respect to the origin, etc.,)
k2 \k1 \0
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 1 1 1
 K2   K22 þ 4  K1 \  K2 þ  K22 þ 4  K1 \0
2 2 2 2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
k1 \0. . . ! . . .  K2 [ K22 þ 4  K1
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2
1 1 1
 f g [ f g þ 4  f  l0 g
C1  R1 C1  R1 C1  p  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2
1 1 4
[ f g f  g
C1  R1 C1  R1 C1  lp0  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp
k2 \k1
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 1 1 1
 K2   K22 þ 4  K1 \  K2 þ  K22 þ 4  K1
2 qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 2 2
0\ K22 þ 4  K1 ! K22 þ 4  K1 [ 0 ! K22 [  4  K1

2
1 1
f g [  4  f l g
C1  R1 C1  p  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp
0

2
1 4
f g [ l0 
C1  R1 C1  p  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp
1.2 RFID TAG’s Dimensional Parameters Optimization … 19

Then both Eigen solutions decay exponentially. The fixed point is a stable node,
except eigenvectors are not mutually perpendicular, in general. Trajectories typi-
cally approach the origin tangent to the slow Eigen direction, defined as the
direction spanned by the eigenvector with the smaller jkj . In backward time t ! 1
the trajectories become parallel to the fast Eigen direction [2–4] (Fig. 1.10).
If we reverse all the arrows in the above figure, we obtain a typical phase portrait
for an unstable node. Now I investigate the case when eigenvalues are complex
number. If the eigenvalues are complex, the fixed point is either a center or a spiral.
The origin is surrounded by a family of closed orbits. Note that centers are neutrally
stable, since nearby trajectories are neither attracted to nor repelled from the fixed
point. A spiral would occur if the RFID system were lightly damped. Then the
trajectory would just fail to close, because the RFID system loses a bit of energy on
each cycle. To justify these statements, recall that the eigenvalues are
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
k1;2 ¼ 12  K2
12  K22 þ 4  K1 ; K22 þ 4  K1 \0
To simplify the notation, let’s write the eigenvalues as
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 1
k1;2 ¼ a
i  x ; a ¼  K2 ; x ¼   K22 þ 4  K1
2 2
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
x 6¼ 0 9 VðtÞ ¼ C1  e½2 2 2 2
K þ  1
S1 þ C2  e½2K2 2 K2 þ 4K1 t S2
1 1
K 2 þ 4K t 1 1 2

C0 s; S0 s complex, since; k0 s complex


VðtÞ ¼ C1  e½a þ ixt  S1 þ C2  e½aixt  S2
Euler’s formula ! e½ixt ¼ cos½x  t þ i  sin½x  t

Hence V(t) is a combination of terms involving

eat  cos½x  t; eat  sin½x  t

Such terms represent exponentially decaying oscillations if a ¼ ReðkÞ\0, And


growing if a [ 0 . The corresponding fixed points are stable and unstable spirals,

Fig. 1.10 Voltage/Voltage V2


derivative respect to time
converge after the reader
carrier signal end Case 1

V1
20 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Fig. 1.11 For both centers


and spirals, rotation is
clockwise or Counter
clockwise

respectively. If the eigenvalues are pure imaginary a ¼ 0, then all the solutions are
periodic with period T ¼ 2px . The oscillators have fixed amplitude and the fixed
point is centered. For both centers and spirals, it’s easy to determine whether the
rotation is clockwise or counterclockwise (Fig. 1.11).

1 1
a¼  K2 ¼ f g
2 2  C1  R1
1 1
Decaying oscillators 8 a\0 ! f g\0 ! [0
2  C1  R1 2  C1  R1
1 1
Growing oscillators 8 a [ 0 ! f g[0 ! \0
2  C1  R1 2  C1  R1

C1, R1 > 0 always then only the first behavior, decaying oscillator can exist in
our RFID system. In all analysis until now, we have been assuming that the
eigenvalues are distinct. What happens if the eigenvalues are equal? Suppose
eigenvalues are equal k1 ¼ k2 ¼ k, then there are two possibilities: either there are
two independent eigenvectors corresponding to k, or there’s only one. If there are
two independent eigenvectors, then they span the plane and so every vector is an
eigenvector with this same eigenvalue k . To see this, let’s write an arbitrary vector
X0 as a linear combination of the two eigenvectors: X0 = C1  S1 + C2  S2.
Then A  X0 ¼ A  ðC1  S1 þ C2  S2 Þ ¼ C1  k  S1 þ C2  k  S2 ¼ k  X0
X0 is also an eigenvector with eigenvalue k . Since the multiplication by A
simply stretches
 every vector by a factor k, the matrix must be a multiple of the
k 0
identity: A ¼ then if k 6¼ 0, all trajectories are straight lines through the
0 k
origin XðtÞ ¼ ekt X0 and the fixed point is a star node. On the other hand, if k = 0
the whole plane is filled with fixed points. Let’s now sketch the above options with
RFID Overall parameter restriction. k1 ¼ k2 ¼ k 6¼ 0 then (Fig. 1.12)
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1 1 1 1
 K2 þ  K22 þ 4  K1 ¼  K2   K22 þ 4  K1
2 ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
q 2 2 2
K22 þ 4  K1 ¼ 0 ! K22 þ 4  K1 ¼ 0 ! K22 ¼ 4  K1
l0
 ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp ¼ C1  4  R21
p
1.2 RFID TAG’s Dimensional Parameters Optimization … 21

Fig. 1.12 Voltage/Voltage V2


derivative respect to time
Converge after the reader
Carrier signal end Case 2

V1

Now let’s summarize the classification of fixed points in RFID system based on
all investigation I did. It is easy to show the type and stability of all the different
fixed points on a single diagram [4] (Figs. 1.13 and 1.14).
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
s2  4  D ¼ K22 þ 4  K1 ¼ 0; ! K2 ¼ 2  K1
s ¼ traceðAÞ ¼ K2 ; D ¼ detðAÞ ¼ K1
1 h pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffii
k2  K2  k  K1 ¼ 0; k1;2 ¼  s
s2  4  D
2
s ¼ k1 þ k2 ¼ K2 ; D ¼ k1  k2 ¼ K1
Charecteristic equation : ðk  k1 Þ  ðk  k2 Þ ¼ k2  s  k þ D ¼ 0

Fig. 1.13 Stable/Unstable Unstable


diagram nodes

Unstable
spirals
Saddle
points Centers

stable
spirals

stable
nodes
22 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Δ < 0....( K1 > 0) Δ > 0....( K1 < 0) Δ = 0....( K1 = 0)

The eigenvalues are The eigenvalues are At least one of the


real and have opposite either real with the same eigenvalues is zero.
sign hence the fixed sign (nodes), or complex Then the origin is not an
point is a saddle point, conjugate (spiral & isolated fixed point.
centers). There is either a whole
line of a fixed point , or a
plane of fixed point

Fig. 1.14 Stable Unstable diagram as function of K1

Nodes satisfy s2  4  D [ 0 and spirals satisfy s2  4  D\0 . The parabola


s  4  D ¼ 0 is the borderline between nodes and spirals. Star nodes and
2

degenerate nodes live on this parabola. The stability of the nodes and spirals is
determined by s value. When s\0, both eigenvalues have negative real parts, so
the fixed point is stable. Unstable spirals and nodes have s [ 0 . Neutrally stable
centers live on the borderline s ¼ 0, where eigenvalues are purely imaginary [5].

1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability Optimization


Under Delayed Electromagnetic Interferences

The RFID TAG system has two main variables TAG’s voltage and TAG’s voltage
derivative respect to time. Due to electromagnetic interferences those variables have
delays in time domain. We define s1 as a time delay respect to TAG’s voltage and
s2 as a time delay respect to TAG’s voltage derivative. RFID Equivalent circuits of
a Label can be represented as Parallel circuit of Capacitance (Cpl), Resistance
(Rpl), and Inductance (Lpc). Our RFID TAG system delay differential and delay
different model can be analytically by using delay differential equations in
dynamically. The need of the incorporation of a time delay is often of the existence
of any stage structure. It is often difficult to analytically study models with delay
dependent parameters, even if only a single discrete delay is present. There are
practical guidelines that combine graphical information with analytical work to
effectively study the local stability of models involving delay dependent parame-
ters. The stability of a given steady state is simply determined by the graphs of
some function of s1, s2 which can be expressed, explicitly and thus can be easily
depicted by Matlab and other popular software. We need only look at one such
function and locate the zero. This function often has only two zeroes, providing
thresholds for stability switches. As time delay increases, stability changes from
stable to unstable to stable. We emphasize the local stability aspects of some models
with delay dependent parameters. Additionally, there is a general geometric
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 23

criterion that, theoretically speaking, can be applied to models with many delays, or
even distributed delays. The simplest case of a first order characteristic equation,
providing more user friendly geometric and analytic criteria for stability switches.
The analytical criteria provided for the first and second order cases can be used to
obtain some insightful analytical statements and can be helpful for conducting
simulations. RFID TAG can be represented as a parallel Equivalent Circuit of
Capacitor and Resistor in parallel. For example, see below NXP/PHILIPS
ICODE IC, Parallel equivalent circuit and simplified complete equivalent circuit
of the label (L1 is the antenna inductance) [6, 8] (Fig. 1.15).

1 dV d2 V 1
 þ C1  2 þ V ¼0
R1 dt dt L1

We get differential equation of a RFID TAG system which describe the evo-
lution of the system in continues time. V = V(t). Now I define the following
Variable setting definitions: V2 ¼ dV dt ¼ dt ; V1 ¼ V. The dynamic equation system:
1 dV

dt ¼ V2 ; dt ¼  C1 R1  V2  C1 L1  V1 (Fig. 1.16)


dV1 dV2 1 1

d ¼ 2  ðt þ wÞ=p; Aavg ¼ a0  Nc  ðg þ wÞ; Bavg ¼ b0  Nc  ðg þ wÞ

a0, b0—Overall dimensions of the coil. Aavg, Bavg—Average dimensions of the


coil. t—Track thickness, w—Track width, g—Gap between tracks. Nc—Number of
turns, d—Equivalent diameter of the track. Average coil area; −Ac = Aavg . Bavg.
Integrating all those parameters gives the equations for inductance calculation:

Fig. 1.15 NXP/PHILIPS


ICODE IC, Parallel I-CODE RFID TAG
equivalent circuit and
simplified complete LA LB
equivalent circuit of the label
(L1 is the antenna inductance)

Antenn
24 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Fig. 1.16 RFID’s coil Aavg


dimensional parameters
A0

w B0 Bavg

!
2  Aavg  Bavg
X1 ¼ Aavg  ln pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
d  ðAavg þ Aavg2 þ Bavg2 Þ
!
2  Aavg  Bavg
X2 ¼ Bavg  ln pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
d  ðBavg þ Aavg2 þ Bavg2 Þ
 qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
 ffi
X3 ¼ 2  Aavg þ Bavg  Aavg2 þ Bavg2 ; X4 ¼ ðAavg þ BavgÞ=4


The RFID’s coil calculation inductance is Lcalc ¼ lp0  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4  Ncp 
L1 = Lcalc. Definition of limits, Estimations: Track thickness t, Al and Cu coils
(t > 30 lm).
 dV1 " # 
0 1 V1
dt
dV2 ¼ f C l0
1
g f C11R1 g  V2
dt ½
1  p ½X1 þ X2 X3 þ X4 Ncp 

Due to electromagnetic interferences, we get RFID TAG’s voltage and voltage


derivative with delays s1 and s2 respectively V1(t) ! V1(t − s1); V2(t) !
V2(t − s1). We consider no delay effect on dV1/dt and dV2/dt. The RFID TAG’s
differential equations under electromagnetic interference effects (we consider
electromagnetic interferences (delay terms) influence only RFID TAG voltage V1(t)
and voltage derivative V2(t) respect to time, there is no influence on dV1(t)/dt and
dV2(t)/dt):
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 25

dV1
¼ V2 ðt  s2 Þ
dt
dV2 1 1
¼ f  g  V1 ðt  s1 Þ   V2 ðt  s2 Þ
dt C1  lp0  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp C1  R1

To find the Equilibrium points (fixed points) of the RFID TAG system is by

lim V1 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ V1 ðtÞ; lim V2 ðt  s2 Þ ¼ V2 ðtÞ;


t!1 t!1
dV1 ðtÞ dV2 ðtÞ
¼ 0; ¼0
dt dt
8 t  s1 ; t  s2 9 ðt  s1 Þ  t; ðt  s2 Þ  t; t ! 1

ð0Þ ð0Þ
We get two equations and the only fixed point is E ð0Þ ðV1 ; V2 Þ ¼ ð0; 0Þ.
Stability analysis: The standard local stability analysis about any one of the equi-
librium points of RFID TAG system consists in adding to coordinate [V1 ; V2 
arbitrarily small increments of exponential form, and retaining the first order terms
in v1, v2. The system of two homogeneous equations leads to a polynomial char-
acteristic equation in the eigenvalues. The polynomial characteristic equations
accept by set the below voltage and voltage derivative respect to time into two
RFID TAG system equations. RFID TAG system fixed values with arbitrarily small
increments of exponential form ½v1 v2   ekt are: i = 0 (first fixed point), i = 1
(second fixed point), i = 2 (third fixed point).
ðiÞ ðiÞ
V1 ðtÞ ¼ V1 þ v1  ekt ; V2 ðtÞ ¼ V2 þ v2  ekt ;
ðiÞ
V1 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ V1 þ v1  ekðts1 Þ
ðiÞ
V2 ðt  s2 Þ ¼ V2 þ v2  ekðts2 Þ 8 i ¼ 0; 1; 2

We choose the above expressions for our V1 ðtÞ; V2 ðtÞ as small displacement
[v1 ; v2 ] from the system fixed points in time t = 0.

ðiÞ ðiÞ
V1 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V1 þ v1 ; V2 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V2 þ v2

for k\0; t [ 0 the selected fixed point is stable otherwise k [ 0; t [ 0 is


Unstable. Our system tends to the selected fixed point exponentially for
k\0; t [ 0 otherwise go away from the selected fixed point exponentially. k Is the
eigenvalue parameter which establishes if the fixed point is stable or Unstable,
additionally his absolute value (jkj) establish the speed of flow toward or away from
the selected fixed point [1, 2].
26 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

k<0 k>0
t=0 V1(t = 0) = V(i)
1 + v1 V1(t = 0) = V(i)
1 + v1
V2(t = 0) = V(i)
2 + v2 V2(t = 0) = V(i)
2 + v2
t>0 V1(t) = V(i)
1 + v1e−|k|t V1(t) = V(i)
1 + v1e|k|t
−|k|t
V2(t) = V(i)
2 + v2e V2(t) = V(i)
2 + v2e
|k|t

t<0 V1(t ! ∞) = V1 (i)


V1(t ! ∞, k > 0) * v1e|k|•t
V2(t ! ∞) = V(i) 2 V2(t ! ∞, k > 0) * v2e|k|•t

The speeds of flow toward or away from the selected fixed point for RFID TAG
system voltage and voltage derivative respect to time are
ðiÞ ðiÞ
dV1 ðtÞ V1 ðt þ DtÞ  V1 ðtÞ V þ v1  ekðt þ DtÞ ½V1 þ v1  ekt 
¼ lim ¼ lim 1
dt Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt
v1  ekt ½ekDt 1 ekDt 1 þ kDt v1  ekt ½1 þ k  Dt  1
¼ lim ! lim ¼ k  v1  ekt
Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt
ðiÞ ðiÞ
dV2 ðtÞ V2 ðt þ DtÞ  V2 ðtÞ V þ v2  ekðt þ DtÞ ½V2 þ v2  ekt 
¼ lim ¼ lim 2
dt Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt
v2  ekt ½ekDt 1 ekDt 1 þ kDt v2  ekt ½1 þ k  Dt  1
¼ lim ! lim ¼ k  v2  ekt
Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt

And the time derivative of the above equations:

dV1 ðtÞ dV2 ðtÞ


¼ v1  k  ekt ; ¼ v2  k  ekt ;
dt dt
dV1 ðt  s1 Þ
¼ v1  k  ekðts1 Þ ¼ v1  k  ekt  es1 k
dt
dV2 ðt  s2 Þ
¼ v2  k  ekðts2 Þ ¼ v2  k  ekt  es2 k
dt
dV1
First, we take the RFID TAG’s voltage (V1) differential equation: ¼ V2 and
dt
adding to its coordinates [V1V2]. Arbitrarily small increments of exponential form
½v1 v2   ekt and retaining the first order terms in v1, v2.

ðiÞ ði¼0Þ
k  v1  ekt ¼ V2 þ v2  ekt ; V2 ¼ 0 ;  k  v1 þ v 2 ¼ 0
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 27

dV2
Second, we take the RFID TAG’s voltage (V2) differential equation: ¼
dt
1 1
f hl ig  V1 ðtÞ   V2 ðtÞ and adding to its
C1  0
 ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   N c
p C1  R1
p
coordinates [V1V2] arbitrarily small increments of exponential form ½v1 v2   ekt and
retaining the first order terms in v1, v2.

dV2 1 1
¼ f hl ig  V1 ðtÞ   V2 ðtÞ
dt C1  0
 ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   N pc C1  R1
p
1
kt
k  v2  e ¼ f hl ig  ðV1ðiÞ þ v1  ekt Þ
C1  0
 ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   N cp
p
1 ðiÞ
  ðV2 þ v2  ekt Þ
C1  R1
ðiÞ ðiÞ
V1 ¼ 0; V2 ¼ 0

1 1
k  v2  f l0 g  v1   v2 ¼ 0
C1  ½  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp  C1  R1
p

We can summery our system eigenvalues equations: k  v1 þ v2 ¼ 0

1 1
f l0 g  v1  k  v2   v2 ¼ 0
C1  ½  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Nc  p C 1  R1
p
0 1 !
k 1
v
@ f l 1
g k  C11R1 A 
1
¼0
C1 ½
0
 ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp  v2
p
0 1
k 1
A  k  I ¼ @ f l 1
g k  C11R1 A ;
C1 ½
0
 ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp 
p
detðA  k  IÞ ¼ 0

1 1
k  ðk þ Þþ l0 ¼0
C1  R1 C1  ½  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp 
p

We get two eigenvalues: k1 ; k2 . If k1 \0; k2 \0 then we have stable node.


If k1 [ 0; k2 [ 0 then we have unstable node. If k1  k2 \0 then we have saddle
point.
If k1 ¼ k2 \0 then we have attracting focus. If we have k1 \k2 ¼ 0 then we
have attracting line. If we have k1 ¼ 0\k2 then we have repelling line. If we have
28 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

0\k1 ¼ k2 then we have repelling focus. If k1 ; k2 are complex conjugate and the
real part is negative than we have attracting spiral otherwise (positive real part)
repelling spiral. If the real part is zero then we have a center. We define

ðiÞ ðiÞ
V1 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ V1 þ v1  ekðts1 Þ ; V2 ðt  s2 Þ ¼ V2 þ v2  ekðts2 Þ :

Then we get two delayed differential equations respect to adding to its coordi-
nates [V1V2] arbitrarily small increments of exponential form½v1 v2   ekt .

ðiÞ ði¼0Þ
v1  k  ekt ¼ V2 þ v2  ekðts2 Þ ; V2 ¼ 0 ) v1  k  ekt ¼ v2  ekðts2 Þ

1 1
k  v2  ekt ¼ f l0 g  V1ðiÞ  V
ðiÞ
C1  p  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Nc p C1  R1 2
1
þ f l g  v1  ekðts1 Þ
C1  p  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp
0

1
  v2  ekðts2 Þ
C1  R1
ði¼0Þ ði¼0Þ
In the equilibrium fixed point V1 ¼V2 ¼ 0 and in the equilibrium fixed
point

ði¼0Þ ði¼0Þ 1 1
V1 ¼ V2 ¼ 0; f l0 g  V1ðiÞ  ðiÞ
 V2 ¼ 0
C1 
p  ½ X1 þ X2  X 3 þ X 4   Nc p C 1  R 1
1 1
k  v2  ekt ¼ f  g  v1  e kðts 1 Þ
  v2  ekðts2 Þ
C1  lp0  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp C 1  R1

 
We define f# ðX1 ; X2 ; etc:. . .Þ ¼ lp0  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp . The small
increments Jacobian of our RFID TAG system:
" # !
k eks2 v1
 ¼ 0;
 C11f#  eks1  C11R1  eks2  k v2
" #
k eks2
AkI ¼
 C11f#  eks1  C11R1  eks2  k
1 1
det jA  k  Ij ¼ 0; Dðk; s1 ; s2 Þ ¼ k2 þ k   eks2 þ  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
C1  R1 C 1  f#

We have three stability analysis cases: s1 ¼s; s2 ¼ 0 or s2 ¼s; s1 ¼ 0 or s1 ¼


s2 ¼ s otherwise s1 6¼ s2 . We need to get characteristics equations as all above
stability analysis cases. We study the occurrence of any possible stability switching,
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 29

resulting from the increase of the value of the time delay s for the general char-
acteristic equation Dðk; sÞ. Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks
Pn
The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ
k
k¼0
P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k þ P3 ðsÞ  k þ . . .:
2 3

P
m
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ
k¼0
q1 ðsÞ  k þ q2 ðsÞ  k2 þ . . ..
First, we analyze RFID Tag system second order characteristic equation for. The
first case we analyze is when there is a delay in RFID Label voltage and no delay in
voltage time derivative [4, 5].

1 1
Dðk; s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0Þ ¼ k2 þ k  þ  eks1 ;
C1  R1 C1  f#
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks

The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ:

X
n
1
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k ¼ k þ k  ;
k 2 2

k¼0
C1  R1
1
P2 ðsÞ ¼ 1; P1 ðsÞ ¼ ; P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0
C1  R1

P
m
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ: Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ ¼ C 1f . Our RFID sys-
1 #
k¼0
tem second order characteristic equation: Dðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ bðsÞ  k  eks þ
cðsÞ þ dðsÞ  eks
Then aðsÞ ¼ C11R1 ; bðsÞ ¼ 0; cðsÞ ¼ 0; dðsÞ ¼ C11f# s 2 R þ 0 and aðsÞ; bðsÞ;
cðsÞ; dðsÞ : R þ 0 ! R are differentiable functions of the class C1 ðR þ 0 Þ, such that
cðsÞ þ dðsÞ ¼ C11f# 6¼ 0 for all s 2 R þ 0 and for any s; bðsÞ; dðsÞ are not simulta-
neously zero. We have
30 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

1
Pðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ cðkÞ ¼ k2 þ k
C1  R1
1
Qðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ bðsÞ  k þ dðsÞ ¼
C1  f#

We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðkÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðkÞ can’t have common
imaginary roots. That is, for any real number; C11f#  x2 þ i  x  C11R1 6¼ 0

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ ðc  x2 Þ2 þ x2  a2  ðx2  b2 þ d 2 Þ

Fðx; sÞ ¼ x4 þ x2  ðC 1
2  ðC 1
2 ; Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies
1 R1 Þ 1 f# Þ

x4 þ x2  ðC 1
2  ðC 1
2 ¼ 0 and its roots are given by
1 R1 Þ 1 f# Þ

1 pffiffiffiffi 1 pffiffiffiffi 1
x2þ ¼  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ þ Dg ¼  f D  g;
2 2 ðC1  R1 Þ2
1 pffiffiffiffi 1 pffiffiffiffi 1
x2 ¼  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  Dg ¼   f D þ g
2 2 ðC1  R1 Þ2
1 pffiffiffiffi 1 pffiffiffiffi 1
x2 ¼  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  Dg ¼   f D þ g;
2 2 ðC1  R1 Þ2
1 2 1
D ¼ ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  4  ðc2  d 2 Þ ¼  ½ð Þ2  2 
C12 f# R1
pffiffiffiffi
Therefore the following holds: 2  x2þ =  ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ ¼
D;
pffiffiffiffi
2  x2þ = þ 1
ðC1 R1 Þ2
¼
D
Furthermore

1
PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ cðsÞ  x2 ðsÞ ¼ x2 ðsÞ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ xðsÞ  aðsÞ ¼ xðsÞ 
C1  R1
1
QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ dðsÞ ¼ ; QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ xðsÞ  bðsÞ ¼ 0
C1  f#
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 31

Hence

PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2
PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  x; sÞj2
ðc  x2 Þ  x  b þ x  a  d f#
sin hðsÞ ¼ ¼x ;
x  b þd
2 2 2 R1
ðc  x2 Þ  d þ x2  a  b
cos hðsÞ ¼  ¼ x2  C1  f#
x 2  b2 þ d 2

Which jointly with x4 þ x2  ðC 1


2  ðC 1
2 ¼0 Defines the maps
1 R1 Þ 1 f# Þ

Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 , that are continuous and differentiable in s based


on Lemma 1.1. Hence we use theorem 1.2. This proves the theorem 1.3 and
theorem 1.4. Remark: a, b, c, d parameters are independent of delay parameter s
even we use aðsÞ; bðsÞ; cðsÞ; dðsÞ. Second, we analyze RFID Tag system second
order characteristic equation for s1 ¼ 0; s2 ¼ s. The second case we analyze is
when there is no delay in RFID Label voltage and there is a delay in voltage time
derivative.

1 1
Dðk; s1 ¼ 0; s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ k   eks2 þ  eks2
C1  R1 C1  f#
1 1
Dðk; s1 ¼ 0; s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ ðk  þ Þ  eks ;
C1  R1 C1  f#
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks

P
n
Pn ðk; sÞ Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ
k
The expression for is
k¼0
P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k ¼ k
2 2

P2 ðsÞ ¼ 1; P1 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0. The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is

X
m
1 1
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ k  þ ;
k¼0
C1  R1 C1  f#
1 1
q0 ðsÞ ¼ ; q1 ðsÞ ¼ ; q2 ðsÞ ¼ 0
C1  f# C1  R1
32 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Our RFID system second order characteristic equation:

Dðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ bðsÞ  k  eks þ cðsÞ þ dðsÞ  eks


1 1
aðsÞ ¼ 0; bðsÞ ¼ ; cðsÞ ¼ 0; dðsÞ ¼
C1  R1 C1  f#

And in the same manner like our previous case analysis:

Pðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ cðkÞ ¼ k2 ;


1 1
Qðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ bðsÞ  k þ dðsÞ ¼ k  þ
C1  R1 C1  f#

We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðkÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðkÞ can’t have common
imaginary roots. That is, for any real number x; pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ
Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0

1 1
 x2 þ i  x  6¼ 0;
C 1  f# C1  R1
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ ðc  x2 Þ2 þ x2  a2  ðx2  b2 þ d 2 Þ

Fðx; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  ðC 1
2  ðC 1
2
1 R1 Þ 1 f# Þ

Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies x  x2  ðC 4 1


2  ðC 1
2 ¼ 0 And its roots are
1 R1 Þ 1 f# Þ

given by

1 pffiffiffiffi 1 pffiffiffiffi 1
x2þ ¼  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ þ Dg ¼  f D þ g;
2 2 ðC1  R1 Þ2
1 pffiffiffiffi 1 pffiffiffiffi 1
x2 ¼  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  Dg ¼  f D þ g
2 2 ðC1  R1 Þ2
1 2 1
D ¼ ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  4  ðc2  d 2 Þ ¼ 2  ½ð Þ2 þ 2 
C1 f# R1

Therefore the following holds:


pffiffiffiffi 1 pffiffiffiffi
2  x2þ =  ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ ¼
D; 2  x2þ = þ 2
¼
D
ðC1  R1 Þ
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 33

Furthermore
PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ cðsÞ  x2 ðsÞ ¼ x2 ðsÞ;
1
PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ xðsÞ  aðsÞ ¼ 0; QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ dðsÞ ¼
C 1  f#
1
QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ xðsÞ  bðsÞ ¼ xðsÞ  ;
C1  R1
PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2
PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼  ;
jQði  x; sÞj2
ðc  x2 Þ  x  b þ x  a  d x3  C1  R1
sin hðsÞ ¼ ¼
x2  b2 þ d 2 x2 þ ðRf 1 Þ2 #

ðc  x Þ  d þ x  a  b
2 2 x  C1  Rf#1
2
cos hðsÞ ¼  ¼
x 2  b2 þ d 2 x2 þ ðRf#1 Þ2

Which jointly with


1 1
x4  x2  2
 ¼0
ðC1  R1 Þ ðC1  f# Þ2

Defines the maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0


Defines the maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 are continuous and differen-
tiable in s based on Lemma 1.1. Hence we use theorem 1.2. This proves the
theorem 1.3 and theorem 1.4. Remark: a, b, c, d parameters are independent of
delay parameter s even we use aðsÞ; bðsÞ; cðsÞ; dðsÞ [4, 5].
Third, we analyze RFID Tag system second order characteristic equation for
s1 ¼s; s2 ¼ s. The third case we analyze is when there is delay both in RFID Label
voltage and voltage time derivative [4, 5].
1 1
Dðk; s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ k   eks þ  eks2 ;
C1  R1 C1  f#
1 1
Dðk; s1 ¼ s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ ðk  þ  eks Þ  eks
C1  R1 C1  f#
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks

The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is


Xn
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k ¼ k ; P2 ðsÞ ¼ 1;
k 2 2

k¼0

P1 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0:
34 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

P
m
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  k k
¼ k  C11R1 þ 1
C1 f#  eks
k¼0
Taylor expansion: eks  1  k  s þ k2 s2
2 since we need n > m [BK] analysis
we choose eks  1  k  s.

X
m
1 1 s 1
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ k  ð  Þþ ;
k¼0
C1 R1 f# C1  f#
1 1 1 s
q0 ðs; kÞ ¼ ; q1 ðsÞ ¼  ð  Þ; q2 ðsÞ ¼ 0
C1  f# C1 R1 f#

Our RFID system second order characteristic equation:

Dðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ bðsÞ  k  eks þ cðsÞ þ dðsÞ  eks


1 1 s 1
aðsÞ ¼ 0; bðsÞ ¼  ð  Þ; cðsÞ ¼ 0; dðsÞ ¼
C1 R1 f# C1  f#

And in the same manner like our previous case analysis: Pðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ ¼
k2 ; Qðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ k  C11 ðR11  fs# Þ þ C11f#
We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðkÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ can’t have common imaginary
roots. That is, for any real number x; pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0

1 1 s 1
 x2 þ i  x  ð  Þþ 6¼ 0;
C1 R1 f# C1  f#
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ; Pði  x; sÞ ¼ x2
PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2 ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ 0;
1 1 s 1
Qðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ i  x  ð  Þ þ
C1 R1 f# C1  f#
1 1 s 1
QI ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x  ð  Þ; QR ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼
C1 R1 f# C 1  f#
jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ P2I þ P2R ; jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ Q2I þ Q2R ;
jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ P2I þ P2R ¼ x4
1 1 s 1
jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x2  2 ð  Þ2 þ ;
C1 R1 f# ðC1  f# Þ2
1 1 s 1
Fðx; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  2 ð  Þ2 
C1 R1 f# ðC1  f# Þ2

Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies x4  x2  C12 ðR11  fs# Þ2  ðC 1


2 ¼0
1 1 f# Þ
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 35

1 1 s 1 1 s
Fx ¼ 4  x3  2  x  ð  Þ2 ¼ 2  x  ½2  x2  2 ð  Þ2 ;
C12 R1 f# C 1 R 1 f#
2  x2 1 s
Fs ¼ ð  Þ
C12  f# R1 f#
PIx ¼ 0; PRx ¼ 2  x;
1 1 s
QIx ¼  ½  ; QRx ¼ 0; PIs ¼ 0; PRs ¼ 0
C1 R1 f#
x
QIs ¼  ; QRs ¼ 0
C1  f#

The expressions for U, V can be derived easily [BK]:

U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ;


V ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ
x 1 s 1 Fs
V ¼ 2 2 ;U ¼ 2  ½  ; xs ¼ 
C1  f# C1  f# f# R1 Fx

x
C12 f#
 ðR11  fs# Þ
And we get the expression: xs ¼ 
2  x2  C12 ðR11  fs# Þ2
1
Defines the maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0
Defines the maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 that are continuous and dif-
ferentiable in s based on Lemma 1.1 (see Appendix A). Hence we use theorem 1.2.
This proves the theorem 1.3 and theorem 1.4 (see Appendix D).
Remark Taylor approximation for eks  1  k  s giving us a good stability
analysis, approximation only for a restricted delay time interval.
Now we discuss RFID TAG system stability analysis under delayed variables in
time. Our RFID homogeneous system for v1, v2 leads to a characteristic equation
for the eigenvalue k having the form PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0; first case
s1 ¼s; s2 ¼ 0. Dðk; s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0Þ ¼ k2 þ k  C11R1 þ C11f#  eks1 . We use different
parameters terminology from our last characteristics parameters definition:
k ! j; pk ðsÞ ! aj ; qk ðsÞ ! cj ; n ¼ 2; m ¼ 0

P
2
Additionally Pn ðk; sÞ ! PðkÞ; Qm ðk; sÞ ! QðkÞ then PðkÞ ¼ aj  k j and
j¼0
P
0
QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j .
j¼0

1 1
PðkÞ ¼ k2 þ k  ; QðkÞ ¼ n; m 2 N0 ; n [ m
C1  R1 C1  f#
36 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

And aj ; cj : R þ 0 ! R are continuous and differentiable function of s such that


a0 þ c0 6¼ 0. In the following “−” denotes complex and conjugate. PðkÞ; QðkÞ
Are analytic functions in k and differentiable in s. And the coefficients:

faj ðC1 ; R1 Þ; cj ðC1 ; antenna parametrsÞg 2 R

Depend on RFID C1, R1 values and antenna parameters but not on s.


a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ C11R1 ; a2 ¼ 1; a3 ¼ 0; c0 ¼ C11f# ; c1 ¼ c2 ¼ 0
Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments
ðR1 ; C1 ; antenna parametrs) will subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj. The
coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and differentiable functions of their arguments, and
direct substitution shows that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0; C11f# 6¼ 0
8 C1 ; antenna parameters 2 R þ I.e. k ¼ 0 is not a root of the characteristic
equation. Furthermore PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic functions of k for which the fol-
lowing requirements of the analysis (see Kuang 1993, Sect. 3.4) can also be verified
in the present case [4, 5].
(a) If k ¼ i  x, x 2 R then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0, i.e. P and Q have no common
imaginary roots. This condition was verified numerically in the entire
ðR1 ; C1 ; antenna parametrs) domain of interest.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj Is bounded for jkj ! 1, Rek 0. No roots bifurcation from 1.
Indeed, in the limit jQðkÞ=PðkÞj ¼ j C f ðk21þ k 1 Þ j
1 # C1 R1

2 2
(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj  jQði  xÞj ; Fðx; sÞ
1 1
¼ x4 þ x2  2

ðC1  R1 Þ ðC1  f# Þ2

Has at most a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a bi-cubic polynomial in x


(second degree in x2 ).
(d) Each positive root xðC1 ; R1 ; antenna parametrs) of FðxÞ ¼ 0 is continuous
and differentiable with respect to C1 ; R1 ; antenna parametrs.
The condition can only be assessed numerically.

In addition, since the coefficients in P and Q are real, we have, and Qði  xÞ ¼
Qði  xÞ thus, x [ 0 may be an eigenvalue of the characteristic equation. The
analysis consists in identifying the roots of the characteristic equation situated on
the imaginary axis of the complex k-plane, whereby increasing the parameters
C1 ; R1 ; antenna parametrs and delay s, Rek may, at the crossing, Change its sign
ð0Þ ð0Þ
from (−) to (+), i.e. from stable focus Eð0Þ ðV1 ; V2 Þ ¼ ð0; 0Þ to an unstable one, or
vice versa.
This feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of the partial
derivatives with respect to C1 ; R1 and antenna parameters.
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 37

@Rek
^1 ðC1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; R1 ; antenna parameters ¼ const
@C1 k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðR1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; antenna parameters ¼ const
@R1 k¼ix
@Rek @Rek
^1 ðf# Þ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; R1 ¼ const; ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; R1 ;
@f# k¼ix @s k¼ix
antenna parameters ¼ const; where x 2 R þ :

In the first case s1 ¼s; s2 ¼ 0 we get the following results

1
PR ði  xÞ ¼ a2  x2 þ a0 ¼ x2 ; PI ði  xÞ ¼ a3  x3 þ a1  x ¼ x 
C1  R1
1
QR ði  xÞ ¼ c2  x2 þ c0 ¼ ; QI ði  xÞ ¼ c1  x ¼ 0 ; FðxÞ ¼ 0
C1  f#
vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
u
u 1 1 1 1 1 1

t
 þ4  ; þ4  [0
2 4 2 4
2  ðC1  R1 Þ 2 ðC1  R1 Þ ½C1  f#  ðC1  R1 Þ ½C1  f# 2

qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Always and additional for x 2 R; 1
2ðC1 R1 Þ2

12  1
ðC R Þ4
þ 4  ½C f1 2 [ 0
1 1 1 #

And there are two options: first always exist


qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 þ 2  þ 4  ½C f1 2 [ 0  12 
1 1 1 1
2ðC1 R1 Þ ðC1 R1 Þ4
Second 2ðC1 R1 Þ2
1 #
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
1
ðC R Þ4
þ 4  1
½C f 2
[ 0
1 1 1 #

Not exist and always negative for any RFID TAG overall parameter values.
Writing PðkÞ ¼ PR ðkÞ þ i  PI ðkÞ and QðkÞ ¼ QR ðkÞ þ i  QI ðkÞ, and inserting
k¼ix
Into the RFID characteristic equation, x must satisfy the following:

PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin x  s ¼ gðxÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2

PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos x  s ¼ hðxÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

Where jQði  xÞj2 6¼ 0 in view of requirement (a) above, and ðg; hÞ 2 R.


Furthermore, it follows above sin x  s and cos x  s equations that, by squaring and
adding the sides, x must be a positive root of FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ¼ 0.
Note that FðxÞ is independent of s. Now it is important to notice that if
s 62 I (assume that I R þ 0 is the set where xðsÞ is a positive root of FðxÞ and for
s 62 I , xðsÞ is not defined. Then for all s in I xðsÞ is satisfied that Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0)
38 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Then there are no positive xðsÞ solutions of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, and we cannot have
stability switches. For any s 2 I, where xðsÞ is a positive solution of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0
We can define the angle hðsÞ 2 ½0; 2  p as the solution of
PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2
PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

And the relation between the argument hðsÞ and xðsÞ  s for s 2 I must be
xðsÞ  s ¼ hðsÞ þ n  2  p 8 n 2 N0 . Hence we can define the maps sn : I ! R þ 0
given by sn ðsÞ ¼ hðsÞxðsÞ þ n2p
; n 2 N0 ; s 2 I. Let us introduce the functions I ! R;
Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 that is continuous and differentiable in s. In the
following, the subscripts k; x; R1 ; C1 and RFID TAG antenna parameters
ðw; g; B0 ; A0 ; Aavg ; Bavg ; etc:; Þ indicate the corresponding partial derivatives. Let us
first concentrate on ^ðxÞ, remember in kðR1 ; C1 ; w; g; B0 ; A0 ; Aavg ; Bavg ; etc:; Þ and
xðR1 ; C1 ; w; g; B0 ; A0 ; Aavg ; Bavg ; etc:; Þ, and keeping all parameters except one
(x) and s. The derivation closely follows that in reference [BK]. Differentiating
RFID characteristic equation PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0 with respect to specific
parameter (x), and inverting the derivative, for convenience, one calculates:
Remark x ¼ R1 ; C1 ; w; g; B0 ; A0 ; Aavg ; Bavg ; etc:;

@k 1 Pk ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ þ Qk ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ  s  Pðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ


ð Þ ¼
@x Px ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  Qx ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ
Where Pk ¼ @P
@k ; . . .: etc., substituting k ¼ i  x, and bearing
i Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ, Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ then i  Pk ði  xÞ ¼ Px ði  xÞ and i 
Qk ði  xÞ ¼ Qx ði  xÞ and that on the surface jPði  xÞj2 ¼ jQði  xÞj2 , one obtains:

@k 1 i  Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ þ i  Qk ði  x; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  s  jPði  x; xÞj2


ð Þ jk¼ix ¼ ð Þ
@x Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ  Qx ði  x; xÞ  Qði  x; xÞ

Upon separating into real and imaginary parts, with P ¼ PR þ i  PI ;


Q ¼ QR þ i  QI ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ;Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ; Qx ¼
QRx þ i  QIx P2 ¼ P2R þ P2I . When (x) can be any RFID TAG parameters R1, C1, and
time delay s etc., Where for convenience, we have dropped the arguments ði  x; xÞ,
and where
Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ;
Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ
xx ¼ Fx =Fx
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 39

We define U and V:
U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ
V ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ

We choose our specific parameter as time delay x = s. PIs ¼ 0; PRs ¼ 0;


QIs ¼ 0; QRs ¼ 0 ) V ¼ 0

x2 1
U¼ ; P2 ¼ x4 þ x2  ;
C1  R1 ðC1  R1 Þ2
@F 1
Fs ¼ 0; ¼ Fx ¼ 2  ½2  x3 þ x  
@x ðC1  R1 Þ2
Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0

And differentiating with respect to s and we get


@x @x Fs @Rek
Fx  þ Fs ¼ 0; s 2 I ) ¼  ; ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ
@s @s Fx @s k¼ix
h i
2  U þ s  jPj2 þ i  Fx 2  x2 þ ðC R
1
2
1 1 1Þ
^ ðsÞ ¼ Ref h i g ;
Fs þ i  2  V þ x  jPj2 x þ x  ðC R Þ2
4 2 1
1 1

@Rek
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfð Þ g
@s k¼ix
@x U  @x
@s þ V
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx g  signfs  þxþ g;
@s jPj2
@x Fs @x
¼ xs ¼  ; Fs ¼ 0 ) ¼0
@s Fx @s

Then we get signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signf2  x  ½2  x2 þ 1


ðC1 R1 Þ2
g  signfxg
1 1
Result: ^ ðsÞ [ 0 for all x; R1 ; C1 values. The sign of ^ ðsÞ is independent of
s values, then in the first case s1 ¼s; s2 ¼ 0 there is no stability switch for different
values s. We now inspect the third interesting case when s1 ¼s; s2 ¼ s. The third
case we analyze is when there are delays both in RFID Label voltage and voltage
time derivative [4, 5].
1 1
Dðk; s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ k   eks þ  eks2
C1  R1 C1  f#

Taylor expansion:

k2  s 2
eks  1  k  s þ
2
40 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Since we need n > m [BK] analysis, we choose eks  1  k  s then we get our
RFID system second order characteristic equation:

Dðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ bðsÞ  k  eks þ cðsÞ þ dðsÞ  eks


1 1 s 1
aðsÞ ¼ 0; bðsÞ ¼  ð  Þ; cðsÞ ¼ 0; dðsÞ ¼
C1 R1 f# C 1  f#
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ ðc  x2 Þ2 þ x2  a2  ðx2  b2 þ d 2 Þ
1 1
Fðx; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  2

ðC1  R1 Þ ðC1  f# Þ2

Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies x4  x2  C12 ðR11  fs# Þ2  ðC 1


2 ¼ 0 and its roots are
1 1 f# Þ

given by

1 pffiffiffiffi 1 pffiffiffiffi 1 1 s
x2þ ¼  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ þ Dg ¼  f D þ 2 ð  Þ2 g
2 2 C1 R1 f#
1 p ffiffiffi
ffi 1 p ffiffiffi
ffi 1 1 s
x2 ¼  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  Dg ¼  f D þ 2 ð  Þ2 g
2 2 C1 R1 f#
1 1 s 4
D ¼ ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  4  ðc2  d 2 Þ ¼ 2  ð  Þ2 þ
C1 R1 f# ðC1  f# Þ2
pffiffiffiffi
Therefore the following holds: 2  x2þ =  ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ ¼
D

PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2

PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  x; sÞj2

ðc  x2 Þ  x  b þ x  a  d x3  C11  ðR11  fs# Þ


sin hðsÞ ¼ ¼
x2  b2 þ d 2 x2  C12 ðR11  fs# Þ2 þ ðC 1
2
1 1 f# Þ

ðc  x2 Þ  d þ x2  a  b x2  C11f#
cos hðsÞ ¼  ¼
x 2  b2 þ d 2 x2  1 1
ð  fs# Þ2 þ 1
C12 R1 ðC1 f# Þ2

For our stability switching analysis, we choose typical RFID parameter values:

C1 ¼ 23 pF; R1 ¼ 100 kX ¼ 105 ; Lcalc ¼ f# ¼ 2:65 mH

Then
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 41

Fig. 1.17 RFID TAG F (x, s)


function for s1 = s2 = s

Fig. 1.18 RFID TAG


stability switch diagram based
on different delay values of
our RFID TAG system

1 1
¼ 1:89  1021 ; 2 2 ¼ 2:69  1026
C12 C1  f#

We find those x; s values which fulfill Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We ignore negative,


complex, and imaginary values of x for specific s values. The table gives the list.
s 2 ½0:001::10. And can be expressed by straight line (x = s  1.64  1013)
(Fig. 1.17).

s x
0.001 1.64  1010
0.01 1.64  1011
0.05 8.2  1011
0.1 1.64  1012
(continued)
42 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

(continued)
s x
0.2 3.28  1012
1 1.64  1013
5 8.2  1013
10 1.64  1014

Remark In the above figure x variable is 1010 units.


MATLAB: [w,t] = meshgrid(1:1:1640,0:0.01:10);
f = w. * w. * w. * w − w. * w. * 1.89 * 10^21. * (10^−5 − (t./(2.65 * 10^
−3))).^2−2.69 * 10^26; meshc(f); %x ! w; s ! t
We plot the stability switch diagram based on different delay values of our RFID
TAG system (Fig. 1.18).

@Rek 2  ½U þ s  jPj2  þ i  Fx
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼ Ref g
@s Fs þ i  2  ½V þ x  jPj2 
@Rek 2  fFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼
@s Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2

@Rek
gðTauÞ ¼ ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ
@s k¼ix

The stability switch occurs only on those delay values (s) which fit the equation:
s ¼ xh þþ ðsÞ
ðsÞ and h þ ðsÞ is the solution of

x3  C11  ðR11  fs# Þ x2  C11f#


sin hðsÞ ¼ ; cos hðsÞ ¼
x2  C12 ðR11  fs# Þ2 þ 1
ðC1 f# Þ2
x2  C12 ðR11  fs# Þ2 þ 1
ðC1 f# Þ2
1 1

When x ¼ x þ ðsÞ if only x þ is feasible. Additionally When all RFID TAG


parameters are known and the stability switch due to various time delay values s is
described in the below expression:

signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx ðxðsÞ; sÞg  signfs  xs ðxðsÞÞ


UðxðsÞÞ  xs ðxðsÞÞ þ VðxðsÞÞ
þ xðsÞ þ g
jPðxðsÞÞj2

Remark we know Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies its roots xi ðsÞ and finding those delays
values s which xi is feasible. There are s values which xi is a complex or imag-
inary number, then unable to analyze stability [4, 5].
RFID TAGs environment is characterized by electromagnetic interferences
which can influence the RFID TAGs stability in time. There are two main RFID
1.3 RFID TAGs Coil’s System Stability … 43

TAGs variables which are affected by electromagnetic interferences, the voltage


developed on the RFID Label and his voltage time derivative respectively.
Each RFID Label variable under electromagnetic interferences is characterized by
time delay respectively. The two time delays are not the same, but can be cate-
gorized to some sub cases due to interferences behavior. The first case is when there
is RFID Label voltage time delay, but no voltage derivative time delay. The second
case is when there is no RFID Label voltage time delay, but there is a voltage
derivative time delay. The third case is when both RFID Label voltage time delay
and voltage derivative time delay exist. For simplicity of our analysis we consider
the third case, two delays are the same (there is a difference but it is neglected in our
analysis). In each case we derive the related characteristic equation. The charac-
teristic equation is dependent on RFID Label overall parameters and interferences
time delay. Upon mathematics manipulation and [BK] theorems and definitions we
derive the expression which gives us a clear picture on RFID Label stability
map. The stability map gives all possible options for stability segments, each
segment belongs to different time delay value segment. RFID Label stability
analysis can be influenced either by TAG overall parameter values. We left this
analysis and do not discuss it in the current chapter.
Lemma 1.1 Assume that xðsÞ is a positive and real root of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0
Defined for s 2 I, this is continuous and differentiable. Assume further that if
k ¼ i  x, x 2 R, then Pn ði  x; sÞ þ Qn ði  x; sÞ 6¼ 0; s 2 R hold true. Then the
functions Sn ðsÞ; n 2 N0 , are continuous and differentiable on I.
Theorem 1.2 Assume that xðsÞ is a positive real root of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 defined for
s 2 I; I R þ 0 , and at some s 2 I, Sn ðs Þ ¼ 0 for some n 2 N0 then a pair of
simple conjugate pure imaginary roots k þ ðs Þ ¼ i  xðs Þ; k ðs Þ ¼ i  xðs Þ of
Dðk; sÞ ¼ 0 exist at s ¼ s which crosses the imaginary axis from left to right if
dðs Þ [ 0 and cross the imaginary axis from right to left if dðs Þ\0 where

dRek dSn ðsÞ


dðs Þ ¼ signf jk¼ixðs Þ g ¼ signfFx ðxðs Þ; s Þg  signf j g
ds ds s¼s
n ðsÞ
The theorem becomes signfd Re k
ds jk¼ix
g ¼ signf
D
1=2
g  signfdSds js¼s g
Theorem 1.3 The characteristic equation: s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0; s1 ¼ 0; s2 ¼ s

Dðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ bðsÞ  k  eks þ cðsÞ þ dðsÞ  eks ;


1 1
Dðk; s1 ; s2 Þ ¼ k2 þ k   eks2 þ  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
C1  R1 C1  f#

Has a pair of simple and conjugate pure imaginary roots k ¼


xðs Þ; xðs Þ
Real at s 2 I if Sn ðs Þ ¼ s  sn ðs Þ ¼ 0 for some n 2 N0 . If xðs Þ ¼ x þ ðs Þ,
this pair of simple conjugate pure imaginary roots crosses the imaginary axis from
left to right if d þ ðs Þ [ 0 and crosses the imaginary axis from right to left if
dSn ðsÞ
d þ ðs Þ\0 where d þ ðs Þ ¼ signfd Re k
ds jk¼ix þ ðs Þ g ¼ signf ds js¼s g. If
44 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

xðs Þ ¼ x ðs Þ, this pair of simple conjugate pure imaginary roots cross the
imaginary axis from left to right if d ðs Þ [ 0 and crosses the imaginary axis from
right to left If d ðs Þ\0 where d ðs Þ ¼ signfd Re k
ds jk¼ix ðs Þ g ¼
n ðsÞ
signfdSds js¼s g. If x þ ðs Þ ¼ x ðs Þ ¼ xðs Þ then dðs Þ ¼ 0 and
signfdRek j
ds k¼ixðs Þ
0
g ¼ 0, the same is true when S ðs Þ ¼ 0. The following result can
n
be useful in identifying values of s where the stability switches happened.
Theorem 1.4 Assume that for all s 2 I, xðsÞ is defined as a solution of Fðx; sÞ ¼
0 then d
ðsÞ ¼ signf
D1=2 ðsÞg  signD
ðsÞ

D
ðsÞ ¼ x2
 ½ðx2
 b2 þ d 2 Þ þ a0  ðc  x2
Þ þ b  d 0  b0  d  a  c0 
þ x
 x0
 ½s  ðx2
 b2 þ d 2 Þ  b  d þ a  ðc  x2
Þ þ 2  x2
 a

daðsÞ 0 dbðsÞ 0 dcðsÞ 0 ddðsÞ


a0 ¼ ;b ¼ ;c ¼ ;d ¼
ds ds ds ds

1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas


Arranged as a Shifted Gate System for Stability
Optimization Under Delayed Electromagnetic
Interferences

A semi-passive tags operate similarly to passive RFID tags. However, they contain
a battery that enables long reading distance and also enables the tag to operate
independently of the reader. Semi-Passive TAGs with double loop antennas ar-
ranged as a shifted gate system influence by electromagnetic interferences which
effect there stability behavior. Semi-Passive RFID TAGs system with a battery is
like a Reader unit and aimed to improve the communication performance by using
double loop antennas in walk-through gate arrangement in various TAGs orienta-
tions of the RFID system operating mainly in the LF band. The below figure
describes the double loop antennas as a shifted gate in x-direction [8] (Fig. 1.19).
The antenna gate is shifted to avoid cancellation of magnetic fields between two
TAGs, and to improve the magnetic-field distribution. The RFID system at Low
Frequency (LF) band has been widely adopted. The RFID tags for this application
have usually installed in applications such that the orientation of tag id difficult to
fix for transferring data with RFID reader. Most of the LF-RFID reader antennas are
rectangular or circular loops, but these antennas cannot generate sufficient field
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 45

Fig. 1.19 Double loop D


antennas arranged as a shifted
gate in x-direction

d1

strengths in some locations and/or tag antenna orientations. The double loop
antennas arranged as a shifted gate improves magnetic-field distribution in a region
of interest suitable for communication with various tag orientations, and enhance
the communication distance [1]. The antenna gate is shifted to avoid cancellation of
magnetic fields between two gate antennas. The gate antenna consists of two sides
of rectangular loops with two types of excitations; i.e., in phase and 180° out of
phase. When two antennas are excited in phase, the directions of the currents
flowing in two loops are in the same direction, resulting in the cancellation of
magnetic fields in the x-direction in the middle region of the gate. When two
antennas are excited 180° out of phase, the direction of the currents flowing in two
antennas is in the opposite direction, resulting in the cancellation of magnetic fields
in the y-direction in the middle region of the gates. Thus, the gate antennas are
arranged as a shifted gate to maintain magnetic fields in the middle region. The
double loop antenna is employed due to the fact that this antenna consists of two
parallel loops (primary and secondary loops). The shape of the primary loop is
rectangular for generating the magnetic field in the y-direction. The secondary loop
is always within the primary loop, and is optimized such that the magnetic fields in
x- and z-directions are strongly generated. D is the separation distance between gate
antennas, and d1 is the shifted distance in the x-direction. Due to electromagnetic
interferences there are differences in time delays with respect to gate antenna’s first
and second loop voltages and voltages derivatives. The delayed voltages are
Vi1(t − s1) and Vi2(t − s2) respectively (s1 6¼ s2) and delayed voltages derivatives
are dVi1(t − D1)/dt, dVi2(t − D2)/dt respectively ðD1 6¼ D2 ; s1 0; s2 0;
D1 ; D2 0Þ. The Semi-Passive RFID TAG with double loop antennas equivalent
circuit can represent as a delayed differential equations which depending on vari-
able parameters and delays. Our Semi-Passive RFID TAG system delay differential
46 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

and delay different model can be analytically by using delay differential equations
in dynamically. The need of the incorporation of a time delay is often of the
existence of any stage structure. It is often difficult to analytically study models with
delay dependent parameters, even if only a single discrete delay is present. There
are practical guidelines that combine graphical information with analytical work to
effectively study the local stability of models involving delay dependent parame-
ters. The stability of a given steady state is simply determined by the graphs of
some function of s1, s2 which can be expressed, explicitly and thus can be easily
depicted by Matlab and other popular software. We need only look at one such
function and locate the zeros. This function often has only two zeros, providing
thresholds for stability switches. As time delay increases, stability changes from
stable to unstable to stable. We emphasize the local stability aspects of some models
with delay dependent parameters. Additionally, there is a general geometric crite-
rion that, theoretically speaking, can be applied to models with many delays, or
even distributed delays. The simplest case of a first order characteristic equation,
providing more user friendly geometric and analytic criteria for stability switches.
The analytical criteria provided for the first and second order cases can be used to
obtain some insightful analytical statements and can be helpful for conducting
simulations [5, 6]. Semi-Passive RFID TAG with double loop antenna can be
represented as a two inductors in series (L11 and L12 for the first double loop gate
antenna) with parasitic resistance rP1. The double loop antennas in series are con-
nected in parallel to Semi-Passive RFID TAG. The Equivalent Circuit of
Semi-Passive RFID TAG is Capacitor (C1) and Resistor (R1) in parallel with
voltage generator Vs1(t) and parasitic resistance rS1. In case we have Passive RFID
TAG switch S1 is OFF otherwise is ON (Reader/Active RFID system) and long
distance is achievable. The second double loop gate antenna is defined as two
inductors in series L21 and L22 with series parasitic resistor rP2. Vs2(t) and parasitic
resistance rS2 are belong to the second gate antenna system with another
Semi-Passive RFID TAG [1].
L11 and L12 are mostly formed by traces on planar PCB. 2  Lm element represents
the mutual inductance between L11 and L12. We consider that the double loop
antennas parameter values (La1, La2, Lb1, Lb2, a1, a2) are the same in the first and second
gates. Since two inductors (L11, L12) are in series and there is a mutual inductance
between L11 and L12, the total antenna inductance LT: LT = L11 + L12 + 2  Lm and
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Lm ¼ K  L11  L12 . Lm is the mutual inductance between L11 and L12. K is the
coupling coefficient of two inductors 0 K 1. We start with the case of passive
RFID TAG which switch S1 is OFF. I(t) is the current that flow through a double loop
antenna. V11 and V12 are the voltages on L11 and L12 respectively. Vm is the voltage on
double loop antenna mutual inductance element.
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 47

dI dI dI
V11 ¼ L11  ; V12 ¼ L12  ; VCD ¼ I  rp1 ; Vm ¼ 2  Lm  ;
dt dt dt
dVC1
VAB ¼ VR1 ¼ VC1 ¼ V11 þ V12 þ VCD þ Vm ; IC1 ¼ C1 
dt
dVC1
VAB ¼ VR1 ¼ VC1 ¼ V11 þ V12 þ VCD þ Vm ; IC1 ¼ C1  ;
dt
dVC1 VC
IC1 þ IR1 þ I ¼ 0 ) C1  þ 1 þ I ¼ 0; L11 6¼ L12
dt R1

dVC1 dV11 dV12 dVCD dVm


¼ þ þ þ ;
dt Zdt dt dtZ dt
1 1
I¼  V11  dt ¼  V12  dt;
L11 L12
Z Z
rp1 rp1
VCD ¼ I  rp1 ¼  V11  dt ¼  V12  dt
L11 L12

dVCD rp1 rp1 L11 L12


¼  V11 þ  V12 ; V11 ¼  V12 ; V12 ¼  V11 ;
dt L11 L12 L12 L11
Z Z
1 1 dI 1 1
I¼  V11  dt ¼  V12  dt ) ¼  V11 ¼  V12
L11 L12 dt L11 L12
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
dI pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 1 L12
¼ 2  K  L11  L12 
Vm ¼ 2  Lm   V11 ¼ 2  K   V11 ;
dt L11 L11
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
dVm L12 dV11
¼2K 
dt L11 dt

We get the following differential equation respect to V11(t) variable, g1 ; g2 ; g3


are global parameters.

d 2 V11 dV11
 g1 þ  g2 þ V11  g3 ¼ 0
dt2 dt rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
L12 L12
g1 ¼ C1  ð1 þ þ2 K  Þ;
L11 L11
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
C1  rp1 1 L12 L12
g2 ¼ þ  ð1 þ þ2  K  Þ;
L11 R1 L11 L11
C1  rp1 1 g1 1 rp1
g2 ¼ þ  ;g ¼  ð1 þ Þ
L11 R1 C1 3 L11 R1
g1 ¼ g1 ðC1 ; L12 ; L11 ; KÞ; g2 ¼ g2 ðC1 ; rp1 ; L12 ; L11 ; K; R1 Þ;
0
dV11 dV11
0 d 2 V11
g3 ¼ g3 ðL11 ; rp1 ; R1 Þ; V11 ¼ ; ¼
dt dt dt2
0
dV11 0 g g dV 11 0
¼ V11  2  V11  3 ; ¼ V11 :
dt g1 g1 dt
48 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

In the same manner we find our V12 differential equation. We get the following
differential equation respect to V12(t) variable, n1 ; n2 ; n3 are global parameters.
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
d 2 V12 dV12 L11 L11
 n1 þ  n2 þ V12  n3 ¼ 0; n1 ¼ C1  ð1 þ þ2  K  Þ;
dt2 dt L12 L12
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
C1  rp1 1 L11 L11 1 rp1
n2 ¼ þ  ð1 þ þ2  K  Þ; n3 ¼  ð1 þ Þ
L12 R1 L12 L12 L12 R1
0
C1  rp1 1 n1 0 dV12 dV12 d 2 V12
n2 ¼ þ  ;V ¼ ; ¼ ;
L12 R1 C1 12 dt dt dt2
n1 ¼ n1 ðC1 ; L12 ; L11 ; KÞ; n2 ¼ n2 ðC1 ; rp1 ; L12 ; L11 ; K; R1 Þ
0
dV12 0 n n dV12 0
n3 ¼ n3 ðL12 ; rp1 ; R1 Þ; ¼ V12  2  V12  3 ; ¼ V12 :
dt n1 n1 dt

Summary: We get our RFID double loop antennas system’s four differential
equations.
0 0
dV11 0 g g dV11 0 dV12 0 n n dV12 0
¼ V11  2  V11  3 ; ¼ V11 ; ¼ V12  2  V12  3 ; ¼ V12
dt g1 g1 dt dt n1 n1 dt
0 dV 0 1
11 0 1 0 V0 1
B dt C C11 . . . C14 11
B dV11 C B C BV C g2 g3
B dt C B .. .. .. C B 11 C
B dV 0 C ¼ @ . . . AB C; C11 ¼  ; C12 ¼  ;
B 12 C @ V12 A
0 g1 g1
@ dt A
dV
C41    C44 V
12 12
dt
n2 n
C33 ¼  ; C34 ¼  3 ; C21 ¼ C43 ¼ 1
n1 n1

C13 ¼ C14 ¼ C22 ¼ C23 ¼ C24 ¼ C31 ¼ C32 ¼ C41 ¼ C42 ¼ C44 ¼ 0

The RFID double loop antennas system’s primary and secondary loops are
composed of a thin wire or a thin plate element (Fig. 1.20). Units are all in cm, and
a1, a2 are radiuses of the primary and secondary wires in cm. There inductances can
be calculated by the following formulas (Fig. 1.21):

2  A1 2  A1
L11 ¼ 4  fLb1  ln½  þ La1  ln½  þ 2  ½a1 þ lc1
a1  ðLb1 þ lc1 Þ a1  ðLb1 þ lc1 Þ
 ðLa1 þ Lb1 Þg
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 49

Fig. 1.20 Double loop


La1
antennas in series with
parasitic resistance and
Semi-Passive RFID TAG La2

2a1
2a2 Lb2 Lb1

Semi-Active
RFID / Reader

Fig. 1.21 Equivalent circuit


of double loop antennas in
series with Semi-
Passive RFID TAG
50 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

2  A2 2  A2
L12 ¼ 4  fLb2  ln½  þ La2  ln½  þ 2  ½a2 þ lc2
a2  ðLb2 þ lc2 Þ a2  ðLb2 þ lc2 Þ
 ðLa2 þ Lb2 Þg
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
lc1 ¼ L2a1 þ L2b1 ; A1 ¼ La1  Lb1 ; lc2 ¼ L2a2 þ L2b2 ; A2 ¼ La2  Lb2

Due to electromagnetic interferences, we get a shifted gate RFID system’s pri-


mary and secondary antennas loops voltages with delays s1 and s2 respectively.
Additionally, we get antennas loop voltages derivatives with delays D1 and D2
0 0
respectively. V11 ðtÞ ! V11 ðt  s1 Þ; V12 ðtÞ ! V12 ðt  s2 Þ; V11 ðtÞ ! V11 ðt  D1 Þ
0 0 dV 0 dV 0
V12 ðtÞ ! V12 ðt  D2 Þ. We consider no delay effect on dVdt11 ; dVdt12 ; dt11 ; dt12 .
The RFID shifted gate system, differential equations under electromagnetic
interferences (delays terms) influence only RFID double loop voltages V11(t),
0 0
V12(t) and voltages derivatives V11 ðtÞ and V12 ðtÞ respect to time, there is no
0 0
dV11 ðtÞ dV12 ðtÞ dV11 ðtÞ dV12 ðtÞ
influence on dt ; dt ; dt ; dt .
0 0 1
dV11
B dt C 0 0 1
B C
B dV11 C 0 1 V11 ðt  D1 Þ
B C C11 . . . C14 B C
B dt C B . .. .. C B V11 ðt  s1 Þ C
B C
B dV 0 C ¼ @ .. . . A  B 0
@ V12
C
ðt  D2 Þ A
B 12 C
B C C41    C44
B dt C V12 ðt  s2 Þ
@ dV A
12
dt

To find equilibrium points (fixed points) of the RFID shifted gate system is by

lim V11 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ V11 ðtÞ; lim V12 ðt  s2 Þ ¼ V12 ðtÞ;


t!1 t!1
0 0 0 0
lim V11 ðt  D1 Þ ¼ V11 ðtÞ; lim V12 ðt  D2 Þ ¼ V12 ðtÞ
t!1 t!1
dV11 ðtÞ dV12 ðtÞ dV 0 ðtÞ dV 0 ðtÞ
¼ 0; ¼ 0; 11 ¼ 0; 12 ¼ 0: 8 t  s1 ; t  s2 ; t  D1 ; t  D2
dt dt dt dt
9 ðt  s1 Þ  t; ðt  s2 Þ  t; ðt  D1 Þ  t; ðt  D2 Þ  t; t ! 1:

0 ð0Þ ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ ð0Þ


We get four equations and the only fixed point is E ð0Þ ðV11 ; V11 ; V12 ; V12 Þ ¼
ð0; 0; 0; 0Þ since

g3 6¼ 0 & g1 6¼ 0 ) C12 6¼ 0; n3 6¼ 0 & n1 6¼ 0 ) C34 6¼ 0


1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 51

Stability analysis: The standard local stability analysis about any one of the
equilibrium points of RFID shifted gate system consists in adding to coordinate
0 0
½V11 V11 V12 V12  arbitrarily small increments of exponential form½v011 v11 v012 v12  ekt ,
0 0
and retaining the first order terms in V11 V11 V12 V12 . The system of four homogeneous
equations leads to a polynomial characteristic equation in the eigenvalues k. The
polynomial characteristic equations accept by set the below voltages and voltages
derivative respect to time into two RFID shifted gate system equations.
RFID shifted gate system fixed values with arbitrarily small increments of
exponential form ½v011 v11 v012 v12   ekt are: i = 0 (first fixed point), i = 1 (second
fixed point), i = 2 (third fixed point), etc.,

0 0ðiÞ ðiÞ
V11 ðtÞ ¼ V11 þ v011  ekt ; V11 ðtÞ ¼ V11 þ v11  ekt
0 0ðiÞ ðiÞ
V12 ðtÞ ¼ V12 þ v012  ekt ; V12 ðtÞ ¼ V12 þ v12  ekt

0 0
We choose the above expressions for our V11 ðtÞ; V11 ðtÞ and V12 ðtÞ; V12 ðtÞ as
0 0
small displacement ½v11 v11 v12 v12  from the system fixed points in time t = 0.

0 0ðiÞ ðiÞ
V11 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V11 þ v011 ; V11 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V11 þ v11
0 0ðiÞ ðiÞ
V12 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V12 þ v012 ; V12 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V12 þ v12

For k\0; t [ 0 the selected fixed point is stable otherwise k [ 0; t [ 0 is


Unstable. Our system tends to the selected fixed point exponentially to k\0; t [ 0
otherwise go away from the selected fixed point exponentially. k is the eigenvalue
parameter which establishes if the fixed point is stable or Unstable, additionally his
absolute value (jkj) establish the speed of flow toward or away from the selected
fixed point [2, 3].

k<0 k>0
0 0ðiÞ 0ðiÞ
t=0 V11 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V11 þ v011 0
V11 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V11 þ v011
ðiÞ ðiÞ
V11 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V11 þ v11 V11 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V11 þ v11
0 0ðiÞ 0ðiÞ
V12 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V12 þ v012 0
V12 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V12 þ v012
ðiÞ ðiÞ
V12 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V12 þ v12 V12 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V12 þ v12
0 0ðiÞ 0ðiÞ
t>0 V11 ðtÞ ¼ V11 þ v011  ejkjt 0
V11 ðtÞ ¼ V11 þ v011  ejkjt
ðiÞ ðiÞ
V11 ðtÞ ¼ V11 þ v11  ejkjt V11 ðtÞ ¼ V11 þ v11  ejkjt
0 0ðiÞ 0ðiÞ
V12 ðtÞ ¼ V12 þ v012  ejkjt 0
V12 ðtÞ ¼ V12 þ v012  ejkjt
ðiÞ ðiÞ
V12 ðtÞ ¼ V12 þ v12  ejkjt V12 ðtÞ ¼ V12 þ v12  ejkjt
(continued)
52 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

(continued)
k<0 k>0
0ðiÞ 0
t>0 0
V11 ðt ! 1Þ ¼ V11 V11 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ  v011  ejkjt
t!∞
V11 ðt ! 1Þ ¼
ðiÞ
V11 V11 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ  v11  ejkjt
0
0
V12 ðt ! 1Þ ¼
0ðiÞ
V12 V12 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ  v012  ejkjt

V12 ðt ! 1Þ ¼
ðiÞ
V12 V12 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ  v11  ejkjt

The speeds of flow toward or away from the selected fixed point for RFID
shifted gate system voltages and voltages derivatives respect to time are

0 0ðiÞ 0ðiÞ
dV11 ðtÞ V 0 ðt þ DtÞ  V11 0
ðtÞ V þ v011  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½V11 þ v011  ekt 
¼ lim 11 ¼ lim 11
dt Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt
v011  ekt  ½ekDt  1
¼ lim ! ekDt  1 þ k  Dtk  v011  ekt
Dt!0 Dt
dV11 ðtÞ dV12 ðtÞ
¼ k  v11  ekt ; ¼ k  v12  ekt ;
dt dt
0
dV12 ðtÞ dV 0 ðt  D1 Þ
¼ k  v012  ekt ; 11 ¼ k  v011  ekt  ekD1
dt dt

0
dV11 ðt  D1 Þ dV11 ðt  s1 Þ
¼ k  v011  ekt  ekD1 ; ¼ k  v11  ekt  eks1
dt dt
dV12 ðt  s2 Þ dV 0 ðt  D2 Þ
¼ k  v12  ekt  eks2 ; 12 ¼ k  v012  ekt  ekD2
dt dt

First, we take the RFID shifted gate voltages V11, V12 differential equations:
0 dV12 0 0 0
dV11
dt ¼ V11 ; dt ¼ V12 and adding coordinates ½V11 V11 V12 V12  arbitrarily small
0 0 kt
increments of exponential terms ½v11 v11 v12 v12   e and retaining the first order
terms in v011 v11 v012 v12 .
0ðiÞ 0ðiÞ
k  v11  ekt ¼ V11 þ v011  ekt ; V11 ¼ 0; k  v11 ¼ v011 ) k  v11 þ v011 ¼ 0
0ðiÞ 0ðiÞ
k  v12  ekt ¼ V12 þ v012  ekt ; V12 ¼ 0; k  v12 ¼ v012 ) k  v12 þ v012 ¼ 0
0 0
Second, we take the RFID shifted gate’s voltages derivative V11 ; V12 differential
equations:
0
dV11 0 dV 0 0
¼ C11  V11 þ C12  V11 ; 12 ¼ C33  V12 þ C34  V12
dt dt
0 0
And adding coordinates ½V11 V11 V12 V12  arbitrarily small increments of expo-
nential terms ½v11 v11 v12 v12   e and retaining the first order terms in v011 v11 v012 v12 .
0 0 kt
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 53

0 0
0 ðiÞ 0 ðiÞ ði¼0Þ ði¼0Þ
k  v11  ekt ¼ C11  ½V11 þ v11  ekt  þ C12  ½V11 þ v11  ekt  ; V11 ¼ 0 ; V11 ¼0
0 0 0 0
k  v11 ¼ C11  v11 þ C12  v11 ) k  v11 þ C11  v11 þ C12  v11 ¼ 0
0 0
0 ðiÞ 0 ðiÞ ði¼0Þ ði¼0Þ
k  v12  ekt ¼ C33  ½V12 þ v12  ekt  þ C34  ½V12 þ v12  ekt  ; V12 ¼ 0 ; V12 ¼0

0 0 0 0
k  v12 ¼ C33  v12 þ C34  v12 ) k  v12 þ C33  v12 þ C34  v12 ¼ 0
0
We can summery our eigenvalues equations: ðk þ C11 Þ  v11 þ C12  v11 ¼ 0
0 0 0
v11  k  v11 ¼ 0 ; (  k þ C33 Þ  v12 þ C34  v12 ¼ 0 ; v12  k  v12 ¼ 0
0 0 1
0 1 v11
X11 ... X14 B C
B . B v11 C
B . .. .. C
C B C
@ . . . AB
B v0 C
C ¼ 0 ; X11 ¼ k þ C11 ; X12 ¼ C12 ; X13 ¼ 0 ; X14 ¼ 0
@ 12 A
X41  X44
v12

X21 ¼ 1 ; X22 ¼ k ; X23 ¼ 0 ; X24 ¼ 0 ; X31 ¼ 0 ; X32 ¼ 0 ; X33 ¼ k þ C33 ; X34 ¼ C34

X41 ¼ 0 ; X42 ¼ 0 ; X43 ¼ 1 ; X44 ¼ k


0 1
X11 . . . X14
B . .. .. C
A  k  I ¼ @ .. . . A ; detðA  k  IÞ ¼ 0
X41    X44
0 1 0 1
k 0 0 1 0 0
B C B C
detðA  k  IÞ ¼ ðk þ C11 Þ  det@ 0 k þ C33 C34 A  C12  det@ 0 k þ C33 C34 A
0 1 k 0 1 k
detðA  k  IÞ ¼ ðk þ C11 Þ  ðkÞ  ½ðk þ C33 Þ  ðkÞ  C34   C12  ½ðk þ C33 Þ  ðkÞ  C34 
k4  k3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ þ k2  ðC11  C33  C34  C12 Þ þ k  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33 Þ þ C12  C34 ¼ 0

Eigenvalues stability discussion: Our Semi-passive RFID tags with double loop
antenna system involving N variables ðN [ 2; N ¼ 4Þ, the characteristic equation is
of degree N ¼ 4 and must often be solved numerically. Expect in some particular
cases, such an equation has (N ¼ 4) distinct roots that can be real or complex.
These values are the eigenvalues of the 4  4 Jacobian matrix (A). The general rule
54 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

is that the Steady State (SS) is stable if there is no eigenvalue with positive real
part. It is sufficient that one eigenvalue is positive for the steady state to be unstable.
0 0
Our 4-variables (V11 ; V11 ; V12 ; V12 ) system has four eigenvalues. The type of
behavior can be characterized as a function of the position of these eigenvalues in
the Re/Im plane. Five non-degenerated cases can be distinguished: (1) the four
eigenvalues are real and negative (stable steady state), (2) the four eigenvalues are
real, three of them are negative (unstable steady state), (3) and (4) two eigenvalues
are complex conjugates with a negative real part and the other eigenvalues are real
negative (stable steady state), two cases can be distinguished depending on the
relative value of the real part of the complex eigenvalues and of the real one,
(5) two eigenvalues are complex conjugates with a negative real part and other
eigenvalues real are positive (unstable steady state) [2–4].
We define

0 0ðiÞ ðiÞ
V11 ðt  D1 Þ ¼ V11 þ v011  ekðtD1 Þ ; V11 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ V11 þ v11  ekðts1 Þ
0 0ðiÞ ðiÞ
V12 ðt  D2 Þ ¼ V12 þ v012  ekðtD2 Þ ; V12 ðt  s2 Þ ¼ V12 þ v12  ekðts2 Þ

Then we get four delayed differential equations with respect to coordinates


0 0
½V11 V11 V12 V12  arbitrarily small increments of exponential ½v011 v11 v012 v12   ekt .

k  ekt  v011 ¼ C11  ekðtD1 Þ  v011 þ C12  ekðts1 Þ  v11 ; k  ekt  v11 ¼ ekðtD1 Þ  v011
k  ekt  v012 ¼ C33  ekðtD2 Þ  v012 þ C34  ekðts2 Þ  v12 ; k  ekt  v12 ¼ ekðtD2 Þ  v012

0 ði¼0Þ ði¼0Þ 0 ði¼0Þ ði¼0Þ


In the equilibrium fixed point V11 ¼ 0; V11 ¼ 0,V12 ¼ 0; V12 ¼ 0.
The small increments Jacobian of our RFID shifted gate system is as bellow:

 11 ¼ k þ C11  ekD1 ;  12 ¼ C12  eks1 ;  13 ¼ 0;  14 ¼ 0;


 21 ¼ ekD1 ;  22 ¼ k;  23 ¼ 0;  24 ¼ 0;  31 ¼ 0;  32 ¼ 0

!33 ¼ k þ C33  ekD2 ; !34 ¼ C34  eks2 ; !41 ¼ 0; !42 ¼ 0;


0 0 1
0 1 v11
!11 . . . !14 B C
B . . . C B B v11 CC
B . .. .. C C ¼ 0; !43 ¼ ekD2 ; !44 ¼ k
@ . AB B v0 C
@ 12 A
!41    !44
v12
0 1
!11 . . . !14
B . .. .. C
AkI ¼B @ .. .
C
. A; det jA  k  Ij ¼ 0
!41    !44
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 55

P
2 P
2
k½ si þ Dj 
Dðk; s1 ; s2 ; D1 ; D2 Þ ¼ k þ C12  C34  e
4 i¼1 j¼1

P
2 P
2
k½s2 þ Dj  k½s1 þ Dj 
þ k  fC11  C34  e j¼1
þ C33  C12  e j¼1
g
P
2
k Dj
kðD2 þ s2 Þ kðD1 þ s1 Þ
þ k  fC34  e
2
 C12  e þ C11  C33  e j¼1
g
 k3  fC33  ekD2 þ C11  ekD1 g

We have three stability cases: s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s & D1 ¼ D2 ¼ 0 or s1 ¼ s2 ¼


0 & D1 ¼ D2 ¼ D or s1 ¼ s2 ¼ D1 ¼ D2 ¼ sD otherwise s1 6¼ s2 & D1 6¼ D2 and
they are positive parameters. There are other possible simple stability cases: s1 ¼
s; s2 ¼ 0; D1 ¼ D2 ¼ 0 or s1 ¼ 0; s2 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D2 ¼ 0. s1 ¼ s2 ¼ 0; D1 ¼
D; D2 ¼ 0 or s1 ¼ s2 ¼ 0; D1 ¼ 0; D2 ¼ D. We need to get characteristics equa-
tions for all above stability analysis cases. We study the occurrence of any possible
stability switching, resulting from the increase the value of the time delays s; D; sD
for the general characteristic equation Dðk; s=D=sD Þ. If we choose s parameter, then
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks . The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ; Pn ðk; sÞ ¼
P n
Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k þ P3 ðsÞ  k þ . . .:
k 2 3
k¼0
P
m
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k þ
k¼0
q2 ðsÞ  k2 þ . . .:
First, we discuss RFID shifted gate system fourth order characteristic equation
for s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0; D1 ¼ D2 ¼ 0. The first case we analyze is when there is a delay
in RFID first gate’s primary loop antenna voltage and no delay in secondary loop
antenna voltage. Additionally, there is no delay in the gate’s primary and secondary
loop antennas voltages derivatives [5, 6]. The general characteristic equation D(k,
s) is ad follow:

Dðk; sÞ ¼ k  C11  C34 þ k2  ðC11  C33  C34 Þ  k3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ


þ k4 þ fC12  C34 þ k  C33  C12  k2  C12 g  eks
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks ; n ¼ 4; m ¼ 2; n [ m:

The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is

X
n
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k þ P3 ðsÞ  k
k 2 3

k¼0

þ P4 ðsÞ  k4 ¼ k  C11  C34 þ k2  ðC11  C33  C34 Þ  k3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ þ k4


P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P1 ðsÞ ¼ C11  C34 ; P2 ðsÞ ¼ C11  C33  C34 ; P3 ðsÞ ¼ ðC33 þ C11 Þ; P4 ðsÞ ¼ 1
56 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is


X
m
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k þ q2 ðsÞ  k2 ¼ C12  C34 þ k  C33  C12  k2  C12
k¼0
q0 ðsÞ ¼ C12  C34 ; q1 ðsÞ ¼ C33  C12 ; q2 ðsÞ ¼ C12

0 0
The homogeneous system for V11 V11 V12 V12 leads to a characteristic equation
for the eigenvalue k having the form PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0; PðkÞ ¼
P4 P
2
aj  k j ; QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j
j¼0 j¼0
And the coefficients faj ðqi ; qk Þ; cj ðqi ; qk Þg 2 R depend on qi ; qk , but not on s.
qi ; qk are any two shifted gate system’s parameters, other parameters keep as a
constant. a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ C11  C34 ; a2 ¼ C11  C33  C34 ; a3 ¼ ðC33 þ C11 Þ; a4 ¼ 1
c0 ¼ C12  C34 ; c1 ¼ C33  C12 ; c2 ¼ C12 . Unless strictly necessary, the designa-
tion of the varied arguments ðqi ; qk Þ will subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj.
The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and differentiable functions of their argu-
ments, and direct substitution shows that a0 + c0 6¼ 0 for 8 qi ; qk 2 R þ , i.e.
k = 0 is not a of PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0. Furthermore, P(k), Q(k) are analytic
functions of k, for which the following requirements of the analysis [BK] can also
be verified in the present case:
(a) If k ¼ i  x; x 2 R, then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Rek 0. No roots bifurcation from ∞.
(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 Has a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a
polynomial in x.
(d) Each positive root xðqi ; qk Þ of F(x) = 0 is continuous and differentiable re-
spect to qi ; qk .
We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðkÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðkÞ. It can’t have common
imaginary roots. That is, for any real number x;

pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0;
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ i  x  C11  C34 þ i  x3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ  x2  ðC11  C33  C34 Þ þ x4
Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ i  x  C33  C12 þ C12  C34 þ x2  C12
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ C12  C34 þ x2  ½C12  C11  C33 þ C34  þ x4
þ i  x  ½C33  C12 þ C11  C34  þ i  x3  ½C33 þ C11  6¼ 0

jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x2  C211  C234 þ x4  f2  C11  C34  ðC33 þ C11 Þ þ ðC11  C33  C34 Þ2 g
þ x6  fðC33 þ C11 Þ2  2  ðC11  C33  C34 Þg þ x8
jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ C212  C234 þ x2  C212  ð2  C34 þ C233 Þ þ x4  C212
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ C212  C234 þ x2  fC211  C234  C212  ð2  C34 þ C233 Þg
þ x4  f2  C11  C34  ðC33 þ C11 Þ þ ðC11  C33  C34 Þ2  C212 g
þ x6  fðC33 þ C11 Þ2  2  ðC11  C33  C34 Þg þ x8
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 57

We define the following parameters for simplicity:

N0 ¼ C212  C234 ; N2 ¼ C211  C234  C212  ð2  C34 þ C233 Þ;


N4 ¼ 2  C11  C34  ðC33 þ C11 Þ þ ðC11  C33  C34 Þ2  C212
N6 ¼ ðC33 þ C11 Þ2  2  ðC11  C33  C34 Þ; N8 ¼ 1
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ N0 þ N2  x2
X
4
þ N4  x4 þ N6  x6 þ N8  x8 ¼ N2k  x2k
k¼0

P
4
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies N2k  x2k ¼ 0 and its roots are given by solving
k¼0
the above polynomial. Furthermore PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðC11  C33  C34 Þ þ x4

PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðC11  C33  C34 Þ þ x4


PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x  fC11  C34 þ x2  ðC33 þ C11 Þg;
QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ C12  C34 þ x2  C12 ; QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x  C33  C12

Hence

PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2

PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  x; sÞj2

fC11  C33  C34  x2 g  x3  C33  C12


þ x  fC11  C34 þ x2  ðC33 þ C11 Þg  fC12  C34 þ x2  C12 g
sin hðsÞ ¼
C212  C234 þ x2  C212  ð2  C34 þ C233 Þ þ x4  C212

x2  fC34  C11  C33 þ x2 g  fC12  C34 þ x2  C12 g


þ x2  fC11  C34 þ x2  ðC33 þ C11 Þg  C33  C12
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
C212  C234 þ x2  C212  ð2  C34 þ C233 Þ þ x4  C212

P
4
Which jointly with Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 ) N2k  x2k ¼ 0 that is continuous and
k¼0
differentiable in s based on Lemma 1.1. Hence we use theorem 1.2. This proves the
theorem 1.3. Remark: RFID shifted gate system parameters are independent of the
delay parameter s.
Second, we discuss RFID shifted gate system fourth order characteristic equation
for s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s & D1 ¼ D2 ¼ 0. The second case we analyze is when there is a
58 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

delay in RFID gate’s primary and secondary loop antenna voltages (s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s)
and no delay in the gate’s primary and secondary loop antennas voltages derivatives
[5, 6]. The general characteristic equation D(k, s) is ad follow:

Dðk; sÞ ¼ k4  k3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ þ k2  C11  C33


þ fC12  C34  eks þ k  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33 Þ  k2  ðC34 þ C12 Þg  eks

Under Taylor series approximation: eks  1  k  s þ 12  k2  s2 . The


Maclaurin series is a Taylor series expansion of a eks function about zero (0). We
get the following general characteristic equation D(k, s) under Taylor series
approximation:

1 2 2
eks  1  k  s þ k s :
2
Dðk; sÞ ¼ k4  k3  ½C33 þ C11  þ k2  C11  C33
þ fC12  C34 þ k  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s
1
þ k2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g  eks
2
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks ; n ¼ 4; m ¼ 2; n [ m:

The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is

X
n
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k
k 2

k¼0

þ P3 ðsÞ  k3 þ P4 ðsÞ  k4 ¼ k4  k3  ½C33 þ C11  þ k2  C11  C33


P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P1 ðsÞ ¼ 0 ; P2 ðsÞ ¼ C11  C33 ; P3 ðsÞ ¼ ½C33 þ C11  ; P4 ðsÞ ¼ 1:

P
m
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k þ
k¼0
q2 ðsÞ  k2

X
m
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k þ q2 ðsÞ  k2
k¼0
Xm
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ C12  C34 þ k  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s
k¼0
1
þ k2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 ; q0 ðsÞ ¼ C12  C34
2
1
q1 ðsÞ ¼ C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s; q2 ðsÞ ¼  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12
2
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 59

0 0
The homogeneous system for V11 V11 V12 V12 leads to a characteristic equation
for the eigenvalue k having the form
X
4 X
2
Pðk; sÞ þ Qðk; sÞ  eks ¼ 0; PðkÞ ¼ aj  k j ; QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j
j¼0 j¼0

And the coefficients faj ðqi ; qk ; sÞ; cj ðqi ; qk ; sÞg 2 R depend on qi ; qk and delay
s. qi ; qk are any two shifted gate system’s parameters, other parameters keep as a
constant.
a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ 0; a2 ¼ C11  C33 ; a3 ¼ ½C33 þ C11 ; a4 ¼ 1
c0 ¼ C12  C34 ; c1 ¼ C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s;
1
c2 ¼  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12
2

Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments ðqi ; qk Þ will
subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj. The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and
differentiable functions of their arguments, and direct substitution shows that
a0 + c0 6¼ 0 for 8 qi ; qk 2 R þ , i.e. k = 0 is not a of Pðk; sÞ þ Qðk; sÞ  eks ¼ 0.
We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ can’t have common imaginary roots. That is,
for any real number x:
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0; pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ
¼ x4 þ i  x3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ  x2  C11  C33

Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ C12  C34 þ i  x  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s


1
 x2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 
2
1
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x  x2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 þ C11  C33 
4
2
þ C12  C34 þ i  x3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ þ i  x  ½C11  C34
þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s 6¼ 0; jPði  x; sÞj2
¼ x8 þ x6  fðC33 þ C11 Þ2  2  C11  C33 g þ x4  C211  C233

jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ C212  C234 þ x2  f½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s2
1
 2  C12  C34  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g
2
1
þ x4  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 2
2
60 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

We need to find the expression for Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2 jQði  x; sÞj2

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x8 þ x6  fðC33 þ C11 Þ2  2  C11  C33 g


1
þ x4  fC211  C233  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 2 g
2
 x2  f½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s2
1
 2  C12  C34  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g  C212  C234
2

We define the following parameters for simplicity:

N0 ¼ C212  C234 ; N2 ¼ ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s2


1
þ 2  C12  C34  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 
2
1
N4 ¼ C211  C233  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 2 ;
2
2
N6 ¼ ðC33 þ C11 Þ  2  C11  C33 ; N8 ¼ 1
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2
X
4
¼ N0 þ N2  x2 þ N4  x4 þ N6  x6 þ N8  x8 ¼ N2k  x2k
k¼0

P
4
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies N2k  x2k ¼ 0 and its roots are given by solving
k¼0
the above polynomial. Furthermore PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  C11  C33

PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  C11  C33
P1 ði  x; sÞ ¼ x3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ
1
QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ C12  C34  x2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 ;
2
QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s

Hence
PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2
PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  x; sÞj2
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 61

 fx4  x2  C11  C33 g  x  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s


1
þ x3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ  fC12  C34  x2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g
sin hðsÞ ¼ 2
C212  C234 þ x2  f½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s2
1
 2  C12  C34  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g
2
1
þ x4  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 2
2

1
fx4  x2  C11  C33 g  fC12  C34  x2  ½  C12  C34  s2
2
 C34  C12  g þ x4  ðC33 þ C11 Þ  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33
 C12  C34  s
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
C212  C234 þ x2  f½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s2
1
 2  C12  C34  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g
2
1
þ x4  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 2
2

That is a continuous and differentiable in s based on Lemma 1.1. Hence we use


theorem 1.2. This proves the theorem 1.3. Third, we discuss RFID shifted gate
system fourth order characteristic equation for s1 ¼ s2 ¼ D1 ¼ D2 ¼ sD . The third
case we analyze is when there is a delay in RFID gate’s primary and secondary loop
antenna voltages (s1 ¼ s2 ¼ D1 ¼ D2 ¼ sD ) and delay in the gate’s primary and
secondary loop antennas voltages derivatives [5, 6]. The general characteristic
equation D(k, s) is as follows:
Dðk; sD Þ ¼ k4 þ fC12  C34  ek3sD þ k  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33 Þ  ek2sD
þ k2  ðC34 þ C11  C33  C12 Þ  eksD  k3  ðC33 þ C11 Þg  eksD

The Maclaurin series is a Taylor series expansion of eks ; e2ks ; e3ks func-
tions about zero (0). We get the following general characteristic equation D(k, s)
under Taylor series approximation:

eks  1  k  s; ek2s  1  k  2  s
ek3s  1  k  3  s

.
62 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Dðk; sD Þ ¼ k4 þ fC12  C34 þ k  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ


þ k2  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ
þ k3  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þg  eksD

Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks ; n ¼ 4; m ¼ 3; n [ m:

The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ being

X
n
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k þ P3 ðsÞ  k
k 2 3

k¼0

þ P4 ðsÞ  k4 ¼ k4
P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P1 ðsÞ ¼ 0 ; P2 ðsÞ ¼ 0 ; P3 ðsÞ ¼ 0 ; P4 ðsÞ ¼ 1

The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ being

X
m
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k þ q2 ðsÞ  k2 þ q3 ðsÞ  k3
k¼0
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ C12  C34 þ k  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ
þ k2  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ
þ k3  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þ
q0 ðsÞ ¼ C12  C34 ; q1 ðsÞ ¼ C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD ;
q2 ðsÞ ¼ C11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD
q3 ðsÞ ¼ ½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11

0 0
A homogeneous system for V11 V11 V12 V12 leads to a characteristic equation for
P4
the eigenvalue k having the form Pðk; sÞ þ Qðk; sÞ  eks ¼ 0; PðkÞ ¼ aj 
j¼0
P
3
k j ; QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j and the coefficients faj ðqi ; qk ; sÞ; cj ðqi ; qk ; sÞg 2 R depend on
j¼0
qi ; qk and delay s. qi ; qk are any two shifted gate system’s parameters, other
parameters kept as a constant.

a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ 0; a2 ¼ 0; a3 ¼ 0; a4 ¼ 1; c0 ¼ C12  C34 ;
c1 ¼ C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD
c0 ¼ C12  C34 ; c1 ¼ C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD ;
c2 ¼ C11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD
c3 ¼ ½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 :
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 63

Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments ðqi ; qk Þ will
subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj. The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and
differentiable functions of their arguments, and direct substitution shows that
a0 + c0 6¼ 0 for 8 qi ; qk 2 R þ , i.e.
k = 0 is not a Pðk; sÞ þ Qðk; sÞ  eks ¼ 0. We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ and
Qm ðk; sÞ can’t have common imaginary roots. That is, for any real number x:

pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0

pn ðk ¼ ix; sÞ ¼ x4 ; Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼
C12  C34  x2  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ
þ i  x  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ
 i  x3  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þ
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼
C12  C34  x2  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ
þ x4 þ i  x  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ
 i  x3  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þ 6¼ 0; jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x8

jQm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞj2 ¼ C212  C234 þ x2  fðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ2
 2  C12  C34  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þg
þ x4  fðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ2
 2  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ  ð½C34  C11  C33
þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þg
þ x6  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þ2

We need to find the expression for Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x8  x6  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þ2
 x4  fðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ2
 2  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þg
 x2  fðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ2
 2  C12  C34  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þg  C212  C234
64 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

We define the following parameters for simplicity:

N0 ¼ C212  C234 ; N2 ¼ fðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ2


 2  C12  C34  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þg
N4 ¼ fðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ2
 2  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þg
N6 ¼ ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þ2 ; N8 ¼ 1
X
4
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ N0 þ N2  x2 þ N4  x4 þ N6  x6 þ N8  x8 ¼ N2k  x2k
k¼0

P
4
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies N2k  x2k ¼ 0 and its roots are given by solving
k¼0
the above polynomial. Furthermore

PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x4 ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ 0
QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ C12  C34  x2  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ
QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x  fðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ
 x2  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þg

Hence

PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2

PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  x; sÞj2

 x5  fðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ


 x2  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þg
sin hðsÞ ¼
C212  C234 þ x2  fðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ2
 2  C12  C34  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33 
 2  sD Þg þ x4  fðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34
þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ2  2  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ
 ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þg þ x6  ð½C34  C11  C33
þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þ2
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 65

x4  fC12  C34  x2  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þg
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
C212  C234 þ x2  fðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ2
 2  C12  C34  ðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þg
þ x4  fðC11  C33  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33   2  sD Þ2  2  ðC11  C34
þ C12  C33  C12  C34  3  sD Þ  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þg
þ x6  ð½C34  C11  C33 þ C12   sD  C33  C11 Þ2

It is continuous and differentiable in sD based on Lemma 1.1. Hence we use


theorem 1.2. This proves the theorem 1.3. Next we analyze RFID shifted gate
system stability analysis under delayed variables in time. Our RFID shifted gate
homogeneous system for v011 v11 v012 v12 leads to a characteristic equation for the
eigenvalue k having the form PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0; Second case s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s;
D1 ¼ D2 ¼ 0.

Dðk; s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D2 ¼ 0Þ ¼ k4  k3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ þ k2  C11  C33


þ fC12  C34  eks þ k  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33 Þ  k2  ðC34 þ C12 Þg  eks

Under Taylor series approximation: eks  1  k  s þ 12  k2  s2 . The


Maclaurin series is a Taylor series expansion of a eks function about zero (0). We
get the following general characteristic equation D(k, s) under Taylor series
approximation: eks  1  k  s þ 12  k2  s2 .

Dðk; sÞ ¼ k4  k3  ½C33 þ C11  þ k2  C11  C33 þ fC12  C34


1
þ k  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s þ k2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g  eks
2

We use different parameters terminology from our last characteristics parameters


definition: k ! j; pk ðsÞ ! aj ; qk ðsÞ ! cj ; n ¼ 4; m ¼ 2; n [ m
P4
Additionally Pn ðk; sÞ ! PðkÞ; Qm ðk; sÞ ! QðkÞ then PðkÞ ¼ aj  k j ;
j¼0
P
2
QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j
j¼0

Pk ¼ k  k  ½C33 þ C11  þ k  C11  C33 ;


4 3 2

Qk ¼ C12  C34 þ k  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s


1
þ k2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 
2

n; m 2 N0 ; n [ m and aj ; cj : R þ 0 ! R are continuous and differentiable func-


tion of s such that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0. In the following “—” denotes complex and con-
jugate. PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic functions in k and differentiable in s. The coefficients
66 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

faj ðC1 ; R1 ; gate antenna parametrsÞ and cj ðC1 ; R1 ; s; gate antenna parametrs Þg 2 R
depend on RFID shifted gate system’s C1, R1,s values and antenna parameters.
a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ 0; a2 ¼ C11  C33 ; a3 ¼ ½C33 þ C11 ; a4 ¼ 1
c0 ¼ C12  C34 ; c1 ¼ C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s;
1
c2 ¼  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12
2
Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments
ðR1 ; C1 ; s; gate antenna parametrs) will subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj.
The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and differentiable functions of their argu-
ments, and direct substitution shows that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0; C12  C34 6¼ 0.
r
g3  n3  ð1 þ Rp11 Þ2
1
L11 L12
¼ rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 6¼ 0
g1  n1 L12 L12 L11
C12  ð1 þ þ2  K  Þ  ð1 þ
L11 L11 L12
rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
L11
þ2 K  Þ
L12
8 C1 ; gate antenna parameters 2 R þ

i.e. k ¼ 0 is not a root of the characteristic equation. Furthermore PðkÞ; QðkÞ are
analytic functions of k for which the following requirements of the analysis (see
Kuang 1993, Sect. 3.4) can also be verified in the present case [5, 6].
(a) If k ¼ i  x, x 2 R then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0, i.e. P and Q have no common
imaginary roots. This condition was verified numerically in the entire
ðR1 ; C1 ; antenna parametrs) domain of interest.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Rek 0. No roots bifurcation from 1.
Indeed, in the limit.

QðkÞ fC12  C34 þ k  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s þ k2  ½12  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g
j j¼j j
PðkÞ k4  k3  ½C33 þ C11  þ k2  C11  C33

(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2


Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x8 þ x6  fðC33 þ C11 Þ2  2  C11  C33 g
1
þ x4  fC211  C233  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 2 g
2
 x2  f½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s2
1
 2  C12  C34  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 g  C212  C234
2
Has at most a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a polynomial in x (Degree
in x8 ).
(d) Each positive root xðR1 ; C1 ; s; gate antenna parametrs) of FðxÞ ¼ 0 being
continuous and differentiable with respect to R1 ; C1 ; s; gate antenna parametrs.
This condition can only be assessed numerically.
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 67

In addition, since the coefficients in P and Q are real, we have


Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ, and Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ thus k ¼ i  x, x [ 0 maybe on
eigenvalue of characteristic equations. The analysis consists in identifying the roots
of the characteristic equation situated on the imaginary axis of the complex k-plane,
whereby increasing the parameters R1 ; C1 ; s; gate antenna parametrs, Rek may, at
the crossing, Change its sign from (−) to (+), i.e. from a stable focus
0 ð0Þ ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ ð0Þ
E ð0Þ ðV11 ; V11 ; V12 ; V12 Þ ¼ ð0; 0; 0; 0Þ to an unstable one, or vice versa. This
feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of the partial derivatives with
respect to C1 ; R1 ; s and gate antenna parameters.

@Rek
^1 ðC1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; R1 ; s; gate antenna parametrs ¼ const
@C1 k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðR1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; s; gate antenna parametrs ¼ const
@R1 k¼ix
@Rek @Rek
^1 ðL11 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; R1 ; s ¼ const; ^1 ðL12 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; R1 ; s ¼ const
@L11 k¼ix @L12 k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; R1 ; gate antenna parametrs ¼ const; where x 2 R þ :
@s k¼ix

In the case s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D2 ¼ 0 we get the following results:

PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  C11  C33 ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x3  ðC33 þ C11 Þ;


1
QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ C12  C34  x2  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 
2
QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s

N0 ¼ C212  C234 ; N2 ¼ ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s2


1
þ 2  C12  C34  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 
2
1
N4 ¼ C11  C33  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 2 ;
2 2
2
N6 ¼ ðC33 þ C11 Þ2  2  C11  C33 ; N8 ¼ 1

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ N0 þ N2  x2


X
4
þ N4  x4 þ N6  x6 þ N8  x8 ¼ N2k  x2k
k¼0

P
4
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies N2k  x2k ¼ 0 When writing PðkÞ ¼ PR ðkÞ þ i 
k¼0
PI ðkÞ and QðkÞ ¼ QR ðkÞ þ i  QI ðkÞ, and inserting k ¼ i  x Into RFID Gate sys-
tem’s characteristic equation, x must satisfy the following:
68 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin x  s ¼ gðxÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2
PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos x  s ¼ hðxÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

Where jQði  xÞj2 6¼ 0 in view of requirement (a) above, and ðg; hÞ 2 R.


Furthermore, it follows above sin x  s and cos x  s equations that, by squaring and
adding the sides, x must be a positive root of FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ¼ 0.
Note that FðxÞ is dependent of s. Now it is important to notice that if s 62 I (assume
that I R þ 0 is the set where xðsÞ is a positive root of FðxÞ and for s 62 I ,xðsÞ is
not defined. Then for all s in I xðsÞ is satisfied that Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0). Then there are no
positive xðsÞ solutions for Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, and we cannot have stability switches. For
any s 2 I where xðsÞ is a positive solution of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, we can define the angle
hðsÞ 2 ½0; 2  p as the solution of

PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2
PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

And the relation between the argument hðsÞ and xðsÞ  s for s 2 I must be
xðsÞ  s ¼ hðsÞ þ n  2  p 8 n 2 N0 . Hence we can define the maps sn : I ! R þ 0
given by

hðsÞ þ n  2  p
sn ðsÞ ¼ ; n 2 N0 ; s 2 I
xðsÞ

Let us introduce the functions I ! R ; Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 (187)


That is a continuous and differentiable in s. In the following, the subscripts
k; x; R1 ; C1 and RFID Gate antenna parameters ðLa1 ; La2 ; Lb1 ; Lb2 ; a1 ; a2 Þ indicate
the corresponding partial derivatives. Let us first concentrate on ^ðxÞ remembering
in kðLa1 ; La2 ; Lb1 ; Lb2 ; a1 ; a2 Þ and xðLa1 ; La2 ; Lb1 ; Lb2 ; a1 ; a2 Þ, and keeping all
parameters except one (x) and s. The derivation closely follows that in reference
[BK]. Differentiating RFID characteristic equation PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0 with
respect to specific parameter (x), and inverting the derivative, for convenience, one
calculates:
Remark

x ¼ R1 ; C1 ; La1 ; La2 ; Lb1 ; Lb2 ; a1 ; a2 ; etc:;

@k 1 Pk ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ þ Qk ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ  s  Pðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ


ð Þ ¼
@x Px ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  Qx ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 69

Where Pk ¼ @P
@k ; . . .: etc., Substituting k ¼ i  x, and bearing i
Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ, Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ then i  Pk ði  xÞ ¼ Px ði  xÞ and
i  Qk ði  xÞ ¼ Qx ði  xÞ. That on the surface jPði  xÞj2 ¼ jQði  xÞj2 , one obtains

@k 1 i  Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ þ i  Qk ði  x; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  s  jPði  x; xÞj2


ð Þ jk¼ix ¼ ð Þ
@x Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ  Qx ði  x; xÞ  Qði  x; xÞ

Upon separating into real and imaginary parts, with

P ¼ PR þ i  PI ; Q ¼ QR þ i  QI ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx
Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx
Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; P2 ¼ P2R þ P2I

When (x) can be any RFID Gate parameters R1, C1, And time delay s etc. Where
for convenience, we have dropped the arguments ði  x; xÞ, and where

Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ


Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ; xx ¼ Fx =Fx :

We define U and V:
U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ;
V ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ

We choose our specific parameter as time delay x = s.

PRx ¼ 2  x  ½2  x2  C11  C33 ; PIx ¼ 3  x2  ðC33 þ C11 Þ;


PRs ¼ 0; PIs ¼ 0; QRs ¼ x2  C12  C34  s; QIs ¼ x  C12  C34
PRs ¼ 0; PIs ¼ 0; QRs ¼ x2  C12  C34  s; QIs ¼ x  C12  C34 ;
PRx  PR ¼ 2  x3  ½2  x4  3  x2  C11  C33 þ C211  C233 
PIx  PI ¼ 3  x5  ðC33 þ C11 Þ2 ; xs ¼ Fs =Fx ;
1
QRx ¼ 2  x  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 
2
QIx ¼ C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s
1
QRx  QR ¼ 2  x  ½  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12   ½C12  C34
2
1
 x  ð  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 Þ
2
2
QIx  QI ¼ x  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s2 ;
Fs ¼ 2  ½ðPRs  PR þ PIs  PI Þ  ðQRs  QR þ QIs  QI Þ
70 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

1
Fs ¼ 2  x2  C12  C34  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  s  x2  ð  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 Þ
2
PR  PIx ¼ 3  x4  ðx2  C11  C33 Þ  ðC33 þ C11 Þ;
PI  PRx ¼ 2  x4  ðC33 þ C11 Þ  ð2  x2  C11  C33 Þ
1
QR  QIx ¼ ½C12  C34  x2  ð  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 Þ
2
 ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s
QI  QRx ¼ 2  x2  ðC11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  sÞ
1
 ð  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 Þ
2
V ¼ ðPR  PIs  PI  PRs Þ  ðQR  QIs  QI  QRs Þ;
PR  PIs ¼ 0; PI  PRs ¼ 0
1
QR  QIs ¼ x  C12  C34  ½C12  C34  x2  ð  C12  C34  s2  C34  C12 Þ;
2
QI  QRs ¼ x3  C12  C34  s  ½C11  C34 þ C12  C33  C12  C34  s
Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0:

Differentiating with respect to s and we get

@x @x Fs @Rek
Fx  þ Fs ¼ 0; s 2 I ) ¼  ; ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ
@s @s Fx @s k¼ix
2  ½U þ s  jPj2  þ i  Fx @x Fs
^1 ðsÞ ¼ Ref g; ¼ xs ¼ 
Fs þ i  2  ½V þ x  jPj  @s
2 Fx
@Rek
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfð Þ g;
@s k¼ix
@x U  @x
@s þ V
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx g  signfs  þxþ g
@s jPj2

We shall presently examine the possibility of stability transitions (bifurcations)


in a shifted gate, double loop RFID system, about the equilibrium point
0 ð0Þ ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ ð0Þ
E ð0Þ ðV11 ; V11 ; V12 ; V12 Þ as a result of a variation of delay parameter s. The
analysis consists in identifying the roots of our system characteristic equation sit-
uated on the imaginary axis of the complex k-plane, Whereby increasing the delay
parameter s, Re k may at the crossing, changes its sign from − to +, i.e. from a
stable focus E(*) to an unstable one, or vice versa. This feature may be further
assessed by examining the sign of the partial derivatives with respect to s,
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð@ Re k
@s Þk¼ix

@Rek
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; R1 ; gate antenna parametrs ¼ const where x 2 R þ :
@s k¼ix
1.4 Semi-Passive RFID Tags with Double Loop Antennas Arranged … 71

For our stability switching analysis, we choose typical RFID shifted gate parameters
values: L11 = 4.5 mH, L12 = 2.5 mH, C1 = 23 pF, R1 = 100 kX = 105, rp1 = 100 X,
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
K = 0.6, 2Lm = 0.004 (2  Lm ¼ 2  K  L11  L12 ). g1 ¼ 56:22  1012

g2 ¼ 2:49  105 ; g3 ¼ 222:42; n1 ¼ 101:2  1012 ; n2 ¼ 4:492  105


g g
n3 ¼ 400:4; C11 ¼  2 ¼  4:42  105 ; C12 ¼  3 ¼ 3:95  1012 ;
g1 g1
n2 n 3
C33 ¼  ¼  4:43  105 ; C34 ¼  ¼  3:95  1012 :
n1 n1
C21 ¼ C43 ¼ 1; C13 ¼ C14 ¼ C22 ¼ C23 ¼ C24 ¼ 0;
C31 ¼ C32 ¼ C41 ¼ C42 ¼ C44 ¼ 0

Then we get the expression Fðx; sÞ for a typical RFID shifted gate parameters
values.

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x8 þ x6  39:16  1010


þ x4  f383:17  1020  ½7:8  1024  s2 þ 7:9  1012 2 g
 x2  f½34:94  1017  15:6  1024  s2
 31:2  1024  ½7:8  1024  s2 þ 7:9  1012 g  243:39  1048

We find those x; s values which fulfill Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We ignore negative,


complex, and imaginary values of x for specific s values. s 2 ½0:001::10
And we can be express by 3D function Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. Since it is a very complex
function, we recommend to solve it numerically rather than analytic.
We plot the stability switch diagram based on different delay values of our RFID
double gate system. Since it is a very complex function, we recommend to solve it
numerically rather than analytic.

@Rek 2  ½U þ s  jPj2  þ i  Fx
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼ Ref g;
@s Fs þ i  2  ½V þ x  jPj2 
@Rek 2  fFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼
@s Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2

The stability switch occurs only on those delay values (s) which fit the equation:
s ¼ xh þþ ðsÞ
ðsÞ and h þ ðsÞ is the solution of sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .; cos hðsÞ ¼ . . . when x ¼
x þ ðsÞ if only x þ is feasible. Additionally, when all RFID double gate system’s
parameters are known and the stability switch due to various time delay values s is
described in the following expression:
72 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx ðxðsÞ; sÞg  signfs  xs ðxðsÞÞ


UðxðsÞÞ  xs ðxðsÞÞ þ VðxðsÞÞ
þ xðsÞ þ g
jPðxðsÞÞj2

Remark: we know Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies its roots xi ðsÞ and finding those delays
values s which xi is feasible. There are s values which are xi complex or imaginary
numbered, then unable to analyze stability [5, 6].
Semi-passive RFID Tags with the double loop antennas environment is char-
acterized by electromagnetic interferences which can influence the shifted gate
system stability in time. There are four main RFID double loop antenna variables
which are affected by electromagnetic interferences, first and second loop antenna
voltages and voltages derivatives respectively. Each loop antennas voltage variable
under electromagnetic interferences are characterized by time delay respectively.
The two time delays are not the same, but can be categorized to some sub cases due
to interferences behavior. The first case we analyze is when there is a delay in RFID
first gate’s primary loop antenna voltage and no delay in secondary loop antenna
voltage. The second case we analyze is when there is a delay in RFID gate’s
primary and secondary loop antenna voltages (s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s) and no delay in the
gate’s primary and secondary loop antennas voltages derivatives [5, 6]. The third
case we analyze is when there is a delay in RFID gate’s primary and secondary loop
antenna voltages (s1 ¼ s2 ¼ D1 ¼ D2 ¼ sD ) and delay in the gate’s primary and
secondary loop antennas voltages derivatives [4, 5]. For simplicity of our analysis
we consider in the third case all delays are the same (there is a difference but it is
neglected in our analysis). In each case we derive the related characteristic equation.
The characteristic equation is dependent on double loop antennas overall parame-
ters and interferences time delay. Upon mathematics manipulation and [BK] the-
orems and definitions we derive the expression which gives us a clear picture on
double loop antennas stability map. The stability map gives all possible options for
stability segments, each segment belongs to different time delay value segment.
Double loop antennas arranged as a shifted gate’s stability analysis can be influ-
enced either by system overall parameter values [5, 6].

1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis Under


Delayed Schottky Diode’s Internal Elements in Time

The RFID market is growing and several cost, size and DC power constraints in the
TAG itself have forced designers to abandon super heterodyne receivers for older
and simpler crystal video receiver. Consisting of a simple detector circuit and a
printed antenna, this receiver can face a stability issues due to delay elements in
time. The Schottky diode detector demodulates the signal and sends the data on to
the digital circuit of the TAG; this is the so-called “wake up” signal. A simple
RFID TAG receiver block diagram includes input antenna signal with series
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 73

resistance, inductor (choke), Schottky diode, and output capacitor. At a small signal
(RF Input) levels, the Schottky diode can be represented by a linear equivalent
circuit. Due to Schottky parasitic delayed in time, there is a stability issue by
analyzing the detector operation. We include two parasitic delay elements in the
Schottky equivalent circuit. We define s1, s2 as delays in time, respectively, for the
Schottky equivalent circuit. We consider first those two delays in time are not equal
s1 6¼ s2 then another three cases s1 = s & s2 = 0, s2 = s & s1 = 0, s1 = s2 = s. The
RFID receiver detector delayed in time equivalent circuit can represent as a delayed
differential equations which depending on variable parameters and delays. The
investigation of our RFID receiver detector system, differential equation based on
bifurcation theory [1], the study of possible changes in the structure of the orbits of
a delayed differential equation depending on variable parameters. We first illustrate
certain observations and analyze local bifurcations of an appropriate arbitrary scalar
delayed differential equation [2]. RFID receiver detector stability analysis is done
under different time delays respect to currents and currents derivative. All of that for
optimization of RFID receiver detector equivalent circuit parameter analysis to get
the best performance. RFID system, the reader or interrogator sends a modulated
RF signal which is received by the TAG. The Schottky diode detector demodulates
the signal and sends the data on to the digital circuits of the TAG. The reader stops
sending modulated data and illuminates the TAG with continuous wave (CW) or
un-modulated signal. The TAG’s FSK encoder and switch driver switch the load
placed on the TAG’s antenna from one state to another, causing the radar cross
section of the TAG to be changed. The weak signal reflected from the TAG is
modulated; this signal is then detected by the reader’s receiver. In this way the
reader and TAG can communicate using RF generated only in the reader. The key
performance parameter for RFID TAG detector diode is operating in the square law
region in voltage sensitivity. For incoming RF small signal from the RFID reader to
the TAG, we can use Schottky diode which represented by a linear equivalent
circuit. Rj is the junction resistance (Rv or video resistance) of the diode, where RF
power is converted into video voltage output. For maximum output, all the
incoming RF voltages should ideally appear across Rj. Cj is the junction capaci-
tance of the diode chip itself. It is a parasitic element which shorts out the junction
resistance, shunting the RF energy to the series resistance Rs. Rs is a parasitic
resistance representing losses in the diode’s bond wire, the bulk silicon at the base
of the chip and other loss mechanisms. The RF voltage appearing across Rs results
in power lost as heat. Lp and Cp are package parasitic inductance and capacitance,
respectively. Unlike the two chips parasitic, they can easily be tuned out with an
external impedance matching network. The package parasitic inductance Lp has a
parasitic delay element in time (s1). The resistance losses in the diode’s bond wire
have a parasitic delay element in time (s2). V(t) represents the RFID tag antenna
voltage in time, the incoming RF small signal from the RFID reader. We consider
ideal delay lines (TAU1, TAU2), Vs1 ! e1 Vs1 ! e2 ; e1 ; e2  e [ 0 [85]
(Fig. 1.22).
74 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Fig. 1.22 RFID TAG receiver detector equivalent circuit

VðtÞ  VA dIL
¼ IRin ; IRin ¼ IL1 þ ILP ; Vs1 ! e1 ; Vs1 ! e2 ; e1 ; e2  e [ 0; VA  VB ¼ LP  P
Rin dt
VB  VC dIL1 dðVB  VD Þ VC  VD
ILP ¼ ICP þ IRS ; IRS ¼ ; VA ¼ L1  ; ICP ¼ CP  ; IRj ¼
RS dt dt Rj
dðVC  VD Þ dVD
ICj ¼ Cj  ; IRS ¼ IRj þ ICj ; IC1 ¼ C1  ; IC1 ¼ ICP þ IRj þ ICj
dt dt
dVD IC1 dðVC  VD Þ dVC dVD dVC dVD
¼ ) ICj ¼ Cj  ¼ Cj  ½   ) ICj ¼ Cj  ½  
dt C1 dt dt dt dt dt
dðVB  VD Þ dVB dVD dVB IC1 VðtÞ  VA
ICP ¼ CP  ¼ CP  ½   ¼ CP  ½  ; ¼ IRin ¼ IL1 þ ILP
dt dt dt dt C1 Rin

VðtÞ L1 dIL1 VðtÞ  VA


  ¼ IL1 þ ILP ; IRin ¼ IL1 þ ILP ) IL1 ¼ IRin  ILP ¼  ILP
Rin Rin dt Rin
VðtÞ L1 d VðtÞ  VA dVB ILP
  ½  ILP  ¼ IL1 þ ILP ¼ IRin ; ICP ¼ CP  ½  
Rin Rin dt Rin dt C1
VC  VD dðVC  VD Þ dðIRj  Rj Þ dIR
I Rj ¼ ) IRj  Rj ¼ VC  VD ; ICj ¼ Cj  ¼ Cj  ¼ Cj  Rj  j
Rj dt dt dt
ILP ¼ ICP þ IRS ) ICP ¼ ILP  IRS ; IC1 ¼ ICP þ IRj þ ICj ¼ ILP  IRS þ IRj þ ICj
IRS ¼ IRj þ ICj ) IC1 ¼ ILP  IRS þ IRj þ ICj ¼ ILP  ðIRj þ ICj Þ þ IRj þ ICj ¼ ILP
VðtÞ  VA VðtÞ 1 dIL 1 dIL
IRin ¼ ¼   L1  1 ¼  ½VðtÞ  L1  1 ; IL1 ¼ IRin  ILP ; ICP ¼ ILP  IRS
Rin Rin Rin dt Rin dt

dVC IC1 d dIR


IC1 ¼ ILP ; IRS ¼ IRj þ ICj ; ICj ¼ Cj  ½   ¼ Cj  ½IRj  Rj  ¼ Cj  Rj  j
dt C1 dt dt
dVB IC1 dILP dIL1 dILP dIL dIL
ICP ¼ CP  ½  ; VA  VB ¼ LP  ) L1   VB ¼ LP  ) VB ¼ L 1  1  L P  P
dt C1 dt dt dt dt dt
dVB d 2 IL1 d 2 ILP dVB IC1 d 2 IL1 d 2 ILP IC1
¼ L1  2  LP  2 ; ICP ¼ CP  ½   ¼ CP  ½L1  2  LP  2  
dt dt dt dt C1 dt dt C1
VðtÞ  VA VðtÞ L1 dIL1
IL1 ¼ IRin  ILP ¼  ILP ¼    ILP ; ICP ¼ ILP  IRS ; IC1 ¼ ILP
Rin Rin Rin dt
VðtÞ L1 dIL1 dIL 1 dVðtÞ L1 d 2 IL1 dILP
IL1 ¼    ILP ) 1 ¼    
Rin Rin dt dt Rin dt Rin dt2 dt
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 75

L1 d 2 IL1 1 dVðtÞ dILP dIL1 d 2 IL 1 dVðtÞ Rin dILP Rin dIL1


 2 ¼    ) 21 ¼     
Rin dt Rin dt dt dt dt L1 dt L1 dt L1 dt
VB  VC
IRS ¼ IRj þ ICj ) ¼ I R j þ I Cj ;
RS
dIR dIR
ICj ¼ IRS  IRj ; ICj ¼ Cj  Rj  j ) IRS  IRj ¼ Cj  Rj  j
dt dt
dVðtÞ dILP dIL1 d 2 I L P I C1
I CP ¼ C P  ½  Rin   Rin   LP  2  
dt dt dt dt C1
2
dVðtÞ dIL dIL d IL IC
ILP  IRS ¼ CP  ½  Rin  P  Rin  1  LP  2 P  1 
dt dt dt dt C1
dVðtÞ dILP dIL1 d 2 IL IL
IC1 ¼ ILP ) ILP  IRS ¼ CP  ½  Rin   Rin   LP  2 P  P 
dt dt dt dt C1
VB  VC
IR S ¼ ) VB  VC ¼ IRS  RS ;
RS
Z
dðVB  VD Þ IC d 1
I CP ¼ C P  ) P ¼ ðVB  VD Þ ) VB  VD ¼  ICP  dt
dt CP dt CP
Z
dðVC  VD Þ ICj dðVC  VD Þ 1
ICj ¼ Cj  ) ¼ ) VC  VD ¼  ICj  dt
dt Cj dt Cj
Z Z
1 1
ð ÞVB  VD ¼  ICP  dt; ð ÞVC  VD ¼  ICj  dt
CP Cj
Z Z
1 1
ð Þ  ð Þ ! VB  VC ¼  ICP  dt   ICj  dt ) IRS  RS
CP Cj
Z Z
1 1
¼  ICP  dt   ICj  dt
CP Cj
Z Z
1 1 dIR 1 1
IRS  RS ¼  ICP  dt   ICj  dt ) RS  S ¼  I CP   I Cj
CP Cj dt CP Cj
dIR 1 1 dIR 1 1
RS  S ¼  ICP   ICj ) RS  S ¼  ðILP  IRS Þ   ðIRS  IRj Þ
dt CP Cj dt CP Cj
dIRS 1 1 1 1 1 1
RS  ¼  ðILP  IRS Þ   ðIRS  IRj Þ ¼  ILP þ  IRj  IRS  ð þ Þ
dt CP Cj CP Cj CP Cj
dIRS 1 1 1 1 dIRS
RS  ¼  IL þ  IRj  IRS  ð þ Þ )
dt CP P Cj CP Cj dt
1 1 1 1
¼  IL þ  IRj  IRS  ð þ Þ
RS  CP P RS  Cj RS  CP RS  Cj
76 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

dIRS
We define Y ¼ ILP ) dt ¼ RS1CP  Y þ 1
RS Cj  IRj  IRS  ðRS1CP þ RS Cj Þ
1

dIRS 1 1 1 1
Y ¼ I LP ) ¼ Yþ  IRj  IRS  ð þ Þ
dt RS  CP RS  Cj RS  CP RS  Cj
VðtÞ L1 dIL1 VðtÞ
  ¼ I L1 þ I LP )  I L1  I LP
Rin Rin dt Rin
L1 dIL1 VðtÞ Rin Rin dIL
¼  )   I L1   I LP ¼ 1
Rin dt L1 L1 L1 dt

dVðtÞ dIL dIL d 2 IL IL


ILP  IRS ¼ CP  ½  Rin  P  Rin  1  LP  2 P  P 
dt dt dt dt C1
dVðtÞ dILP VðtÞ Rin Rin d 2 IL IL
ILP  IRS ¼ CP  ½  Rin   Rin  ð   IL1   ILP Þ  LP  2 P  P 
dt dt L1 L1 L1 dt C1

dVðtÞ dIL Rin  VðtÞ R2in R2 d 2 IL


ILP  IRS ¼ CP  ½  Rin  P  þ  IL1 þ in  ILP  LP  2 P
dt dt L1 L1 L1 dt
ILP
 
C1

dVðtÞ dIL CP  Rin  VðtÞ


 ILP þ IRS þ CP   CP  Rin  P 
dt dt L1
R2
R 2 2
d IL CP  ILP
þ CP  in  IL1 þ CP  in  ILP  CP  LP  2 P  ¼0
L1 L1 dt C1

d 2 ILP dIL R2 CP
 CP  LP  2
 CP  Rin  P þ ILP  ½CP  in   1
dt dt L1 C1
R2 CP  Rin  VðtÞ dVðtÞ
þ IRS þ CP  in  IL1  þ CP  ¼0
L1 L1 dt

dILP d 2 ILP dILP


We define: Y ¼ ILP ; X ¼ dt ; dX
dt ¼ dt2 ; dY
dt ¼ dt ¼X then we get the
expression:

dX R2 CP
 CP  LP   CP  Rin  X þ Y  ½CP  in   1
dt L1 C1
R2 CP  Rin  VðtÞ dVðtÞ
þ IRS þ CP  in  IL1  þ CP  ¼0
L1 L1 dt

dX R2 CP
CP  LP  ¼ CP  Rin  X þ Y  ½CP  in   1
dt L1 C1
R2 CP  Rin  VðtÞ dVðtÞ
þ IRS þ CP  in  IL1  þ CP  ¼0
L1 L1 dt
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 77

dX Rin R2 1 1
¼  X þ Y  ½ in   
dt LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
1 R2in Rin  VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ
þ IR S  þ  IL  þ 
CP  LP L1  LP 1 L1  LP LP dt

dY dIL VðtÞ Rin Rin dIR 1 1


¼ X; 1 ¼   I L1   Y; j ¼  IR S   IRj
dt dt L1 L1 L1 dt Cj  Rj Cj  Rj
dIRS 1 1 1 1 1
¼ Yþ  IRj  IRS   ð þ Þ
dt RS  CP RS  Cj RS CP Cj

We have five variables in our system: X; Y; IL1 ; IRj ; IRS and we can represent our
system as the following set of differential equations matrix representation.
0 1
dX
0 1
B dt C Rin 0 1
B C 0 1 1
B dY C X B L1  LP C
B C B C B C
B dt C 0 1 B YC B C B LP C
B C N . . . N1n B C B 0 C B 0C
B dIL1 C B .11 .. .. C B C B C B C
B C¼@ . B C B 1 C  VðtÞ þ B C  dVðtÞ
B dt C . . . A B IL1 C þ B C B 0 C dt
B C B C B C B C
B dIR C Nm1    Nmn n¼m¼5 @ IRj A B L1 C B 0C
B j C B C @ A
B C IRS @ 0 A
B dt C 0
@ dI A 0
RS
dt

Rin R2in 1 1 1 R2in 1 1 R2in


N11 ¼  ; N12 ¼   ¼ ð   Þ; N13 ¼ ; N14 ¼ 0
LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP LP L1 C1 CP L1  LP
1 Rin Rin
N15 ¼ ; N21 ¼ 1; N22 ¼ N23 ¼ N24 ¼ N25 ¼ 0; N31 ¼ 0; N32 ¼  ; N33 ¼ 
CP  LP L1 L1
1 1 1
N34 ¼ N35 ¼ 0; N41 ¼ N42 ¼ N43 ¼ 0; N44 ¼  ; N45 ¼ ; N51 ¼ 0; N52 ¼
Cj  Rj Cj  Rj RS  CP
1 1 1 1
N53 ¼ 0; N54 ¼ ; N55 ¼   ð þ Þ:
RS  Cj RS CP Cj

We consider RF in signal VðtÞ ¼ A0 þ f ðtÞ; jf ðtÞj\1 & A0  jf ðtÞj then


df ðtÞ
VðtÞjA0 jf ðtÞj VðtÞjA0 jf ðtÞj ¼ A0 þ f ðtÞ  A0 ; dVðtÞ
dt jA0 jf ðtÞj ¼ dt ! e. We can our
matrix representation: e ! 0. Due to parasitic delay elements in Schottky
78 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

equivalent circuit, s1 for the current flow through Schottky diode’s package para-
sitic inductance (LP) and s2 for the current flow through Schottky diode’s parasitic
resistance (RS).

YðtÞ ¼ ILP ðtÞ ! Yðt  s1 Þ ¼ ILP ðt  s1 Þ; IRS ðtÞ ! IRS ðt  s2 Þ:

dI ðtÞ dI dI
And XðtÞ ¼ LdtP ; IL1 ðtÞ; IRj ðtÞ. We consider no delay effects on dY
dt ¼ dt ; dt .
LP RS

To find equilibrium points (fixed points) of the RFID tag detector, we define

lim Yðt  s1 Þ ¼ YðtÞ; lim ILP ðt  s1 Þ ¼ ILP ðtÞ; lim IRS ðt  s2 Þ ¼ IRS ðtÞ
t!1 t!1 t!1
0 1
dX 1 0 R 1
0
B dY C 0
dt 1 X  L Lin
B dt C N . . . N1n BY C B0 1 PC
B dIL1 C B .11 .. .. C B C B C
B dt C ¼ @ . B C B1 C  A0 þ e
B dIR C . . . A B IL1 C þ B L1 C
B jC @ IR A @ 0 A
@ dt A Nm1    Nmn n¼m¼5 j
dIRS IRS 0
dt

In equilibrium points (fixed points)

dY dILP dIR
¼ ¼ 0; S ¼ 0 8 t  s1 ; t  s2
dt dt dt
9 ðt  s1 Þ  t; ðt  s2 Þ  t; t ! 1

We get five equations:

Rin R2 1 1 1
  X þ Y  ½ in    þ IR S 
LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP CP  LP
R2in Rin  VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ
þ  I  þ  ¼0
L 1  L P L1 L1  LP LP dt

VðtÞ Rin Rin 1 1


X ¼ 0;  I   Y ¼ 0;  I   I ¼ 0
L1 L1 L1 L1 C j  Rj R S C j  Rj R j
1 1 1 1 1
 Y þ  IR j  IR S   ð þ Þ ¼ 0
RS  CP RS  Cj RS C P C j

Since X ¼ 0 then
R2in 1 1 1
Y  ½    þ IR S 
L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP CP  LP
R2in Rin  VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ
þ  IL 1  þ  ¼ 0:
L1  LP L1  LP LP dt
VðtÞ Rin Rin VðtÞ
 I   Y ¼ 0 ) Y ¼  IL 1 :
L1 L1 L1 L1 Rin
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 79

Then

1 VðtÞ 1 1 1 1
ð  IL 1 Þ þ  I  IR S   ð þ Þ ¼ 0
RS  CP Rin RS  Cj Rj RS CP Cj
VðtÞ R2 1 1 1
ð  IL 1 Þ  ½ in    þ IR S 
Rin L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP CP  LP
R2in Rin  VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ
þ  I  þ  ¼0
L1  LP L1 L1  LP LP dt

We get three equations: 1


Cj Rj  IR S  Cj1Rj  IR j ¼ 0

1 1
 I   I ¼ 0
Cj  Rj RS Cj  Rj Rj
1 VðtÞ 1 1 1 1
ð  IL 1 Þ þ  I  IR S   ð þ Þ ¼ 0
RS  CP Rin RS  Cj Rj RS CP Cj
VðtÞ R2 1 1 1
ð  IL 1 Þ  ½ in    þ IR S 
Rin L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP CP  LP
R2in Rin  VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ
þ  I  þ  ¼0
L1  LP L1 L1  LP LP dt
1 1
 IR S   I ¼ 0 ) IR j ¼ IR S
Cj  Rj Cj  Rj Rj

We get two equations:

1 VðtÞ 1 1 1 1
ð  IL 1 Þ þ  IR S  IR S   ð þ Þ ¼ 0
RS  CP Rin RS  Cj RS CP Cj
VðtÞ R2 1 1 1
ð  IL 1 Þ  ½ in    þ IR S 
Rin L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP CP  LP
R2in R  VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ
 I 
in
þ þ  ¼0
L1  LP L1 L1  LP LP dt

By mathematic manipulation, we get the following two equations:

VðtÞ VðtÞ
 IL 1  IR S ¼ 0 ) IR S ¼  IL 1
Rin Rin
1 1 1
IL 1  ð þ Þ þ IR S 
C1 CP CP
1 R2 1 1 Rin dVðtÞ
þ VðtÞ  f  ½ in     gþ ¼0
Rin L1 C1 CP L1 dt
80 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

We define for simplicity:

1 R2in 1 1 Rin
X¼ ½   
Rin L1 C1 CP L1

VðtÞ 1 1 1 dVðtÞ
IR S ¼  IL 1 ; IL 1  ð þ Þ þ IR S  þ VðtÞ  X þ ¼0
Rin C1 CP CP dt

1 1 VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ
IL 1  ð þ Þþð  IL 1 Þ  þ VðtÞ  X þ ¼0
C1 CP Rin CP dt
1 1 dVðtÞ
) IL 1  þ VðtÞ  ½ þ X þ ¼0
C1 Rin  CP dt
1 1 dVðtÞ
IL 1  þ VðtÞ  ½ þ X þ ¼0
C1 Rin  CP dt
1 dVðtÞ
) IL 1 ¼ C1  fVðtÞ  ½ þ X þ g
Rin  CP dt

VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ
IR S ¼ þ C1  fVðtÞ  ½ þ X þ g
Rin Rin  CP dt
1 1 dVðtÞ
¼ VðtÞ  f þ C1  ½ þ Xg þ C1 
Rin Rin  CP dt

We define:

1 1 dVðtÞ
X1 ¼ þ C1  ½ þ X; IR S ¼ VðtÞ  X1 þ C1 
Rin Rin  CP dt
dVðtÞ
IR j ¼ IR S ) IR j ¼ VðtÞ  X1 þ C1  ; X ¼ 0
dt
VðtÞ 1 1 dVðtÞ
Y ¼  IL 1 ¼ VðtÞ  f þ C1  ½ þ Xg þ C1 
Rin Rin Rin  CP dt

We can summery our system fixed points in the next table:

Fixed point coordinates Fixed points expression VðtÞjA0 jf ðtÞj ¼ A0 þ f ðtÞ  A0
E ðX ; Y ; VðtÞ ¼ A0 þ f ðtÞ dVðtÞ
¼ dfdtðtÞ ! e
dt jA0 jf ðtÞj
IL 1 ; IR j ; IR S Þ jf ðtÞj\1 & A0  jf ðtÞj

X 0 0
Y VðtÞ  fR1in þ C1  ½Rin1CP þ Xg þ C1  dVðtÞ A0  fR1in þ C1  ½Rin1CP þ Xg
dt
IL 1 C1  fVðtÞ  ½Rin1CP þ X þ dVðtÞ C1  A0  ½Rin1CP þ X
dt g
IR j VðtÞ  X1 þ C1  dVðtÞ A 0  X1
dt
IR S VðtÞ  fR1in þ C1  ½Rin1CP þ Xg þ C1  dVðtÞ A0  fR1in þ C1  ½Rin1CP þ Xg
dt
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 81

Stability analysis: The standard local stability analysis about any one of the
equilibrium points of the RFID tag detector system consists in adding to coordinate
½X; Y; IL1 ; IRj ; IRs  arbitrarily small increments of exponential form ½x; y; iL1 ; iRj ; iRs  
ekt and retaining the first order terms in X; Y; IL1 ; IRj ; IRs . The system of five ho-
mogeneous equations leads to a polynomial characteristic equation in the eigen-
values. The polynomial characteristic equations accept by set the below currents
and currents derivative with respect to time into RFID tag detector system equa-
tions. RFID tag detector system fixed values with arbitrarily small increments of
exponential form ½x; y; iL1 ; iRj ; iRs   ekt are: j = 0 (first fixed point), j = 1 (second
fixed point), j = 2 (third fixed point), etc.

XðtÞ ¼ X ðjÞ þ x  ekt ; YðtÞ ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt ;


ðjÞ
Yðt  s1 Þ ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y  ekðts1 Þ ; IL1 ðtÞ ¼ IL1 þ iL1  ekt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
IRj ðtÞ ¼ IRj þ iRj  ekt ; IRS ðtÞ ¼ IRS þ iRS  ekt ;
ðjÞ
IRS ðt  s2 Þ ¼ IRS þ iRS  ekðts2 Þ :

We choose these expressions for ourselves XðtÞ; YðtÞ; IL1 ðtÞ and IRj ðtÞ; IRS ðtÞ as a
small displacement ½x; y; iL1 ; iRj ; iRs  from the RFID tag detector system fixed points
in time t = 0.
Xðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ X ðjÞ þ x; Yðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y;
ðjÞ ðjÞ
IL1 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ IL1 þ iL1 ; IRj ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ IRj þ iRj
ðjÞ
IRS ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ IRS þ iRS

For k\0; t [ 0, the selected fixed point is stable otherwise k [ 0; t [ 0 is


unstable. Our system tends to the selected fixed point exponentially for k\0; t [ 0
otherwise go away from the selected fixed point exponentially. k Is the eigenvalue
parameter which is established if the fixed point is stable or unstable; additionally,
his absolute value (jkj) establishes the speed of flow toward or away from the
selected fixed point (Yuri 1995; Jack and Huseyin 1991). The speeds of flow toward
or away from the selected fixed point for Schottky detector system currents and
currents derivatives with respect to time are

dXðtÞ Xðt þ DtÞ  XðtÞ X ðjÞ þ x  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½X ðjÞ þ x  ekt  ekDt 1 þ kDt
¼ lim ¼ lim ¼ ! k  x  ekt
dt Dt!1 Dt Dt!1 Dt
dYðtÞ Yðt þ DtÞ  YðtÞ Y ðjÞ þ y  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt  ekDt 1 þ kDt
¼ lim ¼ lim ¼ ! k  y  ekt
dt Dt!1 Dt Dt!1 Dt
dIL1 ðtÞ dIRj ðtÞ dIRS ðtÞ dYðt  s1 Þ
¼ k  iL1  ekt ; ¼ k  iRj  ekt ; ¼ k  iRS  ekt ; ¼ k  y  ekt  eks1
dt dt dt dt
dIRS ðt  s2 Þ
¼ k  iRS  ekt  eks2
dt
82 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

First, we take Schottky detector variable X; Y; IL1 ; IRj ; IRs differential equations
and adding to coordinate ½X; Y; IL1 ; IRj ; IRs  arbitrarily small increments of expo-
nential terms ½x; y; iL1 ; iRj ; iRs   ekt and retaining the first order terms in
x; y; iL1 ; iRj ; iRs (VðtÞ ! e; dVðtÞ
dt ! e) then

E ðX ; Y ; IL 1 ; IR j ; IR S Þ ¼ ð0; 0; 0; 0; 0Þ;
ðj¼0Þ ðj¼0Þ ðj¼0Þ
X ðj¼0Þ ¼ 0; Y ðj¼0Þ ¼ 0; IL1 ¼ 0; IRj ¼ 0; IRS ¼ 0:

We can see that our fixed point is a saddle node. We define Yðt  s1 Þ ¼
ðjÞ
Y þ y  ekðts1 Þ and IRS ðt  s2 Þ ¼ IRS þ iRS  ekðts2 Þ . Then we get five delayed
ðjÞ

differential equations with respect to coordinates ½X; Y; IL1 ; IRj ; IRs  arbitrarily small
increments of exponential ½x; y; iL1 ; iRj ; iRs   ekt . We consider no delay effects on
dYðtÞ dIRS ðtÞ
dt and dt . We get the following equations:

k\0 k[0
ðjÞ
t=0 Xðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ X þx Xðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ X ðjÞ þ x
ðjÞ
Yðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ Y þy Yðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y
ðjÞ ðjÞ
IL1 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ IL1 þ iL1 IL1 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ IL1 þ iL1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
IRj ðtÞ ¼ IRj þ iRj IRj ðtÞ ¼ IRj þ iRj
ðjÞ ðjÞ
IRS ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ IRS þ iRS IRS ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ IRS þ iRS
t>0 XðtÞ ¼ X ðjÞ þ x  ejkjt XðtÞ ¼ X ðjÞ þ x  ejkjt
ðjÞ jkjt
YðtÞ ¼ Y þy  e YðtÞ ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y  ejkjt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
IL1 ðtÞ ¼ IL1 þ iL1  ejkjt IL1 ðtÞ ¼ IL1 þ iL1  ejkjt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
IRj ðtÞ ¼ IRj þ iRj  ejkjt IRj ðtÞ ¼ IRj þ iRj  ejkjt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
IRS ðtÞ ¼ IRS þ iRS  ejkjt IRS ðtÞ ¼ IRS þ iRS  ejkjt
t > 0; t ! ∞ Xðt ! 1Þ ¼ X ðjÞ Xðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ ¼ x  ejkjt
ðjÞ
Yðt ! 1Þ ¼ Y Yðt ! 1; kÞ ¼ y  ejkjt
ðjÞ
IL1 ðt ! 1Þ ¼ IL1 IL1 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ ¼ iL1  ejkjt
ðjÞ
IRj ðt ! 1Þ ¼ IRj IRj ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ ¼ iRj  ejkjt
ðjÞ
IRS ðt ! 1Þ ¼ IRS IRS ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ ¼ iRS  ejkjt

Rin R2 1 1
k  x  ekt ¼   ½X ðjÞ þ x  ekt  þ ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekðts1 Þ   ½ in   
LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
ðjÞ 1 R2in ðjÞ
þ ½IRS þ iRS  ekðts2 Þ   þ  ½I þ iL1  ekt 
CP  LP L1  LP L1
Rin  VðtÞ 1 dVðtÞ dVðtÞ
 þ  ; VðtÞ; !e
L1  LP LP dt dt
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 83

Rin ðjÞ Rin R2 1 1


k  x  ekt ¼  X   x  ekt þ Y ðjÞ  ½ in   
LP LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
R2 1 1 ðjÞ 1
þ y  ½ in     ekðts1 Þ IRS 
L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP CP  LP
1 R2in ðjÞ R2in
þ iRS   ekðts2 Þ þ  I L1 þ  iL  ekt
CP  LP L1  LP L1  LP 1

Rin ðjÞ R2 1 1
k  x  ekt ¼   X þ Y ðjÞ  ½ in   
LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
ðjÞ 1 R2in ðjÞ Rin
þ IRS  þ I   x  ekt
CP  LP L1  LP L1 LP
R2 1 1
þ y  ½ in     ekðts1 Þ
L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
1 R2in
þ iRS   ekðts2 Þ þ  iL  ekt
CP  LP L1  LP 1

At fixed point:
Rin ðjÞ R2 1 1 ðjÞ 1 R2in ðjÞ
  X þ Y ðjÞ  ½ in    þ IRS  þ I ¼0
LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP CP  LP L1  LP L1

Then

Rin R2 1 1
 x  ekt  ½k þ  þ y  ½ in     ekðts1 Þ
LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
1 R2in
þ iRS   ekðts2 Þ þ  iL  ekt ¼ 0
CP  LP L1  LP 1
dY
¼ X ) k  y  ekt ¼ X ðjÞ þ x  ekt :
dt

At fixed point X ðjÞ ¼ 0 ) x þ k  y ¼ 0


VðtÞ Rin ðjÞ Rin
k  iL1  ekt ¼   ½I þ iL1  ekt    ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekðts1 Þ ; VðtÞ ! e
L1 L1 L1 L1
Rin ðjÞ Rin ðjÞ Rin kt Rin kðts1 Þ
k  iL1  ekt ¼  I   Y  i L1  e y e :
L1 L1 L1 L1 L1
ðjÞ
At fixed point  RLin1  IL1  RLin1  Y ðjÞ ¼ 0 then
84 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Rin kt Rin kðts1 Þ


 k  iL1  ekt  iL1  e y e ¼0
L1 L1
1 ðjÞ 1 ðjÞ
k  iRj  ekt ¼  ½IRS þ iRS  ekðts2 Þ    ½I þ iRj  ekt 
Cj  Rj Cj  Rj Rj
1 1
 k  iRj  ekt  iRj   ekt þ iRS   ekðts2 Þ
Cj  Rj Cj  Rj
1 ðjÞ 1 ðjÞ
þ I  I ¼0
Cj  Rj RS Cj  Rj Rj

ðjÞ ðjÞ
At fixed point 1
Cj Rj  IRS  Cj1Rj  IRj ¼ 0 then iRj  ekt  ½k þ Cj Rj  þ
1

iRS  Cj1Rj  ekðts2 Þ ¼ 0

1 1 ðjÞ
k  iRS  ekt ¼  ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekðts1 Þ  þ  ½I þ iRj  ekt 
RS  CP RS  Cj Rj
ðjÞ 1 1 1
 ½IRS þ iRS  ekðts2 Þ    ð þ Þ
RS CP Cj

1 1 1 ðjÞ
k  iRS  ekt ¼  Y ðjÞ þ y   ekðts1 Þ þ I
RS  CP RS  CP RS  Cj Rj
1 ðjÞ 1 1 1
þ iRj   ekt  IRS   ð þ Þ
RS  Cj RS CP Cj
1 1 1
 iRS   ð þ Þ  ekðts2 Þ
RS CP Cj

1 1 ðjÞ ðjÞ 1 1 1
k  iRS  ekt ¼  Y ðjÞ þ  I  IRS   ð þ Þ
RS  CP RS  Cj Rj RS CP Cj
1 1
þy   ekðts1 Þ þ iRj   ekt
RS  CP RS  Cj
1 1 1
 iRS   ð þ Þ  ekðts2 Þ
RS CP Cj

ðjÞ ðjÞ
At fixed point 1
RS CP  Y ðjÞ þ 1
RS Cj  IRj  IRS  R1S  ðC1P þ C1j Þ ¼ 0 then

1 1 1
 iRS  ekt  ½k þ  ð þ Þ  eks2 
RS CP Cj
1 1
þy   ekðts1 Þ þ iRj   ekt ¼ 0
RS  CP RS  Cj
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 85

We can summarize our last results:

Rin R2 1 1
 x  ½k þ  þ y  ½ in     eks1
LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
R2in 1
þ  iL þ iRS   eks2 ¼ 0
L1  LP 1 CP  LP
xky¼0
Rin ks1 Rin
y e  i L1  ½ þ k ¼ 0
L1 L1
1 1
 iRj  ½k þ  þ iRS   eks2 ¼ 0
Cj  Rj Cj  Rj
1 1 1 1 1
y  eks1 þ iRj   iRS  ½k þ  ð þ Þ  eks2  ¼ 0
RS  CP RS  Cj RS CP Cj

The small increments Jacobian of our RFID Schotky detector system is as


follows:
0 1
0 1 x
!11 . . . !15 B C
By C
B . .. .. C B C
B . C  B iL1 C ¼ 0; !11 ¼  Rin  k;
@ . . . A B C
B C LP
!51    !55 @ iRj A
iRS
R2in 1 1
!12 ¼ ½     eks1
L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
R2in 1
!13 ¼ ; !14 ¼ 0; !15 ¼  eks2 ;
L1  LP CP  LP
!21 ¼ 1; !22 ¼ k; !23 ¼ !24 ¼ !25 ¼ 0
Rin ks1 Rin
!31 ¼ 0; !32 ¼  e ; !33 ¼   k;
L1 L1
!34 ¼ 0; !35 ¼ 0; !41 ¼ !42 ¼ !43 ¼ 0
1 1
!44 ¼  k; !45 ¼  eks2 ;
Cj  Rj Cj  Rj
1
!51 ¼ 0; !52 ¼  eks1 ; !53 ¼ 0
RS  CP
1 1 1 1
!54 ¼ ; !55 ¼   ð þ Þ  eks2  k
RS  Cj RS CP Cj
0 1
!11 ... !15
B .. .. .. C
jA  k  Ij ¼ @ . . . A; detjA  k  Ij ¼ 0
!51  !55
86 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

We define for simplicity the following parameters:


Rin R2in 1 1
r1 ¼  ; r2 ¼   ;
LP L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
R2in 1 Rin
r3 ¼ ; r4 ¼ ; r5 ¼ 
L1  LP CP  LP L1
1 1 1 1 1 1
r6 ¼ ; r7 ¼ ; r8 ¼ ; r9 ¼   ð þ Þ
C j  Rj RS  CP RS  Cj RS CP Cj

 11 ¼ r1  k;  12 ¼ r2  eks1 ;  13 ¼ r3 ;  14 ¼ 0;
 15 ¼ r4  eks2 ;  21 ¼ 1;  22 ¼ k;  23 ¼  24 ¼  25 ¼ 0
 31 ¼ 0;  32 ¼ r5  eks1 ;  33 ¼ r5  k;
 34 ¼ 0;  35 ¼ 0;  41 ¼  42 ¼  43 ¼ 0
 44 ¼ r6  k;  45 ¼ r6  eks2 ;  51 ¼ 0;
 52 ¼ r7  eks1 ;  53 ¼ 0;  54 ¼ r8 ;  55 ¼ r9  eks2  k

We need to find Dðs1 ; s2 Þ for the following cases: (A) s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0


(B) s1 ¼ 0; s2 ¼ s (C) s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s. We need to get characteristics equations for all
above stability analysis cases. We study the occurrence of any possible stability
switching, resulting from the increase of the value of the time delays s1 ; s2 for the
general characteristic equation Dðs1 ; s2 Þ. If we choose s as a parameter, then the
expression: Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks ; n; m 2 N0 ; n [ m [12, 18, 19].
0 1 0 1
!11 . . . !15 r5  k 0 0
B . .. C
.. C B C
B
det@ .. r6  eks2
. . A ¼ ðr1  kÞ  ðkÞ  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A
ks2
!51    !55 0 r8 ðr 9  e  kÞ
0 1
r5  k 0 0
B C
 r2  eks1  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
0 r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
0 1
r5  eks1 0 0
B C
þ r3  fdet@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
ks1 ks2
r7  e r8 ðr9  e  kÞ
0 1
0 0 0
B C
þ k  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 Ag
0 r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
0 ks1
1
r5  e r5  k 0
B C
þ r4  eks2  fdet@ 0 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A
ks1
r7  e 0 r8
0 1
0 r5  k 0
B C
þ k  det@ 0 0 ðr6 þ kÞ Ag
0 0 r8
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 87

0 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 r5  k 0
det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A ¼ 0; det@ 0 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A ¼ 0
0 r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ 0 0 r8

We get the following expression:


0 1 0 1
!11 ... !15 r5  k 0 0
B . .. C
.. C B C
B
det@ .. r6  eks2
. . A ¼ ðr1  kÞ  ðkÞ  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A
ks2
!51  !55 0 r 8 ðr 9  e  kÞ
0 1
r5  k 0 0
B C
 r2  eks1  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
0 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
r8
0 1
r5  eks1 0 0
B C
þ r3  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
ks1 ks2
r7  e r8 ðr9  e  kÞ
0 1
r5  eks1 r5  k 0
B C
þ r4  eks2  det@ 0 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A
r7  eks1 0 r8

First expression:
0 1
r5  k 0 0 !
B ks2 C ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2
det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  e A ¼ ðr5  kÞ  det
r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
0 r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
¼ ðr5  kÞ  fðr6 þ kÞ  ðr9  eks2  kÞ  r8  r6  eks2 g
¼ ðr5  kÞ  fr6  r9  eks2 þ r6  k  k  r9  eks2 þ k2  r8  r6  eks2 g
¼ ðr5  kÞ  fr6  k þ k2  ½r6  r9 þ r8  r6 þ k  r9   eks2 g

0 1
r5  k 0 0
B C
det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
0 r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
!
ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2
¼ ðr5  kÞ  det
r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
¼ ðr5  kÞ  fðr6 þ kÞ  ðr9  eks2  kÞ  r8  r6  eks2 g
¼ ðr5  kÞ  fr6  r9  eks2 þ r6  k  k  r9  eks2 þ k2  r8  r6  eks2 g
¼ ðr5  kÞ  fr6  k þ k2  ½r6  r9 þ r8  r6 þ k  r9   eks2 g
88 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

¼ r5  r6  k þ r5  k2  r5  ½r6  r9 þ r8  r6 þ k  r9   eks2
 r6  k2  k3 þ k  ½r6  r9 þ r8  r6 þ k  r9   eks2
¼ r5  r6  k þ r5  k2  ½r5  r6  r9 þ r5  r8  r6 þ k  r5  r9   eks2
 r6  k2  k3 þ ½k  ðr6  r9 þ r8  r6 Þ þ k2  r9   eks2
¼ r5  r6  k þ ðr5  r6 Þ  k2  k3
þ fr5  r6  ðr9 þ r8 Þ þ k  ðr6  r9 þ r8  r6  r5  r9 Þ þ k2  r9 g  eks2

We define for simplicity:

w1 ¼ r5  r6 ; w2 ¼ r5  r6 ;
w3 ¼ r5  r6  ðr9 þ r8 Þ
w4 ¼ r6  r9 þ r8  r6  r5  r9

Then we define
0 1
r5  k 0 0
det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
ks2
0 r8 ðr9  e  kÞ
¼ w1  k þ w2  k2  k3 þ fw3 þ k  w4 þ k2  r9 g  eks2

Second expression:
0 1
r5  eks1 0 0
B C
det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
r7  eks1 r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
!
ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2
¼ r5  eks1  det
r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
¼ r5  eks1  fðr6 þ kÞ  ðr9  eks2  kÞ  r8  r6  eks2 g
¼ r5  eks1  fr6  r9  eks2 þ r6  k  k  r9  eks2 þ k2  r8  r6  eks2 g
¼ r5  eks1  fr6  k þ k2  ½r6  r9 þ r8  r6 þ k  r9   eks2 g
¼ ðr6  k þ k2 Þ  r5  eks1  r5  ½r6  r9 þ r8  r6 þ k  r9   ekðs2 þ s1 Þ ;
w5 ¼ r6  r9 þ r8  r6
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 89

0 1
r5  eks1 0 0
B C
det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
r7  eks1 r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
¼ ðr6  k þ k2 Þ  r5  eks1  r5  ½w5 þ k  r9   ekðs2 þ s1 Þ

Third expression:
0 1
r5  eks1 ðr5  kÞ 0
B C
det@ 0 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A
r7  eks1 0 r8
 
ks1 0 ðr 6 þ kÞ
¼ r5  e  det
0 r8
 
0 ðr6 þ kÞ
 ðr5  kÞ  det
r7  eks1 r8
 
0 ðr6 þ kÞ
¼ ðr5  kÞ  det ¼ ðr5  kÞ  r7  eks1  ðr6 þ kÞ
r7  eks1 r8
¼ ðr5  kÞ  r7  ðr6 þ kÞ  eks1 ¼ r7  ðr5  r6  r5  k þ k  r6 þ k2 Þ  eks1
¼ r7  ðr5  r6 þ k  ½r6  r5  þ k2 Þ  eks1

w1 ¼ r5  r6 ; w2 ¼ r5  r6 ) w2 ¼ r6  r5
0 1
r5  eks1 ðr5  kÞ 0
det@ 0 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A ¼ r7  ðw1  k  w2 þ k2 Þ  eks1
r7  eks1 0 r8

We integrate our expression in below Dðs1 ; s2 Þ expression.


0 1 0 1
!11 ... !15 r5  k 0 0
B . .. C
.. C B C
B
det@ .. r6  eks2
. . A ¼ ðr1  kÞ  ðkÞ  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A
ks2
!51  !55 0 r 8 ðr 9  e  kÞ
0 1
r5  k 0 0
B C
 r2  eks1  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
0 r8 ðr9  eks2  kÞ
0 1
r5  eks1 0 0
B C
þ r3  det@ 0 ðr6 þ kÞ r6  eks2 A
ks1 ks2
r7  e r8 ðr9  e  kÞ
0 1
r5  eks1 r5  k 0
B C
þ r4  eks2  det@ 0 0 ðr6 þ kÞ A
r7  eks1 0 r8
90 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

0 1
!11 ... !15
B . .. .. C
detB
@ .. .
C
. A ¼ ðr1  kÞ  ðkÞ  ½w1  k þ w2  k  k
2 3

!51  !55


þ fw3 þ k  w4 þ k2  r9 g  eks2 
 r2  eks1  ½w1  k þ w2  k2  k3
þ fw3 þ k  w4 þ k2  r9 g  eks2 
þ r3  ½ðr6  k þ k2 Þ  r5  eks1
 r5  ½w5 þ k  r9   ekðs2 þ s1 Þ 
þ r4  eks2  ½r7  ðw1  k  w2 þ k2 Þ  eks1 
0 1
!11 ... !15
B . .. .. C
B
det@ .. C
. A ¼ ðk  r1 kÞ  ½w1  k þ w2  k  k
2 2 3
.
!51  !55
þ fw3 þ k  w4 þ k2  r9 g  eks2 
 ½ðw1  k þ w2  k2  k3 Þ  r2  eks1
þ r2  fw3 þ k  w4 þ k2  r9 g  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ 
þ r3  ðr6  k þ k2 Þ  r5  eks1
 r3  r5  ½w5 þ k  r9   ekðs2 þ s1 Þ
þ ðw1  r4  r7  k  w2  r4  r7 þ k2  r4  r7 Þ  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
0 1
!11 ... !15
B . .. .. C
B
det@ .. C
. A ¼ w1  k þ w2  k  k
3 4 5
.
!51  !55
þ fw3  k2 þ k3  w4 þ k4  r9 g  eks2
 r1  w1  k2  r1  w2  k3 þ r1  k4
þ fr1  w3  k  r1  w4  k2  r1  r9  k3 g  eks2
 ðw1  k þ w2  k2  k3 Þ  r2  eks1
 r2  fw3 þ k  w4 þ k2  r9 g  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
þ ðr3  r6  k þ r3  k2 Þ  r5  eks1
 r3  r5  ½w5 þ k  r9   ekðs2 þ s1 Þ
þ ðw1  r4  r7  k  w2  r4  r7 þ k2  r4  r7 Þ  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 91

0 1
!11 ... !15
B . .. .. C
B
det@ .. C
. A ¼ r1  w1  k þ ðw1  r1  w2 Þ  k þ ðw2 þ r1 Þ  k  k
2 3 4 5
.
!51  !55
 ðw1  k þ w2  k2  k3 Þ  r2  eks1
þ ðr3  r6  k þ r3  k2 Þ  r5  eks1
þ fw3  k2 þ k3  w4 þ k4  r9 g  eks2
þ fr1  w3  k  r1  w4  k2  r1  r9  k3 g  eks2
 r2  fw3 þ k  w4 þ k2  r9 g  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
 r3  r5  ½w5 þ k  r9   ekðs2 þ s1 Þ
þ ðw1  r4  r7  k  w2  r4  r7 þ k2  r4  r7 Þ  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
0 1
!11 ... !15
B . .. .. C
B
det@ .. C
. A ¼ r1  w1  k þ ðw1  r1  w2 Þ  k þ ðw2 þ r1 Þ  k  k
2 3 4 5
.
!51  !55
þ ðw1  r2  k  w2  r2  k2 þ r2  k3 Þ  eks1
þ ðr3  r6  r5  k þ r3  r5  k2 Þ  eks1
þ fw3  k2 þ k3  w4 þ k4  r9 g  eks2
þ fr1  w3  k  r1  w4  k2  r1  r9  k3 g  eks2
þ fr2  w3  k  r2  w4  k2  r2  r9 g  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
þ ½r3  r5  w5  k  r3  r5  r9   ekðs2 þ s1 Þ
þ ðw1  r4  r7  k  w2  r4  r7 þ k2  r4  r7 Þ  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
0 1
!11 . . . !15
B . .. .. C
B
det@ .. C
. A ¼ r1  w1  k þ ðw1  r1  w2 Þ  k þ ðw2 þ r1 Þ  k  k
2 3 4 5
.
!51    !55
þ fðr3  r6  r5  w1  r2 Þ  k
þ ðr3  r5  w2  r2 Þ  k2 þ r2  k3 g  eks1
þ fr1  w3  k þ ðw3  r1  w4 Þ  k2
þ ðw4  r1  r9 Þ  k3 þ k4  r9 g  eks2
þ fr2  w3  r3  r5  w5  w1  r4  r7
 ðw2  r4  r7 þ r2  w4 þ r3  r5  r9 Þ  k
þ ðr4  r7  r2  r9 Þ  k2 g  ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
92 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

We define for simplicity the following parameters:


H2 ¼ r1  w1 ; H3 ¼ w1  r1  w2 ; H4 ¼ w2 þ r1 ; H5 ¼ 1
A1 ¼ r3  r6  r5  w1  r2 ; A2 ¼r3  r5  w2  r2 ; A3 ¼r2
B1 ¼ r1  w3 ; B2 ¼ w3  r1  w4 ; B3 ¼ w4  r1  r9 ; B4 ¼ r9
C0 ¼ r2  w3  r3  r5  w5  w1  r4  r7 ;
C1 ¼ ðw2  r4  r7 þ r2  w4 þ r3  r5  r9 Þ
C2 ¼ r4  r7  r2  r9
0 1
!11 . . . !15
B . .. .. C X5 X 3
detB
@ .. .
C
. A¼ H l  kl þ ½ Ak  kk   eks1
l¼2 k¼1
!51    !55
X4 X2
þ½ Bk  kk   eks2 þ ½ Ck  kk   ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
k¼1 k¼0

X
5 X
3
Dðs1 ; s2 Þ ¼ Hl  k l þ ½ Ak  kk   eks1
l¼2 k¼1
X4 X
2
þ½ Bk  kk   eks2 þ ½ Ck  kk   ekðs1 þ s2 Þ
k¼1 k¼0

Three cases: (A) s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0 (B)s1 ¼ 0; s2 ¼ s (C) s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s.

X
5 X4
s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0; DðsÞ ¼ H l  kl þ ½ B k  kk 
l¼2 k¼1
ðAÞ
X
3 X
2
þ½ Ak  kk   eks þ ½ Ck  kk   eks
k¼1 k¼0
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 93
X
5 X4
Dðs1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0Þ ¼ H l  kl þ ½ B k  kk 
l¼2 k¼1
X
3 X2
þ½ Ak  kk   eks þ ½ Ck  kk   eks
k¼1 k¼0
X
4
Dðs1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0Þ ¼ B1  k þ ðHl þ Bl Þ  kl
l¼2
X
2
þ H5  k5 þ ½C0 þ ðAl þ Cl Þ  kl þ A3  k3   eks
l¼1

Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks ; n; m 2 N0 ; n [ m


X
4
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ B1  k þ ðHl þ Bl Þ  kl þ H5  k5 ; n ¼ 5;
l¼2
X
2
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ ½C0 þ ðAl þ Cl Þ  kl þ A3  k3 ; m ¼ 3
l¼1
X
n
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k þ P3 ðsÞ  k þ . . .;
k 2 3

k¼0
X m
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k þ q2 ðsÞ  k2 þ . . .
k¼0

Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks ; n ¼ 5; m ¼ 3; n [ m


Xn
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k
k 2

k¼0

þ P3 ðsÞ  k3 þ P4 ðsÞ  k4 þ P5 ðsÞ  k5


P0 ¼ 0; P1 ¼ B1 ; P2 ¼ H2 þ B2 ; P3 ¼ H3 þ B3 ; P4 ¼ H4 þ B4 ; P5 ¼ H5
X
m
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k þ q2 ðsÞ  k2 þ q3 ðsÞ  k3 ;
k¼0
q0 ðsÞ ¼ C0 ; q1 ðsÞ ¼ A1 þ C1 ; q2 ðsÞ ¼ A2 þ C2
q3 ðsÞ ¼ A3 :

The homogeneous system for X; Y; IL1 ; IRj ; IRS leads to a characteristic equation
P5
for the eigenvalue k having the form Pðk; sÞ þ Qðk; sÞ  eks ¼ 0; PðkÞ ¼ aj 
j¼0
P
3
k j ; QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j . The coefficients faj ðqi ; qk ; sÞ; cj ðqi ; qk ; sÞg 2 R depend on
j¼0
94 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

qi ; qk and delay s. qi ; qk are any Schottky detector’s global parameters, other


parameters kept as a constant.

a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ B1 ; a2 ¼ H2 þ B2 ; a3 ¼ H3 þ B3
a4 ¼ H4 þ B4 ; a5 ¼ H5 ; c0 ðsÞ ¼ C0 ;
c1 ðsÞ ¼ A1 þ C1 ; c2 ðsÞ ¼ A2 þ C2 ; c3 ðsÞ ¼ A3 :

Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments ðqi ; qk Þ will
subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, and cj. The coefficients aj, cj are continuous,
and differentiable functions of their arguments, and direct substitution shows that
a0 + c0 6¼ 0 for 8 qi ; qk 2 R þ ; that is, k = 0 is not of PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0.
Furthermore, P(k), Q(k) are analytic functions of k, for which the following
requirements of the analysis (Kuang J and Cong Y 2005; Kuang Y 1993) can also
be verified in the present case:
(a) If k ¼ i  x; x 2 R, then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Rek 0. No roots bifurcation from ∞.
(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 has a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a
polynomial in x.
(d) Each positive root xðqi ; qk Þ of F(x) = 0 is continuous and differentiable with
respect to qi ; qk .
We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ cannot have common imaginary roots.
That is for any real number x;

pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0:
X
4
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ B1  i  x þ ðHl þ Bl Þ  ði  xÞl þ H5  ði  xÞ5
l¼2
X
4
¼ i  x  B1 þ ðHl þ Bl Þ  il  xl þ i  H5  x5
l¼2
X
4
ðHl þ Bl Þ  il  xl ¼ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x3  i
l¼2
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4
þ i  ½x  B1  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x3 þ H5  x5 
X
2
Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ C0 þ ðAl þ Cl Þ  ði  xÞl  i  A3  x3 ;
l¼1
X
2
ðAl þ Cl Þ  ði  xÞl ¼ i  x  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2
l¼1
Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2 þ i  ½x  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3  x3 
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 95

pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ
¼ C0  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2
þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4 þ i  ½x  B1 þ x  ðA1 þ C1 Þ
 ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x3  A3  x3 þ H5  x5  6¼ 0

pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ
¼ C0  ðH2 þ B2 þ A2 þ C2 Þ  x2
þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4 þ i  ½x  ðA1 þ C1 þ B1 Þ
 ðH2 þ B2 þ A3 Þ  x3 þ H5  x5  6¼ 0

jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4 2


þ ½x  B1  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x3 þ H5  x5 2
¼ ðH2 þ B2 Þ2  x4 þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ2  x8
 2  ðH2 þ B2 Þ2  x6 þ x2  B21  B1  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4
þ B1  H5  x6  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  B1  x4
þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ2  x6  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  H5  x8 þ H5  B1  x6
 H5  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x8 þ H25  x10

jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x2  B21 þ ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  2  B1   ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4


þ ½2  B1  H5  ðH2 þ B2 Þ2   x6 þ ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  2  H5   ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x8 þ H25  x10

jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ ½C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2 2 þ ½x  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3  x3 2 ¼ C02 þ ðA2 þ C2 Þ2  x4


 2  C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2 þ x2  ðA1 þ C1 Þ2 þ A23  x6  2  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3  x4

jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ C02 þ ½ðA1 þ C1 Þ2  2  C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2


þ ½ðA2 þ C2 Þ2  2  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3   x4 þ A23  x6

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x2  B21


þ ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  2  B1   ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4
þ ½2  B1  H5  ðH2 þ B2 Þ2   x6 þ ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ
 2  H5   ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x8 þ H25  x10
 fC02 þ ½ðA1 þ C1 Þ2  2  C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2
þ ½ðA2 þ C2 Þ2  2  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3   x4 þ A23  x6 g
96 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ C02


þ fB21  ½ðA1 þ C1 Þ2  2  C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þg  x2
þ f½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  2  B1   ðH2 þ B2 Þ
 ½ðA2 þ C2 Þ2  2  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3 g  x4
þ f½2  B1  H5  ðH2 þ B2 Þ2   A23 g  x6
þ ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  2  H5   ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x8 þ H25  x10

We define the following parameters for simplicity: P0 ; P2 ; P4 ; P6 ; P8 ; P10

P0 ¼ C02 ; P2 ¼ B21  ½ðA1 þ C1 Þ2  2  C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ


P4 ¼ ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  2  B1   ðH2 þ B2 Þ  ½ðA2 þ C2 Þ2  2  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3 
P6 ¼ ½2  B1  H5  ðH2 þ B2 Þ2   A23 ; P8
¼ ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  2  H5   ðH2 þ B2 Þ; P10 ¼ H25

P
5
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies P2k  x2k ¼ 0 and its roots are given by solving
k¼0
the above polynomial.
PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4
PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x  B1  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x3 þ H5  x5 ;
QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2
QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3  x3

Hence

PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2
PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  x; sÞj2

We use different parameters terminology from our last characteristics parameters


definition: k ! j; pk ðsÞ ! aj ; qk ðsÞ ! cj ; n ¼ 5; m ¼ 3; n [ m
P
5
Additionally Pn ðk; sÞ ! PðkÞ; Qm ðk; sÞ ! QðkÞ Then PðkÞ ¼ aj  k j ; QðkÞ ¼
j¼0
P
3
cj  k j
j¼0
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 97

Pk ¼ a0 þ a1  k þ a2  k2 þ a3  k3 þ a4  k4 þ a5  k5 ;
Qk ¼ c0 þ c1  k þ c2  k2 þ c3  k3
n; m 2 N0 ; n [ m and aj ; cj : R þ 0 ! R are continuous and differentiable func-
tion of s such that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0. In the following “—” denotes complex and con-
jugate. PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic functions in k and differentiable in s.
The coefficients faj ðLP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . .Þ and cj ðLP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ;
CP ; Rj ; s; . . .Þg 2 R depend on RFID TAG detector system’s LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ;
CP ; Rj ; s; . . . values. Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied argu-
ments: ðLP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . .Þ will subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj,
cj. The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and differentiable functions of their ar-
guments, and direct substitution shows that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0; a0 ¼ 0; c0 ðsÞ ¼ C0
C0 ¼ r2  w3  r3  r5  w5  w1  r4  r7
! r2  w3  r3  r5  w5  w1  r4  r7 6¼ 0:
R2 1 1
 ½ in     w3
L1  LP C1  LP CP  LP
R2in Rin 1 1
þ   w5  w1   6¼ 0
L1  LP L1 CP  LP RS  CP
8 LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . . 2 R þ

i.e. k ¼ 0 is not a root of the characteristic equation. Furthermore PðkÞ; QðkÞ are
analytic functions of k for which the following requirements of the analysis (see
Kuang 1993, Sect. 3.4) can also be verified in the present case [6, 7].
(a) If k ¼ i  x, x 2 R then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0, i.e. P and Q have no common
imaginary roots. This condition was verified numerically in the entire
ðLP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . .Þ domain of interest.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Rek 0. No roots bifurcation from 1.
Indeed, in the limit:
QðkÞ c 0 þ c 1  k þ c 2  k2 þ c 3  k3
j j¼j j
PðkÞ a0 þ a1  k þ a2  k2 þ a3  k3 þ a4  k4 þ a5  k5

(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ;


X
5
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ P2k  x2k
k¼0

Has at most a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a polynomial in x (Degree


in x10 ).
(d) Each positive root xðLP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . .Þ of FðxÞ ¼ 0 is continu-
ous and differentiable with respect to LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . ..
98 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

The condition can only be assessed numerically.


In addition, since the coefficients in P and Q are real, we have
Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ, and Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ thus, x [ 0 maybe on eigenvalue
of characteristic equations. The analysis consists in identifying the roots of the
characteristic equation situated on the imaginary axis of the complex k-plane,
whereby increasing the parameters LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . ., Rek may, at the
crossing, change its sign from (−) to (+), i.e. from a stable focus E ð0Þ ðX ð0Þ ;
ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ
Y ð0Þ ; IL1 ; IRj ; IRS Þj VðtÞj ¼ A þ f ðtÞ  A ¼ ð0; 0; 0; 0; 0Þ to an unstable
A0 jf ðtÞj 0 0
dVðtÞ df ðtÞ
dt jA0 jf ðtÞj ¼ dt !e
A0 ! e
one, or vice versa. This feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of
the partial derivatives with respect to LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . . and gate
antenna parameters.
@Rek
^1 ðLP Þ ¼ ð Þ ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . . ¼ const;
@LP k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðL1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . . ¼ const
@L1 k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðCf Þ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; L1 ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . . ¼ const;
@Cf k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðRin Þ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Rin k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðRin Þ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . . ¼ const;
@Rin k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðRs Þ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; CP ; Rj ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Rs k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðCP Þ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; Rj ; s; . . . ¼ const;
@CP k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðRj Þ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Rj k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; . . . ¼ const; x 2 R þ :
@s k¼ix

When writing PðkÞ ¼ PR ðkÞ þ i  PI ðkÞ and QðkÞ ¼ QR ðkÞ þ i  QI ðkÞ, and
inserting k ¼ i  x into active RFID Schottky detector system’s characteristic
equation x must satisfy the following:
PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin ðx  sÞ ¼ gðxÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2
PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos ðx  sÞ ¼ hðxÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 99

Where jQði  xÞj2 6¼ 0 in view of requirement (a) above, and ðg; hÞ 2 R.


Furthermore, it follows above sin x  s and cos x  s equations that, by squaring and
adding the sides, x must be a positive root of FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ¼ 0.
Note: FðxÞ is dependent on s. Now it is important to notice that if s 62 I (assume
that I R þ 0 is the set where xðsÞ is a positive root of FðxÞ and for, s 62 I , xðsÞ is
not defined. Then for all s in I xðsÞ is satisfied that Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0). Then there are no
positive xðsÞ solutions for Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, and we cannot have stability switches. For
s 2 I where xðsÞ is a positive solution of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, we can define the angle
hðsÞ 2 ½0; 2  p as the solution of

sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .; cos hðsÞ ¼ . . .;


PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼ ;
jQði  xÞj2
PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼  :
jQði  xÞj2

And the relation between the argument hðsÞ and xðsÞ  s for s 2 I must be
xðsÞ  s ¼ hðsÞ þ n  2  p 8 n 2 N0 . Hence we can define the maps sn : I ! R þ 0
given by sn ðsÞ ¼ hðsÞxðsÞ þ n2p
; n 2 N0 ; s 2 I. Let us introduce the functions I ! R ;
Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 that is continuous and differentiable in s. In the
following, the subscripts k; x; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; . . . indicate the corre-
sponding partial derivatives. Let us first concentrate on ^ðxÞ, remember in
kðLP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; . . .Þ and xðLP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; . . .Þ, and keeping
all parameters except one (x) and s. The derivation closely follows that in reference
[BK]. Differentiating RFID TAG detector system characteristic equation
PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0 with respect to specific parameter (x), and inverting the
derivative, for convenience, one calculates:
Remark

x ¼ LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; . . .; etc:;

@k 1 Pk ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ þ Qk ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ  s  Pðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ


ð Þ ¼
@x Px ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  Qx ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ
Where Pk ¼ @P
@k ; . . .: etc., substituting k ¼ i  x and bearing Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ;
Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ then i  Pk ði  xÞ ¼ Px ði  xÞ; i  Qk ði  xÞ ¼ Qx ði  xÞ and that
on the surface jPði  xÞj2 ¼ jQði  xÞj2 , one obtains:

@k 1 i  Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ þ i  Qk ði  x; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  s  jPði  x; xÞj2


ð Þ jk¼ix ¼ ð Þ
@x Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ  Qx ði  x; xÞ  Qði  x; xÞ

Upon separating into real and imaginary parts, with P ¼ PR þ i  PI ;


Q ¼ QR þ i  QI
100 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ; Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ;


Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; P2 ¼ P2R þ P2I :

When (x) can be any RFID Schottky detector parameter’s LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; . . . and
time delay s etc. Where for convenience, we have dropped the arguments ði  x; xÞ,
and where

Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ


Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þxx ¼ Fx =Fx :

We define U and V:

U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ;


V ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ

We choose our specific parameter as time delay x = s.

QI ¼ x  ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3  x3
PR ¼ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4 ; PI ¼ x  B1  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x3 þ H5  x5 ;
QR ¼ C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2
PRx ¼ 4  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x3  2  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x ¼ 2  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x  ð2  x2  1Þ
PIx ¼ B1  3  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ 5  H5  x4 ;
QRx ¼ 2  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x; QIx ¼ ðA1 þ C1 Þ  3  A3  x2
PRs ¼ 0; PIs ¼ 0; QRs ¼ 0; QIs ¼ 0; xs ¼ Fs =Fx
PRx  PR ¼ 2  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x  ð2  x2  1Þ  ½ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x4  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 
¼ 2  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x  ð2  x2  1Þ  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2  ½x2  1
¼ 2  ðH2 þ B2 Þ2  x3  ð2  x2  1Þ  ½x2  1
PRx  PR ¼ 2  ðH2 þ B2 Þ2  x3  ð2  x2  1Þ  ½x2  1;
QRx  QR ¼ 2  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x  ½C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2 
Fs ¼ 2  ½ðPRs  PR þ PIs  PI Þ  ðQRs  QR þ QIs  QI Þ ¼ 0;
PR  PIx ¼ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2  ðx2  1Þ  ½B1  3  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ 5  H5  x4 
PI  PRx ¼ 2  x2  ½B1  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ H5  x4   ðH2 þ B2 Þ  ð2  x2  1Þ:
QR  QIx ¼ ½C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2   ½ðA1 þ C1 Þ  3  A3  x2 ;
QI  QRx ¼ 2  x2  ½ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3  x2   ðA2 þ C2 Þ
V ¼ ðPR  PIs  PI  PRs Þ  ðQR  QIs  QI  QRs Þ ¼ 0: Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 101

Differentiating with respect to s and we get

@x @x Fs @Rek @x Fs
Fx  þ Fs ¼ 0; s 2 I ) ¼  ; ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; ¼ xs ¼ 
@s @s Fx @s k¼ix @s Fx
2  ½U þ s  jPj2  þ i  Fx @Rek
^1 ðsÞ ¼ Ref g; signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfð Þ g
Fs þ i  2  ½V þ x  jPj 2 @s k¼ix
@x U  @x
@s þ V
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx g  signfs  þxþ g:
@s jPj2

We shall presently examine the possibility of stability transitions (bifurcations)


RFID TAG detector system, about the equilibrium point E ð0Þ ðX ð0Þ ; Y ð0Þ ;
ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ
IL1 ; IRj ; IRS Þ ¼ ð0; 0; 0; 0; 0Þ as a result of a variation of delay parameter s. The
analysis consists in identifying the roots of our system characteristic equation sit-
uated on the imaginary axis of the complex k-plane.
Where by increasing the delay parameter s, Re k may at the crossing, changes its
sign from − to +, i.e. from a stable focus E(*) to an unstable one, or vice versa. This
feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of the partial derivatives with
respect to s,
@Rek
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ
@s k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; . . . ¼ const; x 2 R þ :
@s k¼ix
U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ
¼ ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2  ðx2  1Þ  ½B1  3  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ 5  H5  x4 
 2  x2  ½B1  ðH2 þ B2 Þ  x2 þ H5  x4   ðH2 þ B2 Þ  ð2  x2  1Þ
 ½C0  ðA2 þ C2 Þ  x2   ½ðA1 þ C1 Þ  3  A3  x2 
 2  x2  ½ðA1 þ C1 Þ  A3  x2   ðA2 þ C2 Þ

The single diode detector, RL is the video load resistance which not seen in
RFID TAG receiver detector equivalent circuit. L1, the shunt inductance, provides a
current return path for the diode, and is chosen to be large compared to diode
impedance at the input or RF frequency. C1, the bypass capacitance, is chosen to be
sufficiently large that is capacitive reactance is small compared to the diode
impedance, but small enough to avoid having it resistance load the video circuit. Pin
is the RF input power applied to the detector circuit and VO is the output voltage
appearing across RL. LP is packaged parasitic inductance (Schottky linear equiva-
lent circuit). CP is package parasitic capacitance. RS is the diode’s parasitic series
resistance. Cj is junction parasitic capacitance, and Rj is the diode’s junction
resistance. LP, CP, and RL are constants. RS has some small variation with tem-
perature, but that variation is not a significant parameter in this analysis. Cj is a
function of both temperature and DC bias, but this analysis concerns itself with the
102 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

zero bias detectors and the variation with temperature is not significant. Rj is a key
element in equivalent circuit—its behavior clearly will affect the performance of the
detector circuit. For our stability switching analysis, we choose typical Schottky
detector parameter values: LP = 2 nH, RS = 1.5 X, CP = 0.08 pF, Cj = 0.2 pF,
Rj = 500 X, RL = 100 KX, Rin = 1 KX, L1 = 1 mH, C1 = 1 lF

r1 ¼ 5  1011 ; r2 ¼ 6:2492  1021 ; r3 ¼ 5  1017 ;


r4 ¼ 6:25  1021 ; r5 ¼ 106 ; r6 ¼ 1010
r7 ¼ 8:33  1012 ; r8 ¼ 3:33  1012 ; r9 ¼ 1:155  1013 ;
w1 ¼ 1016 ; w2 ¼ 1:0001  1010
w3 ¼ 8:22  1028 ; w4 ¼ 8:2212  1022 ; w5 ¼ 8:22  1022 ;
H2 ¼ 5  1027 ; H3 ¼ 5:0005  1021
H4 ¼ 5:1  1011 ; H5 ¼ 1; A1 ¼ 6:2497  1037 ;
A2 ¼ 6:2498  1031 ; A3 ¼ 6:2492  1021
B1 ¼ 4:11  1040 ; B2 ¼ 4:1106  1034 ;
B3 ¼ 5:8572  1024 ; B4 ¼ 1:155  1013
C0 ¼ 6:8997  1048 ; C1 ¼ 6:9178  1042 ;
C2 ¼ 2:0116  1034 ; P0 ¼ 4:7606  1097
P2 ¼ 4:8132  1085 ; P4 ¼ 3:3789  1075 ;
P6 ¼ 1:6897  1069 ; P8 ¼ 1:6897  1069 ; P10 ¼ 1

Then we get the expression for Fðx; sÞ Schottky diode detector parameter
values. We find those x; s values which fulfill Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We ignore negative,
complex, and imaginary values of x for specific s values. s 2 ½0:001. . .10, we can
be express by 3D function Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We plot the stability switch diagram based
on different delay values of our Schottky diode detector.

@Rek 2  ½U þ s  jPj2  þ i  Fx
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼ Ref g
@s Fs þ i  2  ½V þ x  jPj2 
@Rek 2  fFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼
@s Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2

The stability switch occurs only on those delay values (s) which fit the equation:
s ¼ xh þþ ðsÞ
ðsÞ and h þ ðsÞ is the solution of sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .; cos hðsÞ ¼ . . . when x ¼
x þ ðsÞ if only x þ is feasible. Additionally, when all Schottky diode detector’s
1.5 RFID TAGs Detectors Stability Analysis … 103

parameters are known and the stability switch due to various time delay values s is
described in the following expression:

signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx ðxðsÞ; sÞg  signfs  xs ðxðsÞÞ


UðxðsÞÞ  xs ðxðsÞÞ þ VðxðsÞÞ
þ xðsÞ þ g
jPðxðsÞÞj2

Remark we know Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies its roots xi ðsÞ and finding those delays
values s which xi is feasible. There are s values which give complex xi or
imaginary number, then unable to analyze stability [6, 7]. F function is independent
on s the parameter FðxÞ ¼ 0.
The results: We find those x; s values which fulfill Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We ignore
negative, complex, and imaginary values of x. We define new MATLAB script
parameters: p2k ! G2k (k = 0…5). Running a MATLAB script to find x values,
gives the following results:
FðxÞ ¼ 0 ) x1 ¼ 1:0e þ 034 ; x2 ¼ 0 þ 4:1106i;
x3 ¼ 0  4:1106i; x4 ; . . .; x11 ¼ 0

MATLAB script: G0 = −4.7606 * 1e97; G2 = −4.8132 * 1e85;


G4 = -3.3789 * 1e75; G6 = −1.6897 * 1e69; G8 = 1.6897 * 1e69; G10 = 1;
p = [G10 0 G8 0 G6 0 G4 0 G2 0 G0]; r = roots(p).
Next is to find those x, s values which fulfil sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .; sinðx  sÞ ¼
PR QI þ PI QR
jQj2
and cos hðsÞ ¼ . . .; cosðx  sÞ ¼  ðPR QRjQjþ2PI QI Þ ; jQj2 ¼ Q2R þ Q2I .
Finally, we plot the stability switch diagram
@Rek
gðsÞ ¼ ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ
@s k¼ix
@Rek 2  fFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg
gðsÞ ¼ ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼
@s Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2
@Rek
sign½gðsÞ ¼ sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ sign½ð Þ 
@s k¼ix
2  fFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg
¼ sign½ 
Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2

Since Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2 [ 0 then


104 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signfFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg


Fs
sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signf½Fx   ½ðV þ x  P2 Þ   ðU þ s  P2 Þg;
Fx
Fs @x @F=@x
xs ¼  ; xs ¼ ð Þ1 ¼ 
Fx @s @F=@s
sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signf½Fx   ½V þ xs  U þ x  P2 þ xs  s  P2 g;
1 V þ xs  U
sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signf½Fx   ½ 2   ½ þ x þ xs  sg
P P2
1 V þ xs  U
sign½ 2  [ 0 ) sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signf½Fx   ½ þ x þ xs  sg
P P2
V þ xs  U
sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ sign½Fx   sign½ þ x þ xs  s;
P2
Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ

We check the sign of ^1 ðsÞ according the following rule:

sign½Fx  sign½V þPx2 s U þ x þ xs  s sign½^1 ðsÞ


± ± +
±  –

If sign[K−1(s)] > 0 then the crossing proceeds from (−) to (+) respectively
(stable to unstable). If sign[K−1(s)] < 0 then the crossing proceeds from (+) to (−)
respectively (unstable to stable). Anyway the stability switching can occur only for
x = 1:0e þ 034 or x = 0 [30, 32].

1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under


Delayed Internal Diode Circuitry Parasitic Effects
in Time

There are systems which converting Radio Frequency (RF) energy into a Direct
Current (DC). In other areas, the circuit has been used to provide DC power to
operate remote autonomous devices that have no on-board power supply. In the
case of the part, a battery controlled by the burst switch is used to power the device.
CMOS (silicon) devices are equipped with a form of sleep circuitry with a current
draw at a minimum during sleep. An external input signal is used to wake-up the
device. The use of the switch requires considerably more design and analysis to
avoid false wake-up states and to ensure functionality under adverse conditions.
A simple generic burst switch is constructed from input RFID rectangular spiral
antenna, matching network, voltage doubler and load. The voltage doubler unit is
constructed from two diodes D1 and D2 with parasitic effects, delay in time. One of
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 105

Fig. 1.23 A simple generic RFID burst switch diagram

the difficulties with the simple RF wake-up circuit is that spurious RF energy
(noise) could potentially waken the sleeping device. Thus, it may be necessary to
interface a low power or passive circuit (essentially a filter) between the RF switch
and the higher power consuming receiver. Spurious RF energy is presented in our
system as delay RFID antenna voltage and voltage derivative in time. The low
power circuit (filter) could be any low-power device that can be turned on for a
short period of time, increment a counter(s) and go back to sleep. In effect, this
device acts like a receiver. A watchdog timer may be used to reset the device after
extended noisy periods or after long intervals of inactivity. VA is the voltage on the
RFID rectangular spiral antenna.

dVðtÞ dVA ðtÞ


VðtÞ ¼ VA ðtÞ; ¼
dt dt
dV1 ðtÞ
We define: V1 ðtÞ ¼ VðtÞ; V2 ðtÞ ¼ dVðtÞ
dt ¼ dt . Tau1 (s1 ) and Tau2 (s2 ) delay
lines represent our diodes D1 and D1 parasitic effect delay In time, Vs1 ; Vs2 ! e
(Fig. 1.23)

ID1 ðtÞ ! ID1 ðt  s1 Þ; ID2 ðtÞ ! ID2 ðt  s2 Þ:

RFID burst switch matching network design: The matching network match
between RFID rectangular spiral antenna impedance to our load impedance. First,
we need to calculate our matching network input impedance Zin [85] (Fig. 1.24).
Rectangular spiral RFID antenna length calculation and Inductance/resistance
We have the following rectangular spiral RFID antenna and first we need to
calculate the total length.
106 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Aavg

A0

w B0 Bavg

A0, B0—Overall dimensions of the coil. Aavg, Bavg—Average dimensions of


the coil. w—Track width, g—Gap between tracks, t—Track thickness, Average coil

Fig. 1.24 A simple generic RFID burst switch equivalent circuit


1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 107

area: Ac = Aavg∙Bavg. Nc—Number of turns. L0 is the length of the first turn


l0 ¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ðw þ gÞ. lk is the length of turn k + 1 [7, 8].

k ¼ 1 ) L1 ¼ A0  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  2  ðw þ gÞ þ A0  2  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  3  ðw þ gÞ
k ¼ 2 ) L2 ¼ A0  3  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  4  ðw þ gÞ þ A0  4  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  5  ðw þ gÞ
k ¼ 3 ) L3 ¼ A0  5  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  6  ðw þ gÞ þ A0  6  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  7  ðw þ gÞ
X
N c 1

LT ¼ L0 þ fA0  ½1 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  ½2 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ
k¼1
þ A0  ½2 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  ½3 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞg

X
N c 1

fA0  ½1 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  ½2 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ
k¼1
þ A0  ½2 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  ½3 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞg
NX
C 1

¼ f2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  8  k  ðw þ gÞg
k¼1
NX
C 1

¼2 fðA0 þ B0 Þ  4  k  ðw þ gÞg


k¼1
NX
C 1

¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ðNC  1Þ  2  ½4  k  ðw þ gÞ


k¼1
NX
C 1 NX
C 1

¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ðNC  1Þ  8  ðw þ gÞ  k; k ¼ NC  1
k¼1 k¼1

X
N c 1

fA0  ½1 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  ½2 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ
k¼1
þ A0  ½2 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ þ B0  ½3 þ ðk  1Þ  2  ðw þ gÞg
¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ðNC  1Þ  8  ðw þ gÞ  ðNC  1Þ
¼ 2  ðNC  1Þ  ½A0 þ B0  4  ðw þ gÞ

LT ¼ L0 þ 2  ðNC  1Þ  ½A0 þ B0  4  ðw þ gÞ


 ½A0 þ B0  4  ðw þ gÞ ¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ðw þ gÞ
¼ L0 þ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ð1 þ NC  1Þ  ðw þ gÞ  ½1 þ 8  ðNC  1Þ
¼ L0 þ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  NC  ðw þ gÞ  ð8  NC  7Þ

Final result: LT ¼ L0 þ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  NC  ðw þ gÞ  ð8  NC  7Þ


108 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

LT ¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ðw þ gÞ þ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  NC  ðw þ gÞ  ð8  NC  7Þ
LT ¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ð1 þ NC Þ  ðw þ gÞ  ½1 þ 8  NC  7
LT ¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ð1 þ NC Þ  ðw þ gÞ  ½8  NC  6
LT ¼ 2  ðA0 þ B0 Þ  ð1 þ NC Þ  2  ðw þ gÞ  ½4  NC  3
LT ¼ 2  fðA0 þ B0 Þ  ð1 þ NC Þ  ðw þ gÞ  ½4  NC  3g

The DC resistance of rectangular spiral RFID antenna:

LT LT
RDC ¼ ¼
r  S r  p  a2

LT—total length of the wire. r—conductivity of the wire (mohm/m). S—Cross


section area p  a2 . a—radius of the wire.

LT LT 2  fðA0 þ B0 Þ  ð1 þ NC Þ  ðw þ gÞ  ½4  NC  3g
RDC ¼ ¼ ¼
r  S r  p  a2 r  p  a2
LT LT 2  fðA0 þ B0 Þ  ð1 þ NC Þ  ðw þ gÞ  ½4  NC  3g
RDC jS¼wt ¼ ¼ ¼
rS rpwt rpwt

l0 X
4
2  Aavg  Bavg
Lcalc ¼ ð Xk  X3 Þ  NcP ; X1 ¼ Aavg  lnð qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Þ
p k¼1;k6¼3 d  ðA þ A2 þ B2 Þ
avg avg avg

2  Aavg  Bavg
X2 ¼ Bavg  lnð qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi Þ;
d  ðBavg þ A2avg þ B2avg Þ
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ðAavg þ Bavg Þ
X3 ¼ 2  ðAavg þ Bavg  A2avg þ B2avg Þ; X4 ¼
4
2  ðt þ wÞ
d¼ ; Aavg ¼ A0  Nc  ðg þ wÞ; Bavg ¼ B0  Nc  ðg þ wÞ
p
x—Angular frequency.

Zant ¼ RDC þ j  x  Lcalc ; Zin ¼ Zant k Zc1 þ j  x  L1


Zant  Zc1 1
¼ þ j  x  L1 ; Zc1 ¼
Zant þ Zc1 j  x  C1
ðRDC þ j  x  Lcalc Þ  jxC
1
Zin ¼ 1
þ j  x  L1
RDC þ j  x  Lcalc þ jxC 1
1

RDC þ j  x  Lcalc
¼ þ j  x  L1
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1  þ j  x  C1  RDC
RDC þ j  x  Lcalc
Zin ¼
½1  x  Lcalc  C1  þ j  x  C1  RDC
2

½1  x2  Lcalc  C1   j  x  C1  RDC
 þ j  x  L1
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1   j  x  C1  RDC
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 109

RDC  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1   j  x  C1  R2DC þ j  x  Lcalc  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1  þ x2  Lcalc  C1  RDC


Zin ¼ þ j  x  L1
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC
RDC  ½1  x  Lcalc  C1  þ x  Lcalc  C1  RDC þ j  x  fLcalc  ½1  x  Lcalc  C1   C1 
2 2 2
R2DC g
Zin ¼ þ j  x  L1
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC
RDC  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1  þ x2  Lcalc  C1  RDC
Zin ¼
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC
fLcalc  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1   C1  R2DC g
þj  x  þ j  x  L1
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC
RDC  ½1  x  Lcalc  C1  þ x  Lcalc  C1  RDC
2 2
Zin ¼
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC
fLcalc  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1   C1  R2DC g
þj  x  ½ þ L1 
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC
RDC  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1  þ x2  Lcalc  C1  RDC
A1 ¼ ;
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC
fLcalc  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1   C1  R2DC g
B1 ¼ x  ½ þ L1 
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC
Zin ¼ A1 þ j  B1

If we neglect voltage doubler unit’s parasitic elements (Inductance, capacitance,


and resistances) then it is transparent and the load is connected directly to a
matching unit.

jxCload  RL
1
RL
Zload ¼ ¼
jxCload þ RL
1 1 þ j  x  Cload  RL
RL ð1  j  x  Cload  RL Þ
¼ 
1 þ j  x  Cload  RL ð1  j  x  Cload  RL Þ

RL ð1  j  x  Cload  RL Þ RL  j  x  Cload  RL  RL
Zload ¼  ¼
1 þ j  x  Cload  RL ð1  j  x  Cload  RL Þ 1 þ x2  Cload
2  R2L
RL x  Cload  RL  RL
Zload ¼ j
1 þ x  Cload  RL
2 2 2 1 þ x2  Cload
2  R2L

RL x  Cload  RL  RL
A2 ¼ ; B2 ¼ ; Zload ¼ A2  j  B2
1 þ x2  Cload  RL
2 2 1 þ x2  Cload
2  R2L

If Zin ¼ Zload (complex conjugate) then maximum power is transferred from the
RFID rectangular spiral antenna to the load (no power reflections). For perfect
match A1 = A2 and B1 = B2.

RDC  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1  þ x2  Lcalc  C1  RDC RL


A1 ¼ A2 ) ¼
½1  x2 Lcalc  C1   2
þ x2
 R2DC C12 1 þ x2  Cload
2  R2L
fLcalc  ½1  x2  Lcalc  C1   C1  R2DC g x  Cload  RL  RL
B1 ¼ B2 ) x  ½ þ L1  ¼
½1  x2  Lcalc  C1 2 þ x2  C12  R2DC 1 þ x2  Cload
2  R2L
110 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Remark our matching is dependent on the angular frequency value, x = 2pf.


Stability analysis: we need to write our system, differential equations and ana-
lyze our system behavior under parameter variation.

IRDC ¼ ILcalc ; ILcalc ¼ I1 þ I2 ; I1 ¼ IC1 ; I2 ¼ IL1 ;


I2 ¼ I3 þ I4 ; I4 ¼ ID2 ; I3 ¼ ID1 ; I4 ¼ I5 þ I6
VC
I5 ¼ ICload ; I6 ¼ IRL ¼ ; VC1 ¼ VðtÞ; VL1 ¼ VA  VB ;
RL
VD2 ¼ VB  VC ; VB ¼ VD1 ; VC ¼ VCload ¼ VRL
dVðtÞ
VA ¼ VC1 ; VA ¼ VðtÞ ¼ VLcalc þ VRDC ; IC1 ¼ C1  ;
dt
dVC dIL
ICload ¼ Cload  ; VL1 ¼ L1  1
dt dt
dILcalc
VLcalc ¼ Lcalc  ; VRDC ¼ RDC  IRDC ;
dt
ID ID
VD1 ¼ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1; VD2 ¼ Vt  ln½ 2 þ 1
I0 I0
dVðtÞ dIL
ILcalc ¼ I1 þ I2 ; ILcalc ¼ C1  þ IL1 ; VL1 ¼ L1  1 ;
dt dt
VL1 ¼ VA  VB ¼ VLcalc þ ILcalc  RDC þ VD1
ID
VL1 ¼ VLcalc þ ILcalc  RDC þ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1
I0
dIL1 dILcalc ID
) L1  ¼ Lcalc  þ ILcalc  RDC þ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1
dt dt I0
dIL1 d dVðtÞ
L1  ¼ Lcalc  ½C1  þ IL1 
dt dt dt
dVðtÞ ID
þ ½C1  þ IL1   RDC þ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1
dt I0
dIL1 d 2 VðtÞ dIL1
L1  ¼ Lcalc  C1  þ Lcalc 
dt dt2 dt
dVðtÞ ID
þ C1  RDC  þ IL1  RDC þ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1
dt I0
dIL1 d 2 VðtÞ dIL1
L1  ¼ Lcalc  C1  þ Lcalc 
dt dt2 dt
dVðtÞ ID
þ C1  RDC  þ IL1  RDC þ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1
dt I0

dIL1 d 2 VðtÞ dVðtÞ


ð Þ½L1  Lcalc   ¼ Lcalc  C1  2
þ C1  RDC  þ IL1  RDC þ Vt
dt dt dt
ID
 ln½ 1 þ 1
I0
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 111

I2 ¼ I3 þ I4 ) IL1 ¼ ID1 þ ID2 ; VD2 ¼ VB  VC ¼ VD1  VCload ;


ID ID
VCload ¼ VC ; Vt  ln½ 2 þ 1 ¼ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1  VCload
I0 I0
dVC VC
I4 ¼ I5 þ I6 ) ID2 ¼ Cload  þ ;
dt RL
dIL dID1 dID2
IL1 ¼ ID1 þ ID2 ) 1 ¼  þ
dt dt dt
ID2 ID1 ID ID
Vt  ln½ þ 1 ¼ Vt  ln½ þ 1  VCload ) Vt  ln½ 2 þ 1 ¼ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1  VC
I0 I0 I0 I0
ID2 ID1 ID1 ID
Vt  ln½ þ 1 ¼ Vt  ln½ þ 1  VC ) VC ¼ Vt  ln½ þ 1  Vt  ln½ 2 þ 1
I0 I0 I0 I0

dVC 1 1 dID1 1 1 dID2


¼ Vt  ID    V t  ID  
dt ½ þ 1 0
1 I
I0
dt ½ þ 1 0 dt
2 I
I0
dVC 1 dID1 1 dID2
) ¼ Vt    Vt  
dt ½ID1 þ I0  dt ½ID2 þ I0  dt

1 dID1 1 dID2
ð ÞID2 ¼ Cload  fVt    Vt   g
½ID1 þ I0  dt ½ID2 þ I0  dt
1 ID ID
þ  fVt  ln½ 1 þ 1  Vt  ln½ 2 þ 1g
RL I0 I0

dIL1 d 2 VðtÞ dVðtÞ


ð Þ½L1  Lcalc   ¼ Lcalc  C1  þ C1  RDC 
dt dt2 dt
ID1
þ IL1  RDC þ Vt  ln½ þ 1
I0

dID1 dID2 d 2 VðtÞ dVðtÞ


½L1  Lcalc   ½ þ  ¼ Lcalc  C1  þ C1  RDC 
dt dt dt2 dt
ID1
þ ½ID1 þ ID2   RDC þ Vt  ln½ þ 1
I0

We define the following new variables:

dID2 dID1 dVðtÞ dZ d 2 VðtÞ


X¼ ;Y ¼ ;Z ¼ ; ¼
dt dt dt dt dt2
dZ
½L1  Lcalc   ½Y þ X ¼ Lcalc  C1  þ C1  RDC  Z
dt
ID
þ ½ID1 þ ID2   RDC þ Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1
I0
112 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

1 1
ð ÞID2 ¼ Cload  fVt   Y  Vt   Xg
½ID1 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0 
1 ID ID
þ  fVt  ln½ 1 þ 1  Vt  ln½ 2 þ 1g
RL I0 I0

Cload  Vt Cload  Vt Vt ID ID
ID2 ¼  Y   X   fln½ 1 þ 1 þ ln½ 2 þ 1g
½ID1 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0  RL I0 I0
Cload  Vt Cload  Vt Vt ID ID
ID2 ¼  Y   X   lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g
½ID1 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0  RL I0 I0
Cload  Vt Cload  Vt Vt ID1 ID 2
 X ¼ ID2   Y   lnf½ þ 1  ½ þ 1g
½ID2 þ I0  ½ID1 þ I0  RL I0 I0
ID  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID þ I0  ID ID
X¼ 2  Y  2  lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g
Cload  Vt ½ID1 þ I0  RL  Cload I0 I0
dID2 dID2 ID2  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0 
X¼ ) ¼ 
dt dt Cload  Vt ½ID1 þ I0 
½ID þ I0  ID ID
Y  2  lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

dZ
ð Þ½L1  Lcalc   ½Y þ X ¼ Lcalc  C1  þ C1  RDC  Z
dt
ID1
þ ½ID1 þ ID2   RDC þ Vt  ln½ þ 1
I0

dZ
Lcalc  C1  ¼ ½L1  Lcalc   ½Y þ X  C1  RDC  Z
dt
ID
 ½ID1 þ ID2   RDC  Vt  ln½ 1 þ 1
I0
dZ ½L1  Lcalc  RDC
¼  ½Y þ X  Z
dt Lcalc  C1 Lcalc
RDC Vt ID
 ½ID1 þ ID2     ln½ 1 þ 1
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I0
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 113

We can summerize our RFID burst switch system, differential equations:

dZ ½L1  Lcalc  RDC


¼  ½Y þ X   Z  ½ID1 þ ID2 
dt Lcalc  C1 Lcalc
RDC Vt ID
   ln½ 1 þ 1
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I0
dZ ½L1  Lcalc  ID2  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0 
¼  ½Y   Y
dt Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt ½ID1 þ I0 
½ID þ I0  ID ID RDC
 2  lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g  Z
RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc
RDC Vt ID
 ½ID1 þ ID2     ln½ 1 þ 1
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I0
dID2 ID2  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0  ID ID dID
¼  Y   lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g; 1 ¼ Y
dt Cload  Vt ½ID1 þ I0  RL  Cload I0 I0 dt

We have four variables in our system: Z; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y and we can represent our
dt ¼ n1 ðZ; ID1 ; ID2 ; YÞ
system as the following set of differential equations: dZ

dID2 dID
¼ n2 ðZ; ID1 ; ID2 ; YÞ; 1 ¼ n3 ðZ; ID1 ; ID2 ; YÞ;
dt dt
n1 ¼ n1 ðZ; ID1 ; ID2 ; YÞ; n2 ¼ n2 ðZ; ID1 ; ID2 ; YÞ
n3 ¼ n3 ðZ; ID1 ; ID2 ; YÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ID  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0 
n1 ¼  ½Y  2  Y
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt ½ID1 þ I0 
½ID þ I0  ID ID RDC
 2  lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g  Z
RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc
RDC Vt ID
 ½ID1 þ ID2     ln½ 1 þ 1
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I0
ID2  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0 
n2 ¼   Y
Cload  Vt ½ID1 þ I0 
½ID þ I0  ID ID
 2  lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g; n3 ¼ Y
RL  Cload I0 I0

RFID system burst switch’s voltage doubler unit is constructed from two diodes
D1 and D2 with parasitic effects, delay in time. D1 current delay in time
ID1 ðtÞ ! ID1 ðt  s1 Þ and D2 current delay in time ID2 ðtÞ ! ID2 ðt  s2 Þ.
Spurious RF energy is presented in our system as delay RFID antenna voltage (V
(t)) and voltage derivative (dV(t)/dt) in time. We neglect voltage delayed in time
and consider only voltage derivative delay in time (D).
114 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

dVðtÞ
ZðtÞ ¼ ; ZðtÞ ! Zðt  DÞ
dt
dI dI
dt ¼ dt ; dt . To find equilibrium points (fixed
We consider no delay effects on dZ D1 D2

points) of the RFID system burst switches, we define lim ID1 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ ID1 ðtÞ
t!1

lim ID2 ðt  s2 Þ ¼ ID2 ðtÞ; lim Zðt  DÞ ¼ ZðtÞ


t!1 t!1

In equilibrium points (fixed points)

dID1 dID dZ
¼ 0; 2 ¼ 0; ¼ 0 8 t  s1 ; t  s2 ;
dt dt dt
t  D 9 ðt  s1 Þ  t; ðt  s2 Þ  t; ðt  DÞ  t; t ! 1:
dID1 dID I  ½I þ I0 
¼ 0 ) Y ¼ 0; 2 ¼ 0 )  D2 D2
dt dt Cload  Vt

½I þ I0  I I
 D2  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g ¼ 0
RL  Cload I0 I0

I  ½I þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0  I I
 D2 D2   lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g ¼ 0
Cload  Vt RL  Cload I0 I0
½ID 2 þ I0  ID 2 1 I
I
) ð þ  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1gÞ ¼ 0
Cload Vt RL I0 I0

Case I:

½ID 2 þ I0  dZ
 ¼ 0 ) ID 2 ¼ I0 ) ¼0
Cload dt
RDC Vt I
) ½ID 1 þ I0    RDC  Z   ln½ D1 þ 1 ¼ 0
C1 C1 I0

Case II:

ID 2 1 I I RL I I
þ  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g ¼ 0 )  ID2 þ lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g ¼ 0
Vt RL I0 I0 Vt I0 I0
ID 1 ID 2 RL R I
I
þ 1g ¼   ID 2 ) e Vt ID2 ¼ ½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1:
L
lnf½ þ 1  ½
I0 I0 Vt I0 I0
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 115

Let us define

RL / X 1
/n /2 /3
/¼  ID2 ; e ¼ ¼ 1þ/þ þ þ 
Vt n¼0
n! 2! 3!
RL X
1 ð RL  I Þn
) e Vt ID2 ¼
V D2 t

n¼0
n!
RL X
1 ð RL  ID 2 Þn X
1 ð1Þn  ðRL  I Þn
e Vt ID2 ¼ Vt V D2
¼ t

n¼0
n! n¼0
n!

RL  ID 2 Þ2 ðRVLt  ID 2 Þ3
ðRVLt
¼ 1   ID2 þ  þ 
Vt 2! 3!
 VLt ID
R RL 1 RL 1 RL
e 2 ¼ 1   ID 2 þ  ð Þ2  ðID 2 Þ2   ð Þ3  ðID 2 Þ3 þ   
Vt 2 Vt 6 Vt
R
 VLt ID
For easy investigation, we take e 2 ¼ 1  RVLt  ID 2 ) 1  RVLt  ID 2 ¼
I I
½ ID01 þ 1  ½ ID02 þ 1

 VLt ID
R RL RL I I
e 2 ¼1 ID2 ) 1   ID 2 ¼ ½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1
Vt Vt I0 I0
RL ID 1 ID 2 ID 1  ID 2 ID 1 I RL
1   ID2 ¼ ½ þ 1  ½ þ 1 ) þ þ D2 þ I ¼0
Vt I0 I0 2
I0 I0 I0 Vt D2
dZ ½L1  Lcalc  I  ½ID2 þ I0 
¼0)  ½ D2
dt Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
½ID 2 þ I0  ID 1 I RDC
  lnf½ þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g  Z
RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc
RDC Vt I
 ½ID 1 þ ID 2     ln½ D1 þ 1 ¼ 0
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I0

Remark Our system, equilibrium points (fixed points) can be calculated numeri-
cally rather than analytically (Case I and Case II). For both cases Y* = 0,
Y* = dID1/dt = 0. At equilibrium no current is flowing through D1, D1 is in OFF
state (VB > 0).
The standard local stability analysis about any one of the equilibrium points of
the RFID system burst switch consists in adding to coordinate ½Z; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y
arbitrarily small increments of exponential form ½z; iD1 ; iD2 ; y  ekt and retaining the
first order terms in Z; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y. The system of three homogeneous equations leads
to a polynomial characteristic equation in the eigenvalues. The polynomial char-
acteristic equations accept by set the below currents and currents derivative with
respect to time into RFID system burst switch equations. RFID system burst
switches fixed values with arbitrarily small increments of exponential form
116 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

½z; iD1 ; iD2 ; y  ekt are: j = 0 (first fixed point), j = 1 (second fixed point), j = 2
(third fixed point), etc.

ZðtÞ ¼ Z ðjÞ þ z  ekt


ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 ðtÞ ¼ ID1 þ iD1  ekt ; ID2 ðtÞ ¼ ID2 þ iD2  ekt ;
ðjÞ
YðtÞ ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt ; ID1 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ ID1 þ iD1  ekðts1 Þ
ðjÞ
ID2 ðt  s2 Þ ¼ ID2 þ iD2  ekðts2 Þ ; Zðt  DÞ ¼ Z ðjÞ þ z  ekðtDÞ :

We choose these expressions for our ZðtÞ; ID1 ðtÞ; ID2 ðtÞ; YðtÞ as a small dis-
placement ½z; iD1 ; iD2 ; y from the RFID system burst switch fixed points in time
t = 0.
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ ID1 þ iD1 ; ID2 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ ID2 þ iD2 ; Yðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y; Zðt ¼ 0Þ
¼ Z ðjÞ þ z:

For k\0; t [ 0, the selected fixed point is stable otherwise k [ 0; t [ 0 is


unstable. Our system tends to the selected fixed point exponentially for k\0; t [ 0
otherwise go away from the selected fixed point exponentially. k Is the eigenvalue
parameter which is established if the fixed point is stable or unstable; additionally,
his absolute value (jkj) establishes the speed of flow toward or away from the
selected fixed point (Yuri 1995; Jack and Huseyin 1991). The speeds of flow toward or
away from the selected fixed point for RFID system burst switch diodes (D1 and D2)
currents and antenna voltage derivative with respect to time are
dZðtÞ Zðt þ DtÞ  ZðtÞ Z ðjÞ þ z  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½Z ðjÞ þ z  ekt 
¼ lim ¼ lim
dt Dt!1 Dt Dt!1 Dt
ekDt 1 þ kDt
¼ ! k  z  ekt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
dID1 ðtÞ ID ðt þ DtÞ  ID1 ðtÞ I þ iD1  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½ID1 þ iD1  ekt 
¼ lim 1 ¼ lim D1
dt Dt!1 Dt Dt!1 Dt
ekDt 1 þ kDt
¼ ! k  iD1  ekt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
dID2 ðtÞ ID ðt þ DtÞ  ID2 ðtÞ I þ iD2  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½ID2 þ iD2  ekt 
¼ lim 2 ¼ lim D2
dt Dt!1 Dt Dt!1 Dt
ekDt 1 þ kDt
¼ ! k  iD2  ekt
dYðtÞ Yðt þ DtÞ  YðtÞ Y ðjÞ þ y  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt 
¼ lim ¼ lim
dt Dt!1 Dt Dt!1 Dt
ekDt 1 þ kDt
¼ ! k  y  ekt
dID1 ðt  s1 Þ dID2 ðt  s2 Þ
¼ k  iD1  ekt  eks1 ; ¼ k  iD2  ekt  eks2 ;
dt dt
dZðt  DÞ
¼ k  z  ekt  ekD
dt
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 117

First, we take RFID system burst switch variable Z; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y differential equa-
tions and adding to coordinate ½Z; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y arbitrarily small increments of expo-
nential terms ½z; iD1 ; iD2 ; y  ekt and retaining the first order terms in z; iD1 ; iD2 ; y.

dZðtÞ
ZðtÞ ¼ Z ðjÞ þ z  ekt ) ¼ z  k  ekt
dt
dZ ½L1  Lcalc  ID  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0 
¼  ½Y  2  Y
dt Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt ½ID1 þ I0 
½ID þ I0  ID ID RDC
 2  lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g  Z
RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc
RDC Vt ID
 ½ID1 þ ID2     ln½ 1 þ 1
LcalcC1 Lcalc  C1 I0

ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðI þ iD2  ekt Þ  ½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0 
z  k  ekt ¼  ½ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ  D2
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0 
 ðjÞ
 ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
½ID1 þ iD1  ekt þ I0 
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0  I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
RDC
  ðZ ðjÞ þ z  ekt Þ
Lcalc
ðjÞ ðjÞ RDC
 ½ðID1 þ iD1  ekt Þ þ ID2 þ iD2  ekt  
Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ
Vt I þ iD1  ekt
  ln½ D1 þ 1
Lcalc  C1 I0

½L1  Lcalc 
z  k  ekt ¼  ½ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt þ i2D2  e2kt

Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt  ½ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt 
 ðjÞ
 ðjÞ  ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
kt
½ðID1 þ I0 Þ þ iD1  e  ½ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD1  e  kt

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0  I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
RDC
  ðZ ðjÞ þ z  ekt Þ
Lcalc
ðjÞ ðjÞ RDC
 ½ID1  iD1  ekt þ ID2 þ iD2  ekt  
Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ
Vt I þ iD1  ekt
  ln½ D1 þ 0
Lcalc  C1 I0
118 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

½L1  Lcalc 
z  k  ekt ¼  ½ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt þ i2D2  e2kt

Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðI þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt  iD2  iD1  e2kt
 f D2 ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2  i2D1  e2kt
 ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0  I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
RDC
  ðZ ðjÞ þ z  ekt Þ
Lcalc
ðjÞ ðjÞ RDC
 ½ID1  iD1  ekt þ ID2 þ iD2  ekt  
Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ
Vt I þ iD1  ekt
  ln½ D1 þ 0
Lcalc  C1 I0

We consider i2D1 ! e  0; i2D2 ! e  0; iD2  iD1 ! e  0

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


ID ðID þ I0 Þ þ ID iD2 ekt þ ðID þ I0 ÞiD2 ekt
z  k  ekt ¼ ½LL1calc
Lcalc  ðjÞ kt
C1  ½ðY þ y  e Þ 
2 2 2
Cload Vt
2

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ kt ðjÞ kt


ðID þ I0 ÞðID þ I0 ÞðID þ I0 ÞiD1 e þ ðID þ I0 ÞiD2 e
f 2 1 2
ðjÞ
1
g  ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
ðID þ I0 Þ2
ð£Þ ðjÞ ðjÞ
1
ðjÞ
½ID þ iD2 ekt þ I0  I þ iD1 e kt
I þ iD2 ekt
 2
RL Cload  lnf½ D1 I0 þ 1  ½ D2 I0 þ 1g  LRcalc
DC
 ðZ ðjÞ þ z  ekt Þ
ðjÞ
ðjÞ ðjÞ I þ iD1 ekt
½ID1  iD1  ekt þ ID2 þ iD2  ekt   Lcalc
RDC
C1  Lcalc C1  ln½
Vt D1
I0 þ 1

Calculation No. 1:

ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
lnf½ þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID 1 1 I 1
¼ ln½ð½ þ 1 þ  iD1  ekt Þ  ð½ D2 þ 1 þ  iD2  ekt Þ
I0 I0 I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID 1 I I 1
¼ lnf½ þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1 þ ½ D1 þ 1   iD2  ekt
I0 I0 I0 I0
ðjÞ
ID2 1 1
þ½ þ 1   iD1  ekt þ 2  iD1  iD2  e2kt g
I0 I0 I0
iD1  iD2  0
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 119
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 þ iD1  ekt ID 2 þ iD2  ekt
lnf½ þ 1  ½ þ 1g
I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 I I 1 I 1
¼ lnf½ þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1 þ ½ D1 þ 1   iD2  ekt þ ½ D2 þ 1   iD1  ekt g
I0 I0 I0 I0 I0 I0

We define:

ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðjÞ ðjÞ I 1 I 1
X1 ¼ X1 ðID1 ; ID2 ; iD2 ; iD1 ; kÞ ¼ ½ D1 þ 1   iD2  ekt þ ½ D2 þ 1   iD1  ekt
I0 I0 I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt I I
lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g ¼ lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1 þ X1 g
I0 I0 I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
I I X1
¼ lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1  ð1 þ ðjÞ ðjÞ
Þg
I0 I0 ID ID
½ I0 þ 1  ½ I0 þ 1
1 2

The above is assuming

ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 I
½ þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1 [ 0
I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
lnf½ þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
I I X1
¼ lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g þ lnf1 þ ðjÞ ðjÞ
g
I0 I0 ID ID
½ I0 þ 1  ½ I0 þ 1
1 2

ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID I
X1 ½ I0 þ 1  I10  iD2  ekt þ ½ ID02 þ 1  I10  iD1  ekt
1

ðjÞ ðjÞ
¼ ðjÞ ðjÞ
I I I I
½ ID01 þ 1  ½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1  ½ ID02 þ 1
iD2 iD1 1 kt
¼f ðjÞ
þ ðjÞ
g e
ID ID I0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1

x2 x3 x4 X1
xn
lnð1 þ xÞ ¼ x  þ  þ... ¼ ð1Þn þ 1 . . . ) lnð1 þ xÞ  x
2 3 4 n¼1
n
120 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

X1 X1
lnf1 þ ðjÞ ðjÞ
g ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID ID ID I
½ I01 þ 1  ½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1  ½ ID02 þ 1
iD2 iD1 1 kt
¼f ðjÞ
þ ðjÞ
g e
ID ID I0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1

ðjÞ ðjÞ
I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
I I iD iD 1
¼ lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g þ f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
I0 I0 I I I0
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1

Calculation No. 2:

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0  I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
 lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0  I I iD iD 1
¼  ðlnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g þ f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt Þ
RL  Cload I0 I0 I I I0
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0  I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
 lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2 þ I0 iD  ekt I I iD iD 1
¼f þ 2 g  ðlnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g þ f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt Þ
RL  Cload RL  Cload I0 I0 ID ID I0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ I I ðI þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
¼  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g þ D2  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload I0 I0 RL  Cload ID ID I 0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I e2kt iD  iD2 iD  iD1
þ  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g þ  f ðjÞ2 þ ðjÞ2 g
RL  Cload I0 I0 RL  Cload  I0 I I
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1
e2kt iD  iD 2 iD  iD1
iD2  iD2  0; iD2  iD1  0 )  f ðjÞ2 þ ðjÞ2 g!e
RL  Cload  I0 ID I
½ I02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 121

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0  I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt
 lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ I I ðI þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
¼  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g þ D2  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload I0 I0 RL  Cload ID ID I 0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I
þ  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

Calculation No. 3:
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 þ iD1  ekt I iD  ekt I iD1  ekt
ln½ þ 1 ¼ ln½ð D1 þ 1Þ þ 1  ¼ ln½ð D1 þ 1Þ  f1 þ ðjÞ
g
I0 I0 I0 I0 I
I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 þ iD1  ekt I iD1  ekt
ln½ þ 1 ¼ lnð D1 þ 1Þ þ lnf1 þ ðjÞ
g
I0 I0 I
I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ
x2 x3 x4 X1
xn
lnð1 þ xÞ ¼ x  þ  þ  ¼ ð1Þn þ 1  ) lnð1 þ xÞ  x
2 3 4 n¼1
n

ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID1 þ iD1  ekt I iD1  ekt
ln½ þ 1 ¼ lnð D1 þ 1Þ þ lnf1 þ ðjÞ
g
I0 I0 I
I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ
ðjÞ
ID 1 iD1  ekt
¼ lnð þ 1Þ þ ðjÞ
I0 I
I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ

Integrating last results in the next expression:


ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID ðID þ I0 Þ þ ID iD2 ekt þ ðID þ I0 ÞiD2 ekt
z  k  ekt ¼ ½LL1calc
Lcalc  ðjÞ kt
C1  ½ðY þ y  e Þ 
2 2 2
Cload Vt
2

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ kt ðjÞ kt


ðID þ I0 ÞðID þ I0 ÞðID þ I0 ÞiD1 e þ ðID þ I0 ÞiD2 e
f 2 1 2
ðjÞ
1
g  ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
ðID þ I0 Þ2
ð£Þ ðjÞ ðjÞ
1
ðjÞ
½ID þ iD2 ekt þ I0  I þ iD1 e kt
I þ iD2 ekt
 2
RL Cload  lnf½ D1 I0 þ 1  ½ D2 I0 þ 1g  LRcalc
DC
 ðZ ðjÞ þ z  ekt Þ
ðjÞ
ðjÞ ðjÞ I þ iD1 ekt
½ID1  iD1  ekt þ ID2 þ iD2  ekt   Lcalc
RDC
C1  Lcalc C1  ln½
Vt D1
I0 þ 1
122 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

½L1  Lcalc 
z  k  ekt ¼  ½ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt

Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
f ðjÞ
g  ðY ðjÞ þ y  ekt Þ
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ I I
f  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
þ  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload ID ID I 0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I RDC
þ  lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þg   ðZ ðjÞ þ z  ekt Þ
RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc
ðjÞ ðjÞ RDC
 ½ID1  iD1  ekt þ ID2 þ iD2  ekt  
Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ
Vt I iD1  ekt
  flnð D1 þ 1Þ þ g
Lcalc  C1 I0 I
ðjÞ

I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ

The condition of our system fixed points:

dZ
j ðjÞ ðjÞ ¼0
dt @ID1 ;ID2 ;Y ðjÞ ;Z ðjÞ
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  I  ðID2 þ I0 Þ ðI þ I0 Þ
 ½Y ðjÞ  D2  f DðjÞ2 g  Y ðjÞ
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt ðI þ I0 Þ D1
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ ID1 ID2
  lnf½ þ 1  ½ þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ
RDC ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ RDC Vt I
  Z  ½ID1 þ ID2     lnð D1 þ 1Þ ¼ 0
Lcalc Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I0
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 123

ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  I  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
z  k  ekt ¼  ½y  ekt  D2
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ
 ðjÞ
 y  ekt
ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ
þ ðjÞ
 i  ekt  Y ðjÞ þ ðjÞ
2 D1
 iD1  ekt  y  ekt
ðID1 þ I0 Þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
iD2  ekt  Y ðjÞ iD2  ekt  y  ekt
 ðjÞ
 ðjÞ
ðID1 þ I0 Þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload I I I0
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I
  lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ
RL  Cload I0 I0
RDC RDC
  z  ekt  ½iD1  ekt þ iD2  ekt  
Lcalc Lcalc  C1
Vt iD1  ekt
 f g
Lcalc  C1 I
ðjÞ

I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ
iD1  y  0 ) ðjÞ
 iD1  ekt  y  ekt ! e;
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
iD2  ekt  y  ekt
iD2  y  0 ) ðjÞ
!e
ðID1 þ I0 Þ

ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  I  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
z  k  ekt ¼  ½y  ekt  D2
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ
 ðjÞ
 y  ekt
ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  ekt  Y ðjÞ
þ ðjÞ
 iD1  ekt  Y ðjÞ  ðjÞ
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2 ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2 i D1 1
 f þ g   ekt
RL  Cload ðjÞ
ID
ðjÞ
ID I0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I RDC
  lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ   z  ekt
RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc
RDC Vt iD1  ekt
 ½iD1  ekt þ iD2  ekt    f g
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I
ðjÞ

I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ
124 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

dID2 ID  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID2 þ I0  ½ID þ I0  ID ID


¼ 2  Y  2  lnf½ 1 þ 1  ½ 2 þ 1g
dt Cload  Vt ½ID1 þ I0  RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ID2 þ iD2  ekt   ½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0 
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0 
 ðjÞ
 ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt 
½ID1 þ iD1  ekt þ I0 
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ID2 þ iD2  ekt þ I0  ðI þ iD1  ekt Þ ðI þ iD2  ekt Þ
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ID2 þ iD2  ekt   ½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt 
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt 
 ðjÞ
 ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt 
½ðID1 þ I0 Þ þ iD1  ekt 
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt  ðI þ iD1  ekt Þ ðI þ iD2  ekt Þ
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt þ iD2  iD2  e2kt
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt  ½ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt 
 ðjÞ
 ðjÞ  ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt 
½ðID1 þ I0 Þ þ iD1  ekt  ½ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt 
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt  ðI þ iD1  ekt Þ ðI þ iD2  ekt Þ
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt þ iD2  iD2  e2kt
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt  iD2  iD1  e2kt
f ðjÞ 2
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ  i2D1  e2kt
 ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt 
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt  ðI þ iD1  ekt Þ ðI þ iD2  ekt Þ
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

iD2  iD2  0; iD2  iD1  0; i2D1  0


1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 125

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðI þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
 f D2 ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
 ½Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt 
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt  ðI þ iD1  ekt Þ ðI þ iD2  ekt Þ
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt þ Y ðjÞ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  y  e2kt þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD2  y  e2kt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt  ðI þ iD1  ekt Þ ðI þ iD2  ekt Þ
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

iD1  y  0; iD2  y  0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt þ Y ðjÞ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ iD2  ekt  ðI þ iD1  ekt Þ ðI þ iD2  ekt Þ
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

We have already approved in calculation No. 1

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


I þ iD1  ekt I þ iD2  ekt I I
lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g ¼ lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
I0 I0 I0 I0
iD2 iD 1
þ f ðjÞ þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
ID ID I0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
126 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt þ Y ðjÞ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
f ðjÞ 2
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD  ekt I I
f þ 2 g  flnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload RL  Cload I0 I0
iD2 iD 1 1 kt
þ f ðjÞ þ ðjÞ g e g
I I I0
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼  
Cload  Vt Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt Y ðjÞ  iD2  ekt
f ðjÞ
 ðjÞ 2
þ ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðI þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
 f D2 ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðI þ I0 Þ iD  ekt I I
 f D2 þ 2 g  flnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload RL  Cload I0 I0
iD 2 iD 1 1 kt
þ f ðjÞ þ ðjÞ g e g
I I I0
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼  
Cload  Vt Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt Y ðjÞ  iD2  ekt
f ðjÞ
 ðjÞ 2
þ ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðI þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
 f D2 ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ ID 1 ID 2
  lnf½ þ 1  ½ þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload ID ID I 0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
1 iD2  iD2 iD1  iD2 1
  f ðjÞ þ ðjÞ g   e2kt
RL  Cload ID ID I0
½ I0 þ 1 ½ I0 þ 1
2 1
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 127

iD2  iD2  0; iD1  iD2  0


ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2  ðID2 þ I0 Þ ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼  
Cload  Vt Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt Y ðjÞ  iD2  ekt
f ðjÞ
 ðjÞ
þ ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ2 ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ I I
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload I I I0
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
dID2
At fixed point dt ¼0

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


dID2 I  ðID2 þ I0 Þ Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ
¼ 0 )  D2 
dt Cload  Vt ðjÞ
ðI þ I0 Þ D1
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ ID1 ID2
  lnf½ þ 1  ½ þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
kt
I  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  e ¼  D2
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt Y ðjÞ  iD2  ekt
 f ðjÞ 2
þ ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ
ðI þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
 D2  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload ID ID I 0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD  ekt I I
 2  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
128 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Remark: it is reader exercise to build the system Jacobian matrix and analyze the
dynamic and stability of the system based on eigenvalues investigation.
ðjÞ ðjÞ
We define ID1 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ ID1 þ iD1  ekðts1 Þ ; ID2 ðt  s2 Þ ¼ ID2 þ iD2  ekðts2 Þ and
Zðt  DÞ ¼ Z ðjÞ þ z  ekðtDÞ . Then we get three delayed differential equations with
respect to coordinates ½Z; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y arbitrarily small increments of exponential
dZðtÞ dID1 ðtÞ dID2 ðtÞ
½z; iD1 ; iD2 ; y  ekt . We consider no delay effects on dt ; dt ; dt ; Y
ðjÞ
¼ 0.

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


½L1  Lcalc  I  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt ðID2 þ I0 Þ
z  k  ekt ¼  ½y  ekt  D2  ðjÞ  y  ekt
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt ðI þ I0 Þ D1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  ekt  Y ðjÞ ðI þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
þ  iD1  ekt  Y ðjÞ  þ D2  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
ðjÞ
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ
ðID1 þ I0 Þ RL  Cload ID ID I 0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðiÞ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I RDC RDC
  lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ   z  ekt  ½iD1  ekt þ iD2  ekt  
RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc Lcalc  C1
Vt iD1  ekt
 f g
Lcalc  C1 I
ðjÞ

I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ

ðiiÞ k  iD1  ekt ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt


ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt Y ðjÞ  iD2  ekt
 f ðjÞ
þ ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2 ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
ðiiiÞ f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload ID ID I 0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

iD1  ekt ! iD1  ekt  eks1 ; iD2  ekt ! iD2  ekt  eks2 ;
z  ekt ! z  ekt  ekD ; Y ðjÞ ¼ 0
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 129

Remark: left side of below equation doesn’t affect by delay parameter.


ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  I  iD2  ekt  eks2 þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt  eks2
z  k  ekt ¼  ½y  ekt  D2
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ
 ðjÞ
 y  ekt
ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  eks2 iD  eks1 1 kt
þ  f ðjÞ þ 1ðjÞ g e
RL  Cload I I I0
ðiÞ ½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt  eks2 I I
  lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ
RL  Cload I0 I0
RDC kt kD
 ze e  ½iD1  e  eks1 þ iD2  ekt  eks2 
kt
Lcalc
RDC Vt iD  eks1  ekt
  f 1 g
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I
ðjÞ

I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ

Divide above equations two sides by ekt :


ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  f2  ID2 þ I0 g  iD2  eks2 ðID2 þ I0 Þ
zk¼  ½y   ðjÞ y
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  eks2 iD  eks1 1
þ  f ðjÞ þ 1ðjÞ g
RL  Cload I I I0
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  eks2 I I RDC
  lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ   z  ekD
RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc
RDC Vt iD  eks1
 ½iD1  eks1 þ iD2  eks2     f 1 ðjÞ g
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 I
I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ

ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ½L1  Lcalc  f2  ID2 þ I0 g  iD2  eks2
zk y 
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ
  y
Lcalc  C1 ðI ðjÞ þ I0 Þ
D1
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  eks2 iD  eks1 1
þ   f ðjÞ þ 1ðjÞ g
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload I I I0
½ ID02 þ 1 ½ ID01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  iD2  eks2 I I
   lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload I0 I0
RDC kD ks1 ks2 RDC
 ze  ½iD1  e þ iD 2  e 
Lcalc Lcalc  C1
Vt iD  eks1
  f 1 ðjÞ g¼0
Lcalc  C1 I
I0  ð ID01 þ 1Þ
130 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ½L1  Lcalc  f2  ID2 þ I0 g  iD2  eks2
zk y 
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ
  y
Lcalc  C1 ðI ðjÞ þ I0 Þ
D1
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  eks2
þ  
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload  I0 IDðjÞ2
½ I0 þ 1
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD1  eks1
þ  
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload  I0 IDðjÞ1
½ I0 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  iD2  eks2 I I
   lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload I0 I0
RDC kD ks1 ks2 RDC
 ze  ½iD1  e þ iD2  e 
Lcalc Lcalc  C1
Vt iD  eks1
  f 1 ðjÞ g¼0
Lcalc  C1 ID
I0  ð I0 þ 1Þ
1

ðjÞ
RDC kD ½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ eks1
f e  kg  z þ f   ðjÞ
Lcalc Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload  I0 ID1
½ I0 þ 1
Vt eks1 RDC
 f gþ  eks1 g  iD1
Lcalc  C1 ðjÞ
ID Lcalc  C1
I0  ð I01 þ 1Þ
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ eks2
þf   ðjÞ
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload  I0 ID2
½ I0 þ 1
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  f2  ID2 þ I0 g  eks2
 
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  eks2 I I
   lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ
RDC ½L1  Lcalc  ðI þ I0 Þ
  eks2 g  iD2   f1 þ DðjÞ2 gy¼0
Lcalc  C1 Lcalc  C1 ðID1 þ I0 Þ
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 131

ðjÞ
RDC kD ½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ 1
f e  kg  z þ f  
Lcalc Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload  I0 ðjÞ
ID
½ I01 þ 1
Vt 1 RDC
 f gþ g  eks1  iD1
Lcalc  C1 ðjÞ
ID Lcalc  C1
I0  ð I01 þ 1Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ 1 ½L1  Lcalc  f2  ID2 þ I0 g
þf    
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload  I0 I
ðjÞ
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
½ ID02 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  1 I I RDC
   lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ  g  eks2  iD2
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðI þ I0 Þ
  f1 þ DðjÞ2 gy¼0
Lcalc  C1 ðID1 þ I0 Þ

We define for simplicity the following global parameters:

ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ 1 Vt 1 RDC
!1 ¼    f gþ
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload  I0 ID
ðjÞ
Lcalc  C1 ðjÞ
ID Lcalc  C1
½ I01 þ 1 I0  ð I01 þ 1Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðID2 þ I0 Þ 1 ½L1  Lcalc  f2  ID2 þ I0 g
!2 ¼    
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload  I0 I
ðjÞ
Lcalc  C1 Cload  Vt
½ ID02 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  1 I I RDC
   lnð½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1Þ 
Lcalc  C1 RL  Cload I0 I0 Lcalc  C1
ðjÞ
½L1  Lcalc  ðI þ I0 Þ
!3 ¼  f1 þ DðjÞ2 g
Lcalc  C1 ðID1 þ I0 Þ
RDC kD
f e  kg  z þ !1  eks1  iD1 þ !2  eks2  iD2  !3  y ¼ 0
Lcalc

iD1  ekt ! iD1  ekt  eks1 ; iD2  ekt ! iD2  ekt  eks2 ;
z  ekt ! z  ekt  ekD ; Y ðjÞ ¼ 0
132 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Remark left side of below equation doesn’t affect by delay parameter.

k  iD1  ekt ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt jY ðjÞ ¼0 ) k  iD1  ekt ¼ y  ekt ) k  iD1 þ y ¼ 0


ðiiÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2  iD2  ekt þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt

ðjÞ
Y ðjÞ  ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD1  ekt Y ðjÞ  iD2  ekt
 f ðjÞ
þ ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2 ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðiiiÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD iD 1
  f ðjÞ 2 þ ðjÞ 1 g   ekt
RL  Cload ID ID I 0
½ I02 þ 1 ½ I01 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt I I
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0

iD1  ekt ! iD1  ekt  eks1 ; iD2  ekt ! iD2  ekt  eks2 ;
z  ekt ! z  ekt  ekD ; Y ðjÞ ¼ 0

Remark left side of below equation doesn’t affect by delay parameter.

ðjÞ ðjÞ
ID2  iD2  ekt  eks2 þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  ekt  eks2
k  iD2  ekt ¼ 
Cload  Vt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ  ðID1 þ I0 Þ  y  ekt
f ðjÞ
g
ðID1 þ I0 Þ2
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  eks2 iD  eks1 1 kt
  f ðjÞ þ 1ðjÞ g e
RL  Cload ID ID I0
½ I0 þ 1
2
½ I0 þ 1
1

ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  ekt  eks2 I I
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
kt
We divide above two sides by e term.
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 133

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


I  iD2  eks2 þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ  iD2  eks2 ðID2 þ I0 Þ
k  iD2 ¼  D2  ðjÞ y
Cload  Vt ðID1 þ I0 Þ
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  eks2 iD  eks1 1
  f ðjÞ þ 1ðjÞ g
RL  Cload ID ID I0
½ I0 þ 1
2
½ I0 þ 1
1

ðjÞ ðjÞ
iD2  eks2 I I
  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
RL  Cload I0 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
½2  ID2 þ I0   iD2  eks2 ðID2 þ I0 Þ ðID2 þ I0 Þ iD2  eks2
k  iD2 ¼   ðjÞ y 
Cload  Vt ðID1 þ I0 Þ RL  Cload  I0 IDðjÞ2
½ þ 1 I0
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
ðID2þ I0 Þ iD1  e iD  e ks1 ks2 ID 1 ID 2
  ðjÞ  2  lnf½ þ 1  ½ þ 1g
RL  Cload  I0 I RL  Cload I0 I0
½ ID01 þ 1
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ 1
   eks1  iD1  k  iD2
RL  Cload  I0 ðjÞ
ID
½ I0 þ 11

ðjÞ ðjÞ
½2  ID2 þ I0  ðID2 þ I0 Þ 1
ð þ 
Cload  Vt RL  Cload  I0 ðjÞ
ID
½ I02 þ 1
ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ
1 I I ðI þ I0 Þ
þ  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1gÞ  iD2  eks2  DðjÞ2 y¼0
RL  Cload I0 I0 ðID1 þ I0 Þ

We define the following global parameters for simplicity.

ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ 1
!4 ¼   ;
RL  Cload  I0 ðjÞ
ID
½ I0 þ 1
1

ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ ðjÞ


½2  þ I0 
ID 2 ðID2 þ I0 Þ 1 1 I I
!5 ¼ þ  þ  lnf½ D1 þ 1  ½ D2 þ 1g
Cload  Vt RL  Cload  I0 I
ðjÞ
RL  Cload I0 I0
½ ID02 þ 1
ðjÞ
ðID2 þ I0 Þ
!6 ¼ ðjÞ
ðID1 þ I0 Þ
!4  eks1  iD1  k  iD2  !5  iD2  eks2  !6  y ¼ 0
ðjÞ ðjÞ
!k ¼ !k ðZ ðjÞ ; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y ðjÞ ; L1 ; Lcalc ; RL ; Cload ; RDC ; I0 ; VÞ 8 k ¼ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6:

ðjÞ ðjÞ
In the equilibrium fixed points: Z ðjÞ ; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y ðjÞ ¼ 0
134 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

The small increments Jacobian of our RFID burst switch system is as follows:

RDC kD
f e  kg  z þ !1  eks1  iD1
Lcalc
þ !2  eks2  iD2  !3  y ¼ 0
 k  iD1 þ y ¼ 0
!4  eks1  iD1  ½k þ !5  eks2   iD2  !6  y ¼ 0
dID1 dYðtÞ d 2 ID1
¼Y ) ¼
dt dt dt2
d 2 ID1 dYðtÞ
We consider dt2 ! e then dt ¼0

dYðtÞ
YðtÞ ¼ Y ðjÞ þ y  ekt ) ¼ y  k  ekt ;
dt
dYðtÞ
¼ 0 ) y  k  ekt ¼ 0 ) jekt 6¼0 y  k ¼ 0 ) y  k ¼ 0
dt 0 1
0 1 z
N11 . . . N14 B C
B . B iD1 C
B . .. .. C
CB C
@ . . . A B C
B ¼ 0;
C
@ iD2 A
N41    N44
y
RDC kD
N11 ¼  e  k; N12 ¼ !1  eks1 ; N13 ¼ !2  eks2
Lcalc
N14 ¼ !3 ; N21 ¼ 0; N22 ¼ k; N23 ¼ 0; N24 ¼ 1;
N31 ¼ 0; N32 ¼ !4  eks1 ; N33 ¼ k  !5  eks2
N34 ¼ !6 ; N41 ¼ 0; N42 ¼ 0; N43 ¼ 0; N44 ¼ k
0 1
N11 . . . N14
B . .. .. C
AkI ¼B @ .. .
C
. A; det jA  k  Ij ¼ 0
N31    N34
RDC kD RDC kðD þ s2 Þ
Dðk; s1 ; s2 ; DÞ ¼ k4 þ k3  ½ e þ !5  eks2  þ k2  !5  e
Lcalc Lcalc

We have three sub cases: (I) s2 ¼ s; D ¼ 0(II) s2 ¼ 0; D [ 0(III) s2 ¼ D ¼ sD

RDC RDC
ðIÞ Dðk; s2 ¼ s; D ¼ 0Þ ¼ k4 þ k3  þ ½k3  !5 þ k2  !5    eks
Lcalc Lcalc
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 135

RDC RDC
ðIIÞ Dðk; s2 ¼ 0; D [ 0Þ ¼ k4 þ k3  !5 þ ½k3  þ k2  ! 5    ekD
Lcalc Lcalc

RDC
Dðk; s2 ¼ sD ; D ¼ sD Þ ¼ k4 þ k3  ½ þ !5   eksD
Lcalc
ðIIIÞ
RDC ksD ksD
þ k2  ! 5  e e
Lcalc
Under Taylor series approximation: eksD  1  k  sD . The Maclaurin series is
a Taylor series expansion of a eksD function about zero (0). We get the following
general characteristic equation D(k, sD) under Taylor series approximation:
eksD  1  k  sD [5, 6].

RDC
Dðk; s2 ¼ sD ; D ¼ sD Þ ¼ k4 þ fk3  ½ þ !5 
Lcalc
RDC
þ k2  ! 5   ð1  k  sD Þg  eksD
Lcalc

Possible characteristic equations: (I) Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks 8 n [ m


(II) Dðk; DÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  ekD (III) Dðk; sD Þ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eksD .
We summary, our results in the following table:

s2 ¼ s; D ¼ 0(n > m) s2 ¼ 0; D [ 0(n > m) s2 ¼ sD ; D ¼ sD (n > m)


n 4 4 4
m 3 3 3
Pn k4 þ k3  LRcalc
DC
k4 þ k3  !5 k4
Qm k3  !5 þ k2  !5  LRcalc
DC
k3  LRcalc
DC
þ k2  !5  LRcalc
DC
k3  ½
RDC
þ !5 
Lcalc
RDC
þ k2  !5   ð1  k  sD Þ
Lcalc

Our RFID bursts switch homogeneous system for z; iD1 ; iD2 ; y leads to a char-
acteristic equation for the eigenvalue k having the form PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0.
First case s2 ¼ s; D ¼ 0. The general characteristic equation D(k, s) is ad follow:

RDC RDC
Dðk; s2 ¼ s; D ¼ 0Þ ¼ k4 þ k3  þ ½k3  !5 þ k2  !5    eks
Lcalc Lcalc

The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is


136 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

X
n
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  k ¼ P0 ðsÞ
k

k¼0

þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k2 þ P3 ðsÞ  k3 þ P4 ðsÞ  k4


P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P1 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P2 ðsÞ ¼ 0;
RDC
P3 ðsÞ ¼ ; P4 ðsÞ ¼ 1
Lcalc

The expression for Qn ðk; sÞ is

X
M
Qn ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k þ q2 ðsÞ  k2 þ q3 ðsÞ  k3 q0 ðsÞ
k¼0
RDC
¼ 0; q1 ðsÞ ¼ 0; q2 ðsÞ ¼ !5  ; q3 ðsÞ ¼ !5
Lcalc

The homogeneous system for z; iD1 ; i0D2 ; y leads to a characteristic equation for
the eigenvalue k having the form

X
4 X
3
Pðk; sÞ þ Qðk; sÞ  eks ¼ 0; PðkÞ ¼ aj  k j ; QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j
j¼0 j¼0

And the coefficients faj ðqi ; qk ; sÞ; cj ðqi ; qk ; sÞg 2 R depend on qi ; qk and delay
qi ; qk is any RFID burst switching parameters, other parameters keep as a constant.

RDC
a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ 0; a2 ¼ 0; a3 ¼ ;
Lcalc
RDC
a4 ¼ 1; c0 ¼ 0; c1 ¼ 0; c2 ¼ !5  ; c3 ¼ ! 5
Lcalc

Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments ðqi ; qk Þ will
subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj. The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and
differentiable functions of their arguments, and direct substitution shows that
a0 + c0 6¼ 0 (not in sub case I) for 8 qi ; qk 2 R þ , i.e. k = 0 is not a of
PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0. Furthermore, P(k), Q(k) are analytic functions of k, for
which the following requirements of the analysis [BK] can also be verified in the
present case:
(a) If k ¼ i  x; x 2 R, then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Rek 0. No roots bifurcation from ∞.
(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 has a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a
polynomial in x.
(d) Each positive root xðqi ; qk Þ of F (x) = 0 is continuous and differentiable
respect to qi ; qk .
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 137

We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ can’t have common imaginary roots. That
is, for any real number x,

pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0:
RDC
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x4  i  x3  ;
Lcalc
RDC
Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ i  x3  !5  x2  !5 
Lcalc
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ
RDC RDC
¼ x4  i  x3   i  x3  !5  x2  !5  6¼ 0
Lcalc Lcalc
RDC 2
jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ P2R þ P2I ¼ x8 þ x6  ½  ;
Lcalc
RDC 2
jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ Q2R þ Q2I ¼ x6  !25 þ x4  !25  ½ 
Lcalc
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2
RDC 2 RDC 2
¼ x8 þ x6  ½   x6  !25  x4  !25  ½ 
Lcalc Lcalc
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2
RDC 2 RDC 2
¼ x8 þ x6  f½   !25 g  x4  !25  ½ 
Lcalc Lcalc

We define the following parameters for simplicity:

U0 ; U2 ; U4 ; U6 ; U8
RDC 2 RDC 2
U0 ¼ 0; U2 ¼ 0; U4 ¼ !25  ½  ; U6 ¼ ½   !25 ; U8 ¼ 1
Lcalc Lcalc

P
4
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies U2k  x2k ¼ 0. And its roots are given by solving
k¼0
the above polynomial. Furthermore

RDC RDC
PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x4 ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x3  ; QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2  !5 
Lcalc Lcalc
PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x3  !5 ; sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2
PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  x; sÞj2
138 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

DC 2
x7  !5 þ x5  ½LRcalc   !5 ½ LRcalc
DC
þ Lcalc   x  !5
RDC 6
sin hðsÞ ¼ ; cos hðsÞ ¼  ¼0
DC 2 DC 2
x6  !25 þ x4  !25  ½LRcalc  x6  !25 þ x4  !25  ½LRcalc 

DC 2 DC 2
x7  !5 þ x5  ½LRcalc   !5 x5  !5  fx2 þ ½LRcalc  g x
sin hðsÞ ¼ 2
¼ ¼ ; cos hðsÞ ¼ 0
DC 2
x6  !5 þ x4  !5  ½Lcalc
2 2 RDC
 x4  !5  fx2 þ ½Lcalc
2 R
 g !5

We use different parameters terminology from our last characteristics parameters


definition: k ! j; pk ðsÞ ! aj ; qk ðsÞ ! cj ; n ¼ 4; m ¼ 3; n [ m. Additionally
P4 P
3
Pn ðk; sÞ ! PðkÞ; Qm ðk; sÞ ! QðkÞ then PðkÞ ¼ aj  k j ; QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j
j¼0 j¼0
PðkÞ ¼ k4 þ k3  LRcalc
DC
; QðkÞ ¼ k3  !5 þ k2  !5  LRcalc DC
n; m 2 N0 ; n [ m and
aj ; cj : R þ 0 ! R are continuous and differentiable function of s such that a0 þ c0 6
¼ 0 (not in sub case I). In the following “—” denotes complex and conjugate.
PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic functions in k and differentiable in s. The coefficients
faj ðLcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . .Þ and cj ðLcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . .Þg 2
R depend on RFID burst switch system’s Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . . values.

RDC RDC
a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ 0; a2 ¼ 0; a3 ¼ ; a4 ¼ 1; c0 ¼ 0; c1 ¼ 0; c2 ¼ !5  ; c3 ¼ ! 5
Lcalc Lcalc

Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments


ðLcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . .Þ will subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj.
The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and differentiable functions of their argu-
ments. 8 Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . . 2 R þ I.e. k ¼ 0 is not a root of the
characteristic equation. Furthermore PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic functions of k for
which the following requirements of the analysis (see Kuang 1993, Sect. 3.4) can
also be verified in the present case [6, 7].
(a) If k ¼ i  x, x 2 R then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0, i.e. P and Q have no common
imaginary roots. This condition was verified numerically in the entire
ðLcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . .Þ domain of interest.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Rek 0. No roots bifurcation from 1.
R
k3 !5 þ k2 !5 L DC
Indeed, in the limit j QðkÞ j ¼ j
PðkÞ R
calc
j
k4 þ k3 L DC
calc

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2


ðcÞ RDC 2 RDC 2
¼ x8 þ x6  f½   !25 g  x4  !25  ½ 
Lcalc Lcalc
Has at most a finite number of zeroes. Indeed, this is a polynomial in x (Degree
in x8 ).
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 139

(d) Each positive root xðLcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . .Þ of FðxÞ ¼ 0 is con-


tinuous and differentiable with respect to Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . ..
This condition can only be assessed numerically.
In addition, since the coefficients in P and Q are real, we have, and Qði  xÞ ¼
Qði  xÞ thus, x [ 0 may be an eigenvalue of the characteristic equation. The
analysis consists in identifying the roots of characteristic equation situated on the
imaginary axis of the complex k-plane, where by increasing the parameters
Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . ., Rek may, at the crossing,Change its sign from
ðjÞ ðjÞ
(−) to (+), i.e. from a stable focus E ðjÞ ðZ ðjÞ ; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y ðjÞ ¼ 0Þ to an unstable one, or
vice versa. This feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of the partial
derivatives with respect to Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . . and gate antenna
parameters.

@Rek
^1 ðLcalc Þ ¼ ð Þ ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Lcalc k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðRDC Þ ¼ ð Þ ; Lcalc ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . . ¼ const
@RDC k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðC1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; Lcalc ; RDC ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . . ¼ const
@C1 k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðL1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . . ¼ const
@L1 k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðCload Þ ¼ ð Þ ; Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; RL ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Cload k¼ix
@Rek
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; . . . ¼ const
@s k¼ix
x 2 Rþ :
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2
X
4
¼ U0 þ U2  x2 þ U4  x4 þ U6  x6 þ U8  x8 ¼ U2k  x2k
k¼0

P
4
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies U2k  x2k ¼ 0 When writing PðkÞ ¼ PR ðkÞ þ i 
k¼0
PI ðkÞ and QðkÞ ¼ QR ðkÞ þ i  QI ðkÞ, and inserting k ¼ i  x into RFID burst switch
system’s characteristic equation, x must satisfy the following :

PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin x  s ¼ gðxÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2

PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos x  s ¼ hðxÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2
140 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Where jQði  xÞj2 6¼ 0 in view of requirement (a) above, and ðg; hÞ 2 R.


Furthermore, it follows above sin x  s and cos x  s equations that, by squaring and
adding the sides, x must be a positive root of FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ¼ 0.
Note that FðxÞ is dependent of s. Now it is important to notice that if s 62 I (assume
that I R þ 0 is the set where xðsÞ is a positive root of FðxÞ and for, s 62 I , xðsÞ is
not defined. Then for all s in I xðsÞ is satisfied that Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0). Then there are no
positive xðsÞ solutions for Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, and we cannot have stability switches. For
any s 2 I , where xðsÞ is a positive solution of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, we can define the angle
hðsÞ 2 ½0; 2  p as the solution of
PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼ ;
jQði  xÞj2
PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

And the relation between the argument hðsÞ and xðsÞ  s for s 2 I must be
xðsÞ  s ¼ hðsÞ þ n  2  p 8 n 2 N0 . Hence we can define the maps sn : I ! R þ 0
given by sn ðsÞ ¼ hðsÞxðsÞ þ n2p
n 2 N0 ; s 2 I. Let us introduce the functions
I ! R; Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞSn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 that are continuous and
differentiable in s. In the following, the subscripts k; x; Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ;
Cload ; RL ; . . . indicate the corresponding partial derivatives. Let us first concentrate
on ^ðxÞ, remember in kðLcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; . . .Þ and xðLcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ;
Cload ; RL ; . . .Þ, and keeping all parameters except one (x) and s. The derivation
closely follows that in reference [BK]. Differentiating RFID burst switch charac-
teristic equation PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0 with respect to specific parameter (x), and
inverting the derivative, for convenience, one calculates:
Remark

x ¼ Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; . . .; etc:;

@k 1 Pk ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ þ Qk ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ  s  Pðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ


ð Þ ¼
@x Px ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  Qx ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ
Where Pk ¼ @P
@k ; . . .: etc., Substituting k ¼ i  x, and bearing i
Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ, Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ then i  Pk ði  xÞ ¼ Px ði  xÞ; i  Qk ði 
xÞ ¼ Qx ði  xÞ and that on the surface jPði  xÞj2 ¼ jQði  xÞj2 , one obtains

@k 1 i  Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ þ i  Qk ði  x; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  s  jPði  x; xÞj2


ð Þ jk¼ix ¼ ð Þ
@x Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ  Qx ði  x; xÞ  Qði  x; xÞ

Upon separating into real and imaginary parts, with P ¼ PR þ i  PI ;


Q ¼ QR þ i  QI ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ; Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ;
Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ;P2 ¼ P2R þ P2I . When (x) can be any RFID burst switch
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 141

parameters and time delay s etc. Where for convenience, we have dropped the
arguments ði  x; xÞ, and where

Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ;


Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ

xx ¼ Fx =Fx . We define U and V:

U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ


V ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ:

We choose our specific parameter as time delay x = s .

RDC RDC
PR ¼ x4 ; PI ¼ x3  ; QR ¼ x2  !5  ;
Lcalc Lcalc
QI ¼ x3  !5 ; PRs ¼ 0; PIs ¼ 0
RDC
QRs ¼ 0; QIs ¼ 0; PRx ¼ 4  x3 ; PIx ¼ 3  x2  ;
Lcalc
RDC
QRx ¼ 2  x  !5  ; QIx ¼ 3  x2  !5
Lcalc
RDC RDC
QI  QRx ¼ 2  x4  !25  ; PR  PIx ¼ 3  x6  ;
Lcalc Lcalc
RDC RDC
PI  PRx ¼ 4  x6  ; QR  QIx ¼ 3  x4  !25 
Lcalc Lcalc
RDC 2
PRx  PR ¼ 4  x ; QRx  QR ¼ 2  x  !5  ½
7 3 2
 ;
Lcalc
V ¼ ðPR  PIs  PI  PRs Þ  ðQR  QIs  QI  QRs Þ ¼ 0

RDC
U ¼ ðPR  PIx  P1  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ ¼ 3  x6 
Lcalc
RDC RDC RDC
þ 4  x6   ð3  x4  !25   2  x4  !25  Þ
Lcalc Lcalc Lcalc
RDC RDC RDC
U ¼ 3  x6  þ 4  x6   3  x4  !25 
Lcalc Lcalc Lcalc
RDC RDC RDC
þ 2  x4  !25  ¼ x6   x4  !25 
Lcalc Lcalc Lcalc
6 RDC 2 RDC RDC
QIx  QI ¼ 3:x  !5 ; U ¼ x 
5 2
 x  !5 
4
¼ x4   ½x2  !25 
Lcalc Lcalc Lcalc
Fs ¼ 2  ½ðPRs  PR þ PIs  PI Þ  ðQRs  QR þ QIs  QI Þ ¼ 0;
RDC 2
PIx  PI ¼ 3  x5  ½ 
Lcalc
142 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ


RDC 2 RDC 2
¼ 2  f4  x7 þ 3  x5  ½   ð2  x3  !25  ½  þ 3  x5  !25 Þg
Lcalc Lcalc
RDC 2 RDC 2
Fx ¼ 2  f4  x7  3  x5  !25 þ 3  x5  ½   2  x3  !25  ½  g
Lcalc Lcalc
RDC 2 3
Fx ¼ 2  fx5  ð4  x2  3  !25 Þ þ ½   x  ð3  x2  2  !25 Þg
Lcalc
 
@x @x Fs 1 @Rek @x Fs
Fx  þ Fs ¼ 0; s 2 I ) ¼  ; ^ ðsÞ ¼ ; ¼ xs ¼ 
@s @s Fx @s k¼ix @s Fx
8 h i9
@x Fs < 2  U þ s  jP j2
þ i  F x =
¼ xs ¼  jFs ¼0 ¼ 0; ^1 ðsÞ ¼ Re h i
@s Fx : F þ i  2  V þ x  jPj2 ;
s

@Rek
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfð Þ g;
@s k¼ix
@x U  @x
@s þ V
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx g  signfs  þxþ g
@s jPj2
@x U  @x
@s þ V
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx g  signfs  þxþ gj@x¼0
@s jPj2 @s

¼ signfFx g  signfxg
RDC 2
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signf4  x7 þ 3  x5  ½ 
Lcalc
RDC 2
 ð2  x3  !25  ½  þ 3  x5  !25 Þg  signfxg
Lcalc

We shall presently examine the possibility of stability transitions (bifurcations)


ðjÞ ðjÞ
RFID burst switch system, about the equilibrium point E ðjÞ ðZ ðjÞ ; ID1 ; ID2 ; Y ðjÞ ¼ 0Þ
as a result of a variation of delay parameter s. The analysis consists in identifying
the roots of our system characteristic equation situated on the imaginary axis of the
complex k-plane. Where by increasing the delay parameter s, Re k may at the
crossing, changes its sign from − to +, i.e. from a stable focus E(*) to an unstable
one, or vice versa. This feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of
the partial derivatives with respect to s, ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð@ Re k
@s Þk¼ix
 
1 @Rek
^ ðsÞ ¼ ;
@s k¼ix
 
@Rek
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ; Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; . . .; etc: ¼ const; x 2 R þ
@s k¼ix
1.6 RFID System Burst Switch Stability Analysis Under Delayed … 143

We check the sign of ^1 ðsÞ according the following rule:


 
sign½Fx  sign V þPx2 s U þ x þ xs  s sign½^1 ðsÞ
± ± +
±  –

RFID burst switch system stability switching analysis is done according the
below flow chart and based on [BK] geometric stability switch criteria in delay
differential systems with delay dependent parameters article [30, 31].
144 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

x ¼ Lcalc ; RDC ; C1 ; L1 ; Cload ; RL ; s; . . .; etc:;

Remark: The analysis consists in identifying the roots of circuit characteristic


equation PðkÞ ¼ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0 situated on the imaginary axis of the complex k-
Plane, where, by increasing the RFID burst switch system parameters. Rek may, at
the crossing, change its sign from “−” to “+”, i.e. from a stable focus E* to an
unstable one, or vice versa. This feature may be further assessed by examining the
sign of the partial derivatives with respect to system parameters. Other sub cases
sestability behavior (s2 ¼ 0; D [ 0 & s2 ¼ D ¼sD ) is not discussed and can be
good reader exercises [12].

Exercises

1. Active RFID system has two sources S1(t), S2(t) and two antennas L1 and L2
(rectangular antennas) as appear in the equivalent circuit. L1 and L2 configu-
ration structure can be represented as L2 inductor antenna which is connected in
the middle of L1 antenna. The overall parameters of two antennas are the same.
P
2
L1 ¼ Lcalc1 ¼ ½lp0  ð½ Xi   X3 þ X4 Þ  Ncp . Rectangular antennas. L2 ¼
i¼1
P
2 pffiffi
ð1 þ pÞ
Lcalc2 ¼ ½lp0  ð½ Xi   X3 þ X4 Þ  Nc  . X1, X2, X3, and X4 global antenna
i¼1
parameters are the same for inductor antenna L1 and L2.

You can neglect the mutual inductance between inductor antennas L1 and L2. C
(Gama) is the two antennas trim parameter (0 < C < 1).
Exercises 145

1:1 Write RFID system, differential equations as a matrix representation.


1:2 Write the RFID system analog Van der pol’s equations. Find all transfor-
mations between Van der pol system parameters and variables to antenna
system’s variables and parameters.
1:3 Discuss stability, How C trim parameter influences our system stability
switching?
1:4 How RFID system dynamically changes for (A) S1(t) – ON, S2(t) – OFF
(B) S1(t) – OFF, S2(t) – ON (C) S1(t) – ON, S2(t) – ON.
1:5 Find ni (i = 1, 2, 3,…) functions of our RFID system by using regular
perturbation or averaging methods.
1:6 RFID TAG IC capacitance C1 multiple his value C1 ! 2C1, How our
RFID system stability change?
2. Active RFID system includes forcing sources Si(t); i = 1,2,… and antennas
inductors (L1, L2,…). All antennas are rectangular. The following differential
equation describes our RFID system (forced Van der pol equation). R1 and C1
are RFID IC parameters.

Xk
1 X k
€ þð 1 þ
V
1
Þ
1 _ 1
 V þ pffiffiffiffiffi P V ¼ ½
1 dVSi
 
m
R1 R C C R dt
i¼1 Si 1
½ L1 þ Li   C1 1 i¼1 Si
i¼2

2:1 Express our RFID system as a matrix differential equation system.


2:2 Find fixed point and discuss stability of our system.
2:3 How our Active RFID system behavior is dependent on k and m
parameters?
2:4 Write the equivalent Van der pol system parameters U(x), a, b when only
one forcing source is active. VSi  OFF 8 i 2 ½1::k & i 6¼ n Except
VSn  ON; n 62 ½1::k.
2:5 How the dynamic of our system change for the transformation
Pm P
m
Li ! ½L1 þ Li . Find fixed points and discuss the stability issue.
i¼2 i¼2

3. Our passive RFID TAG contains one RFID IC and two rectangular antennas in
the series. The two rectangular antenna parameters are not the same and the
definition is related to global parameters: Xi1, Xi2, Xi3, Xi4. i = 1for the first
antenna and i = 2 for the second antenna. The matrix formulation for RFID
differential equation:
146 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

2 3
0 1 0
6 f " 1 #g f C11R1 g 07
2 3 6 l X4 7
6 7
dV1 6 C1  f 0
 ðX13 þ X1k Þ  Nc p
7
6 dV 6 p 7
2 7
dt
6
4 dt 5 ¼ 6 k¼1;k6 ¼ 3 7
" # 7
dV3 6 l X4 7
6 2 7
dt
6 þ 0  ðX23 þ X2k Þ  Ncp g 7
4 p k¼1;k6¼3
5
2 3 2 3 0 0 0
V1 0
 4 V2 5 þ 4 0 5
V3 1

R1 and C1 are parameters for RFID TAG IC. V1, V2, V3 are system variables.
All other antenna parameters are the same as discuss in the chapter.
3:1 Find RFID TAG system fixed points and discuss the stability.
3:2 Discuss the system Eigen direction, Eigen solutions, Eigen vectors, and
Eigenvalues behavior for t ! ∞.
3:3 How our system stability is affected by different values of “p” parameter?
Draw Stable/Unstable diagram.
3:4 Analyze RFID TAG system dynamical behavior for X2k ¼ X1k 2
 C;
k = 1,…, 4 RFID TAG antennas global parameter index. C is a shifting
parameter between the square of first antenna global parameters (X1k 2
) and
second antenna global parameters (X2k ).
3:5 How our RFID TAG system behavior changes for multiple values of
rectangular antenna’s number of turns (NC) ; NC ! 2  NC . NC is the same
for the first and second RFID TAG antenna.
4. We have delayed in time passive RFID TAG system. Due to electromagnetic
interferences, we have RFID TAG’s voltage and voltage derivative with
delays s þ 1 and s2  1 respectively in time. V1 ðtÞ ! V1 ðt  ½s þ 1Þ; V2 ðtÞ !
V2 ðt  ½s2  1Þ. We consider no delay effect on dVdt1 ðtÞ and dVdt2 ðtÞ . The RFID
TAG antenna is rectangular. Xi; i = 1, 2, 3, 4 are RFID TAG antenna global
parameters as discuss in the chapter. R1 and C1 are RFID TAG IC parameters.

dV1
¼ V2 ðt  ½s2  1Þ
dt
dV2 1
¼ f  g  V1 ðt  ½s þ 1Þ
dt C1  lp0  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Ncp
1
  V2 ðt  ½s2  1Þ
C1  R1

4:1 Find system fixed points and discuss stability for s ¼ 0.


Exercises 147

4:2 Find the system characteristic equation (Dðk; sÞ), s is our delay parameter.
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks .
4:3 Find polynomial in x representation Fðx; sÞ and sketch 3D function. Find
sin hðsÞ and cos hðsÞ expressions.
4:4 Find U; V; xs expressions and define maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2
N0 .
4:5 Find K1 ðC1 Þ; K1 ðR1 Þ; K1 ðsÞ; signðK1 ðsÞÞ expressions and discuss
stability switching for different values of s parameters.
5. We have a RFID system with two rectangular antennas (L1, L2) in parallel and
one RFID IC (R1 and C1 parameters). There are parasitic resistances of our
RFID system, rp1 ; rp2 ; rp1 6¼ rp2 . The following figure is equivalent circuit of our
RFID system.

Parameters are the same for the first and second antennas. L1 ðX11 ; X12 ; X13 ;
X14 ; . . .Þ; L2 ðX21 ; X22 ; X23 ; X24 ; . . .Þ; X11 ¼ X21 ; X12 ¼ X22 X13 ¼ X23 ; X14 ¼
X24 . We define four variables for our RFID system. V1(t)—voltage on the first
antenna, V2(t) = dV1(t)/dt—voltage derivative on the first antenna, V3(t)—
voltage on the second antenna, V4(t) = dV3(t)/dt—voltage derivative on the
second antenna.
Remark Voltages on RFID TAG antennas are only on equivalent circuit
inductors L1, L2 without parasitic resistances. Due to electromagnetic inter-
ferences, we get RFID TAG’s antenna voltages and voltages derivatives with
delays in time:
148 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

D1 6¼ D2 ; V1 ðtÞ ! V1 ðt  sÞ
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
V2 ðtÞ ! V2 ðt  s  D1 Þ; V3 ðtÞ ! V3 ðt  s þ 1Þ;
pffiffiffi
V4 ðtÞ ! V4 ðt  jD1  D2 j  sÞ:
D1 [ 0; D2 [ 0:

5:1 Find RFID system, differential equations, fixed points and discuss stability
for s ¼ 0; Di [ 0 i = 1, 2; D1 6¼ D2 .
5:2 Find the system characteristic equation Dðk; s; D1 ; D2 Þ, s is our delay
parameter and D1, D2 are parameters.

nðs; D1 ; D2 Þ
Dðk; s; D1 ; D2 Þ ¼ Pn ðk; s; D1 ; D2 Þ þ Qm ðk; s; D1 ; D2 Þ  eknðs;D1 ;D2 Þ :

5:3 Find polynomial in x representation Fðx; sÞjD1 ;D2 parameters ¼ 0 and sketch
3D function. Find sin hðsÞ and cos hðsÞ expressions.
5:4 Find U, V, xs expressions and define maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2
N0 for the cases: (A) D1 = D, D2 = 0 ; (B) D1 = 0, D2 = D ;
(C) D1 = D2 = D
5:5 Find
K1 ðsÞ; K1 ðD1 Þ; K1 ðD2 Þ; signðK1 ðsÞÞ; signðK1 ðD1 ÞÞ; signðK1 ðD2 ÞÞ
expressions and discuss stability switching for different values of s; D1 ; D2 .
6. We have triple loop antennas arranged as a shifted gate in X direction.
The RFID TAG is semi passive and contains a battery that enables long reading
distance and also enables the tag to operate independently of the reader. The
double antenna gate is employed due to the fact that this antenna consists of
three parallel loops (primary, secondary, and third loop). Due to electromag-
netic interferences there are differences in time delays with respect to gate
antenna first, second and third loop voltages and voltages derivatives. The delay
voltages are Vi1 ðt  s1 Þ; Vi2 ðt  s2 Þ; Vi3 ðt  s3 Þ respectively (s1 6¼ s2 6¼ s3 ) and
pffiffiffi
ðtDÞ dVi2 ðt½D þ DÞ
and dVi3 ðt½D þ 1Þ
2
delayed voltage derivative dVi1 dt ; dt dt ; s1 0;
s2 0; s3 0; D 0. Each triple loop gate antenna is defined as a three
inductors in series Li1, Li2, Li3 with series parasitic resistors rp1 ; rp2 ; i—index of
the first and second gate. First gate: L11, L12, L13 is mostly formed by traces on
the planar PCB. 2  Lm;12 ; 2  Lm;13 ; 2  Lm;23 , elements represent the mutual
inductances between each two antenna inductors in the gate. The second loop is
within the first loop and third loop is within the second loop. We consider that
the triple loop antennas parameter values are the same in the first and second
gate ðLa1 ; La2 ; La3 ; Lb1 ; Lb2 ; Lb3 ; a1 ; a2 ; a3 Þ.
Exercises 149

2  Aj 2  Aj
L1j ¼ 4  fLbj  ln½  þ Laj  ln½  þ 2  ½aj þ lcj  ðLaj þ Lbj Þg
aj  ðLb1 þ lcj Þ aj  ðLbj þ lcj Þ
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
lcj ¼ L2aj þ L2bj ; Aj ¼ Laj  Lbj

j = 1 first loop, j = 2 s loop, j = 3 third loop. Since three inductors (L11, L12,
L13) are in series and there are mutual inductances, the total antenna inductance
for the first gate:

X
3 X2 pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
LT jfirst gate ¼ L1k þ 2  ½ Lm;iði þ 1Þ þ Lm;13 ; Lm;12 ¼ K1  L11  L12
k¼1 i¼1
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
Lm;13 ¼ K2  L11  L13 ; Lm;23 ¼ K3  L12  L13 :

Lm,i-j is the mutual inductance between inductors i and j. K1, K2, and K3 are the
coupling coefficients of two inductors. 0 K1 1; 0 K2 1; 0 K3 1. We
consider the case our RFID shifted gate system is passive (power source is
disconnected). Remark: no delay effects on RFID system variables derivatives.
6:1 Find RFID double gate differential equations and fixed points (only one
gate).
6:2 Find Jacobian of our RFID shifted gate system and characteristic equation:
Dðk; s1 ; s2 ; s3 ; DÞ.
150 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

6:3 Find F(x, s) = 0 and its roots sinh(s) and cosh(s) expressions.
6:4 Find K1 ðs1 Þ; K1 ðs2 Þ; K1 ðs3 Þ; K1 ðDÞ expressions.
6:5 Discuss system stability switching for various values of s1 ; s2 ; s3 ; D.
7. We have RFID detector system which is represented by the following set of
differential equations matrix representation. Nkl (k = 1,…5; l = 1,…,5) global
parameter expressions are the same as describe in Sect. (1.5). Additional ele-
ments are X1, X2 and V(t) second order derivative column matrix element w. V
(t) represents the RFID tag antenna voltage in time, incoming RF small signal
from RFID reader.
0 1
dX 0 1
dt
B dY C 0 1 X
B dt C N11 ... N1n þ X2 B C
B C BY C
B dIL1 C B .. .. .. C B C
B dt C¼B C B C
B C @ . . . A B IL1 C
B dIRj C B C
B dt C Nm1 þ X1  Nmn @ IR j A
@ A n¼m¼5
dIRS IR S
dt
0 R 1 011 0 1
 L Lin L
0
B 1 PC B PC B C
B 0 C B0C BwC
B C B C dVðtÞ B C d 2 VðtÞ
B C B
þ B L C  VðtÞ þ B 0 C  C þB C
B 0 C  dt2
1
B 1 C B C dt B C
@ 0 A @0A @0A
0 0 0

7:1 Draw RFID TAG detector circuit which characterizes by our above dif-
ferential equations, matrix representation. What are the additional circuit
components and their location which represents by matrix’s parameters X1,
X2 and w? Remark: probably they are additional Schottky diode’s parasitic
elements.
7:2 Find system fixed points and discuss stability in the case of no parasitic
delay effects si ¼ 0; i = 1,2,….
7:3 Consider that the Schottky detector diode has a package parasitic induc-
tance Lp delay element in time s1 and package parasitic capacitance Cp
delay element in time s2 . Find fixed points coordinate expressions, con-
sider RF in signal VðtÞ ¼ A0 þ B0  f 2 ðtÞ.

VðtÞ ¼ A0 þ B0  f 2 ðtÞ ; jf ðtÞj\1 &A0  jf ðtÞj ; 0\B0 \1:

Find Jacobian of our RFID Schotky detector system.


7:4 Find our system characteristic equation Dðk; s1 ; s2 Þ for three cases:
(A) s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ 0 (B)s1 ¼ 0; s2 ¼ s (C) s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s.
Exercises 151

7:5 Find ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð@ Re k


@s Þk¼ix ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; . . . ¼ const; x 2 R þ
and discuss stability switching for different values of delay parameter s.
8. We have RFID detector system which is represented by the following set of
differential equations matrix representation. Nkl (k = 1,…5; l = 1,…,5) global
parameter expressions are the same as described in Sect. (1.5). Additional
elements are X1, X2 and V(t) second order derivative column matrix element w1
and w2. V(t) represents the RFID tag antenna voltage in time, the incoming RF
small signal from the RFID reader.
0 1
dX 0 1
dt
B dY C 0 1 X
B dt C N11 þ X2 ... N1n B C
B C BY C
B dIL1 C B .. .. C
.. C B C
B dt C¼B B C
B C @ . . . A B I L1 C
B dIRj C B C
B dt C Nm1 þ X1  Nmn n¼m¼5 @ IRj A
@ A
dIRS IRS
dt
0 1 011 01
 LR1 Lin P LP
0
B C B C B C
B 0 C B0C Bw C
B C B C dVðtÞ B 1 C d 2 VðtÞ
þB 1
B L1 C
C  VðtÞ þ B 0 C 
B C dt þ B 0 C
B C dt2
B C B C B C
@ 0 A @0A @ 0 A
0 0 w2

8:1 Draw RFID TAG detector circuit which characterizes by our above dif-
ferential equations, matrix representation. What are the additional circuit
components and their location which represents by matrix’s parameters X1,
X2 and w1, w2? Remark: probably they are additional Schottky diode’s
parasitic elements.
8:2 Find system fixed points and discuss stability in the case of no parasitic
delay effects si ¼ 0; i = 1,2,….
8:3 Consider that the Schottky detector diode has a package parasitic inductance
Lp delay element in time s and package parasitic capacitance Cp delay
element in time s2 þ 1 . Find fixed points coordinate expressions, consider
RFin signal VðtÞ ¼ A0 þ B0  f 3 ðtÞ VðtÞ ¼ A0 þ B0  f 3 ðtÞ; jf ðtÞj\
1 & A0  jf ðtÞj; 0\B0 \1. Find Jacobian of our RFID Schottky detector
system.
8:4 Find our system characteristic equation Dðk; sÞ.
8:5 Find ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð@ Re k
@s Þk¼ix ; LP ; L1 ; Cf ; Rin ; Rs ; CP ; Rj ; . . . ¼ const; x 2 R þ
and discuss stability switching for different values of delay parameter s.
9. Active RFID system includes forcing sources Si(t) ; i = 1, 2,… and antennas
inductors (L1, L2,…). All antennas are rectangular. The following differential
152 1 RFID Antennas Systems Descriptions and Analysis

equation describes our RFID system (forced Van der pol equation). R1 and C1
are RFID IC parameters. Additional parameters are X1 and X2.

Xk
€ þ ð 1 þ X1 
V
1
Þ
1 _
 V þ pffiffiffiffiffi
1
V
R1 R C1 P
m
i¼1 Si ½ L1 þ X2  Li   C1
i¼2

1 X
k
1 dVSi
¼ ½  
C1 i¼1 RSi dt

9:1 Express our RFID system as a matrix differential equation system.


9:2 Find fixed point and discuss stability of our system for different values of
X1 and X2 parameters.
9:3 How our Active RFID system behavior is dependent on k, m, X1 and X2
parameters?
9:4 Write the equivalent Van der pol system parameters U(x), a, b when only
one forcing source is active. VSi  OFF8i 2 ½1. . .k & i 6¼ n Except
VSn  ON; n 62 ½1::k.
9:5 How the dynamic of our system change for the transformation
Pm Pm
Li ! ½L1 þ L2i . Find fixed points and discuss stability, issue for
i¼2 i¼2
pffiffiffiffi
X1 ¼ X; X2 ¼ 1 þ X.
10. We have delayed in time passive RFID TAG system. Due to electromagnetic
interferences, we have RFID TAG’s voltage and voltage derivative with delays
pffiffiffi
sþ1 and s3  1 respectively in time.
pffiffiffi
V1 ðtÞ ! V1 ðt  ½ s þ 1Þ; V2 ðtÞ ! V2 ðt  ½s3  1Þ. We consider no delay
effect on dVdt1 ðtÞ and dVdt2 ðtÞ . The RFID TAG antenna is rectangular. Xi; i = 1, 2, 3,
4 are RFID TAG antenna global parameters as discuss in the chapter. R1 and C1
are RFID TAG IC parameters.

dV1
¼ V2 ðt  ½s3  1Þ;
dt
dV2 1 pffiffiffi
¼ f l g  V1 ðt  ½ s þ 1Þ
dt C1  p  ½X1 þ X2  X3 þ X4   Nc
0 p

1
  V2 ðt  ½s3  1Þ
C1  R1

10:1 Find system fixed points and discuss stability for s ¼ 0.


10:2 Find the system characteristic equation (Dðk; sÞ), s is our delay parameter.
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks .
Exercises 153

10:3 Find polynomial in x representation Fðx; sÞ and sketch 3D function. Find


sin hðsÞ and cos hðsÞ expressions.
10:4 Find U; V; xs expressions and define maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ

Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 :

10:5 Find K1 ðC1 Þ; K1 ðR1 Þ; K1 ðsÞ; signðK1 ðsÞÞ expressions and discuss
stability switching for different value of s parameters.
Chapter 2
Microwave Elements Description
and Stability Analysis

There are three types of microwave circuits which include microwave elements.
The first is a discrete circuit; packaged diodes/transistors mounted in coax and
waveguide assemblies. Second Hybrid MIC (Microwave Integrated Circuit);
diodes/transistors and microstrip fabricated separately and then assembled. The
third is MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit); diodes, transistors and
microstrip fabricated simultaneously. The monolithic microwave integrated circuit
(MMIC) consists of diodes, transistor, microstrip transmission lines, microstrip
circuits, and other circuit elements, such as lumped capacitors, resistors, etc., which
have parasitic effects influence on overall system stability behavior. The discrete
microwave circuit can be PIN diodes mounted in a coaxial transmission line which
characterize by parasitic effects and delay variables in time. Hybrid microwave
integrated circuit’s wire bonds cause reliability problems and parasitic effects;
stability issue can affect every hybrid microwave integrated circuits. Many receivers
are often at risk of having their front end burned out by high power RF. Receivers
are traditionally protected by a power limiter circuit. The limiter diode is a special
type of the PIN diode. Due to the parasitic effects of microstrip transmission lines
there is a delay in time for input RF signal result in the end. Power limiters use with
transmission line face stability behavior for different delay time values. Reflection
Type Phase Shifter (RTPS), employing a circulator. Micro strip transmission lines
with three port active circulator, stability analysis under time delayed. Many RF
systems are use Active circulator as a passive non-reciprocal three- or four-port
device, in which microwave or radio frequency power entering any port is trans-
mitted to the next port in rotation (only). Micro strip transmission lines fid those
active circulator ports and face a delay parasitic effect of transferring signals in time.
These circulator’s micro strip transmission lines, delays cause to system instability.
Resonant RF network antennas are important to plasma sources with many appli-
cations. The cylindrical resonant RF network antennas run as large volume plasma

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017 155


O. Aluf, Microwave RF Antennas and Circuits,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-45427-6_2
156 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

sources and have stability switching due to system’s copper legs parasitic effects.
The cylindrical RF network antennas structure is 16-leg cylindrical (birdcage) RF
antenna which has electrical circuit and opposite points of RF feeding and
grounding. Due to cylindrical antenna parasitic delayed in time, there is a stability
issue by analyzing its operation. Tunnel diode is the p-n junction device that
exhibits negative resistance. That means when the voltage increases the current
through it decreases. Typical Tunnel Diode (TD) I-V characteristic has two distinct
features: (1) it is STRONGLY non-linear (compare to the resistor I-V). Current-
Voltage relationships for TDs cannot be described using the Ohm’s law (2) it has a
negative differential resistance (NDR) region. Tunnel diode can be a microwave
oscillator. Transient is in the resonant cavity after turning the bias voltage ON. The
resonant circuit with NDR can oscillate. The TD microwave oscillator has parasitic
effects in time and delay variables. Stability is a very crucial issue when designing
microwave oscillator by using Tunnel Diode (TD) [14, 15].

2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time


Power Limiters Stability Analysis

Microwave and RF receivers, as well as many instruments, are susceptible to


damage from input signals having amplitudes which exceed some danger level. The
front end of some receivers can be destroyed by power levels. Avoiding such
damage is by using a power limiter which designed around a special type of PIN
diode called a limiter diode. A thin epitaxial I-layer is formed on a heavily N+
doped substrate, after which P+ top contacts are added by diffusion. Typical limiter
diodes have I-layer thickness between 2 and 7 lm, with corresponding values of
breakdown voltage. The diode is mounted in shunt across the microstrip trans-
mission line which leads to the receiver front end, and is provided with a DC bias
return. For incoming signals which are below the threshold level in amplitude, the
diode acts as an ordinary unbiased PIN diode, which is to say that it appears to be a
capacitor of relatively small value. When the incident signal exceeds the threshold
power level, the diode’s I-layer is flooded with carriers during the positive half
cycle of the incoming RF signal. Most of these carriers persist through the negative
half cycle, DC current begins to flow in the loop formed by the diode and bias
return choke, and the diode biases itself to a low value of resistance in a matter of
nanoseconds. Under the influence of this self generated bias current, the diode’s
junction resistance falls to a very low value, shorting out the transmission line. The
limiter circuit, then acts as a reflective switch, reflecting the large signal back to its
source and protecting the circuitry which is “downstream” from the limiter. Our
Microstrip transmission lines with power limiters system delay differential and
delay different model can be analytically by using delay differential equations in
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power … 157

dynamically. The need of the incorporation of a time delay is often of the existence
of any stage structure. It is often difficult to analytically study models with delay
dependent parameters, even if only a single discrete delay is present. There is a
practical guidelines that combine graphical information with analytical work to
effectively study the local stability of models involving delay dependent parame-
ters. The stability of a given steady state is simply determined by the graphs of
some function of microstrip delays s1, s2 which can be expressed, explicitly and
thus can be easily depicted by Matlab and other popular software. We need only
look at one such function and locate the zeros. This function often has only two
zeros, providing thresholds for stability switches. As time delay increases, stability
changes from stable to unstable to stable. We emphasize the local stability aspects
of some models with delay dependent parameters. Additionally, there is a general
geometric criterion that, theoretically speaking, can be applied to models with many
delays, or even distributed delays. The simplest case of a first order characteristic
equation, providing more user friendly geometric and analytic criteria for stability
switches. The analytical criteria provided for the first and second order cases can be
used to obtain some insightful analytical statements and can be helpful for con-
ducting simulations. The most obvious way in which to amount limiter diode in
shunt across a microstrip line. Two leads of limiter diode are mounted in parallel to
the transmission line and the third lead is soldered to the ground pad as shown. D1
is a limiter diode [24–26, 33–35] (Fig. 2.1).
The shunt mounted limiter diode equivalent circuit with microstrip lines delayed
in time. The time delay for the first line segment is s1 and the second line segment s2.
See Fig. 2.2.
It is possible to locate several limiter PIN diode on microstrip line, but in the
current chapter we focus on one limiter diode with the specific connection structure.
We consider for simplicity that the microstrip segments resistances are neglected
and either related voltages Vs1 ! e, Vs2 ! e. Then we can define
Va(t) = Vi(t − s1); Vo(t) = Va(t − s2) = Vi(t − (s1 + s2)). We do our stability
analysis of three different cases: s1 ¼ s; s2 ! e; s1 ! e; s2 ¼ s; s1 ¼ s2 ¼ s. We
defined Is1 ; Is2 as the current through first and second delay lines respectively.
Vs1 ; Vs2 ! e ) V0 ðtÞ ¼ Vi ðt  ðs1 þ s2 ÞÞ (Vs1 ; Vs2 are voltages of the first and
second delay lines). Is1 ¼ ViRV
s
a
; Is2 ¼ VaRV
s
0
; Is1 ¼ Ia þ Is2 ; Ia ¼ ILi ; i ¼ 0; 1; 2
1 2

Fig. 2.1 Shunt mounted


limiter diode
158 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Fig. 2.2 Shunt mounted


limiter diode equivalent
circuit with microstrip lines
delayed in time

dIa V dV
V ¼ VR1 ¼ VC1 ; Va ¼  ðL0 þ L1 þ L2 Þ þ V; Ia ¼ þ C1 
dt R1 dt
dIa 1 dV 2
d V dIa X
2
¼  þ C1  2 ; Va ¼  Li þ V; V ¼ VðtÞ
dt R1 dt dt dt i¼0
1 dV d2V X 2
Va ¼ ½  þ C1  2   Li þ V
R1 dt dt i¼0

2
We consider Vs1 ; Vs2 ! e then Vi ðt  s1 Þ ¼ Va ¼ ½R11  dV dt þ C1  dt2 
d V
P2
i¼0 Li þ V. Shifting equation Vi ðt  s1 Þ ¼ Va ¼ . . . in time by s1 gives equation:

1 dVðt þ s1 Þ d 2 Vðt þ s1 Þ X2
Vi ðtÞ ¼ ½  þ C1   L þ Vðt þ s1 Þ:
i¼0 i
R1 dt dt2

Finally, we get two Power limiter equations (with delays s1, s2)

1 dVðt  s2 Þ d 2 Vðt  s2 Þ X 2
V0 ðtÞ ¼ ½  þ C1    Li þ Vðt  s2 Þ; Vi ðt  s1 Þ
R1 dt dt2 i¼0
1 dV d2V X 2
¼½  þ C1  2   Li þ V
R1 dt dt i¼0

We get two Power limiter equations, one of them is a differential equation which
involves input coming signal.
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power … 159

1 dV d2 V X 2
Vi ðt  s1 Þ ¼ ½  þ C1  2   Li þ V; xðtÞ ¼ Vi ðt  s1 Þ;
R1 dt dt i¼0
X
2
1 X 2
n1 ¼ C 1  Li ; n2 ¼  Li ; n3 ¼ 1; V ¼ f ðn1 ; n2 ; n3 ; xðtÞÞ
i¼0
R1 i¼0

€  n1 þ V_  n2 þ V  n3 ¼ xðtÞ ) V
V € þ V_  n2 þ V  n3 ¼ 1 xðtÞ: This differential
n1 n1 n1
equation can recognize as forced Van der Pol equation. The basic Van der Pol
equation can be written in the form: V € þ a  /ðVÞ  V_ þ V ¼ b  pðtÞ

n2 1 n 1 n3 1 1
¼ ; 3¼ ; ! ð1  eÞ; b  pðtÞ ¼ xðtÞ ¼  xðtÞ
n1 R1  C1 n1 P2 n1 n1 P2
C1  Li C1  Li
i¼0 i¼0
1
¼  Vi ðt  s1 Þ
P2
C1  Li
i¼0

1 1 1
a  /ðVÞ ¼ ;a¼ ; /ðVÞ ¼ 1; b ¼ ! ð1  eÞ; pðtÞ
R1  C1 R1  C1 P2
C1  Li
i¼0
¼ Vi ðt  s1 Þ

We can consider the incoming signal after delay s1 is T periodic and a, b are
non-negative parameters. It is convenient to write our power limiter Van der Pol
equation as autonomous system when ðV; W; hÞ 2 R2 x S2 .
V_ ¼ W  R11C1 ; W_ ¼ V þ P1 2  Vi ðh  s1 Þ; h_ ¼ 1: We suppose
C1  i¼0
Li
a; b  1, since we are interested in the periodic coming signal response we use 2p
x
periodic transformation.
! ! !
u1 cos x  t  x1 sin x  t V
¼ 
u2  sin x  t  x1 cos x  t W

du1 1 x2  1
¼  /ðVÞ  cos x  t  ð Þ  V  sin x  t
dt R1  C1 x
1
 P  sin x  t  Vi ðt  s1 Þ
x  C1  2i¼0 Li
du2 1 x2  1
¼  /ðVÞ  sin x  t  ð Þ  V  cos x  t
dt R1  C1 x
1
 P  cos x  t  Vi ðt  s1 Þ
x  C1  2i¼0 Li
160 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

First equation solution: V ¼ u1  cos x  t  u2  sin x  t assuming that we are


near resonance, so that jx2  1j; a; b is all small ðr ¼ ð1  x2 Þ  R1  C1 =xÞ, we get

du1 1 u1
¼  ½u1  r  u2   ðu21 þ u22 Þ;
dt 2  R1  C1 4
du2 1 u2 1
¼  ½u2 þ r  u1   ðu21 þ u22 Þ  P
dt 2  R1  C1 4 2  x  C1  2i¼0 Li

There is no significant difference if we set one of delays s1, s2 to zero for that
Van der Pol equation. The second Power limiter differential equation involves
output voltage.
1 dVðt  s2 Þ d 2 Vðt  s2 Þ X 2
V0 ðtÞ ¼ ½  þ C1    Li þ Vðt  s2 Þ
R1 dt dt2 i¼0

We consider coming signal cause at t = 0 voltage V(t = 0), first power limiter
equation (Van der Pol). Additionally V0(t = 0) = 0. Then we get our second delay

2

P
differential equation: ½R11  dVðts
dt þ C1  d Vðts
dt2   2i¼0 Li þ Vðt  s2 Þ ¼ 0.
V(t = 0) is calculated from the first power limiter Van der Pol equation,
V(t = 0) = U1). We can represent our second power limiter delay differential
equation as a general linear real scalar neutral differential equation with single delay
s2 (s2 > 0).

X
n
dk Xn
dk d0
ak  VðtÞ þ bk  Vðt  sÞ ¼ 0; 0 VðtÞ , VðtÞ
k¼0
dtk k¼0
dtk dt

d0 X2
dk
0
Vðt  s2 Þ , Vðt  s2 Þ; n ¼ 2; a0 ¼ a1 ¼ a2 ; bk  k Vðt  s2 Þ ¼ 0
dt k¼0
dt

1 X 2
b0 ¼ 1; b1 ¼  Li ; b2
R1 i¼0
X2
d0 d d2
¼ C1  Li ; b0  0 Vðt  s2 Þ þ b1  Vðt  s2 Þ þ b2  2 Vðt  s2 Þ ¼ 0
i¼0
dt dt dt

d0 d
Since 0
Vðt  s2 Þ , Vðt  s2 Þ then b0  Vðt  s2 Þ þ b1  Vðt  s2 Þ þ b2 
dt dt
d2
Vðt  s2 Þ ¼ 0.
dt2
It is well known that if the characteristic equation associated with a linear neutral
equation has roots only with negative real parts, and if all the roots are uniformly
bounded away from the imaginary axis, then the trivial solution of the linear neutral
equation is uniformly asymptotically stable. Thus the stability analysis of power
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power … 161

limiter second neural differential equation with single delay s2 is very much
equivalent to the problem of determining the conditions under which all roots of its
characteristic equation lie in the half of the complex plane and are uniformly
bounded away from the imaginary axis. In our case ak ¼ 0 then
P P
ð 2k¼0 bk  kk Þ  eks2 ¼ 0; PðkÞ ¼ 0; QðkÞ ¼ 2k¼0 bk  kk .
Theorem 1.0 if |b2| > 1, then for all s2, there is an infinite number of roots of
P
QðkÞ  eks2 ¼ 0 whose real parts are positive. b2 ¼ C1  2i¼0 Li )
P2
jC1  i¼0 Li j [ 1.
Theorem 2.0 if |b2| > 1, then the trivial solution of power limiter DDE (Delay
Differential Equation) is unstable for all s2 > 0.
Theorem 3.0 Let f ðk; s2 Þ ¼ k2 þ a  k2  eks2 þ gðk; s2 Þ where gðk; s2 Þ is an
analytic function. Assume |a| > 1 and lim Rek [ 0 k12  gðk; s2 Þ ¼ 0 then, for, all s2 [ 0,
jkj ! 1
there is an infinite number of roots of f ðk; s2 Þ ¼ 0 whose real parts are positive. In
fact, there is a sequence {ki} of the roots of f ðk; s2 Þ ¼ 0 such jki j ! 1, and
limi!1 Re ki ¼ s12  ln jaj [ 0 when s2 [ 0.

Theorem 4.0 Let f ðk; s2 Þ ¼ k2 þ gðk; s2 Þ where gðk; s2 Þ is an analytic function.


Assume a ¼ lim Rek [ 0 jk2  gðk; s2 Þj\1 when, as s2 varied, the sum of multiplicities
jkj ! 1
of the roots of f ðk; s2 Þ ¼ 0 in the open right half plane can change only if a root
appears on or crosses the imaginary axis. Back to our second power limiter DDE
which can be considered as the following second order real scalar linear neutral
2Þ 2Þ
2
delay equation: a  d Vðts
dt2 þ b  dVðts
dt þ c  Vðt  s2 Þ ¼ 0 where s2 ; a; b; c are
real constant. To find the equilibrium points (fixed points) of delayed power limiter
circuit is by limt!1 Vðt  s2 Þ ¼ limt!1 VðtÞ 8 t  s2 9 ðt - s2 Þ  t, t ! 1t!1 .
2Þ 2Þ
2
dVðtÞ
dt ¼ 0; dVðts
dt ¼ 0; d Vðts
dt2 ¼ 0 and we get one fixed point c  V ði¼0Þ ¼ 0;
c  V ði¼0Þ ¼ 0 ) c 6¼ 0 ) V ði¼0Þ ¼ 0.
Stability analysis: The standard local stability analysis about any one of the
equilibrium points of delayed circuit consists in adding to coordinate V arbitrarily
small increments of exponential form v  ekt . This leads to a polynomial charac-
teristic equation in the eigenvalues k. The polynomial characteristic equation
accepts by set the below voltage and voltage derivative respect to time in delayed
power limiter differential equation. The delayed circuit fixed values with an arbi-
trarily small increment of exponential form v  ekt is i = 0 (first fixed point), i = 1
(second fixed point), etc., VðtÞ ¼ V ðiÞ þ v  ekt

dVðtÞ dVðt  s2 Þ
Vðt  s2 Þ ¼ V ðiÞ þ v  ekðts2 Þ ;¼ v  k  ekt ;
dt dt
ks2 d Vðt  s2 Þ
2
kt
¼vke e ; ¼ v  k  e  eks2
2 kt
dt2
162 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

We choose the above expression for our V(t) as small displacement v from our
circuit fixed points at time t = 0. Vðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ V ðiÞ þ v. We get the following char-
acteristic equation: a  k2  eks2 þ b  k  eks2 þ c  eks2 ¼ 0. ða  k2 þ b  k þ cÞ
eks2 ¼ 0. Suppose k ¼ i  x; x [ 0 is the root of ða  k2 þ b  k þ cÞ  eks2 ¼ 0
for some s2 . Euler’s formulas: eixs2 ¼ cosðx  s2 Þ  i  sinðx  s2 Þ. We get
½ðc  a  x2 Þ þ i  b  x  eixs2 ¼ 0 and ðc  a  x2 Þ  cosðx  s2 Þ þ b  x 
sinðx  s2 Þ þ i  ðb  x  cosðx  s2 Þ  ðc  a  x Þ  sinðx  s2 ÞÞ ¼ 0
2
P P
a ¼ C1  2i¼0 Li ; b ¼ R11  2i¼0 Li ; c ¼ 1; x 6¼ 0; x [ 0. We get two equations:

ðc  a  x2 Þ  cosðx  s2 Þ þ b  x  sinðx  s2 Þ
¼ 0; ðb  x  cosðx  s2 Þ  ðc  a  x2 Þ  sinðx  s2 ÞÞ ¼ 0

Thus ðc  a  x2 Þ2 þ ðb  xÞ2 ¼ 0; Hence a2  x4 þ x2  ðb2  2  c aÞ þ c2 ¼ 0.


Its roots are x2 ¼ 2a1 2  ½2  c  a  b2  ððb2  2  c  aÞ2  4  c2  a2 Þ1=2 . We have
two cases for the above equation ðx2 ¼ . . .Þ.
Case (I): ðb2  2  c  aÞ2 ¼ 4  c2  a2 ) b2  ðb2  4  c  aÞ ¼ 0

1 X 2 X2
b ! e;  Li ! e; R1 ! 1 & Li ! e; b2  4  c  a ¼ 0 ) b2
R1 i¼0 i¼0
X2
¼4ca) Li ¼ 4  C1  R21
i¼0

Then x2 ¼ 2a1 2  ½2  c  a  b2  ¼ ac  12  ðbaÞ2


Case (II):

ðb2  2  c  aÞ2 [ 4  c2  a2 ) b2  ðb2  4  c  aÞ [ 0; b2 [ 0 ;


b2  4  c  a [ 0 ) b2 [ 4  c  a
1 X 2
2
X2 X2
1 X 2
 ð Li Þ [ 4  C1  Li ; ð Li Þ  ½  Li  4  C1  [ 0;
R21 i¼0 i¼0 i¼0
R21 i¼0
X
2
1 X 2
1 X
2
ð Li Þ [ 0;  Li  4  C1 [ 0 ) 2  Li [ 4
i¼0
2
R1 i¼0 R1  C1 i¼0

Thus we have two imaginary solutions k ¼ i  x with x þ [ x . We need to


determine the sign of the derivative of Re kðs2 Þ at the points where kðs2 Þ is purely

imaginary. dsd 2 ekðs2 Þs2 ¼ ðdkðs
ds2  s2 þ kÞ  e
kðs2 Þs2

d
ds2 ½a  k2 þ b  k þ c ¼ ð2  a  k þ bÞ  ds
dk
2
dk
. To get the expression for ds 2
we need
to calculate d
ds2 f½a  k2 ðs2 Þ þ b  kðs2 Þ þ c  ekðs2 Þs2 g ¼ 0
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power … 163

dk k  ða  k2 þ b  k þ cÞ
¼ ;
ds2 a  s2  k2 þ k  ð2  a  b  s2 Þ þ ðb  c  s2 Þ
dk 1 a  s2  k2 þ k  ð2  a  b  s2 Þ þ ðb  c  s2 Þ
ð Þ ¼
ds2 k  ða  k2 þ b  k þ cÞ


If kðs2 Þ ¼ i  x is not simple, then dkðs s2 . Since x 6¼ 0; eixs2 6¼ 0
ds2 ¼ 0 at s2 ¼ 
hence a  ði  xÞ2 þ i  x  b þ c ¼ 0 Which implies ðc  a  x2 Þ þ i  x  b ¼ 0 and
then

X
2
1 X 2
b ¼ 0 & c  a  x2 ¼ 0 ) x2  C 1  Li ¼ 1;  Li ! e
i¼0
R1 i¼0
dk a  s2  k2 þ k  ð2  a  b  s2 Þ þ ðb  c  s2 Þ
signfReð Þ1 gjk¼ix ¼ signfRe½ gjk¼ix
ds2 k  ða  k2 þ b  k þ cÞ
dk 1 a  s2  k þ ð2  a  b  s2 Þ b  c  s2
signReð Þ jk¼ix ¼ signfRe½ þ gjk¼ix
ds2 ða  k þ b  k þ cÞ
2
k  ða  k2 þ b  k þ cÞ

dk 1
Finally, we get the expression for signfReðds 2
Þ gjk¼ix .

dk 1 a  s2  x2  b þ ð2  a  b  s2 Þ  ðc  a  x2 Þ
signfReð Þ gjk¼ix ¼ signf
ds2 ðc  a  x2 Þ2 þ ðx  bÞ2
x2  b  ðb  c  s2 Þ
 g
ðx2  bÞ2 þ x2  ðc  a  x2 Þ2

Since ðc  a  x2 Þ2 þ ðx  bÞ2 [ 0 for any a; b; c; x values we get the


expression:

dk 1
signfReð Þ gjk¼ix ¼ signfa  s2  x2  b þ ð2  a  b  s2 Þ  ðc  a  x2 Þ
ds2
 x2  b  ðb  c  s2 Þg
dk
signfReð Þ1 gjk¼ix ¼ fx2  ½2  a2  b2 þ b  c  s2  þ 2  a  c  b  s2  cg
ds2

dk 1
By inserting the expression for x2 , we can check the sign of fReðds 2
Þ gjk¼ix .
There are two sets of values s2 for which there are imaginary roots:
0 h1 \2p; 0 h2 \2p. sn;1 ¼ xh1þ þ 2pn h2
x þ ; sn;2 ¼ x þ x .
2pn

We choose power limiter critical parameters: Li, R1, C1 and s2 delay parameter
and examine the possibility of stability transitions (bifurcation) due to parameter
values change or s2 delay change. The analysis consists in identifying the root of
power limiter second DDEs characteristic equation situated on the imaginary axis of
the complex k—plane, where by changing circuits parameters or s2 delay,
164 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Rek may, at crossing, changes its sign from “−” to “+” i.e. from stable focus E* to
an unstable one, or vice versa. This feature may be further assessed by examining
the sign of the partial derivatives with respect to circuit parameters or delay s2 .

dðRekÞ dðRekÞ
signf gjk¼ix ; signf gjk¼ix xi ¼ R1 ; C1 ; Li
ds2 dxi

We shall presently examine the possibility of stability transitions (bifurcations)


in a power limiter system, about the endemic equilibrium point V(i=0) as a result of
the variation of parameters R1, C1, L1 or L2 in shunt mounted limiter diode
equivalent circuit. Our analysis closely follows the procedure described in details in
reference [BK] for the time delay variation parameter s2 . We keep s2 fixed and
inspect stability switching for variation of parameters R1, C1, L1 or L2 respectively.
We already got the expression for the second power limiter differential equation
which lead the characteristic equation for the eigenvalue k having the form
P P
ð 2k¼0 bk  kk Þ  eks2 ¼ 0 ; PðkÞ ¼ 0 ; QðkÞ ¼ 2k¼0 bk  kk where b0 ¼ 1; b1 =
P2 P2
R1  i¼0 Li ; b2 ¼ C1  i¼0 Li ; ak ¼ 0. We do a little parameters terminology
1

change: k ! j; bk ! cj and we get the following characteristic equation for the


P P
eigenvalue k : ð 2j¼0 cj  k j Þ  eks2 ¼ 0; PðkÞ ¼ 0; QðkÞ ¼ 2j¼0 cj  k j where
P P
c0 ¼ 1; c1 ¼ R11  2i¼0 Li ; c2 ¼ C1  2i¼0 Li ; aj ¼ 0.
Remark: Do not confuse between ci parameters and C1 capacitor element in a
power limiter equivalent circuit and the coefficients faj ðR1 ; C1 ; Li Þ;
cj ðR1 ; C1 ; Li Þg 2 R.
Depend on R1, C1, and Li, but not on s2 . Unless strictly necessary, the desig-
nation of the variable arguments (R1, C1, Li) will subsequently be omitted from P,
Q, aj, cj.
The coefficients aj ; cj are continuous, and differentiable functions of their
arguments, and direct substitution shows that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0 8 R1 ; C1 ; Li 2 < þ ; in our
case: a0 ¼ 0; c0 ¼ 1 ) a0 þ c0 ¼ 1 6¼ 0. i.e., k ¼ 0 is not a root of a power limiter
characteristic equation. Furthermore, PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic functions of k, for
which the following requirements of the analysis [BK] can also be verified in the
present case:
(a) If k ¼ i  x; x 2 R, then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0 i.e. P and Q have no com-
mon imaginary roots. This condition was verified numerically in the entire
(R1, C1, Li) domain of interest.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Re k
0. No roots bifurcation from ∞.
Indeed, in the limit jQðkÞ=PðkÞj ¼ Oðjc2 =a3 kjÞ ! 0:
(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 has at most a finite number of zeros. Indeed,
this is a bi-cubic polynomial in x.
(d) Each positive root xðR1 ; C1 ; Li Þ of FðxÞ ¼ 0 being continuous and differen-
tiable with respect to R1, C1, Li. This condition can only be assessed
numerically.
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power … 165

In addition, since the coefficients in P and Q are real, we have


Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ, and Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ; thus k ¼ i  x may be an eigen-
value of the characteristic equation. The analysis consists in identifying the roots of
the characteristic equation situated on the imaginary axis of the complex k plane,
where, by increasing the parameter R1, and/or C1 and/or Li, Re k may, at the
crossing, changes its sign from “−” to “+”, i.e. from a stable focus V(*) to an
unstable one, or vice versa [5, 6]. This feature may be further assessed by exam-
ining the sign of the partial derivatives with respect to R1, C1, and Li.
Reminder: We keep s2 fixed.

@Re k @Re k
K1 ðR1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; C1 ; Li ¼ const:; ; K1 ðC1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; R1 ; Li
@R1 k¼ix @C1 k¼ix
¼ const:;

K1 ðLi Þ ¼ ð@ Re k
@Li Þk¼ix ; R1 ; C1 ¼ const:; The subscripts k; x; R1 ; C1 ; Li indicate
the corresponding partial derivatives. Let us first concentrate on KðR1 Þ, remem-
bering that kðR1 ; C1 ; Li Þ; xððR1 ; C1 ; Li Þ, and keeping C1, Li and s2 fixed. The
derivation closely follows that in reference [BK]. Differentiating characteristic
equation with respect to R1, and inverting the derivative, for convenience, one
calculates:

@k 1 Pk ðk; R1 Þ  Qðk; R1 Þ þ Qk ðk; R1 Þ  Pðk; R1 Þ  s2  Pðk; R1 Þ  Qðk; R1 Þ


ð Þ ¼ð Þ
@R1 PR1 ðk; R1 Þ  Qðk; R1 Þ  QR1 ðk; R1 Þ  Pðk; R1 Þ

where Pk ¼ @P=@k; . . .; etc. Substituting k ¼ i  x, and bear in mind that


Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ, and Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ, i  Pk ði  xÞ ¼ Px ði  xÞ and
i  Qk ði  xÞ ¼ Qx ði  xÞ, and that on the surface exist jPði  xÞj2 ¼ jQði  xÞj2 , one
obtains:

@k 1 i  Px ði  x; R1 Þ  Pði  x; R1 Þ  i  Qk ði  x; R1 Þ  Qðk; R1 Þ  s2  jPði  x; R1 Þj2


ð Þ jk¼ix ¼ ð Þ
@R1 PR1 ði  x; R1 Þ  Pði  x; R1 Þ  QR1 ði  x; R1 Þ  Qði  x; R1 Þ

Upon separating into real and imaginary parts, with P ¼ PR þ i  PI ; Q ¼


QR þ i  QI ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ; Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; PR1 ¼ PRR1 þ i  PIR1 ; QR1 ¼
QRR1 þ i  QIR1 ; P2 ¼ P2I þ P2R , retaining the real part, and noting that the operators
∂ and Re commute, one come up, after some straightforward algebraic manipula-
tions, with the following result:
166 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

2  P2 U  xR1 þ V
KðR1 Þ ¼  Fx  ðs2  xR1 þ Þ;
FR1 þ 4  V
2 2 P2
PðkÞ ¼ 0 ) Pði  xÞ ¼ 0 ) PR ¼ PI ¼ 0
PRx ¼ PIx ¼ PRR1 ¼ PIR1 ¼ 0;
X
2
1 X 2 X2
QðkÞ ¼ cj  k j ¼ 1 þ ð Li Þ  k þ C1  ð L i Þ  k2
j¼0
R1 i¼0 i¼0

X
2
1 X 2 X2
Qðk ¼ i  xÞ ¼ cj  k j ¼ 1 þ i ð Li Þ  x  C1  ð Li Þ  x2 ;
j¼0
R1 i¼0 i¼0

X
2 X
2
1 X 2
Qði  xÞ ¼ cj  k j ¼ f1  C1  ð Li Þ  x2 g þ i ð Li Þ  x
j¼0 i¼0
R1 i¼0

X
2
1 X 2
@QR
QR ¼ 1  C1  ð Li Þ  x2 ; QI ¼ ð Li Þ  x; QRx ¼
i¼0
R1 i¼0 @x
X
2
@QI 1 X 2
¼ 2  x  C1  ð Li Þ; QIx ¼ ¼ ð Li Þ
i¼0
@x R1 i¼0

@QR 1 X 2
U  xR1 þ V
QRR1 ¼ ¼ 0; QIR1 ¼  2  ð Li Þ  x; P2 ! 0;  s2  xR1
@R1 R1 i¼0 P2
2
KðR1 Þ !  Fx  ðU  xR1 þ VÞ
FR21 þ 4  V 2

Where for convenience, we have dropped the arguments (i  x, R1), and where
Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ
FR1 ¼ 2  ½ðPRR1  PR þ PIR1  PI Þ  ðQRR1  QR þ QIR1  QI Þ; xR1 ¼ FR1 =Fx

and we get the expressions based on power limiter equivalent parameters:

X
2 X
2
1
Fx ¼ 2  x  ð Li Þ  ½2  C1  ð Li Þ  f2  x2  C12 þ g;
i¼0 i¼0
R21
2  x2 X 2
FR1 ¼  ð Li Þ2
R31 i¼0
P
FR1 x  ð 2i¼0 Li Þ
xR1 ¼  ¼
Fx P
2
R31  ½2  C1  ð Li Þ  f2  x2  C12 þ 1
R21
g
i¼0
U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ;
V ¼ ðPR  PIR1  PI  PRR1 Þ  ðQR  QIR1  QI  QRR1 Þ
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power … 167

1 X 2 X 2
U¼ ð Li Þ  f1 þ C1  x2  ð Li Þg;
R1 i¼0 i¼0

1 X 2 X2
V¼  ð L i Þ  x  ½1  C 1  ð Li Þ  x2 
R21 i¼0 i¼0

where x 2 R þ . If K(R1) > 0, K(C1) > 0, K(Li) > 0 (or <0), then the crossing
proceeds from “−” to “+” (or from “+” to “−”), respectively. Without loss of
generality, one may consider only k ¼ ix, x > 0 and ignore its complex conjugate.
Writing PðkÞ ¼ PR ðkÞ þ i  PI ðkÞ; QðkÞ ¼ QR ðkÞ þ i  QI ðkÞ and inserting k ¼ i  x
into characteristic equation, x must satisfy the following:

PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sinðx  s2 Þ ¼ gðxÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2

PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cosðx  s2 Þ ¼ hðxÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

where jQði  xÞj2 6¼ 0 in view of the above requirement, and ðg; hÞ 2 R.


Furthermore, it follows from the above equations that, by squaring and adding
sides, x must be a positive root of FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ¼ 0.
And the above sin/cos equations, of course, are identical to those in reference
[BK], except that the variable arguments are R1, C1, and Li instead of s2 . Note that F
(x) is independent of s2 ; Thus equation (sin/cos) implies F(x), but not the other way
around. The real and imaginary parts of P and Q are discussed, while F and some of
its elementary properties are presented. One first solves the polynomial F(x),
retaining only the real positive roots x, and discarding the others. The result is a 2D
manifold (surface) x = x(R1, C1) in a three dimensional (3D) space (R1, C1, x),
where x is a continuous and differentiable with respect to its arguments, with the
possible exception of infinite derivatives on 1D continuous lines. Next, one checks
which x’s on the surface also satisfy both (sin/cos) equations for some fixed value of
s2 . This operation results in one, or several continuous lines on the surface. The
projection of these lines on the (R1, C1) plane gives the loci of possible stability
transitions of the dynamical system.
Remark: We can exchange R1 or C1 by Li in the 2D manifold (surface) or in a
three dimensional (3D) space.
We can give the sign of K(R1), without the leading positive factor by:

@Re k 1
signð Þ jk¼ix ¼ signKðR1 Þ; signKðR1 Þ
@R1
U  xR1 þ V
¼ signðFx Þ  signðs2  xR1 þ Þ
P2
168 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

We need now to do the same procedure for C1 parameter and get the expression:

@Rek
K1 ðC1 Þ ¼ ð Þ ; R1 ; Li ¼ const:; ;
@C1 k¼ix
PðkÞ ¼ 0 ) Pði  xÞ ¼ 0 ) PR ¼ PI ¼ 0
PRx ¼ PIx ¼ PRC1 ¼ PIC1 ¼ 0; PC1 ¼ PRC1 þ i  PIC1 ;
X
2
1 X 2
QR ¼ 1  C1  ð Li Þ  x2 ; QI ¼ ð Li Þ  x
i¼0
R1 i¼0
@QR X2
@QI
QRC1 ¼ ¼ ð Li Þ  x2 ; QIC1 ¼ ¼ 0;
@C1 i¼0
@C 1

@Q
P ¼ 0 ) P2 ¼ 0; QC1 ¼ ¼ QRC1 þ i  QIC1
@C1

Fx expression is the same. FC1 ¼ 2  ½ðPRC1  PR þ PIC1  PI Þ  ðQRC1  QR þ QIC1  QI Þ


P
xC ¼ FC1 =Fx ; The expression for FC1 is FC1 ¼ 2  ð 2i¼0 Li Þ  x2  ½1  C1 
P2 1
ð i¼0 Li Þ  x2 

P
2
x  ½1  C1  ð Li Þ  x2 
FC i¼0
x C1 ¼ 1 ¼
Fx P
2
2  C1  ð Li Þ  f2  x2  C12 þ 1
R21
g
i¼0

U expression is the same like our previous calculation.

V ¼ ðPR  PIC1  PI  PRC1 Þ  ðQR  QIC1  QI  QRC1 Þ ; V


X2
1 X 2
x3 X 2
¼ ð Li Þ  x2   ð Li Þ  x ¼  ð Li Þ2
i¼0
R1 i¼0
R 1 i¼0

@Rek 1
signð Þ jk¼ix ¼ signKðC1 Þ ; sign KðC1 Þ
@C1
U  xC1 þ V
¼ signðFx Þ  signðs2  xC1 þ Þ
P2

U is always less than zero (U < 0). V for parameter R1: if x > 0 then V > 0 for
P
C1  ð 2i¼0 Li Þ  x2 \1 otherwise V < 0. V for parameter C1: If x > 0 then V < 0.
Now we choose our parameter L1.
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power … 169

X
3
PI ¼ PR ¼ 0 ) P2 ¼ 0; PIL1 ¼ PRL1 ¼ 0 Li ¼ L1 þ L2 þ L3 ;
i¼1
P3 P3 P3
@ Li @ Li @ @Q Li
i¼1
¼ i¼1
¼ i¼1
¼ 1; QL1 ¼
¼ QRL1 þ i  QIL1
@L1 @L2 @L3 @L1
P
3 P3
@ Li @ Li
@QR @QI x x
QRL1 ¼ ¼ C1  x2  i¼1 ¼ C1  x2 ; QIL1 ¼ ¼  i¼1 ¼
@L1 @L1 @L1 R1 @L1 R1
FL1 ¼ 2  ½ðPRL1  PR þ PIL1  PI Þ  ðQRL1  QR þ QIL1  QI Þ;
X
3
1
FL1 ¼ 2  x2  ½C1  ð Li Þ  fC12  x2 þ g
i¼1
R21

P
3
x  ½C1  ð
Li Þ  fC12  x2 þ R12 g
FL1 i¼1 1
xL1 ¼ ¼ 3
Fx P P3
ð Li Þ  ½2  C1  ð Li Þ  f2  C12  x2 þ 1
R21
g
i¼1 i¼1

U expression is the same like our previous calculation.


V ¼ ðPR  PIL1  PI  PRL1 Þ  ðQR  QIL1  QI  QRL1 Þ; V ¼  Rx1 ; If x > 0 then
V < 0 always. Retaining the real part, and noting that the operators ∂ and Re
commute, one come up, after some straightforward algebraic manipulations, with
the following result:

2  P2 U  x L1 þ V @Re k 1
KðL1 Þ ¼  Fx  ðs2  xL1 þ Þ; signð Þ jk¼ix
þ4  V
FL21 2 P 2 @L1
¼ sign KðL1 Þ

U  xL1 þ V
sign KðL1 Þ ¼ signðFx Þ  signðs2  xL1 þ Þ
P2

Our switching analysis results are the same if we move from L1 parameter to L2
or to L3 since the partial derivatives are the same.
Summary: We take the assumption that Vi(t) is an incoming signal width
Dt\s1 ; s2 ; Dt ! e. There are three time intervals which we analyze our power
limiter microstrip line system. The first time interval is s1 [ t [ 0, the coming
signal not yet pass the first delay line ðs1 Þ and VA, V, Vout respectively equal to
zero. The second time interval is s1 þ s2 [ t
s1 , the signal has not yet passed the
second delay line ðs2 Þ and mutual interaction between the signal and power limiter
equivalent circuit gives V(t) which is the voltage on resistor R1 and capacitor C1.
The dynamical analysis is done by using forced Van der Pol equation. The forcing
signal X(t) is the coming RF signal. The third time interval is t
s1 þ s2 , the
incoming signal passes both the first and second delay lines and the dynamical
170 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

behavior analysis is done by using Delay Differential Equation (DDE) and stability
switching analysis. For simplicity, we consider Vout ! e after s1 + s2 second.
In our analysis we consider the incoming RF signal to power limiter input
circuit, has time interval Dt. We choose Dt, Dt\s1 ; s2 . The incoming RF signal
time interval is less than delay lines times s1 ; s2 . First the incoming RF signal cause
to the voltage V (on shunt mounted limiter equivalent circuit’s R1, C1 elements).
The analysis is based on the Van der Pol’s equation. Second, we analyze output
voltage according to Delay Differential Equation (DDE), V is the main equation
variable in time [39–41] (Fig. 2.3).
Power limiter with microstrip transmission line system stability switching
analysis is done according geometric stability switch criteria [BK] in delay differ-
ential system with delay dependent variables. The first analysis is a power limiter
microstrip system with incoming RF signal. By using Van der Pol topology we find
V(t) voltage after s1 . The second analysis is power limiter microstrip system output

Vin
Incoming Incoming RF
RF signal Signal after first delay line

V t

Vo t [sec]

V t
DD

Van Der
Pol

Fig. 2.3 Shunt mounted limiter diode equivalent circuit with microstrip lines delayed time
diagram
2.1 Microstrip Transmission Lines Delayed in Time Power … 171

differential equation with delay variable in time Vðt  s2 Þ. V is the power limiter
equivalent circuit’s voltage on R1 and C1 . For the second analysis, we find out
system general characteristic equation Dðk; s2 Þ. Find Fðx; s2 Þ for each s2 has at
most a finite number of real zeros. Find x; s2 values which fulfill Fðx; s2 Þ ¼ 0;
xðs2 Þ, only for those values can be stability switching (first condition). Next is to
find those x; s2 values which fulfill the expressions, it is the second condition for
stability switching sinðx  s2 Þ ¼ . . . cosðx  s2 Þ ¼ . . .. If K(R1) > 0, K(C1) > 0,
K(Li) > 0 then the crossing proceeds from “−” to “+” respectively (stable to
unstable). If K(R1) < 0, K(C1) < 0, K(Li) < 0 then the crossing proceeds from “+”
to “−” respectively (unstable to stable). The analysis consists in identifying the
roots of microstrip power limiter circuit characteristic equation P(k) + Q(k)  exp
(−k  s2) = 0 situated on the imaginary axis of the complex k—plane, where, by
increasing the circuit parameters R1, C1, Li. Rek may, at the crossing, change its
sign from “−” to “+”, i.e. from a stable focus V* to an unstable one, or vice versa.
This feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of the partial derivatives
with respect to microstrip power limiter circuit parameters R1, C1, Li.

2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase


Shifter (RTPS) Circuit Transmission Lines Delayed
in Time System Stability Analysis

Active circulator consisting of three ports, namely P1, P2 and P3. Active circulator is
a three terminal device in which input from one port is transmitted to the next port
in rotation. The active circulator acts as an isolator between the input and the output
signal so that phase shift is well observed. The RF input signal is given at P1 of the
circulator from the left side. This signal from P1 is transmitted to P2. We can
connect LC (L1, C1) components in series to P2 port which results in phase shift and
helps to reflect the signal to P3 at the right. At P3 we get an output RF signal. Each
active circulator terminal faces a delay parasitic effect of signal transferring in time
[25, 26, 35] (Fig. 2.4).
Our circuit is a Reflection Type Phase Shifter (RTPS), employing a circulator. In
the past was little interest in actively circulators since its narrow bandwidth and
problems associated with a hybrid realization. We use active circulators since their
bandwidths have increased considerably as a result of the advances in transistor
technology. Active circulators are ideally suited for realization using MMIC tech-
nology. The circuit employs decade bandwidth active circulator which shows very
low phase error characteristic. Additionally the phase shifter exhibits an excellent
input return loss performance across this decade bandwidth. The circuit configu-
ration of the active circulator used three MESFETs which are the GEC-Marconi
standard library cell F20-FET-4x75. As with all the standard library cells, a very
accurate, ultra-wideband small signal models of the device. MESFET stands for
metal semiconductor field effect transistor. It is similar to a JFET in construction
172 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Fig. 2.4 Three ports decade


bandwidth active circulator
with micro strip delay lines
and LC phase shifter in port
P2

and terminology. The difference is that instead of using a p-n junction for the gate, a
Schottky (metal semiconductor) junction is used. A typical three ports decade
bandwidth active circulator has three MESFETs transistors interconnected with
each other. RF, CF, LF, CC, Rsb plays a major role in the working of the circuit. The
three feedback branches (RF, CF, LF) are used to link all the three transistors in an
end to end fashion. The source resistor (Rsb) is shared among all the three
MESFETs transistors and one transistor is source coupled with the other two
transistors using this source resistor. The circuit works in a symmetric fashion. We
consider MESFET high frequency model taking node capacitors into account.
Figure 2.5 describes the circuit configuration of the active circulator [35, 36].
In Fig. 2.5 we use N-type MESFET but usually the recommended is a sym-
metrical bilateral MESFET. All Cc and Cf capacitors are un-polarized. Once we
inject RF signal to port P1, it passes to port P2 through a feedback branch (RF, CF,
LF). The same is between ports P2 and P3, ports P3 and P1. In case we inject RF signal
to port P2, it reaches the Q1 gate and shorten the Q1’s drain and source. Then Port 2’s
RF signal is shortened to ground through resistor Rsb and didn’t reach port P1.

Fig. 2.5 Circuit


configuration of the active
circulator
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 173

Fig. 2.6 Active circulator system path equivalent circuit

The same is between P1 to P3 and P3 to P2. We consider a varactor which is realized


by connecting together the drain and source terminations of a standard MESFET—
resulting in a Schottky junction. The bias potential is then applied across the
drain/source and gate terminations. Our three ports decade bandwidth active cir-
culator with micro strip delay lines and LC phase shifter in port P2 gets his input RF
signal from the antenna (port P1) and feeds receiver unit by active circulator output
RF signal (Port P3) [1, 2]. The active circulator system can be described by the
system path from RFin port (P1) to RFout port (P3). For simplicity, we ignore
MESFET high frequency equivalent model and took it as a cutoff element in our
system. Figure 2.6 describes our system path from Antenna RF coming signal to the
receiver unit (Rx). Active circulator system path equivalent circuit fulfills current
equation: I1 ¼ I2 þ I3 .
We have three main variables in our active circulator system V1(t), V2(t), V3(t).
I1, I2, I3 are the currents through related branches. We describe system, differential
dVcf
equations. First branch: I1 ¼ Cf  dt ; VLf ¼ Lf  dIdt1 ; I1 ¼ Cc  dVdtcc

d 1 1
½Vcf þ Vcc  ¼ I1  ½ þ ; V1  V2 ¼ Vcf þ VLf þ VRf þ VCC ;
dt Cf Cc
dI1
Vcf þ Vcc ¼ V1  V2  Lf   I1  Rf
dt
d dV1 dV2 d 2 I1 dI1
½Vcf þ Vcc  ¼   Lf  2   Rf ;
dt dt dt dt dt
1 1 dV1 dV2 d 2 I1 dI1
I1  ½ þ  ¼   Lf  2   Rf
Cf Cc dt dt dt dt

dVc1 dVc1
Second branch: I2 ¼ C1  dt ; VL1 ¼ L1  dIdt2 ; Vc1 ¼ V2  L1  dIdt2 ; I2 ¼ C1  dt
2
¼ C1  ½dV
dt  L1  dt2 .
2 d I2
174 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

dVcf
Third branch: I3 ¼ Cf  dt ; VLf ¼ Lf  dIdt3 ; I3 ¼ Cc  dVdtcc

d 1 1
½Vc þ Vcc  ¼ I3  ½ þ ; V2  V3 ¼ Vcf þ VLf þ VRf þ VCC ;
dt f Cf Cc
dI3
Vcf þ Vcc ¼ V2  V3  Lf   I3  Rf
dt
d dV2 dV3 d 2 I3 dI3
½Vcf þ Vcc  ¼   Lf  2   Rf ;
dt dt dt dt dt
1 1 dV2 dV3 d 2 I3 dI3
I3  ½ þ  ¼   Lf  2   Rf
Cf Cc dt dt dt dt

We can summarize our system, differential equations:

1 1 dV1 dV2 d 2 I1 dI1 dV2 d 2 I2


I1  ½ þ  ¼   Lf  2   Rf ; I2 ¼ C1  ½  L1  2 
Cf Cc dt dt dt dt dt dt

1 1 dV2 dV3 d 2 I3 dI3


I3  ½ þ ¼   Lf  2   Rf
Cf Cc dt dt dt dt

We implement Rx (receiver) unit with an equivalent circuit of the input section


of the receiver. The receiver’s amplifier is modeled as a noiseless amplifier pre-
ceded by noise voltage and noise current generators representing amplifier noise
referred to the input. The active circulator’s RFout port is connected to the amplifier
by a transformer with turns ratio m. We shall assume that this is an ideal trans-
former. Figure 2.7 describes the receiver input equivalent circuit.
We can consider the above equivalent circuit as resistor Ra, La, and Lt in the
series. V3 ¼ I3  Ra þ ðLa þ Lt Þ  dIdt3 . After we integrated Rx unit differential equation
into our system, differential equations we get the following new system differential
equations:

Fig. 2.7 Receiver input equivalent circuit


2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 175

   
1 1 dV1 dV2 d 2 I1 dI1 dV2 d 2 I2
I1  þ ¼   Lf  2   Rf ; I2 ¼ C1   L1  2
Cf Cc dt dt dt dt dt dt
 
1 1 dV2 d 2 I3 dI3
I3  þ ¼  ðLf þ La þ Lt Þ  2   ðRf þ Ra Þ
Cf Cc dt dt dt
 
dV2 d 2 I2 dV2 1 d 2 I2
I2 ¼ C1   L1  2 ) ¼  I 2 þ L1  2
dt dt dt C1 dt

We get two main systems, differential equations:

1 1 dV1 1 d 2 I2 d 2 I1 dI1
I1  ½ þ  ¼   I2  L1  2  Lf  2   Rf
Cf Cc dt C1 dt dt dt
1 1 1 d 2 I2 d 2 I3 dI3
I3  ½ þ  ¼  I2 þ L1  2  ðLf þ La þ Lt Þ  2   ðRf þ Ra Þ
Cf Cc C1 dt dt dt

Since I1 ¼ I2 þ I3 ) I2 ¼ I1  I3 we get the following system, differential


equations:

1 1 dV1 1 1 d 2 I1 d 2 I3
I1  ½ þ  ¼   I1 þ  I 3  L1  2 þ L 1  2
Cf Cc dt C1 C1 dt dt
d 2 I1 dI1
 Lf    Rf
dt2 dt
1 1 1 1 d 2 I1
I3  ½ þ  ¼  I1   I 3 þ L1  2
Cf Cc C1 C1 dt
d 2 I3 dI3
 ðLf þ La þ Lt þ L1 Þ    ðRf þ Ra Þ
dt2 dt
dI1 dI3 d 2 I1 dI 0 d 2 I3 dI 0
¼ I10 ; ¼ I30 ; 2 ¼ 1 ; 2 ¼ 3
dt dt dt dt dt dt

We get a new set of system, differential equations:

1 1 1 dV1 1 dI 0 dI 0
I1  ½ þ þ ¼ þ  I3 þ L1  3  ðLf þ L1 Þ  1  I10  Rf
Cf Cc C1 dt C1 dt dt

1 1 1 1 dI 0 dI 0
I3  ½ þ þ ¼  I1 þ L1  1  ðLf þ La þ Lt þ L1 Þ  3  I30  ðRf þ Ra Þ;
Cf Cc C1 C1 dt dt
dI1 dI
¼ I10 ; ¼ I30
3
dt dt

For simplicity we define: CR ¼ C1f þ C1c þ C11 and LR ¼ Lf þ La þ Lt þ L1 and


get the following system, differential equations:
176 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

dV1 1 dI 0 dI 0
I1  C R ¼ þ  I3 þ L1  3  ðLf þ L1 Þ  1  I10  Rf ; I3  CR
dt C1 dt dt
1 dI10 dI30 dI1 dI3
¼  I 1 þ L1   LR   I30  ðRf þ Ra Þ; ¼ I10 ; ¼ I30
C1 dt dt dt dt
dI10 dI30
From the above differential equation, we get the expressions for dt and dt :

dI10 dV1 1 ðLRLC


1
 CR Þ ðC11  L1LCR R Þ
¼  þ 1
 I 1 þ
dt dt fLf þ L1  ð1  LL1 Þg fLf þ L1  ð1  LL1 Þg fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg
R R
Rf L1  ðRf þ Ra Þ
 I3   I0   I0
fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg 1 fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg 3

For simplicity we define the following parameters:

1 ðLRLC
1
 CR Þ ðC11  L1LCR R Þ
C0 ¼ ; C1 ¼ 1
; C2 ¼ ;
fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg
Rf L1  ðRf þ Ra Þ
C3 ¼  ; C4 ¼ 
fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg
dI10 dV1
¼  C0 þ C1  I1 þ C2  I3 þ C3  I10 þ C4  I30
dt dt
dI30 dV1 L1  C0 1 L1  C1 L1  C2 CR
¼  þ½ þ   I1 þ ½    I3
dt dt LR LR  C1 LR LR LR
L1  C3 0 L1  C4 ðRf þ Ra Þ 0
þ  I1 þ ½    I3
LR LR LR

dI30 dV1 L1  C0 1 1 1 L1  C3
¼  þ  ½ þ L1  C1   I1 þ  ½L1  C2  CR   I3 þ
dt dt LR LR C1 LR LR
1
 I10 þ  ½L1  C4  ðRf þ Ra Þ  I30
LR

For simplicity we define the following parameters:

L1  C0 1 1 1
C5 ¼ ; C6 ¼  ½ þ L1  C1 ; C7 ¼  ½L1  C2  CR ;
LR LR C1 LR
L1  C3 1
C8 ¼ ; C9 ¼  ½L1  C4  ðRf þ Ra Þ
LR LR
dI30 dV1
¼  C5 þ C6  I1 þ C7  I3 þ C8  I10 þ C9  I30
dt dt

We can summarize our active circulator system, differential equations for


coming antenna signal and Rx unit. dIdt1 ¼ I10 ; dIdt3 ¼ I30
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 177

dI10 dV1 dI 0
¼  C0 þ C1  I1 þ C2  I3 þ C3  I10 þ C4  I30 ; 3
dt dt dt
dV1 0 0
¼  C5 þ C6  I1 þ C7  I3 þ C8  I1 þ C9  I3
dt

We have four system variables: I1 ; I3 ; I10 ; I30 and coming RFin signal V1(t). We
can write the above system, differential equations in a form of matrix representa-
tion: C5 ¼ LLR1  C0
0 1
dI1
B dt C
B C
B C 0 1 0 I1 1 0 0 1
B dI3 C !11 . . . !14
B C BI C B0 C
B dt C B . .. C dV1 ðtÞ
B C B .. C B 3C B C
B dI 0 C ¼@ .. . . AB C þ B C  C0 
@ I10 A @ 1 A
; !11 ¼ 0;
B 1C dt
B C !41    !44
B dt C I0 L1
B C 3 LR
@ dI A
0
3
dt
!12 ¼ 0; !13 ¼ 1; !14 ¼ 0; !21 ¼ 0; !22 ¼ 0

!23 ¼ 0; !24 ¼ 1; !31 ¼ C1 ; !32 ¼ C2 ; !33 ¼ C3 ; !34 ¼ C4 ; !41 ¼ C6 ; !42


¼ C7 ; !43 ¼ C8 ; !44 ¼ C9

We consider RFin signal V1(t) = A0 + f(t); |f(t)| <= 1 and A0  |f(t)| then
V1 ðtÞ ¼ A0 þ f ðtÞ  A0 ) dVdt1 ðtÞ ! e. We can write our matrix representation:
e!0
0 1
dI1
B dt C 0 1
B C
B dI3 C 0 1 I1
B C !11 . . . !14 BI C
B dt C B . .. .. C B 3 C
B C
B dI 0 C ¼ @ .. . . AB Cþe
@ I10 A
B 1C
B dt C !41    !44
B C
@ dI 0 A I30
3
dt

Due to active circulator’s micro strip transmission line delays s1 in the first
port’s current and s3 for the third port current. Accordingly, active circulator’s
micro strip transmission lines, delays D1 for the first port current derivative and D3
for the third port current derivative. I1 ðtÞ ! I1 ðt  s1 Þ; I3 ðtÞ ! I3 ðt  s3 Þ
I10 ðtÞ ! I10 ðt  D1 Þ; I30 ðtÞ ! I30 ðt  D3 Þ. We consider no delay effect on
0 0
dI1 dI3 dI1 dI3
dt ; dt ; dt ; dt .
Active circulator’s micro strip transmission lines parasitic effects
influence only on P1 and P3 current and current derivatives I1 ; I3 ; I10 ; I30 (I2 ; I20 which
are a hidden variable in our analysis).
178 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

0 1
dI1
B dt C 0 1
B C
B dI3 C 0 1 I1 ðt  s1 Þ
B C !11 . . . !14 B C
B dt C B . .. .. C B I3 ðt  s3 Þ C
B C¼@ .
B dI 0 C . . . AB Cþe
@ I10 ðt  D1 Þ A
B 1C
B dt C ! 41    !44
B C
@ dI 0 A I30 ðt  D3 Þ
3
dt

To find equilibrium points (fixed points) of the active circulator system is by

lim I1 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ I1 ðtÞ; lim I3 ðt  s3 Þ ¼ I3 ðtÞ; lim I10 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ I10 ðtÞ;


t!1 t!1 t!1
dI1 dI3
lim I 0 ðt  s3 Þ ¼ I30 ðtÞ; ¼ ¼0
t!1 3 dt dt
dI10 dI30
¼ ¼ 0 8 t  s1 ; t  s3 ; t  D1 ; t  D3 9 ðt  s1 Þ  t; ðt  s3 Þ  t;
dt dt
ðt  D1 Þ  t; ðt  D3 Þ  t; t ! 1

We get four equations and the only one fixed point is C7  C6CC1 2 6¼ 0

C6  C2 ð0Þ ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ


C7  6¼ 0 ) E ð0Þ ðI1 ; I3 ; I1 ; I3 Þ ¼ ð0; 0; 0; 0Þ
C1

Stability analysis: The standard local stability analysis about any one of the
equilibrium points of the active circulator system consists in adding to coordinate
½I1 ; I3 ; I10 ; I30  arbitrarily small increments of exponential form ½i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03   ekt , and
retaining the first order terms in ½I1 ; I3 ; I10 ; I30 . The system of four homogeneous
equations leads to a polynomial characteristic equation in the eigenvalues k. The
polynomial characteristics equations accept by set the below currents and currents
derivative respect to time into active circulator system equations. Active circulator
system fixed values with arbitrarily small increments of exponential form
½i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03   ekt are: j = 0 (first fixed point), j = 1 (second fixed point), j = 2 (third
fixed point), etc.,

ðjÞ ðjÞ 0 ðjÞ


I1 ðtÞ ¼ I1 þ i1  ekt ; I3 ðtÞ ¼ I3 þ i3  ekt ; I10 ðtÞ ¼ I1 þ i01  ekt ; I30 ðtÞ
0 ðjÞ
¼ I3 þ i03  ekt

We choose the above expressions for our I1 ðtÞ; I3 ðtÞ and I10 ðtÞ; I30 ðtÞ as a small
displacement ½i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03  from the active circulator system fixed points at time
ðjÞ ðjÞ 0 ðjÞ
t = 0. I1 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I1 þ i1 ; I3 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I3 þ i3 ; I10 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I1 þ i01 ; I30 ðt ¼ 0Þ
0 ðjÞ
¼ I3 þ i03 .
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 179

For k [ 0; t [ 0 the selected fixed point is stable otherwise k [ 0; t [ 0 is


Unstable. Our system tends to the selected fixed point exponentially for
k [ 0; t [ 0 otherwise go away from the selected fixed point exponentially. k is
the eigenvalue parameter which establishes if the fixed point is stable or Unstable,
additionally his absolute value ðjkjÞ establishes the speed of flow toward or away
from the selected fixed point [3, 4] (Table 2.1).
The speeds of flow toward or away from the selected fixed point for active
circulator system currents and currents derivatives respect to time are

ðiÞ ðiÞ
dI1 ðtÞ I1 ðt þ DtÞ  I1 ðtÞ I þ i1  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½I1 þ i1  ekt 
¼ lim ¼ lim 1
dt Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt
i1  ekt  ½ekDt  1 ekDt 1 þ kDt
¼ lim ! k  i1  ekt
Dt!0 Dt
dI3 ðtÞ dI 0 ðtÞ dI 0 ðtÞ
¼ k  i3  ekt ; 1 ¼ k  i01  ekt ; 3 ¼ k  i03  ekt
dt dt dt
dI1 ðt  s1 Þ dI ðt  s Þ
¼ k  i1  ekt  eks1 ; ¼ k  i3  ekt  eks3
3 3
dt dt
dI10 ðt  D1 Þ dI 0 ðt  D1 Þ
¼ k  i01  ekt  ekD1 ; 3 ¼ k  i03  ekt  ekD3
dt dt

First, we take the active circulator’s currents I1, I3 differential equations: dIdt1 ¼
I10 ; dIdt3 ¼ I30 and adding coordinates ½I1 ; I3 ; I10 ; I30  arbitrarily small increments of
exponential terms ½i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03   ekt and retaining the first order terms in i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03 .

Table 2.1 Active circulator system eigenvalues options


k<0 k>0
t=0 ðjÞ ðjÞ
I1 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I1 þ i1 I1 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I1 þ i1
ðjÞ ðjÞ
I3 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I3 þ i3 I3 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I3 þ i3
0ðjÞ 0ðjÞ
I10 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I1 þ i01 I10 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I1 þ i01
0ðjÞ 0ðjÞ
I30 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I3 þ i03 I30 ðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ I3 þ i03
ðjÞ ðjÞ
t>0 I1 ðtÞ ¼ I1 þ i1  ejkjt I1 ðtÞ ¼ I1 þ i1  ejkjt
ðjÞ ðjÞ
I3 ðtÞ ¼ I3 þ i3  ejkjt I3 ðtÞ ¼ I3 þ i3  ejkjt
0ðjÞ 0ðjÞ
I30 ðtÞ ¼ I3 þ i03  ejkjt I30 ðtÞ ¼ I3 þ i03  ejkjt
0ðjÞ 0ðjÞ
I30 ðtÞ ¼ I3 þ i03  ejkjt I30 ðtÞ ¼ I3 þ i03  ejkjt
ðiÞ
t>0 I1 ðt ! 1Þ ¼ I1 I1 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ  i1  ejkjt
t!∞
I3 ðt ! 1Þ ¼
ðiÞ
I3 I3 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ  i3  ejkjt

I10 ðt ! 1Þ ¼
0ðiÞ
I1 I10 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ  i01  ejkjt

I30 ðt ! 1Þ ¼
0ðiÞ
I3 I30 ðt ! 1; k [ 0Þ  i3  ejkjt
180 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

0 ðiÞ 0 ði¼0Þ
k  i1  ekt ¼ I1 þ i01  ekt ; I1 ¼ 0 ) k  i1 þ i01 ¼ 0
0 ðiÞ 0 ði¼0Þ
k  i3  ekt ¼ I3 þ i03  ekt ; I3 ¼ 0 ) k  i3 þ i03 ¼ 0

Second, we take the active circulator’s currents derivative I10 ; I30 differential
equations:

dI10 dV1 dI 0
¼  C0 þ C1  I1 þ C2  I3 þ C3  I10 þ C4  I30 ; 3
dt dt dt
dV1 0 0
¼  C5 þ C6  I1 þ C7  I3 þ C8  I1 þ C9  I3
dt
0 0
dV1
dt  C0 ! e; dV dt  C5 ! e and adding coordinates ½I1 ; I3 ; I1 ; I3  arbitrarily small
1

increments of exponential terms ½i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03   ekt and retaining the first order terms
in i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03 .
ðjÞ ðjÞ 0ðjÞ 0ðjÞ
k  i01  ekt ¼ C1  ðI1 þ i1  ekt Þ þ C2  ðI3 þ i3  ekt Þ þ C3  ðI1 þ i01  ekt Þ þ C4  ðI3 þ i03  ekt Þ
ðjÞ ðjÞ 0ðjÞ 0ðjÞ
k  i03  ekt ¼ C6 ðI1 þ i1  ekt Þ þ C7  ðI3 þ i3  ekt Þ þ C8  ðI1 þ i01  ekt Þ þ C9  ðI3 þ i03  ekt Þ
ðj¼0Þ ðj¼0Þ 0ðj¼0Þ 0ðj¼0Þ
I1 ¼ 0 ; I3 ¼ 0 ; I1 ¼ 0 ; I3 ¼0
ðk þ C3 Þ  i01 þ C1  i1 þ C2  i3 þ C4  i03 ¼ 0 ; ðk þ C9 Þ  i03 þ C6  i1 þ C7  i3 þ C8  i01 ¼ 0

Remark: It is reader exercise to find system Jacobian matrix and to investigate


stability based on system eigenvalues. The system has four eigenvalues:
k1 ; k2 ; k3 ; k4 :
We define I1 ðt  s1 Þ ¼ I1ðiÞ þ i1  ekðts1 Þ ; I3 ðt  s3 Þ ¼ I3ðiÞ þ i3  ekðts3 Þ I10 ðt  D1 Þ ¼
I1 ðiÞ þ i01  ekðtD1 Þ ; I30 ðt  D3 Þ ¼ I30 ðiÞ þ i03  ekðtD3 Þ then we get four delayed dif-
0

ferential equations with respect to coordinates ½I1 ; I3 ; I10 ; I30  arbitrarily small incre-
dI10 dI30
ments of exponential ½i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03   ekt . We consider no delay effect on dIdt1 ; dIdt3 ; dt ; dt
and get the following equations:

k  i1  ekt ¼ i01  ekðtD1 Þ ; k  i3  ekt ¼ i03  ekðtD3 Þ


k  i01  ekt ¼ C1  i1  ekðts1 Þ þ C2  i3  ekðts3 Þ þ C3  i01  ekðtD1 Þ þ C4  i03  ekðtD3 Þ
k  i03  ekt ¼ C6  i1  ekðts1 Þ þ C7  i3  ekðts3 Þ þ C8  i01  ekðtD1 Þ þ C9  i03  ekðtD3 Þ
 k  i1 þ i01  ekD1 ¼ 0;  k  i3 þ i03  ekD3 ¼ 0
C1  i1  eks1 þ C2  i3  eks3 þ ðC3  ekD1  kÞ  i01 þ C4  i03  ekD3 ¼ 0
C6  i1  eks1 þ C7  i3  eks3 þ C8  i01  ekD1 þ ðC9  ekD3  kÞ  i03 ¼ 0

ðj¼0Þ ðj¼0Þ 0 ðj¼0Þ 0 ðj¼0Þ


In the equilibrium fixed point I1 ¼ 0; I3 ¼ 0; I1 ¼ 0; I3 ¼ 0:
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 181

The small increments Jacobian of our active circulator system is as bellow:


0
1
0 1i1
N11 . . . N14 B C
B .. .. .. C B i3 C
@ . . . AB C ¼ 0; N11 ¼ k; N12 ¼ 0; N13 ¼ ekD1 ; N14
@ i01 A
N41    N44
i03
¼ 0; N21 ¼ 0; N22 ¼ k; N23 ¼ 0; N24 ¼ ekD3

N31 ¼ C1  eks1 ; N32 ¼ C2  eks3 ; N33 ¼ C3  ekD1  k; N34 ¼ C4  ekD3 ;


N41 ¼ C6  eks1 ; N42 ¼ C7  eks3
N43 ¼ C8  ekD1 ; N44 ¼ C9  ekD3  k
0 1
N11 . . . N14
B .. .. .. C
AkI ¼@ . . . A; detjA  k  I j ¼ 0
N41    N44

Dðs1 ; s3 ; D1 ; D3 Þ ¼ k4  k3  ðC3  ekD1 þ C9  ekD3 Þ þ k2  fðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ


 ekðD1 þ D3 Þ  C7  ekðD3 þ s3 Þ  C1  ekðs1 þ D1 Þ g
þ k  fðC1  C9  C6  C4 Þ  ekðs1 þ D1 þ D3 Þ  ðC2  C8  C7  C3 Þ  ekðs3 þ D1 þ D3 Þ g
þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ  ekðs1 þ s3 þ D1 þ D3 Þ

We have three stability cases: s1 ¼ s3 ¼ s & D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0 or s1 ¼ s3 ¼


0 & D1 ¼ D3 ¼ D or s1 ¼ s3 ¼ D1 ¼ D3 ¼ sD otherwise s1 6¼ s3 & D1 6¼ D3 and
they are positive parameters. There are other possible simple stability cases: s1 ¼
s; s3 ¼ 0; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0 or s1 ¼ 0; s3 ¼ s ; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0 ; s1 ¼ s3 ¼ 0 ; D1 ¼
D ; D3 ¼ 0 or s1 ¼ s3 ¼ 0; D1 ¼ 0 ; D3 ¼ D. We need to get characteristics
equations for all above stability analysis cases. We study the occurrence of any
possible stability switching, resulting from the increase of the value of the time
delays s; D; sD for the general characteristic equation Dðk; s=D=sD Þ. If we choose s
parameter, then Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks . The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is
P
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ nk¼0 Pk ðsÞ  kk ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k2 þ P3 ðsÞ  k3 þ . . .
P
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ m k¼0 qk ðsÞ  k ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ
k

k þ q2 ðsÞ  k þ . . ..
2

The case we analyze is when there is a delay in I1 and I3 currents only. The delay
is the same for I1 and I3 and equal to s (s1 ¼ s; s3 ¼ s) which describe most of
active circulator parasitic effects. The general characteristic equation D(k, s) is as
follow: Dðs1 ¼ s3 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0; kÞ
182 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Dðs1 ¼ s3 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0; kÞ ¼ Dðs; kÞ
¼ k4  k3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ þ k2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ þ fk2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ
þ k  ðC1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3 Þ
þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ  eks g  eks

Under Taylor series approximation: eks  1  k  s the Maclaurin series is a


Taylor series expansion of a eks function about zero (0). We get the following
general characteristic equation D(k, s) under Taylor series approximation:
eks  1  k  s.

Dðs1 ¼ s3 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0; kÞ ¼ Dðs; kÞ ¼ k4  k3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ


þ k2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ þ fk2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ
þ k  ½C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3  s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ
þ C1  C7  C6  C2 g  eks
Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks ; n ¼ 4; m ¼ 2; n [ m:
Pn
The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ k¼0 Pk ðsÞ  kk

X
n
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  kk ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k2 þ P3 ðsÞ  k3 þ P4 ðsÞ  k4
k¼0

¼ k2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ  k3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ þ k4
P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P1 ðsÞ ¼ 0; P2 ðsÞ ¼ C3  C9  C8  C4 ; P3 ðsÞ ¼ ðC3 þ C9 Þ;
P4 ðsÞ ¼ 1

Pm
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ k¼0 qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ  k
þ q2 ðsÞ  k2 :

X
m
Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ qk ðsÞ  kk ¼ k2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ
k¼0
þ k  ½C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3  s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ
þ C1  C7  C6  C2
q0 ðsÞ ¼ C1  C7  C6  C2 ;
q1 ðsÞ ¼ C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3  s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ;
q2 ðsÞ ¼ ðC7 þ C1 Þ
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 183

The homogeneous system for I1 ; I3 ; I10 ; I30 leads to a characteristic equation for the
P
eigenvalue k having the form Pðk; sÞ þ Qðk; sÞ  eks ¼ 0; PðkÞ ¼ 4j¼0 aj  k j ; QðkÞ ¼
P2
j¼0 cj  k and the coefficients faj ðqi ; qk ; sÞ; cj ðqi ; qk ; sÞg 2 R depend on qi ; qk and
j

delay s. qi ; qk are any active circulator’s parameters, other parameters keep as a


constant. a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ 0; a2 ¼ C3  C9  C8  C4 ; a3 ¼ ðC3 þ C9 Þ ; a4 ¼ 1 ;
c0 ¼ C1  C7  C6  C2 ; c2 ¼ ðC7 þ C1 Þ c1 ¼ C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7 
C3  s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ.
Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments ðqi ; qk Þ will
subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj. The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and
differentiable functions of their arguments, and direct substitution shows that
a0 + c0 6¼ 0 for 8 qi ; qk 2 R þ , i.e. k = 0 is not a of PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0.
Furthermore, P(k), Q(k) are analytic functions of k, for which the following
requirements of the analysis [BK] can also be verified in the present case.
If k ¼ i  x; x 2 R, then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0. jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for
jkj ! 1, Re k
0. No roots bifurcation from ∞. FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2
has a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a polynomial in x. Each positive root
xðqi ; qk Þ of F(x) = 0 is continuous and differentiable respect to qi ; qk . We assume
that Pn ðk; sÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ can’t have common imaginary roots. That is for any real
number x.

pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0 ;
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ  i  x3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ
Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ i  x  ½C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3
 s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ þ C1  C7  C6  C2
pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x4 þ x2  fC7 þ C1  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 g
þ C1  C7  C6  C2 þ i  x  fC1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8
þ C7  C3  s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ  x2  ðC3 þ C9 Þg 6¼ 0
jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x8 þ x6  fðC3 þ C9 Þ2  2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þg
þ x4  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ4

For simplicity we define a function: XðCj ; s ; 1 j 9Þ


184 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

X ¼ XðCj ; s ; 1 j 9Þ ¼ C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3
 s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ
Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ
þ i  x  XðCj ; s ; 1 j 9Þ
Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ C1  C7  C6  C2 þ i  x  X
jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x4  ðC7 þ C1 Þ2 þ x2  fX2 þ 2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg
þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ2

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x8 þ x6  fðC3 þ C9 Þ2


 2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þg þ x4  fðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ4  ðC7 þ C1 Þ2 g
 x2  fX2 þ 2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ2

We define the following parameters for simplicity:

U0 ¼ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ2 ; U2 ¼ fX2 þ 2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg


U4 ¼ ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ4  ðC7 þ C1 Þ2 ;
U6 ¼ ðC3 þ C9 Þ2  2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ ; U8 ¼ 1

P4
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies k¼0 U2k  x
2k
¼ 0 and its roots are given
by solving the above polynomial. Furthermore PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x4  x2 
ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ

PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðx2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 Þ ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ


QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ ;
QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x  X ðCj ; s ; 1 j 9Þ ¼ x  X

Hence

PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2

PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  x; sÞj2

x3  ½ðx2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 Þ  X þ ðC3 þ C9 Þ  fx2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg


sin hðsÞ ¼
x4  ðC7 þ C1 Þ2 þ x2  fX2 þ 2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ2
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 185

x2  ðx2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 Þ  fx2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg  x4  ðC3 þ C9 Þ  X


cos hðsÞ ¼ 
x4  ðC7 þ C1 Þ2 þ x2  fX2 þ 2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ2

P
Which jointly with Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 ) 4k¼0 U2k  x2k ¼ 0 that is a continuous and
differentiable in s based on Lemma 1.1. Hence we use Theorem 1.2. This proves the
Theorem 1.3.
Our active circulator homogeneous system for i1 ; i3 ; i01 ; i03 leads to a characteristic
equation for the eigenvalue k having the form P ðkÞ þ Q ðkÞ  eks = 0; First case
s1 ¼ s ; s3 ¼ s ; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0. The general characteristic equation D(k, s) is as
follow: Dðs1 ¼ s3 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0; kÞ ¼ Dðs; kÞ

Dðs1 ¼ s3 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0; kÞ ¼ Dðs; kÞ ¼ k4  k3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ


þ k2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ þ fk2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ
þ k  ðC1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ  eks g  eks

Under Taylor series approximation: eks  1  k  s. The Maclaurin series is a


Taylor series expansion of a eks function about zero (0). We get the following
general characteristic equation D(k, s) under Taylor series approximation:
eks  1  k  s.

Dðs1 ¼ s3 ¼ s; D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0; kÞ ¼ Dðs; kÞ ¼ k4  k3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ


þ k2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ þ fk2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ k  ½C1  C9  C6  C4
 C2  C8 þ C7  C3  s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ þ C1  C7  C6  C2 g  eks

We use different parameters terminology from our last characteristics parameters


definition: k ! j ; pk ðsÞ ! aj ; qk ðsÞ ! cj ; n ¼ 4 ; m ¼ 2 ; n [ m.
P
Additionally Pn ðk; sÞ ! PðkÞ ; Qm ðk; sÞ ! QðkÞ then PðkÞ ¼ 4j¼0 aj  k j ;
P
QðkÞ ¼ 2j¼0 cj  k j

Pk ¼ k2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ  k3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ þ k4
Qk ¼ k2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ k  ½C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3
 s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ þ C1  C7  C6  C2

n; m 2 N0 ; n [ m and aj ; cj : R þ 0 ! R are continuous and differentiable func-


tion of s such that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0. In the following “−” denotes complex and conju-
gate. PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic functions in k and differentiable in s. The coefficients
faj ðRf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . .Þ and cj ðRf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . .Þg 2 R depend on
active circulator system’s Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . . values.
186 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ 0; a2 ¼ C3  C9  C8  C4 ; a3 ¼ (C3 þ C9 ); a4 ¼ 1
c0 ¼ C1  C7  C6  C2 ; c1 ¼ ½C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3
 s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ; c2 ¼ ðC7 þ C1 Þ

Unless strictly necessary, the designation of the varied arguments


ðRf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . .Þ will subsequently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj. The
coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and differentiable functions of their arguments, and
direct substitution shows that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0; C1  C7  C6  C2 6¼ 0

ðLRLC
1
 CR Þ  L1R  ½L1  C2  CR  1
 ½C11 þ L1  C1   ðC11  L1LCR R Þ
1
 LR 6¼ 0
fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg

ðLRLC
1
 CR Þ  L1R  ½L1  C2  CR   L1R  ½C11 þ L1  C1   ðC11  L1LCR R Þ
1
6¼ 0
fLf þ L1  ð1  LLR1 Þg

8 Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . . 2 R þ i.e. k ¼ 0 is not a root of the characteristic


equation. Furthermore PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic function of k for which the following
requirements of the analysis (see Kuang [5], Sect. 3.4) can also be verified in the
present case [6, 7].
(a) If k ¼ i  x, x 2 R then Pði  xÞ þ Qði  xÞ 6¼ 0, i.e. P and Q have no common
imaginary roots. This condition was verified numerically in the entire
ðRf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . .Þ domain of interest.
(b) jQ(kÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Re k
0. No roots bifurcation from 1.
Indeed, in the limit

fk2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ k  ½C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3


Q(kÞ s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ þ C1  C7  C6  C2 g
j j¼j j
PðkÞ k  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ  k3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ þ k4
2

(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x8 þ x6  fðC3 þ C9 Þ2


 2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þg þ x4  fðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ4
 ðC7 þ C1 Þ2 g  x2  fX2 þ 2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg
 ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ2

Has at most a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a polynomial in x (degree


in x8 ).
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 187

(d) Each positive root xðRf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . .Þ of F(xÞ¼ 0 is continuous and


differentiable with Respect to Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . .. This condition can only
be assessed numerically.
In addition, since the coefficients in P and Q are real, we have
Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ, and Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ thus, k ¼ i  x, x [ 0 maybe on
eigenvalue of characteristic equation. The analysis consists in identifying the roots
of the characteristic equation situated on the imaginary axis of the complex k—
plane, whereby increasing the parameters Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . ., Rek may, at
the crossing, change its sign from (−) to (+), i.e. from a stable focus
ð0Þ ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ
E ð0Þ ðI1 ; I3 ; I1 ; I3 Þ ¼ ð0; 0; 0; 0Þ to an unstable one, or vice versa. This feature
may be further assessed by examining the sign of the partial derivatives with respect
Re kÞ
to Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . . and gate antenna parameters. ^1 ðRf Þ ¼ ð@ @Rf k¼ix ;
Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . . ¼ const

@ Re k
^1 ðLf Þ ¼ ð Þ ; Rf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Lf k¼ix
@Re k
^1 ðCf Þ ¼ ð Þ ; Rf ; Lf ; Cc ; Rsb ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Cf k¼ix
@ Re k
^1 ðCc Þ ¼ ð Þ ; Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Rsb ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Cc k¼ix
@ Re k
^1 ðRsb Þ ¼ ð Þ ; Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; s; . . . ¼ const
@Rsb k¼ix
@ Re k
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; . . . ¼ const ; x 2 R þ :
@s k¼ix

In the case s1 ¼ s3 ¼ s & D1 ¼ D3 ¼ 0 we get the following results: for sim-


plicity we define a function: XðCj ; s; 1 j 9Þ

X ¼ XðCj ; s; 1 j 9Þ ¼ C1  C9  C6  C4  C2  C8 þ C7  C3
 s  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ
PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðx2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 Þ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ x3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ
QR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ; QI ði  x; sÞ
¼ x  X ðCj ; s; 1 j 9Þ ¼ x  X
U0 ¼ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ2 ; U2 ¼ fX2 þ 2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ  ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg
U4 ¼ ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ4  ðC7 þ C1 Þ2 ; U6 ¼ ðC3 þ C9 Þ2
 2  ðC3  C9  C8  C4 Þ ; U8 ¼ 1
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2
X
4
¼ U0 þ U2  x2 þ U4  x4 þ U6  x6 þ U8  x8 ¼ U2k  x2k
k¼0
188 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

P4
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies k¼0 U2k  x
2k
¼ 0. When writing PðkÞ ¼
PR ðkÞ þ i  PI ðkÞ and QðkÞ ¼ QR ðkÞ þ i  QI ðkÞ, and inserting k ¼ i  x into active
circulator system’s characteristic equation, x must satisfy the following:
PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin x  s ¼ gðxÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2

PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos x  s ¼ hðxÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

where jQði  xÞj2 6¼ 0 in view of requirement (a) above, and ðg; hÞ 2 R.


Furthermore, it follows above sin x  s and cos x  s equations that, by squaring and
adding the sides, x must be a positive root of FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ¼ 0.
Note that FðxÞ is dependent of s. Now it is important to notice that if s 62 I (assume
that I R þ 0 is the set where xðsÞ is a positive root of FðxÞ and for s 62 I , xðsÞ is
not defined. Then for all s in I xðsÞ is satisfied that Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0). Then there are no
positive xðsÞ solutions for Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, and we cannot have stability switches. For
any s 2 I where xðsÞ is a positive solution of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, we can define the angle
hðsÞ 2 ½0; 2  p as the solution of sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .; cos hðsÞ ¼ . . .

PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2
PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

And the relation between the argument hðsÞ and xðsÞ  s for xðsÞ  s must be
xðsÞ  s ¼ hðsÞ þ n  2  p 8 n 2 N0 . Hence we can define the maps sn : I ! R þ 0
given by sn ðsÞ ¼ hðsÞxðsÞ
þ n2p
; n 2 N0 ; s 2 I. Let us introduce the functions I ! R ;
Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 that is a continuous and differentiable in s. In the
following, the subscripts k; x; Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; . . . indicate the corresponding
partial derivatives. Let us first concentrate on ^ðxÞ, remember in kðRf ; Lf ; Cf ;
Cc ; Rsb ; . . .Þ and xðRf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; . . .Þ, and keeping all parameters except one
(x) and s. The derivation closely follows that in reference [BK]. Differentiating
active circulator characteristic equation PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks = 0 with respect to
specific parameter (x), and inverting the derivative, for convenience, one calculates.
Remark: x ¼ Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; . . .; etc:;

@k 1 Pk ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ þ Qk ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ  s  Pðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ


ð Þ ¼
@x Px ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  Qx ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ

where Pk ¼ @P
@k ; . . . etc., Substituting k ¼ i  x, and bearing i Pði  xÞ ¼ Pði  xÞ,
Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ then i  Pk ði  xÞ ¼ Px ði  xÞ; i  Qk ði  xÞ ¼ Qx ði  xÞ and
that on the surface jPði  xÞj2 ¼ jQði  xÞj2 , one obtains
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 189

@k 1 i  Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ þ i  Qk ði  x; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  s  jPði  x; xÞj2


ð Þ jk¼ix ¼ ð Þ
@x Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ  Qx ði  x; xÞ  Qði  x; xÞ

Upon separating into real and imaginary parts, with P ¼ PR þ i  PI ;


Q ¼ QR þ i  QI ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ; Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ;
Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx
P2 ¼ P2R þ P2I . When (x) can be any active circulator parameters R1, C1, And
time delay s etc. Where for convenience, we have dropped the arguments ði; x; xÞ,
and where Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ.
Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ; xx ¼ Fx =Fx :
We define U and V:

U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ


V ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ

We choose our specific parameter as time delay x = s

PR ¼ x2  ðx2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 Þ ; PI ¼ x3  ðC3 þ C9 Þ ;


QR ¼ x2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þ
QI ¼ x  X ðCj ; s; 1 j 9Þ ¼ x  X ðsÞ ; PRx ¼ 2  x  ½2  x2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 
PIx ¼ 3  x2  ðC3 þ C9 Þ ; QRx ¼ 2  x  ðC7 þ C1 Þ ; QIx ¼ X ; PRs ¼ 0 ;
PIs ¼ 0 ; QRs ¼ 0; xs ¼ Fs =Fx
@X
QIs ¼ x  ¼ x  ðC6  C2  C1  C7 Þ
@s
PRx  PR ¼ 2  x3  ð2  x2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 Þ  ðx2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 Þ ;
PIx  PI ¼ 3  x5  ðC3 þ C9 Þ2
QRx  QR ¼ 2  x  ðC7 þ C1 Þ  fx2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg ;
QIx  QI ¼ x  X2 ðsÞ
Fs ¼ 2  ½ðPRs  PR þ PIs  PI Þ  ðQRs  QR þ QIs  QI Þ ;
Fs ¼ 2  QIs  QI ¼ 2  x2  ðC6  C2  C1  C7 Þ  XðsÞ
PR  PIx ¼ 3  x4  ðx2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 Þ  ðC3 þ C9 Þ ;
PI  PRx ¼ 2  x4  ðC3 þ C9 Þ  ½2  x2  C3  C9 þ C8  C4 
QR  QIx ¼ fx2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg  XðsÞ ;
QI  QRx ¼ 2  x2  XðsÞ  ðC7 þ C1 Þ
V ¼ ðPR  PIs  PI  PRs Þ  ðQR  QIs  QI  QRs Þ
V ¼ QR  QIs ¼ fx2  ðC7 þ C1 Þ þ ðC1  C7  C6  C2 Þg
 x  ðC6  C2  C1  C7 Þ ; Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0:
190 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Differentiating with respect to s and we get Fx  @x @x


@s þ Fs ¼ 0 ; s 2 I ) @s ¼
 FFxs

@Re k @x Fs
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; ¼ xs ¼  ;
@s k¼ix @s Fx
2  ½U þ s  jPj2  þ i  Fx
^1 ðsÞ ¼ Ref g
Fs þ i  2  ½V þ x  jPj2 
@Rek
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfð Þ g;
@s k¼ix
@x U  @x
@s þ V
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx g  signfs  þxþ g
@s jPj2

We shall presently examine the possibility of stability transitions (bifurcations)


ð0Þ ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ
active circulator system, about the equilibrium point Eð0Þ ðI0 ; I3 ; I0 ; I3 Þ ¼
ð0; 0; 0; 0Þ as a result of a variation of delay parameter s. The analysis consists in
identifying the roots of our system characteristic equation situated on the imaginary
axis of the complex k-plane where by increasing the delay parameter s, Re k may at
the crossing, changes its sign from − to +, i.e. from a stable focus E(*) to an unstable
one, or vice versa. This feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of
the partial derivatives with respect to s,

@ Re k
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; Rf ; Lf ; Cf ; Cc ; Rsb ; . . . ¼ const ; x 2 R þ :
@s k¼ix

For our stability switching analysis, we choose typical active circulator param-
eter values: Rf = 110 Ohm, Lf = 1.4 nH, Cf = 5 pF, Cc = 10 pF, Rsb = 115 Ohm,
MESFET (F20-FET-4x75), L1 = 5 nH, C1 = 5 pF, La = 1.6 nH, Ra = 500 Ohm,
Lt = 7 nH, LR = 15 nH. LR ¼ Lf þ La þ Lt þ L1 ¼ 1:4 nH þ 1:6 nH þ 7 nH þ
5 nH ¼ 15 nH:

1 1 1 1 1 1
CR ¼ þ þ ¼ þ þ ¼ 5 1011 ;
Cf Cc C1 5 1012 10 1012 5 1012
L1
C0 ¼ 2:11 108 ; C1 ¼ C0  ð  CR Þ ¼ 9:14 1019
LR  C1
1 L1  CR
C2 ¼ C0  ð  Þ ¼ 0:703 1019 ; C3 ¼ C0  Rf ¼  232:1 108 ;
C1 LR
L1  C0
C4 ¼ C0  L1  ðRf þ Ra Þ ¼ 643:55; C5 ¼ ¼ 0:7 108
LR
1 1 1
C6 ¼  ½ þ L1  C1  ¼ 0:171 1020 ; C7 ¼  ½L1  C2  CR  ¼ 3 1019 ;
LR C1 LR
L1 C3 1
C8 ¼ ¼ 77:36 108 ; C9 ¼  ½L1  C4  ðRf þ Ra Þ ’ 40:6 109
LR LR
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 191

Then we get the expression for Fðx; sÞ for an active circulator parameter’s
value. We find those x; s values which fulfill Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We ignore negative,
complex, and imaginary values of x for specific s values. s 2 ½0:001::10. And we
can be express by 3D function Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We plot the stability switch diagram
based on different delay values of our active circulator system.

@ Re k 2  ½U þ s  jPj2  þ i  Fx
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼ Ref g
@s Fs þ i  2  ½V þ x  jPj2 

@ Re k 2  fFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼
@s Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2

The stability switch occurs only on those delay values (s) which fit the equation:
s ¼ xh þþ ðsÞ
ðsÞ and h þ ðsÞ is the solution of sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .; cos hðsÞ ¼ . . . when x ¼
x þ ðsÞ if only x þ is feasible. Additionally When all active circulator’s parameters
are known and the stability switch due to various time delay values s is described in
the following expression:

signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx ðxðsÞ; sÞg


UðxðsÞÞ  xs ðxðsÞÞ þ VðxðsÞÞ
 signfs  xs ðxðsÞÞ þ xðsÞ þ g
jPðxðsÞÞj2

Remark: We know Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies its roots xi ðsÞ and finding those delays
values s which xi is feasible. There are s values, which xi are complex or imag-
inary numbered, then unable to analyze stability [6, 7].
We find those x; s values which fulfill Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We ignore negative,
complex, and imaginary values of x for specific s values. s 2 ½0:001::10 and we
can be express by 3D function Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We define new MATLAB script
parameters: s!Tau, Ci!Gi (i=0..9), X!Omega, Uj!Phij. Running MATLAB
script for s values (s 2 ½0:001::10) gives the following results.
MATLAB script: Tau=0.1;G0=2.11e8;G1=-9.14e19; G2=0.703e19;
G3=-232.1e8;G4=-643.55;G5=0.7e8;G6=-0.171e20;G7=-3e19;G8=-77.36e8;G9=-
40.6e9; Omega=G1*G9-G6*G4-G2*G8+G7*G3-Tau*(G1*G7-G6*G2);Phi0=-
(G1*G7-G6*G2)^2; Phi2=-(Omega^2+2*(G7+G1)*(G1*G7 G6*G2)); Phi4=
(G3*G9-G8*G4)^4-(G7+G1)^2; Phi6=(G3+G9)^2-2*(G3*G9-G8*G4);Phi8=1; p=
[Phi8 0 Phi6 0 Phi4 0 Phi2 0 Phi0];r=roots(p).
Results: (Table 2.2).
We plot 3D function Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. s:0!10; x:0!1e20. We define additional
MATLAB script parameters x!w, s!t (Fig. 2.8).
We get two possible real values for x which fulfil Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 ; Fðx ¼ 0 or x ¼
1:0e þ 020; sÞ ¼ 0 s 2 ½0:001::10. Next is to find those x, s values which fulfil
sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .
192 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Table 2.2 Active circulator s s = 1; s = 10 s = [0…0.1]


roots xi ðsÞ
x1 1.0e+020 1.0e+020
x2 −6.6468 + 6.6468i −6.6468 + 6.6468i
x3 −6.6468 − 6.6468i −6.6468 − 6.6468i
x4 6.6468 + 6.6468i 6.6468 + 6.6468i
x5 6.6468 − 6.6468i 6.6468 − 6.6468i
x6 −0.0000 0
x7 0.0000 0
x8 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0
x9 0.0000 − 0.0000i 0

Fig. 2.8 Active circulator F


(x, s) function

PR  QI þ PI  QR
sinðx  sÞ ¼ and cos hðsÞ ¼ . . .
jQj2
ðPR  QR þ PI  QI Þ
cosðx  sÞ ¼  ; jQj2 ¼ Q2R þ Q2I
jQj2

Case I: x ¼ 0 then PR ¼ 0 ; PI ¼ 0 ; QR ¼ C1  C7  C6  C2 ; QI ¼ 0; sinðx  sÞ


¼ . . . fulfil and cosðx  sÞ ¼ . . . Can’t fulfil since cosðx  sÞjx¼0 6¼ 0.

Case II: x = 1.0e+020 which can fulfil expressions sinðx  sÞ ¼ . . . and


cosðx  sÞ ¼ . . .. Finally, we plot the stability switch diagram based on different
delay values of our Active circulator system (x = 1.0e20). PR = x2
(x2−9.4233e20), PI = x36.381e10, QR = −x21.214e20+2.8622e39, QI = x 
Omega. QIs ¼ x  2:86e39 ; V ¼ QR  QIs ; V ¼ QR  QIs ¼ x3  3:473e59
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 193

PIx ¼ x2  19:143e10 ; QIx ¼ Omega ; PRx ¼ 2  x  ½2  x2  9:4233e20 ;


QRx ¼ x  2:428e20
PRx  PR ¼ 2  x3  ð2  x2  9:423e20Þ  ðx2  9:423e20Þ ;
U ¼ x4  ðx2  6:377e10 þ 6:0119e31Þ  x2  Omega  1:214e20
PIx  PI ¼ x5  122:15e20 ; QRx  QR ¼ x3  2:947e40 ;
QIx  QI ¼ x  ½Omega2 ; Fs ¼ 2  QIs  QI ¼ 2  QIs  QI

Fs ¼ 2  QIs  QI ¼ 5:72e39  x2  Omega: We plot the function:


gðsÞ ¼ ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð@ Re k
@s Þk¼ix

@ Re k 2  fFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg
gðsÞ ¼ ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þk¼ix ¼
@s Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2

@ Re k
sign ½gðsÞ ¼ sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ sign½ð Þ 
@s k¼ix
2  fFx  ðV þ x  P Þ  Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg
2
¼ sign½ 
Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2

Since Fs2 þ 4  ðV þ x  P2 Þ2 [ 0 then sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signfFx  ðV þ x  P2 Þ


Fs  ðU þ s  P2 Þg

Fs
sign½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signf½Fx   ½ðV þ x  P2 Þ   ðU þ s  P2 Þg ;
Fx
Fs @x @F=@x
xs ¼  ; xs ¼ ð Þ1 ¼ 
Fx @s @F=@s
sign ½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signf½Fx   ½V þ xs  U þ x  P2 þ xs  s  P2 g ;
1 V þ xs  U
sign ½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signf½Fx   ½ 2   ½ þ x þ xs  sg
P P2
1 V þ xs  U
sign ½ 2  [ 0 ) sign ½^1 ðsÞ ¼ signf½Fx   ½ þ x þ xs  sg
P P2
V þ xs  U
sign ½^1 ðsÞ ¼ sign½Fx   sign ½ þ x þ xs  s;
P2
Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ

We check the sign of ^1 ðsÞ according the following rule (Table 2.3).

Table 2.3 Active circulator sign ½Fx  sign½V þPx2 s U þ x þ xs  s sign ½^1 ðsÞ
stability switching criteria
± ± +
± –
194 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

If sign[K−1(s)] > 0 then the crossing proceeds from (−) to (+) respectively
(stable to unstable). If sign[K−1(s)] < 0 then the crossing proceeds from (+) to (−)
respectively (unstable to stable). Anyway the stability switching can occur only for
x = 1.0e + 020 and s 2 ½0:001::10. Since it is a very complex function, we rec-
ommend to solve it numerically rather than analytic. We plot the stability switch
diagram based on different delay values of our active circulator system.
We consider Active circulator which connects in a configuration of Reflection
Type Phase Shifter (RTPS) circuit. Due to the parasitic effect, there is a delay in
time for current which flow in and out Active circulator ports. This delay causes to
stability switching for our Active circulator system. We draw our Active circulator
(RTPS) equivalent circuit and get system differential equations. Our variables are
first and third ports currents and currents derivative. Our system dynamic behavior
is dependent on circuit overall parameters and parasitic delay in time. We keep all
circuit parameters fix and change, parasitic delay over various values
s 2 ½0:001::10. Our analysis results extend that of in the way that it deals with
stability switching for different delay values. This implies that our system behavior
of the circuit cannot inspect by short analysis and we must study the full system.
Several very important issues and possibilities were left out of the present analysis.
One possibility is the stability switching by circuit parameters. Every circuit’s
parameter variation can change our system dynamic and stability behavior. This
case can be solved by the same methods combined with alternative and more
technical hypotheses. Moreover, numerical simulations for the active circulator
model studied in references suggest that this result can be extended to enhance
models with more general functions. Still another extension of our results would be
to treat the case of delayed Active circulator’s port currents derivative in time
dI1 ðtD1 Þ dI3 ðtD3 Þ
dt ; dt ; D1 [ 0 ; D3 [ 0 [5, 6]. It would be extremely desirable to con-
firm these cases by mathematical proofs. Active circulator transmission lines are
characterized by parasitic effects which can influence active circulator system sta-
bility in time. There are four main active circulator variables which are affected by
transmission lines parasitic effects, first and third branch currents and currents
derivatives respectively. Each active circulator currents variable under transmission
line parasitic effects is characterized by time delay respectively. The two time
delays are not the same, but can be categorized to some sub cases due to inter-
ferences behavior. The first case we analyze is when there is delay in active cir-
culator first and third branches current and no delay in active circulator first and
third branches current derivative. The second case we analyze is when there is delay
in active circulator first and third branches current derivative and no delay in active
circulator first and third branches current [6, 7]. The third case we analyze is when
there is delay in active circulator first and third branches current and also delay in
active circulator first and third branches current derivative.
2.2 Three Ports Active Circulator’s Reflection Type Phase Shifter … 195

(s1 ¼ s3 ¼ D1 ¼ D3 ¼ sD ) [6, 7]. For simplicity of our analysis we consider in the


third case all delays are the same (there is a difference but it is neglected in our
analysis). In each case we derive the related characteristic equation. The charac-
teristic equation is dependent on active circulator overall parameters and interfer-
ences time delay. Upon mathematics manipulation and [BK] theorems and
definitions we derive the expression which gives us a clear picture on active cir-
culator stability map. The stability map gives all possible options for stability
segments, each segment belongs to different time delay value segment. Active
circulator’s stability analysis can be influenced either by system overall parameter
values. We left this analysis and do not discuss it in the current chapter [12].
Lemma 1.1 Assume that xðsÞ is a positive and real root of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0.
Defined for s 2 I, which is continuous and differentiable. Assume further that if
k ¼ i  x, x 2 R, then Pn ði  x; sÞ þ Qn ði  x; sÞ 6¼ 0; s 2 R hold true. Then the
functions Sn ðsÞ; n 2 N0 , are continuous and differentiable on I.
Theorem 1.2 Assume that xðsÞ is a positive real root of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 defined for
s 2 I; I R þ 0 , and at some s 2 I, Sn ðs Þ ¼ 0. For some n 2 N0 then a pair of
simple conjugate pure imaginary roots k þ ðs Þ ¼ i  xðs Þ; k ðs Þ ¼ i  xðs Þ of
Dðk; sÞ ¼ 0 exist at s ¼ s which crosses the imaginary axis from left to right if
dðs Þ [ 0 and cross the imaginary axis from right to left if dðs Þ\0 where

d Re k dSn ðsÞ
dðs Þ ¼ signf j  
 g ¼ signfFx ðxðs Þ; s Þg  signf j g
ds k¼ixðs Þ ds s¼s

Theorem 1.3 The characteristic equation has a pair of simple and conjugate pure
imaginary roots k ¼ xðs Þ; xðs Þ real at s 2 I if Sn ðs Þ ¼ s  sn ðs Þ ¼ 0 for
some n 2 N0 . If xðs Þ ¼ x þ ðs Þ, this pair of simple conjugate pure imaginary
roots crosses the imaginary axis from left to right if d þ ðs Þ [ 0 and crosses the
imaginary axis from right to left if d þ ðs Þ\ 0 where d þ ðs Þ ¼ sign
dSn ðsÞ
fd Re k  
ds jk¼ix þ ðs Þ g ¼ signf ds js¼s g. If xðs Þ ¼ x ðs Þ, this pair of simple con-
jugate pure imaginary roots crosses the imaginary axis from left to right if
d ðs Þ [ 0 and crosses the imaginary axis from right to left If d ðs Þ\0 where
dSn ðsÞ
d ðs Þ ¼ signfd Re k
ds jk¼ix ðs Þ g ¼ signf ds js¼s g.
If x ðs Þ ¼ x ðs Þ then Dðs Þ ¼ 0 and signfdRek j
þ  ds  g ¼ 0, the same is
k¼ixðs Þ
true when S0n ðs Þ ¼ 0. The following result can be useful in identifying values of s
Where stability switches happened.
196 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled


Plasma Sources Copper Legs Delayed in Time System
Stability Analysis

In this subchapter, Very Critical and useful subject is discussed: cylindrical (closed)
RF network antennas for coupled plasma sources copper legs delayed in time. The
resonant RF networks can be arranged to form large-area or large-volume plasma
sources with properties similar to Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP) devices. There
are medical applications of Birdcage coils and closed and open configurations of the
antenna for plasma production are possible and can be analyzed by using mathe-
matical formulation. There are systems of an open network antenna as a large-area
planar plasma source and of a closed network antenna as a cylindrical plasma
source. Both are composed of similar electrical meshes. Operation at different
normal modes shows the capability of this antenna type of large-volume plasma
applications [86].
An important issue of proper antenna operation is the location of the RF feeding
and grounding connections on the antenna. There are a large number of different RF
antenna arrangements possible in view of the geometry and RF operation and of
plasma obtained. In our analysis, we investigated only cylindrical RF antenna
which built following a high-pass Birdcage coil. The antenna is mounted outside a
glass tube. The RF antenna consists of 16 copper legs (Fig. 2.9), equally spaced
interconnected with capacitors, each copper leg current has parasitic time delayed
(s1–1 … s1–16). We consider for simplicity that all copper legs parasitic time delayed
are equal (s1–1 = s1–2 =  = s1–16) and the voltages on delay units (Ve ) are
neglected Ve ! e. There is a delay in each Copper leg current
I1 ðt  s11 Þ; . . .; I16 ðt  s116 Þ. We consider all interconnected capacitor values are
the same (C) and all antenna elements inductance values are the same (L). CA1 ¼
CA2 ¼    ¼ CA16 ¼ C ; CB1 ¼ CB2 ¼    ¼ CB16 ¼ CL1 ¼ L2 ¼    ¼ L16 ¼ L ;

Fig. 2.9 Schematic of the


16-leg cylindrical (Birdcage)
RF network antenna (closed) Copper
legs
delays τk
(k=1..16)

τk
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 197

Fig. 2.10 Upper view of


16-leg cylindrical RF antenna

IL1 ¼ I1 ; IL2 ¼ I2 ; . . .; IL16 ¼ I16 : We choose first case: antenna network is fed by
the transmitter unit (S1 = OFF, no direct RF feeding). The upper view of 16-leg
cylindrical RF antenna network described in Fig. 2.10.
The lower view of 16-leg cylindrical RF antenna network described in Fig. 2.11.
Cylindrical RF network antenna system can represent as round strip of capacitors
and inductors (Figs. 2.12 and 2.13). The schematic contains RF feeding signal, S1
switch (S1 = ON for direct RF signal feeding, S1 = OFF for RF signal transmitter
feeding). The upper network connecting nodes are A1, A2,…,A16 and the lower
network connecting nodes are B1, B2,…,B16. Antenna copper leg current parasitic
delays are represented by delay units Tau1–1…Tau1–16 (s11 ; . . .; s116 ). Rp is the
parasitic resistance of RF feeding point (A1). The upper system spaced capacitors
are CA1,…,CA16 and the lower system spaced capacitors are CB1,…,CB16.

Fig. 2.11 Lower view of


16-leg cylindrical RF antenna
198 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Fig. 2.12 16-leg cylindrical RF antenna strip (feeding side)

Fig. 2.13 16-leg cylindrical RF antenna strip (ground side)

d d
ICA1 ¼ CA1  ðVA1  VA2 Þ; ICA2 ¼ CA2  ðVA2  VA3 Þ ;
dt dt
d d
ICA3 ¼ CA3  ðVA3  VA4 Þ; . . .; ICA7 ¼ CA7  ðVA7  VA8 Þ
dt dt
dVA8 d
ICA8 ¼ CA8  ; ICAk ¼ CAk  ðVAk  VAðk þ 1Þ Þ ; k ¼ 1; . . .; 7 ;
dt dt
d d
ICA16 ¼ CA16  ðVA1  VA16 Þ; ICA15 ¼ CA15  ðVA16  VA15 Þ
dt dt
d d
ICA14 ¼ CA14  ðVA15  VA14 Þ; . . .; ICA10 ¼ CA10  ðVA11  VA10 Þ ;
dt dt
dVA10 d
ICA9 ¼ CA9  ; ICAl ¼ CAl  ðVAðl þ 1Þ  VAl Þ ; l ¼ 10; . . .; 15
dt dt
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 199

d d
ICB1 ¼ CB1  ðVB1  VB2 Þ; ICB2 ¼ CB2  ðVB2  VB3 Þ ; k ¼ 1; . . .; 8 ; ; . . .;
dt dt
d d
ICB8 ¼ CB8  ðVB2  VB3 Þ ; ICBk ¼ CBk  ðVBk  VBðk þ 1Þ Þ
dt dt
d d
ICB16 ¼ CB16  ðVB1  VB16 Þ; ICB15 ¼ CB15  ðVB16  VB15 Þ ; ; . . .;
dt dt
d
ICB9 ¼ CB9  ðVB10  VB9 Þ
dt
d
ICBl ¼ CBl  ðVBðl þ 1Þ  VBl Þ ; l ¼ 15; . . .; 9
dt
dIL1 dIL2 dIL3
VA1  VB1 ¼ L1  ; VA2  VB2 ¼ L2  ; VA3  VB3 ¼ L3  ; ; . . .;
dt dt dt
dIL8 dIL9
VA8  VB8 ¼ L8  ; VB9 ¼ L9 
dt dt
dIL10 dIL16
VA10  VB10 ¼ L10  ; . . .; VA16  VB16 ¼ L16  ;
dt dt
dILm
VAm  VBm ¼ Lm  ; m ¼ 1; . . .; 16 ; m 6¼ 9
dt
dIL9
VB9 ¼ L9  ; VA9 ¼ 0 ; A9  ground
dt

IRP ¼ ICA16 þ ICA1 þ IL1 ; ICA1 ¼ ICA2 þ IL2 ;


ICA2 ¼ ICA3 þ IL3 ; . . .; ICA7 ¼ ICA8 þ IL8
ICAl ¼ ICAðl þ 1Þ þ ILðl þ 1Þ ; l ¼ 1; . . .; 7
ICA16 ¼ ICA15 þ IL16 ; ICA15 ¼ ICA14 þ IL15 ;
ICA14 ¼ ICA13 þ IL14 ; . . .; ICA10 ¼ ICA9 þ IL10
ICAk ¼ ICAðk1Þ þ ILk ; k ¼ 16; . . .; 10
IL1 ¼ ICB1 þ ICB16 ; ICB2 ¼ ICB1 þ IL2 ; ICB3 ¼ ICB2 þ IL3 ; ICB4 ¼ ICB3 þ IL4 ; . . .;
ICB8 ¼ ICB7 þ IL8 ; IL9 ¼ ICB8 þ ICB9 ; ICBm ¼ ICBðm1Þ þ ILm ; m ¼ 2; . . .; 8
ICB15 ¼ ICB16 þ IL16 ; ICB14 ¼ ICB15 þ IL15 ; ICB13 ¼ ICB14 þ IL14 ;
ICB12 ¼ ICB13 þ IL13 ; . . .; ICB9 ¼ ICB10 þ IL10
ICBn ¼ ICBðn þ 1Þ þ ILðn þ 1Þ ; n ¼ 15; . . .; 9:

Upon mathematic manipulation we get the following expressions:


200 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

ICA1 ICB1 d 2 IL1 d 2 IL2


 ¼ L1  2  L2  2 ; CA1 ¼ CB1 ¼ C ; L1 ¼ L2 ¼ L ;
CA1 CB1 dt dt
1 d 2 IL1 d 2 IL2
 ðICA1  ICB1 Þ ¼  2
LC dt2 dt
2
ICA2 ICB2 d IL2 d 2 IL3
 ¼ L2  2  L3  2 ; CA2 ¼ CB2 ¼ C ; L2 ¼ L3 ¼ L ;
CA2 CB2 dt dt
1 d 2 IL2 d 2 IL3
 ðICA2  ICB2 Þ ¼  2 . . .;
LC dt2 dt
ICA7 ICB7 d 2 IL7 d 2 IL8
 ¼ L7  2  L8  2 ; L7 ¼ L8 ¼ L ;
CA7 CB7 dt dt
2 2
1 d IL7 d IL8
 ðICA7  ICB7 Þ ¼  2
LC dt2 dt
CA7 ¼ CB7 ¼ C ; L1 ¼ L2 ¼    ¼ L16 ¼ L ; k ¼ 1; . . .; 7 ;
1 d 2 ILk d 2 ILðk þ 1Þ
 ðICAk  ICBk Þ ¼ 2  ; k ¼ 1; . . .; 7
LC dt dt2

1 d 2 IL11 d 2 IL10 1
 ðICA10  ICB10 Þ ¼  ; CA10 ¼ CB10 ¼ C ;  ðICA15  ICB15 Þ
LC dt2 dt2 LC
d 2 IL16 d 2 IL15
¼  ; CA15 ¼ CB15 ¼ C
dt2 dt2

1 d 2 ILðm þ 1Þ d 2 ILm
 ðICAm  ICBm Þ ¼  ; m ¼ 10; . . .; 15 ; CA8 ¼ CB8 ¼ C ;
LC dt2 dt2
1 d 2 IL8 d 2 IL9
VA9 ¼ 0 ;  ðICA8  ICB8 Þ ¼ þ
LC dt2 dt2

1 d 2 IL9 d 2 IL10
CA9 ¼ CB9 ¼ C ; VA9 ¼ 0 ;  ðICA9  ICB9 Þ ¼ þ ;
LC dt2 dt2
1 d 2 IL1 d 2 IL16
CA16 ¼ CB16 ¼ C; VA9 ¼ 0 ;  ðICA16  ICB16 Þ ¼ 
LC dt2 dt2
IR P ¼ ICA16 þ ICA1 þ IL1 ; ICA1 ¼ ICA2 þ IL2 ; ICA2 ¼ ICA3 þ IL3 ;
ICA3 ¼ ICA4 þ IL4 ; ICA4 ¼ ICA5 þ IL5 ; ICA5 ¼ ICA6 þ IL6

ICA6 ¼ ICA7 þ IL7 ; ICA7 ¼ ICA8 þ IL8 ; ICA10 ¼ ICA9 þ IL10 ; ICA11 ¼ ICA10 þ IL11 ;
ICA12 ¼ ICA11 þ IL12 ; ICA13 ¼ ICA12 þ IL13

ICA14 ¼ ICA13 þ IL14 ; ICA15 ¼ ICA14 þ IL15 ; ICA16 ¼ ICA15 þ IL16 ; IL1 ¼ ICB1 þ ICB16 ;
IL9 ¼ ICB8 þ ICB9 ; ICB2 ¼ ICB1 þ IL2

ICB3 ¼ ICB2 þ IL3 ; ICB4 ¼ ICB3 þ IL4 ; ICB5 ¼ ICB4 þ IL5 ; ICB6 ¼ ICB5 þ IL6 ;
ICB7 ¼ ICB6 þ IL7 ; ICB8 ¼ ICB7 þ IL8
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 201

ICB9 ¼ ICB10 þ IL10 ; ICB10 ¼ ICB11 þ IL11 ; ICB11 ¼ ICB12 þ IL12 ; ICB12 ¼ ICB13 þ IL13 ;
ICB13 ¼ ICB14 þ IL14 ; ICB14 ¼ ICB15 þ IL15
ICB15 ¼ ICB16 þ IL16 : S1 is OFF for RF signal transmitter feeding:
IRP ¼ 0 ) ICA16 þ ICA1 þ IL1 ¼ 0
X
8 X
8 X
8
ICA1 ¼ ICA8 þ ILk ; ICA2 ¼ ICA8 þ ILk ; ICA3 ¼ ICA8 þ ILk ;
k¼2 k¼3 k¼4
X
8 X
8 X
8
ICA4 ¼ ICA8 þ ILk ; ICA5 ¼ ICA8 þ ILk ; ICA6 ¼ ICA8 þ ILk
k¼5 k¼6 k¼7
X
16 X
15
ICA7 ¼ ICA8 þ IL8 ; ICA16 ¼ ICA9 þ ILk ; ICA15 ¼ ICA9 þ ILk ;
k¼10 k¼10
X
14 X
13 X
12
ICA14 ¼ ICA9 þ ILk ; ICA13 ¼ ICA9 þ ILk ; ICA12 ¼ ICA9 þ ILk
k¼10 k¼10 k¼10

X
11
ICA11 ¼ ICA9 þ ILk ; ICA10 ¼ ICA9 þ IL10 ;
k¼10
X
16 X
16
ICB1 ¼ IL9  ICB16  ILk ; ICB2 ¼ IL9  ICB16  ILk
k¼2;k6¼9 k¼3;k6¼9

X
16 X
16
ICB3 ¼ IL9  ICB16  ILk ; ICB4 ¼ IL9  ICB16  ILk ;
k¼4;k6¼9 k¼5;k6¼9

X
16 X
16
ICB5 ¼ IL9  ICB16  ILk ; ICB6 ¼ IL9  ICB16  ILk
k¼6;k6¼9 k¼7;k6¼9

X
16 X
16
ICB7 ¼ IL9  ICB16  ILk ; ICB8 ¼ IL9  ICB16  ILk ;
k¼8;k6¼9 k¼10

X
16 X
16
ICB9 ¼ ICB16 þ ILk ; ICB10 ¼ ICB16 þ ILk
k¼10 k¼11
X
16 X
16
ICB11 ¼ ICB16 þ ILk ; ICB12 ¼ ICB16 þ ILk ;
k¼12 k¼13
X
16 X
16
ICB13 ¼ ICB16 þ ILk ; ICB14 ¼ ICB16 þ ILk
k¼14 k¼15

ICB15 ¼ ICB16 þ IL16 ; IL1 ¼ ICB1 þ ICB16 : We get the following additional
expressions:
202 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

2 d 2 IL1 d 2 IL5 d 2 IL2 d 2 IL4 2


 ðIL2  IL4 Þ ¼   2  ½  2 ;  ðIL6  IL8 Þ
LC dt 2 dt 2 dt 2 dt LC
2 2 2 2
d IL5 d IL9 d IL6 d IL8
¼ þ 2½ 2  2 
dt2 dt2 dt dt

2 d 2 IL9 d 2 IL13 d 2 IL10 d 2 IL12 2


 ðIL10  IL12 Þ ¼ þ þ2 ½ 2  ;  ðIL14  IL16 Þ
LC dt 2 dt 2 dt dt2 LC
2 2 2 2
d IL1 d IL13 d IL14 d IL16
¼ 2
 2
þ2  ½ 2  
dt dt dt dt2

We add the first and second above equations:

2 d 2 IL1 d 2 IL9
½*  fðIL2  IL4 Þ þ ðIL6  IL8 Þg ¼ þ 2
LC dt2 dt2
d IL2 d IL4 d 2 IL6 d 2 IL8
2 2
½ 2  2 þ  2 
dt dt dt2 dt

We add the third and forth above equations:

2
½**  fðIL10  IL12 Þ þ ðIL14  IL16 Þg
LC
d 2 IL1 d 2 IL9 d 2 IL10 d 2 IL12 d 2 IL14 d 2 IL16
¼ 2
þ 2
þ2 ½ 2  þ  
dt dt dt dt2 dt2 dt2

Integrating the last two results ([**]–[*]) gives the following:

2
 fIL10  IL12 þ IL14  IL16 þ IL2  IL4 þ IL6  IL8 g
LC
d 2 IL10 d 2 IL12 d 2 IL14 d 2 IL16
¼2½ 2  þ 
dt dt2 dt2 dt2
d 2 IL2 d 2 IL4 d 2 IL6 d 2 IL8
þ  2 þ  2 
dt2 dt dt2 dt

We define new global variables for our Cylindrical RF network antennas system.

Y ¼ IL10  IL12 þ IL14  IL16 þ IL2  IL4 þ IL6  IL8


dIL10 dIL12 dIL14 dIL16 dIL2 dIL4 dIL6 dIL8
X¼  þ  þ  þ  ;
dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt
dY dX 1
¼X; ¼ Y
dt dt L  C

Due to RF antenna copper leg parasitic effect, we get copper leg’s current and
current derivative with delay s1–k and s2–k (k is leg number index, k = 1,…,16). We
consider for simplicity s1–1 = s1–2 =  = s1–16; s2–1 = s2–2 =  = s2–16.
0
ILk ðtÞ ! ILk ðt  s1k Þ ; ILk ðtÞ ¼ dILkdtðtÞ ; ILk
0 0
ðtÞ ! ILk ðt  s2k Þ. We consider no
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 203

dI 0 ðtÞ
delay effect on Lkdt . YðtÞ ! Yðt  s1 Þ ; XðtÞ ! Xðt  s2 Þ: s1 ¼ s11 ¼ s12 ¼
1
   ¼ s116 s2 ¼ s21 ¼ s22 ¼    ¼ s216 : dYdt ¼ Xðt  s2 Þ; dt ¼ LC  Yðt  s1 Þ.
dX

To find the Equilibrium points (fixed points) of the Cylindrical RF network


antennas system is by limt!1 Yðt  s1 Þ ¼ YðtÞ and limt!1 Xðt  s2 Þ ¼ XðtÞ.
dt ¼ 0 ; dt ¼ 0; 8 t  s1 ; t  s2 9ðt  s1 Þ  t; ðt  s2 Þ  t , t ! 1.
dY dX

We get two equations and the only fixed point is E ð0Þ ðY ð0Þ ; X ð0Þ Þ ¼ ð0; 0Þ.

ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ ð0Þ


Y ð0Þ ¼ IL10  IL12 þ IL14  IL16 þ IL2  IL4 þ IL6  IL8 ¼ 0
0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ 0 ð0Þ
X ð0Þ ¼ IL10  IL12 þ IL14  IL16 þ IL2  IL4 þ IL6  IL8 ¼ 0

Stability analysis: The standard local stability analysis about any one of the
equilibrium points of Cylindrical RF network antennas system consists in adding to
coordinates [Y X] arbitrarily small increments of exponential form ½y x  ekt , and
retaining the first order terms in y, x. The system of two homogeneous equations
leads to a polynomial characteristics equation in the eigenvalues k. The polynomial
characteristics equations accept by set the below current and current derivative
respect to time into two Cylindrical RF network antennas system equations.
Cylindrical RF network antennas system fixed values with arbitrarily small incre-
ments of exponential form ½y x  ekt are: i = 0 (first fixed point), i = 1 (second fixed
point), i = 2 (third fixed point).

YðtÞ ¼ Y ðiÞ þ y  ekt ; X ¼ X ðiÞ þ x  ekt ; Yðt  s1 Þ ¼ Y ðiÞ þ y  ekðts1 Þ ; Xðt  s2 Þ


¼ X ðiÞ þ x  ekðts2 Þ 8 i ¼ 0; 1; 2

We choose the above expressions for our YðtÞ; XðtÞ as small displacement [y x]
from the system fixed points at time t = 0. Yðt ¼ 0Þ ¼ Y ðiÞ þ y ; Xðt ¼ 0Þ ¼
X ðiÞ þ x for k\0; t [ 0 the selected fixed point is stable otherwise k [ 0; t [ 0 is
Unstable. Our Cylindrical RF network antennas system tend to the selected fixed
point exponentially for k\0; t [ 0 otherwise go away from the selected fixed
point exponentially. k is the eigenvalue parameter which establish if the fixed point
is stable or unstable, additionally his absolute value (jkj) establish the speed of flow
toward or away from the selected fixed point [2–6] (Table 2.4).

Table 2.4 Cylindrical RF network antennas system eigenvalues options


k<0 k>0
t=0 Y(t = 0) = Y(i) + y Y(t = 0) = Y(i) + y
X(t = 0) = X(i) + x X(t = 0) = X(i) + x
t>0 Y(t) ¼ YðiÞ þ y  ejkjt Y(t) ¼ YðiÞ þ y  ejkjt
X(t) ¼ XðiÞ þ x  ejkjt X(t) ¼ XðiÞ þ x  ejkjt
t!∞ Y(t ! ∞) = Y(i) Y(t ! 1; k [ 0)  yejkjt
X(t ! ∞) = X(i) X(t ! 1; k [ 0)  xejkjt
204 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

The speeds of flow toward or away from the selected fixed point for
Cylindrical RF network antennas system currents and currents derivative respect to
time are

dYðtÞ Yðt þ DtÞ  YðtÞ Y ðiÞ þ y  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½Y ðiÞ þ y  ekt 


¼ lim ¼ lim
dt Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt
kt kDt kt
y  e  ½e  1 e 1 þ kDt
kDt y  e  ½1 þ k  Dt  1
¼ lim ! lim ¼ k  y  ekt
Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt
dXðtÞ Xðt þ DtÞ  XðtÞ X ðiÞ þ x  ekðt þ DtÞ  ½X ðiÞ þ x  ekt 
¼ lim ¼ lim
dt Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt
x  ekt  ½ekDt  1 ekDt 1 þ kDt x  ekt  ½1 þ k  Dt  1
¼ lim ! lim ¼ k  x  ekt
Dt!0 Dt Dt!0 Dt

and the time derivative of the above equations:

dYðtÞ dXðtÞ
¼ y  k  ekt ; ¼ x  k  ekt ;
dt dt
dYðt  s1 Þ
¼ y  k  ekðts1 Þ ¼ y  k  ekt  es1 k
dt
dXðt  s2 Þ
¼ x  k  ekðts2 Þ ¼ x  k  ekt  es2 k
dt

First we take the Cylindrical RF network antennas (Y) differential equation:


dY
dt ¼ X and adding to it coordinates [Y X] arbitrarily small increments of expo-
nential form ½y x  ekt and retaining the first order terms in y, x.
k  y  ekt ¼ X ðiÞ þ x  ekt ; X ði¼0Þ ¼ 0 ; k  y þ x ¼ 0: Second we take the
1
Cylindrical RF network antennas (X) differential equation: dX dt ¼ LC  Y and adding
to it coordinates [Y X] arbitrarily small increments of exponential form ½y x  ekt
and retaining the first order terms in y, x.
1
k  x  ekt ¼ LC  ½Y ðiÞ þ y  ekt  ; Y ði¼0Þ ¼ 0 ; k  x ¼  LC
1
 y ¼ 0. We define
Yðt  s1 Þ ¼ Y ðiÞ þ y  ekðts1 Þ ; Xðt  s2 Þ ¼ X ðiÞ þ x  ekðts2 Þ then we get two
delayed differential equations respect to adding to it coordinates [Y X] arbitrarily
small increments of exponential form ½y x  ekt . In the equilibrium points:
Y ð0Þ ¼ 0 ; X ð0Þ ¼ 0

k  y  ekt ¼ X ð0Þ þ x  ekðts2 Þ ; X ð0Þ ¼ 0 ) k  y


1
¼ x  eks2 ; k  x  ekt ¼  ½Y ð0Þ þ y  ekðts1 Þ 
LC

Y ð0Þ ¼ 0 ) k  x¼ LC
1
 y  eks1 . We get the following set of eigenvalues
ks2 1
equations: k  y þ x  e ¼ 0 ; LC  y  eks1  k  x ¼ 0
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 205

The small increments Jacobian of our Cylindrical RF network antennas.


  ! !
k eks2 y 0
1 ks1  ¼

LC e k x 0
 
k eks2
A  k  I ¼ 1 ks1 ; detjA  k  I j ¼ 0 ; Dðk; s1 ; s2 Þ
LC  e k
1
¼ k2 þ  eks1  eks2
LC

We have three stability analysis cases: s1 = s ; s2 ¼ 0 or s2 = s ; s1 ¼ 0 or s1 ¼


s2 ¼ s otherwise s1 6¼ s2 . We need to get characteristics equations as all above
stability analysis cases. We study the occurrence of any possible stability switching
resulting from the increase of value of the time delay s for the general characteristic
equation Dðk; sÞ. Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks . The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ
P
is Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ nk¼0 Pk ðsÞ  kk ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k2 þ P3 ðsÞ  k3 þ . . .
P
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ m k¼0 qk ðsÞ  k ¼ q0 ðsÞ þ q1 ðsÞ
k

k þ q2 ðsÞ  k þ . . .
2

The first case we analyze is when there is delay in Cylindrical RF network


antennas leg’s current and no delay in antennas leg’s current derivative or opposite
s1 = s ; s2 ¼ 0 & s1 = 0 ; s2 = s [4, 5].

1 1
Dðk; s1 ¼ 0; s2 Þ ¼ k2 þ  eks2 ¼ k2 þ  eks ; Dðk; s1 ; s2 ¼ 0Þ
L  C s2 ¼s LC
1 1
¼ k2 þ  eks1 js1 ¼s ¼ k2 þ  eks
LC LC

Dðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks : The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is

X
n
Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pk ðsÞ  kk ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ  k þ P2 ðsÞ  k2 ¼ k2 ; P2 ðsÞ ¼ 1 ;
k¼0
P1 ðsÞ ¼ 0 ; P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0
P
The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ is Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ m k¼0 qk ðsÞ  k ¼ q0 ðsÞ ¼ LC.
k 1

Our Cylindrical RF network antennas system second order characteristic equa-


tion: Dðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ bðsÞ  k  eks þ cðsÞ þ dðsÞ  eks .
Then aðsÞ ¼ 0 ; b(sÞ = 0 ; c(sÞ = 0; d(sÞ¼ LC 1
; s 2 R þ 0 and aðsÞ; b(sÞ; c(sÞ;
d(sÞ : R þ 0 ! R are differentiable functions of class C 1 ðR þ 0 Þ such that
c(sÞ þ d(sÞ ¼ LC
1
6¼ 0 for all s 2 R þ 0 and for any s; b(sÞ; d(sÞ are not simultane-
ously zero. We have
206 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Pðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ cðkÞ ¼ k2 ; Qðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðk; sÞ


1
¼ bðsÞ  k þ dðsÞ ¼
LC

We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ Pn ðkÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðkÞ can’t have common
imaginary roots. That is for any real number x; pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0
x2 þ LC1
6¼ 0; Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ ðc  x2 Þ2 þ x2  a2 
ðx2  b2 þ d 2 Þ
Fðx; sÞ ¼ x4  ðLCÞ
1
2 ; Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies x 
4 1
ðLCÞ2
¼ 0 and its roots
pffiffiffiffi pffiffiffi pffiffiffiffi
are given by x2þ ¼ 12  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ þ Dg ¼ 2D ; x2 ¼ 12  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  Dg
pffiffiffi
¼  2D
D ¼ ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  4  ðc2  d 2 Þ ¼ L24C2 . Therefore the following holds:
pffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffi
2  x2  ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ ¼  D; 2  x2 ¼  D. Furthermore

PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ cðsÞ  x2 ðsÞ ¼ x2 ðsÞ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ xðsÞ  aðsÞ ¼ 0; QR ði  x; sÞ


1
¼ dðsÞ ¼
LC

QI ði  x; sÞ ¼ xðsÞ  bðsÞ ¼ 0 hence sin hðsÞ ¼ PR ðix;sÞQI ðix;sÞ þ PI ðix;sÞQR ðix;sÞ
jQðix;sÞj2

PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼  ;
jQði  x; sÞj2
ðc  x Þ  x  b þ x  a  d
2
sin hðsÞ ¼ ¼0
x 2  b2 þ d 2

cos hðsÞ ¼  ðcxx2Þd þ x ab


2 2

b2 þ d 2 ¼ x2  L  C which jointly with x4  ðLCÞ


1
2 ¼ 0.

Defines the maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I , n 2 N0 that are continuous and


differentiable in s based on Lemma 1.1. Hence we use Theorem 1.2. This prove the
Theorem 1.3 and Theorem 1.4.
Remark: a, b, c, d parameters are independent of delay parameter s even we use
aðsÞ; b(sÞ; c(sÞ; d(sÞ.
The second case we analyze is when there is delay both in Cylindrical RF
network antennas leg’s current and current time derivative s1 ¼s; s2 ¼ s [4, 5].

1
Dðk; s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ  eks  eks ; Dðk; sÞ
LC
¼ Pn ðk; sÞ þ Qm ðk; sÞ  eks
Pn
The expression for Pn ðk; sÞ is Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ k¼0 Pk ðsÞ  kk ¼ P0 ðsÞ þ P1 ðsÞ
k þ P2 ðsÞ  k2 ¼ k2
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 207

P ðsÞ ¼ 1 ; P1 ðsÞ ¼ 0 ; P0 ðsÞ ¼ 0: The expression for Qm ðk; sÞ ; Qm ðk; sÞ ¼


Pm 2 ks
k¼0 qk ðsÞ  k ¼ LC  e
k 1
.
Taylor expansion: eks  1  k  s þ k 2s since we need n > m [BK] analysis
2 2

P
we choose eks  1  k  s then we get Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ m k¼0 qk ðsÞ  k ¼ LC 
k 1

ð1  k  sÞ ¼ LC1
 LC
1
 k  s.
q0 ðs; kÞ ¼ LC ; q1 ðsÞ ¼  LC
1 1
 s ; q2 ðsÞ ¼ 0: Our Cylindrical RF network
antennas system second order characteristic equation: Dðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ 
1
k þ bðsÞ  k  eks þ cðsÞ þ dðsÞ  eks then aðsÞ ¼ 0 ; bðsÞ ¼ LC  s cðsÞ ¼ 0 ;
dðsÞ ¼ LC and in the same manner like our previous case analysis: Pðk; sÞ ¼
1

Pn ðk; sÞ ¼ k2 ; Qðk; sÞ ¼ Qm ðk; sÞ ¼ LC 1


 LC
1
 k  s. We assume that Pn ðk; sÞ ¼
Pn ðkÞ and Qm ðk; sÞ can’t have common imaginary roots. That is for any real
number x; pn ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ þ Qm ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ 6¼ 0; x2  i  x  LC 1
 s þ LC
1
6¼ 0

Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ; Pði  x; sÞ ¼ x2 ;


PR ði  x; sÞ ¼ x2 ; PI ði  x; sÞ ¼ 0
1 1 1
Qðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ i  x   sþ ; QI ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼ x   s;
LC LC LC
1
QR ðk ¼ i  x; sÞ ¼
LC
jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ P2I þ P2R ; jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ Q2I þ Q2R ; jPði  x; sÞj2 ¼ P2I þ P2R ¼ x4
s2 1 s2 1
jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ x2  2
þ 2
; Fðx; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  2

ðL  CÞ ðL  CÞ ðL  CÞ ðL  CÞ2

s 2
Hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies x4  x2  ðLCÞ 2 
1
ðLCÞ2
¼ 0; Fx ¼ 4  x3  2  x
s2 s 2

ðLCÞ2
¼ 2  x  ½2  x2  ðLCÞ2

x2  2  s s
Fs ¼ ; PIx ¼ 0 ; PRx ¼ 2  x ; QIx ¼  ; QRx ¼ 0 ;
ðL  CÞ 2 LC
x
PIs ¼ 0 ; PRs ¼ 0 ; QRs ¼ 0 ; QIs ¼ 
LC

The expressions for U, V can be derive easily [BK]: x ¼ s

U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ ;


V ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ

V ¼ L2xC2 ; U ¼ L2 sC2 ; xs ¼  FFxs and we get the expression:


208 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

x2 2s xs


ðLCÞ2 ðLCÞ2
xs ¼  2 ¼ s2
: Defines the maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ;
2x½2x2  s 2  ½2x2  
ðLCÞ ðLCÞ2

s 2 I , n 2 N0 .
Defines the maps Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I , n 2 N0 that are continuous and
differentiable in s based on Lemma 1.1. Hence we use Theorem 1.2. This prove the
Theorem 1.3 and Theorem 1.4.
Remark: Taylor approximation for eks  1  k  s gives us good stability
analysis approximation only for restricted delay time interval.
Our Cylindrical RF network antennas homogeneous system for y, x leads to a
characteristic equation for the eigenvalue k having the for PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0;
second case s1 ¼s; s2 ¼ s; Dðk; s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ LC 1
 eks  eks : We esti-
mate eks  1  k  s. Dðk; s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ LC 1
 ð1  k  sÞ  eks
ks
Dðk; s1 ¼ s; s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k þ ðk  LC  s þ LCÞ  e : We use different parameters
2 1 1

terminology from our last characteristics parameters definition: k ! j; pk ðsÞ !


aj ; qk ðsÞ ! cj ; n ¼ 2; m ¼ 1: Additionally Pn ðk; sÞ ! PðkÞ; Qm ðk; sÞ ! QðkÞ
P P
then PðkÞ ¼ 2j¼0 aj  k j and QðkÞ ¼ 1j¼0 cj  k j ; PðkÞ ¼ k2 ; Qðk; sÞ ¼ k  LC 1

s þ LC.1

n; m 2 N0 ; n [ m and aj ; cj 6¼ R þ 0 ! R are continuous and differentiable


function of s such that a0 þ c0 6¼ 0. In the following “−” denotes complex and
conjugate. PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic functions in k and differentiable in s. And the
coefficients : faj ðC; LÞ; cj ðC; L; sÞg 2 R depend on Cylindrical RF network
antennas C, L, s values. a0 ¼ 0; a1 ¼ 0; a2 ¼ 1 ; c0 ¼ LC 1
; c1 ¼  LC
1
 s unless
strictly necessary, the designation of the variation arguments ðC; L; sÞ will subse-
quently be omitted from P, Q, aj, cj. The coefficients aj, cj are continuous, and
differentiable functions of their arguments, and direct substitution shows that
a0 þ c0 ¼ LC1
6¼ 0; LC
1
6¼ 0 8 C,L,s 2 R þ i.e. k ¼ 0 is not a root of characteristic
equation. Furthermore PðkÞ; QðkÞ are analytic function of k for which the following
requirements of the analysis (see kuang [5], Sect. 3.4) can also be verified in the
present case [4, 5].
(a) If k = i  x; x 2 R then P(i  x) + Q(i  x) 6¼ 0, i.e. P and Q have no common
imaginary roots. This condition was verified numerically in the entire ðC; L; sÞ
domain of interest.
(b) jQðkÞ=PðkÞj is bounded for jkj ! 1, Rek
0. No roots bifurcation from 1.
kLC
1
s þ LC
1
Indeed, in the limit jQ(kÞ=PðkÞj ¼ j k 2 j
s
(c) FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ; Fðx; sÞ ¼ x  x2  ðLCÞ
2
2 
1 4
ðLCÞ2
has at
most a finite number of zeros. Indeed, this is a bi-cubic polynomial in x
(second degree in x2 ).
(d) Each positive root xðC; L; sÞ of F(xÞ¼ 0 is continuous and differentiable with
respect to C; L; s. This condition can only be assessed numerically.
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 209

In addition, since the coefficients in P and Q are real, we have Pði  xÞ ¼


Pði  xÞ and Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ thus k ¼ i  x, x [ 0 may be on eigenvalue of
characteristic equation. The analysis consists in identifying the roots of character-
istic equation situated on the imaginary axis of the complex k—plane, where by
increasing the parameters C; L and delay s, Rek may, at the crossing, change its
sign from (−) to (+), i.e. from stable focus E ð0Þ ðY ð0Þ ; X ð0Þ Þ ¼ ð0; 0Þ to an unstable
one, or vice versa. This feature may be further assessed by examining the sign of
the partial derivatives with respect to C; L and antenna parameters.
^1 ðCÞ ¼ ð@ Re k 1 @ Re k
@C Þk¼ix ; L; s ¼ const; ^ ðLÞ ¼ ð @L Þk¼ix ; C; s ¼ const
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð@ RekÞ@s ; C; L; where x 2 R : For the first case s ¼s; s ¼ s we
k¼ix þ 1 2
get the following results PR ði  xÞ ¼ x2 ; PI ði  xÞ ¼ 0; QR ði  xÞ ¼ LC
1
;
QI ði  xÞ ¼ xs
LC .
s 2
s 2
FðxÞ ¼ 0 yield to x4  x2  ðLCÞ2 
1
ðLCÞ2
¼ 0; v2 ¼ x4 ; v ¼ x2 ; v2  v  ðLCÞ2

 ðLCÞ
1
2 ¼ 0

sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
s2 1 s4 1
v¼ 2
  4
þ4  ; v ¼ x2 ) x
2  ðL  CÞ 2 ðL  CÞ ðL  CÞ2
vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
u
u s 2 1 s4 1
¼ t 2
  4
þ4 
2  ðL  CÞ 2 ðL  CÞ ðL  CÞ2

s4 s
2

ðLCÞ4
þ 4  ðLCÞ 1
2 [0 always and additional for x 2 R; x2 ¼ 2ðLCÞ 
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
s4 s2
ðLCÞ þ 4  ðLCÞ and there are two options: first always exist 2ðLCÞ2 þ 2 
1 1 1
2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi

s4
ðLCÞ4
þ 4  ðLCÞ 1
2 [ 0.
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
ffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
s2 s4 s2 s4
2  2  þ 4  ðLCÞ 2 \0; x ¼ 2  LC  fLC  þ 4g.
1 1 2 1 1
Second 2ðLCÞ ðLCÞ4 ðLCÞ2
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
s4 s2
ðLCÞ2
þ 4 [ LC ; Not exist and always negative for any Cylindrical RF net-
work antennas overall parameters values. We choose only the (+) option (first).
Writing PðkÞ ¼ PR ðkÞ þ i  PI ðkÞ and QðkÞ ¼ QR ðkÞ þ i  QI ðkÞ, and inserting k ¼
i  x into Cylindrical RF network antennas characteristic equation, x must satisfy
the following: sin x  s ¼ gðxÞ ¼ PR ðixÞQI ðixÞ þ PI ðixÞQR ðixÞ
jQðixÞj2
.
cos x  s ¼ hðxÞ ¼  PR ðixÞQR ðixÞ þ PI ðixÞQI ðixÞ
jQðixÞj2
; where jQði  xÞj2 6¼ 0 in view
of requirement (a) above, and ðg; hÞ 2 R. Furthermore, it follows above sin x  s
and cos x  s equations that, by squaring and adding the sides, x must be a positive
root of FðxÞ ¼ jPði  xÞj2  jQði  xÞj2 ¼ 0.
Note that FðxÞ is dependent of s. Now it is important to notice that if s 62 I
(assume that I R þ 0 is the set where xðsÞ is a positive root of FðxÞ and for s 62 I ,
xðsÞ is not define. Then for all s in I xðsÞ is satisfies that Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0.
210 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Then there are positive xðsÞ solutions of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, and we analyze stability
switches. For any s 2 I where xðsÞ is a positive solution of Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0, we can
define the angle hðsÞ 2 ½0; 2  p as the solution of sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .; cos hðsÞ ¼ . . .

PR ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ
sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  xÞj2
PR ði  xÞ  QR ði  xÞ þ PI ði  xÞ  QI ði  xÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼ 
jQði  xÞj2

and the relation between the argument hðsÞ and xðsÞ  s for s 2 I must be
xðsÞ  s ¼ hðsÞ þ n  2  p 8 n 2 N0 . Hence we can define the maps sn : I ! R þ 0
given by sn ðsÞ ¼ hðsÞxðsÞ
þ n2p
; n 2 N0 ; s 2 I. Let us introduce the functions I ! R ;
Sn ðsÞ ¼ s  sn ðsÞ; s 2 I; n 2 N0 that are continuous and differentiable in s. In the
following, the subscripts k; x; C; L and Cylindrical RF network antennas param-
eters ðL; C; s etc:; Þ indicate the corresponding partial derivatives. Let us first con-
centrate on ^ðxÞ, remember in kðL; C; s; etc:; Þ and xðL; C; s; etc:; Þ, and keeping
all parameters except one (x) and s. The derivation closely follows that in reference
[BK]. Differentiating Cylindrical RF network antennas characteristic equation
PðkÞ þ QðkÞ  eks ¼ 0 with respect to specific parameter (x), and inverting the
derivative, for convenience, one calculates.
Remark: x ¼ L; C; s; etc:;

@k 1 Pk ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ þ Qk ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ  s  Pðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ


ð Þ ¼
@x Px ðk; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  Qx ðk; xÞ  Pðk; xÞ

where Pk ¼ @P
@k ; . . . etc., Substituting k ¼ i  x, and bearing i Pði  xÞ ¼
Pði  xÞ; Qði  xÞ ¼ Qði  xÞ,
then i  Pk ði  xÞ ¼ Px ði  xÞ and i  Qk ði  xÞ ¼ Qx ði  xÞ and that on the sur-
face jPði  xÞj2 ¼ jQði  xÞj2 , one obtains

@k i  Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ þ i  Qk ði  x; xÞ  Qðk; xÞ  s  jPði  x; xÞj2


ð Þ1 jk¼ix ¼ ð Þ:
@x Px ði  x; xÞ  Pði  x; xÞ  Qx ði  x; xÞ  Qði  x; xÞ

Upon separating into real and imaginary parts, with P ¼ PR þ i  PI ; Q ¼ QR þ i  QI


Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ; Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ; Px ¼ PRx þ i  PIx ; Qx ¼ QRx þ i  QIx ;
P2 ¼ P2R þ P2I :
When (x) can be any Cylindrical RF network antennas parameters L, C, And
time delay s etc. Where for convenience, we have dropped the arguments ði  x; xÞ,
and where Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ ; xx ¼ Fx =Fx .
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 211

Fx ¼ 2  ½ðPRx  PR þ PIx  PI Þ  ðQRx  QR þ QIx  QI Þ. We define U and V:

U ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ;


V ¼ ðPR  PIx  PI  PRx Þ  ðQR  QIx  QI  QRx Þ

We choose our specific parameter as time delay x = s. V ¼ L2xC2 ; U ¼ L2 sC2

x2  2  s
P2 ¼ x4 ; Fs ¼ ; PR ðx; sÞ ¼ x2 ; PI ðx; sÞ ¼ 0 ;
ðL  CÞ2
xs 1
QI ðx; sÞ ¼  ; QR ðx; sÞ ¼
LC LC
x
PIs ¼ 0; PRs ¼ 0; QRs ¼ 0; QIs ¼  ) V 6¼ 0;
LC
@F s2
¼ Fx ¼ 4  x3  2  x 
@x ðL  CÞ2

@F s 2
@x ¼ 2  x  ½2  x2  ðLCÞ 2 ; Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 and differentiating with respect to s
xs

and we get Fx  @x @x Fs @x
@s þ Fs ¼ 0; s 2 I ) xs ¼ @s ¼  Fx ; @s ¼
ðLCÞ2
s2
½2x2  
ðLCÞ2

@Rek @x xs
^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð Þ ; xs ¼ ¼
@s k¼ix @s ½2  x2  ðL  CÞ2  s2 
2  ½U þ s  jPj2  þ i  Fx
^1 ðsÞ ¼ Ref g
Fs þ i  2  ½V þ x  jPj2 
s 2
s  ½L21C2 þ x4  þ i  x  ½2  x2  ðLCÞ 2
¼ Ref x s
g
þ i  x  ½L21C2 þ x4 
2

ðLCÞ2
@Rek
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfð Þ g;
@s k¼ix
@x U  @x
@s þ V
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signfFx g  signfs  þxþ g
@s jPj2

s2
signf^1 ðsÞg ¼ signf2  x  ½2  x2  g
ðL  CÞ2
xs
s ðLCÞ2 x
xs L2 C 2 ½ s2
þ L2 C 2
½2x2  
ðLCÞ2 ðLCÞ2
 signfs  ½ þxþ g
s
½2  x2  ðLCÞ
2
2
x4

s 2
We define new variables: w1 ; w2 ; w3 : w1 ðx; s; L; CÞ ¼ 2  x  ½2  x2  ðLCÞ 2
212 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

xs
s ðLCÞ2 x
xs L2 C2 ½ s2
þ L2 C 2
ðLCÞ2 ½2x2  
ðLCÞ2
w2 ðx; s; L; CÞ ¼ s  ½ ; w3 ðx; s; L; CÞ ¼
s2
½2  x2  ðLCÞ 2 x4

sign f^1 ðsÞg ¼ sign ½w1   sign ½w2 þ x þ w3 . We check the sign of ^1 ðsÞ
according the following rule.
If sign[K−1(s)] > 0 then the crossing proceeds from (−) to (+) respectively
(stable to unstable). If sign[K−1(s)] < 0 then the crossing proceeds from (+) to (−)
respectively (unstable to stable). Anyway the stability switching can occur only for
specific x, s. Since it is a very complex function, we recommend to solve it
numerically rather than analytic. We plot the stability switch diagram based on
different delay values of our Cylindrical RF network antennas system. Dðk; s1 ¼
s
 eks  k  LC  eks : Taylor expansion: eks  1  k  s þ k 2s
2 2
s2 ¼ sÞ ¼ k2 þ LC
1

since we need n > m [BK] analysis we choose eks  1  k  s then we get our
Cylindrical RF network antennas system second order characteristic equation:
Dðk; sÞ ¼ k2 þ aðsÞ  k þ bðsÞ  k  eks þ cðsÞ þ dðsÞ  eks (Table 2.5).

s 1
aðsÞ ¼ 0; bðsÞ ¼  ; cðsÞ ¼ 0 ; dðsÞ ¼ ; Fðx; sÞ
LC LC
2 2 2 2
¼ jPði  x; sÞj  jQði  x; sÞj ¼ ðc  x Þ þ x2  a2  ðx2  b2 þ d 2 Þ

s 2
s 2
Fðx; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  ðLCÞ 2 
1
ðLCÞ2
hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies x4  x2  ðLCÞ 2 
p ffiffiffiffi
1
ðLCÞ2
¼ 0 and its roots are given by x þ ¼ 2  fðb þ 2  c  a Þ þ Dg ¼
2 1 2 2
p ffiffiffiffi s2
2  f D þ ðLCÞ2 g
1

1 pffiffiffiffi 1 pffiffiffiffi s2
x2 ¼  fðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  Dg ¼  f D þ g;
2 2 ðL  CÞ2
s2 þ 4
D ¼ ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  4  ðc2  d 2 Þ ¼
ðL  CÞ2

s þ4 2
D ¼ ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ  4  ðc2  d 2 Þ ¼ ðLCÞ 2 therefore the following holds:

pffiffiffiffi PR ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ
2  x2  ðb2 þ 2  c  a2 Þ ¼  D; sin hðsÞ ¼
jQði  x; sÞj2

Table 2.5 Cylindrical RF sign½Fx  sign½V þPx2 s U þ x þ xs  s sign½^1 ðsÞ


network antennas system
stability switching criteria ± ± +
± –
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 213

PR ði  x; sÞ  QR ði  x; sÞ þ PI ði  x; sÞ  QI ði  x; sÞ
cos hðsÞ ¼  ;
jQði  x; sÞj2
ðc  x2 Þ  x  b þ x  a  d x3  s  L  C
sin hðsÞ ¼ ¼
x 2  b2 þ d 2 ðx2  s2 þ 1Þ

cos hðsÞ ¼  ðcxx2Þd þ x ab


2 2
¼ ðxx2 sLC
2
b2 þ d 2 2 þ 1Þ : We consider Cylindrical RF antenna

which mounted outside a Pyrex glass tube of diameter 32 cm and length 50 cm.
The RF antenna consists of 16 copper (Cu) legs equally spaced by 6.7 cm inter-
connected with capacitors of 2.47nF. Copper leg diameter is equal to 1 mm and
length 30 cm = 300 mm (<Pyrex glass tube length, 50 cm). We consider for
Copper (Cu), relative permeability is one. f = 10 MHz is the typical testing fre-
quency for cylindrical (birdcage) antenna. L—inductance (nH), l—length of copper
leg (mm), d—diameter of copper leg, f—testing frequency. l > 100  d
(300 > 100  1 mm), d2  f > 1 mm2  MHz (1 mm2  10 MHz > 1 mm2  MHz).
L = 365.4 nH. L ¼ 15  l  ½lnð4ld  1 ¼ 365:4 nH. For our stability switching anal-
ysis we choose typical Cylindrical RF network antennas parameters values (as
calculated): C ¼ 2:47 nF; L ¼ 365:4 nH; Rp ¼ 100Ohm then
LC ¼ 0:00110798 10 . We find those x; s values which fulfill Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We
1 18

ignore negative, complex, and imaginary values of x for specific s values. The
below table gives the list.
Remark: We know Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies it roots xi ðsÞ and finding those delays
values s which xi is feasible. There are s values, which xi are complex or imag-
inary numbered, then unable to analyze stability [6, 7]. We find those x; s values
which fulfill Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. We ignore negative, complex, and imaginary values of x
for specific s values. s 2 ½0:001::10 and we can be express by 3D function
s2
Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. Fðx; sÞ ¼ x4  x2  ðLCÞ 2 
1
ðLCÞ2

X
2
Fðx; sÞ ¼ jPði  x; sÞj2  jQði  x; sÞj2 ¼ U0 þ U2  x2 þ U4  x4 ¼ U2k  x2k
k¼0

s 2 P4
U0 ¼  ðLCÞ
1
2 ; U2 ¼ 
ðLCÞ2
; U4 ¼ 1 hence Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0 implies k¼0 U2k
sx ¼ 0.
2k

Uj ! Phij. Running MATLAB script for s values (s 2 ½0:001::10) gives the


following results.
MATLAB script: Tau=0.001;C=2.47*1e-9;L=365.4*1e-9;Phi0=-1/(C*L*C*L);
Phi2=-(Tau*Tau)/(C*L*C*L); Phi4=1;p=[Phi4 0 Phi2 0 Phi0];r=roots(p)
(Tables 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9, 2.10, 2.11 and 2.12).
We can summery our xi ðsÞ results for xi ðsÞ [ 0 and real number (ignore
complex, negative, and imaginary values). We exclude from our table the high and
real xi ðsÞ values (1.0e+007*, 1.0e+012*,…,1.0e+016*) and add results for s = 15
and s = 20 s (Figs. 2.14, 2.15 and Table 2.13).
214 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Table 2.6 Cylindrical RF s s = 0.01 s s = 0.001 s


network antennas system
roots xi ðsÞ x1 1.0e+013* 1.0e+012*
x2 −1.1080 −1.1080
x3 1.1080 1.1080
x4 0.0000 + 0.0000i −0.0000 + 0.0000i
x5 0.0000 − 0.0000i −0.0000 − 0.0000i

Table 2.7 Cylindrical RF s s=1s s = 0.1 s


network antennas system
roots xi ðsÞ x1 1.0e+015* 1.0e+014*
x2 −1.1080 −1.1080
x3 1.1080 1.1080
x4 −0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i
x5 −0.0000 − 0.0000i 0.0000 − 0.0000i

Table 2.8 Cylindrical RF s s=3s s=2s


network antennas system
roots xi ðsÞ x1 1.0e+015* 1.0e+015*
x2 3.3240 −2.2160
x3 −3.3240 2.2160
x4 0 + 0.0000i −0.0000 + 0.0000i
x5 0 − 0.0000i −0.0000 − 0.0000i

Table 2.9 Cylindrical RF s s=5s s=4s


network antennas system
roots xi ðsÞ x1 1.0e+015* 1.0e+015*
x2 −5.5399 4.4319
x3 5.5399 −4.4319
x4 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0 + 0.0000i
x5 0.0000 − 0.0000i 0 − 0.0000i

Table 2.10 Cylindrical RF s s=7s s=6s


network antennas system
roots xi ðsÞ x1 1.0e+015* 1.0e+015*
x2 −7.7559 6.6479
x3 7.7559 −6.6479
x4 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0 + 0.0000i
x5 0.0000 − 0.0000i 0 − 0.0000i

Matlab: plot([0 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20], [3.3286 1.1080


1.1080 1.1080 1.1080 2.2160 3.3240 4.4319 5.5399 6.6479 7.7559 8.8639 9.9719
1.1080 1.6620 2.2160],‘-or’). We plot 3D function Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0. s:0!10;
x:0!100. We define additional MATLAB script parameters x!w, s!t.
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 215

Table 2.11 Cylindrical RF s s=9s s=8s


network antennas system
roots xi ðsÞ x1 1.0e+015* 1.0e+015*
x2 9.9719 8.8639
x3 −9.9719 −8.8639
x4 0 + 0.0000i 0 + 0.0000i
x5 0 − 0.0000i 0 − 0.0000i

Table 2.12 Cylindrical RF s s=0s s = 10 s


network antennas system
roots xi ðsÞ x1 1.0e+007* 1.0e+016*
x2 −3.3286 −1.1080
x3 −0.0000 + 3.3286i 1.1080
x4 −0.0000 − 3.3286i −0.0000 + 0.0000i
x5 3.3286 −0.0000 − 0.0000i

Fig. 2.14 Cylindrical RF


network F(x,s) function for
s1 = s2 = s

Matlab: [w,t]=meshgrid(1:1:100,0:0.01:10);C=2.47*1e-9; L=365.4*1e-9;


f=w.*w.*w.*w-w.*w.*(t.*t)/(C*L*C*L)-1/(C*L*C*L);meshc(f); % x ! w; s ! t.
We get two possible real values for x which fulfil Fðx; sÞ ¼ 0
Fðx ¼ 3:3286 or x ¼ 1:1080 . . . or x¼ 2:2160; sÞ ¼ 0; s 2 ½0:001::10. Next is
to find those x, s values which fulfil sin hðsÞ ¼ . . .; sinðx  sÞ ¼ PR QjQj
I þ PI QR
2 and
cos hðsÞ ¼ . . .
216 2 Microwave Elements Description and Stability Analysis

Fig. 2.15 Cylindrical RF


network F(x,s) function for
s1 = s2 = s

Table 2.13 Cylindrical RF network antennas system positive and real root xi ðsÞ values and
sinðx  sÞ; cosðx  sÞ values
x sLC
cosðx  sÞ ¼ ðxx2 sLC
3 2
s[s] x sin ðx  sÞ ¼ ðx2 s2 þ 1Þ 2 þ 1Þ

0 3.3286 0=0 1 6¼ 9.9e−15


0.001..1 1.1080 −1.22e−18 … −5.51e−16 1.108e−15 … 4.973e−16
2 2.2160 −9.5e−16 2.1e−16
3 3.3240 −9.9e−16 9.9e−17
4 4.4319 −9.9e−16 5.62e−17
5 5.5399 −9.9e−16 3.6e−17
6 6.6479 −9.99−16 2.5055e−17
7 7.7559 −9.9966e−16 1.8413e−17
8 8.8639 −9.9980e−16 1.4099e−17
9 9.9719 −9.9988e−16 1.1141e−17
10 1.1080 −9.9193e−17 8.9525e−18
15 1.6620 −9.9841e−17 4.0048e−18
20 2.2160 −9.9950e−17 2.2552e−18

ðPR  QR þ PI  QI Þ
cosðx  sÞ ¼  ; jQj2 ¼ Q2R þ Q2I ;
jQj2
x3  s  L  C x2  L  C
sinðx  sÞ ¼ ; cosðx  sÞ ¼
ðx2  s2 þ 1Þ ðx2  s2 þ 1Þ

x3 sLC x2 LC


ðx2 s2 þ 1Þ \0 & ðx2 s2 þ 1Þ [0 then sinðx  sÞ\0 and cosðx  sÞ [ 0;
2  p [ x  s [ p2  3.
2.3 Cylindrical RF Network Antennas for Coupled Plasma Sources … 217

Fig. 2.16 Cylindrical RF


network g1 ðs; xÞ F(x,s)
function for s1 = s2 = s

We plot the stability switch diagram based on different delay values of our
Cylindrical RF network antennas system. ^1 ðsÞ ¼ ð@ Re k
@s Þk¼ix ¼
2
Ref2½U þ sjPj  þ iFx
F þ i2½V þ xjPj2 
g
s

@Rek 2  fFx  ðV þ